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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 11, Cumulated No. 117, November 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1311

 

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CONTENTS   

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1

Adsorption of Methylene blue dye from Aqueous solution Using Sodium Carbonate Activated Citrullus lanatus (Water melon) Rind

 

Turoti M.* and Ogundana E.A.

 

Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

muyiwaturoti@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The possibility of including citrus lanatus (water melon) rinds as one of agro-waste products that can be used as adsorbent for the adsoption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution has been studied. Dry water melon rinds were carbonized at 5000C and activated at 7000C using anhydrous Na2CO3 as the activating agent. Elemental analysis using EDXRF, proximate analysis under standard conditions and adsorption studies using UV-Visible spectroscopy for MB uptake determination supported with adsorbent morphological evidences from scanning electron microscopy were carried out. The results show that at 0.5M of the activant using the 250m of the activated carbon 99.27% MB removal is obtained. Moreover, % removal of the adsorbate increases with increasing activation resident time, adsorbent-adsorbate contact time, initial adsorbate concentration and decreasing particle size. In addition low moisture, ash and carbon contents at 4.8,4.08 and 23.38 respctively as well as relatively high bulk density of 0.54gcm3 and high alkaline pH of 10.7 of the activated adsorbent are essential for the high MB removal. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrates the presence of greater porosity of the activated carbon compared to the carbonized carbons which are responsible for the greater retention of the adsorbate by the activated form of the adsorbent. The adsorption data clearly fit into the Freundlich isotherm with high adsorption intensity (n=3.935), capacity (Kf =7.05) and value of R2=0.9978 indicative of favorable adsorption of MB process onto the activated carbon from water melon rind.

[Turoti M.  and Ogundana E.A. Adsorption of Methylene blue dye from Aqueous solution Using Sodium Carbonate Activated Citrullus lanatus (Water melon) Rind . J Am Sci 2017;13(11):1-11]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.01.

 

Key words: water melon rind, adsorbent, adsorbate, carbonized, activated carbons, sodium carbonate.

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Submuscular Plating in Spiral Unstable Pediatric Femur Fractures

 

M. Salah Abdel hafiz, MD, Ibrahim Elsebaey, MD, Ahmed Elshorbagy MBBCH

 

Department of Orthopedic Surgery Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine

ah_shorbagy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The treatment of pediatric diaphyseal femur fractures, particularly spiral-unstable fractures, still an area of controversy in patients from age 4 to skeletal maturity. Submuscular plating is a method that allows for stable internal fixation without extensive soft tissue damage. Aim of the work: is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of spiral unstable femur fractures in children treated with sub muscular plating. Method: A series of 15 patients of spiral femur fractures treated with submuscular plating have been reviewed after surgery. All the operations were performed using image intensifier to aid reduction of the fracture and to guide screw placement.10 patients were males and 5 were females. There were 9 right femurs and 6 left femurs. Mechanisms of injury included: fall from height (9), and MVA (6). Results: Mean time for full weight bearing was (11.13) weeks (range, 8 to 18 wk). All patients were radiographically healed by their (12) week assessment. There were no intra operative complications. Conclusion: Our technique of surgical intervention has simplified both implantation and removal, and produced comparable and excellent union rates, low complication rates, and early return to full weight bearing.

[M. Salah Abdel hafiz, Ibrahim Elsebaey, Ahmed Elshorbagy MBBCH. Submuscular Plating in Spiral Unstable Pediatric Femur Fractures. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):12-16]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.02.

 

Key words: submuscular plating, pediatric spiral femoral shaft fractures

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Geology and geochemistry of granitic rocks and their surrounding stream sediments at Gabal Rei El-Garrah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

El Mezayen, A. M1., Abdel Ghani, I. M2., El Balakssy, S. S2. and El Setouhy, M. S2.

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University Egypt.

2Nuclear Materials Authority, P. O. Box 530 El Maadi, Cario, Egypt.

mostafa24264@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Gabal Rei El-Garrah area lies in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The rock types in the study area comprise metavolcanics, older granitoids, younger gabbros, monzogranites, quartz-feldspar porphyry dykes and syenogranites. Beyond the extreme western part of the study area, these Precambrian basement rocks are unconformably capped with Nubian Sandstones.The basement rock units of Rei El-Garrah areaare dissected by several Wadis. The main wadis are Wadi Rei El-Garrah, Wadi El-Missikat, Wadi El-Markh and Wadi El-Gidami.The geochemical analyses of the examined older granitoids and younger granites exhibit that the studied monzogranites and syenogranites have higher silica, total alkalis content and lower Al2O3, FeOt and CaOthan older granitoids.SiO2and D.I.variations with the major oxides and trace elements indicate that a compositional gab exists between the plots of the older granitoids on one hand and those for younger granites on the other hand suggesting discontinuous or rather independent processes of magma evolution.The older granitoids and younger granites are peraluminous due to high alumina contents. The older granitoids belong to a calc-alkaline suite with mild tholeiitic tendencyevolved in a volcanic arc while the younger granites are calc-alkaline due to the high total alkali contents and low MgO and FeOt contentsand originated in within-plate environment. The studied stream sediments show extraordinary anomalous contents from Pb, Zr, Rb and Zn in correlation with the other trace elements. Wadi El-Missikat contains the highest contents of Pb, Rb and Ga correlating to the other Wadis which are mainly related to the presence of cotunnite (PbCl2) and other silicate minerals mainly originated from the surrounding granitic rocks. The area around Rei El Garrah contains the highest contents of Zr, Zn and Y in relation to other Wadis resulting from the presence of zircon and other silicate minerals. However, Wadi El Markh has the highest contents of Cr, Ni, Zn and V with respect to other Wadis which are mainly originated from the surrounding mafic-ultramafic rocks.

[El Mezayen, A. M ., Abdel Ghani, I. M ., El Balakssy, S. S . and El Setouhy, M. S. Geology and geochemistry of granitic rocks and their surrounding stream sediments at Gabal Rei El-Garrah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):17-37]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.03.

 

Key words: Geology and geochemistry, Granitic Rocks, Gabal Rei El-Garrah area and Eastern Desert of Egypt.

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The effectiveness of the use of Rehabilitation exercises associated with electrical stimulation in improving the strength and flexibility of the spinal muscles of women with slipped disc and age (35-45 years)

 

Lamya Abdel Sattar Khalil

 

College of Physical Education for Women, Baghdad University. Iraq.

ayadabd96@yahoo.com, iqbal_alesawe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the research is to estimate: 1. The number of training exercises associated with electrical stimulation, 2. Recognition of the effect of exercise, the rehabilitation associated with electrical stimulation in improving strength and elasticity of the spine muscles with ages (35-45) years. The researcher assumed: There were no statistically significant differences between the results of the strength and elasticity tests of the tribal and posterior spinal muscles and the two experimental groups (control – experimental). The results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between the results of the tests of strength and elasticity of the spinal muscles and the two groups of research (control – experimental). The researcher used the experimental method as the most appropriate research to solve the problem of research. The sample of the research was chosen by means of willful women (35-45 years old) and their number was applied. The exercise vocabulary was preceded by electrical stimulation and using T.N. S, To stimulate as many muscles as possible around the joint to strengthen its function and synergy it will be graduated from (50 - 250) Hz. The rehabilitation exercises will be stimulated during the course at a rate of (18) rehabilitation units equivalent to (3) rehabilitation units in one week and for six weeks. The test is then performed retroactively.

[Lamya Abdel Sattar Khalil. The effectiveness of the use of Rehabilitation exercises associated with electrical stimulation in improving the strength and flexibility of the spinal muscles of women with slipped disc and age (35-45 years). J Am Sci 2017;13(11):38-42]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.04.

 

Key word: Rehabilitation exercises. electrical stimulation. Flexibility. Strength. slipped disc.

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The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) Level and 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar1, MD, Mai Mohsen Fawzy1, MD, Waleed Elnabawy2, MD, Manal Mohamed Kamal3, MD; and Nahed Mohamed Ibrahim3, MD.

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni swef University, Egypt

3Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

aanaggar71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and purpose: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a regulatory enzyme of fibrinolytic system point mutation. PLA-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in many ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to detect the association of 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor for DN in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Study design: case control study. Place: Internal Medicine department, Chemical Pathology department, Kasr Al Ainy Hospital Subjects & Method: ninety patients with type 2 DM divided into two equal groups one without diabetic nephropathy and the other had diabetic nephropathy. Assessment: The assessment was carried out by obtaining full personal history and history of diabetes (onset, duration and complications). Laboratory investigations were done including (fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin / Creatinine ratio, genomic DNA extraction and analysis of PAI gene polymorphism by single- specific primer (SSP)- PCR. Plasma level of PAI-1was assayed by ELISA). The gained measures were analyzed by using SPSS program, t-test and chi-square were used to compare between groups. Results: The genomic DNA analysis of (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene polymorphism (rs 1799889) revealed no statistically significant difference in the distribution of different genotypes (p= 1.0). The frequency of 4G/4G genotype was (8.9% and 11.1%), 4G/5G genotype was (48.9% and 48.9%) and 5G/5G genotype was (42.2% and 40%) in group one (diabetic patient without nephropathy) and group two (diabetic patients with nephropathy) respectively. Plasma levels of PAI-1 were not associated with PAI-1 mutation, also there was no statistically significant difference between PAI-1 level and DN (p= 0.548). Conclusion: PAI-1 gene mutation was not associated with increased risk for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients and had no effect on plasma levels of PAI-1.

[Ahmed Abdelmoaty Elnaggar, Mai Mohsen Fawzy, Waleed Elnabawy, Manal Mohamed Kamal and Nahed Mohamed Ibrahim. The Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor (PAI-1) Level and 4G/5G Gene Polymorphism with Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus . J Am Sci 2017;13(11):43-46]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.05.

 

Key words: diabetes mellitus type 2 / diabetic nephropathy / Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

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Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Characterizing Soil Salinity Severity using SVM Technique:A Case Study of Iraqi Alluvial Plain

 

Amal Muhammad Saleh

 

College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad

mhmmd1961@aol.com

 

Abstract: Hyperspectral remote sensing is a promising tool for analysing and evaluating the risk of increasing soil salinity especially in arid and semiarid areas. It either occurs naturally or is human-induced. The aim of this paper was to introduce an attempt for monitoring and mapping soil salinity using hyperion data in the capital of Iraq/Baghdad. The Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI2), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Desertification Soil Index (DSI), and Salinity Index (SI) were chosen as evaluation factors for characterizing and mapping soil salinity severity. The extent of salt-affected soils of the study area was divided into four classes: Slightly Saline, Saline, Strongly Saline, and Extremely Saline. The results indicated that Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique generated soil salinity map with overall classification accuracy of 88.33% percent, and with a kappa statistic of 0.8444. Application of this technique showed high accuracy for mapping soil salinity severity using various indices generated from hyperspectral remote sensing data. It is concluded that these hyperspectral indices can be used to detect soil salinity effectively and the SVM algorithm is an efficient method for mapping and assessment soil salinity.

[Amal Muhammad Saleh. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing in Characterizing Soil Salinity Severity using SVM Technique: A Case Study of Iraqi Alluvial Plain. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):47-64]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.06.

 

Keywords: hyperion hyperspectral indices; salt salinity severity; support vector machine (SVM); salinity index.

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Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of novel benzofuran-N- heterocyclic hybrids as anticancer agents

 

Salma Fares1,2, Khalid B. Selim1*, Magda A. A. El-Sayed1*, Fatma E. Goda1,2

 

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Delta University for Science and Technology, Gamssa, Egypt

khbselim@mans.edu.eg and magdaaziz1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A novel series of benzofuran scaffolds hybridized with 2-substituted thiazoles 6a-c and 7a-c, pyrazoles 9 and 10 and 2-substituted quinolines 11 and 12 was designed and synthesized as potential anticancer agents. The in vitro antitumor activity of these hybrids was evaluated by MTT assay using doxorubicin as positive control against five human cancer cell lines including hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG2), colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), human prostate carcinoma (PC3) and cervical carcinoma (Hela). Benzofuran-pyrazole hybrids 9 and 10 and benzofuran-thiazole 6a were identified as the most promising anticancer candidates against HCT-116 and PC3. Further investigation revealed that compounds 6a exhibited high inhibitory activity against Topoisomerase 1 and induced apoptosis at Pre-G phase and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in HCT-116 cells.

[Salma Fares, Khalid B. Selim, Magda A. A. El-Sayed, Fatma E. Goda . Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling of novel benzofuran-N- heterocyclic hybrids as anticancer agents. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):65-76]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.07.

 

Keywords: Benzofuran, hybrids, thiazole, pyrazole, quinoline, anticancer agents, Topoisomerase, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

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Oral cancer, our experience in improving quality of patient’s life

 

Wael Al-Shelfa1, Shymaa Yahia2, Salina Saddick 3, Salah Mansour 1, Hazem Nour 1, Alaa Khalil1, Ehab Elnakoury4, Mahmoud Sadek.5

 

1 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

3 Department of Biological Science, Faculty of science, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

4Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

5 Surgery Department, SGH, Jeddah, KSA.

E-Mail: waelshel74@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Oral cancer or mouth cancer is a malignant growth located in the oral cavity, which could be primary, secondary, or extension from surrounding organs. It most commonly involves the tongue, floor of the mouth, cheek, gums, lips, palate, or mandible. In our study we used 4th version of University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL v4), twelve domains were included: pain, appearance, activity, recreation, swallowing, chewing, speech, shoulder, taste, saliva, mood, and anxiety. The aim of this work is to describe our experience to improve quality of life of oral cancer patients after surgical, neoadjuvant, or adjuvant therapy. Patients and methods: sixty eight patients with different types of oral cancer, tongue n=28, lips n=12, floor of the mouth n=12, oropharynx n=5, vestibule of the mouth n=3 mandible n=3, cheek mucosa n=2, gum n=2, palate n=1. most of them had surgery. Results: Forty two patients of 68 patients with oral cancer recruited in our study had surgery, pre and postoperative assessment of QoL using UW-QoL questionnaire was done, and the score is repeated every 3 months, also, patients who presented at advanced stage, and had radio and/or chemotherapy, were assessed at similar intervals. Conclusion: surgical treatment has a better chance to improve QoL in oral cancer patients than neoadjuvant therapy; pain, appearance, chewing, recreation, speech, and anxiety were the most important domains to improve after surgery in our study.

[Wael Al-Shelfa, Shymaa Yahia, Salina Saddick, Salah Mansour, Hazem Nour Alaa Khalil, Ehab Elnakoury, Mahmoud Sadek.. Oral cancer, our experience in improving quality of patient’s life. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):77-81]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.08.

 

Keywords: oral cancer, Quality of Life, tongue.

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Management of Middle Cranial Fossa Meningiomas

 

Prof. Dr. Osama Mohamed Al-Ghannam1, Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Gameel Ewaiss2, Ahmed Adel Ahmed Abd-Al-Hamed Ayad3

 

1Professor of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

2Professor and Head of Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3MSc. in General Surgery, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Ahmedayad_neuro@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the different modalities for management of middle cranial fossa meningiomas including (surgical, gamma knife ) and adjuvant.

Patients and Methods: this prospective study is conducted in neurosurgery department (AL-Hussein & Bab El-shaariya) on 35 patients with meningiomas involving the middle cranial fossa. During period from June 2012 to March 2017. Preoperative assessment involved thorough clinical history taking, general examination, and neurological examination.

[Osama Mohamed Al-Ghannam, Ibrahim Gameel Ewaiss, Ahmed Adel Ahmed Abd-Al-Hamed Ayad. Management of Middle Cranial Fossa Meningiomas. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):82-94]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.09.

 

Keywords: middle cranial, fossa meningiomas.

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Predictive Value of PKM2 Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients (NSCLC) Treated with First line Platinum-based Chemotherapy

 

Mohamed Sheta1, MD, Omnia Abd –El-Fattah1, MD and Hanan A. Alshenawy2, MD

 

1 Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt

2Department of Histopathology, Tanta University Hospital, Tanta, Egypt

Mohamed_sheta1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The aim of the study was, to assess the expression of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) in advanced NSCLC patients treated with first line platinum-based chemotherapy and evaluate its predictive value on both progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: 72 cases with histologically confirmed stage IIIB and IV NSCLC who were treated with front-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Thirty two NSCLC patients were treated with first line non-platinum-based doublets were enrolled in this study (as control), Immunohistochemical staining for PKM2 was evaluated. Results: in Platinum group the median OS was 7 vs 19 months; P ˂ 0.001 for those patients with high compared to those with low PKM2 expression respectively and the median PFS was 5 vs 9 months; P ˂ 0.001 for those patient with highcompared to those with low PKM2 expression respectively. In control group there was no significant difference between high and low PKM2 expression as regard median OS (9 vs 10 months; P =˂ 0.451) and median PFS (7 vs 8 months; P = 0.638). The multivariate analysis revealed that high PKM2 expression was an independent predictive factor for shorter PFS and decreased OS. Conclusions: Our study showed that PKM2 expression is a predictive biomarker of platinum treatment outcome in advanced NSCLC patients.

[Mohamed Sheta, Omnia Abd –El-Fattah, and Hanan A. Alshenawy. Predictive Value of PKM2 Expression in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients (NSCLC) Treated with First line Platinum-based Chemotherapy. J Am Sci 2017;13(11):95-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas131117.10.

 

Keywords: PKM2 expression, advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC), first line platinum-based chemotherapy

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from October 16, 2017. 

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