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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 118, December 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1312

 

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Relationship between serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in Taiwan – A pilot study

 

Kuang-Jen Chien1,2,5, Ming-Ling Tsai 3,5, and Chi-Ting Horng 2,4,*

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology & Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Pingtung, Taiwan

3Department of Department, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

4ROC. Department of Ophthalmology, Zouying branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

5These authors contributed equally to the paper

Email: h56041@gmail.tw

 

Abstract: Purpose: We tried to evaluate the level of Vitamin D and calcium in serum in women of reproductive age in Taiwan. Methods: A cross-sectional was performed on a total of 125 healthy non-pregnancy and non-lactating women in 20-49 years in southern and northern Taiwan. Therefore, demographic, socioeconomic, and biochemical parameters for the estimation of serum 25(OH) D and calcium levels in female of reproductive age were studies. Results: Vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/ml) was present in 72% of total women. Women from middle socioeconomic class had the lowest mean serum 25(OH) D level (9.2 5.4ng/ml) as compared to women from upper middle (11.25.2 ng/ml), lower (12.94.4 ng/ml), and upper (10.42.8ng/ml) socioeconomic class. Serum calcium levels were found in the normal range for all volunteers. Moreover, the mean vitamin D level in serum of women lived in southern Taiwan is higher than those in northern Taiwan. Conclusion: This is a high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D among women of reproductive age. These women had the tendency to develop the osteoporosis and associated complications. Enough intake of vitamin D supplements become necessary and important for the women aged 20-49 years.

[Kuang-Jen Chien, Ming-Ling Tsai, and Chi-Ting Horng. Relationship between serum vitamin D and calcium levels in women of reproductive age in Taiwan – A pilot study. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):1-6]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.01.

 

Keywords: Vitamin D, Calcium, Pregnancy.

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Concurrent Radiotherapy and Cisplatin Administered Weekly versus Every Three Weeks for Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced laryngeal Cancers

 

Alaa Maria M.D. and Mohamed Sheta M.D.

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital, Egypt.

alaamaria1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This study aimed at comparing response rate and acute toxicities, in patients with locally advanced laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) who received definitive radiotherapy (RT) concurrent with either of two cisplatin regimens (100 mg/m2 administered every 3 weeks or 40 mg/m2 administered weekly). Methods: Fifty previously untreated patients with stage III or IVA cancer larynx were enrolled throughout the period between June 2013 and June 2016. Results: Of all treated patients, 46% had clinical response. Patient treated with every 3 weeks sensitization had apparent insignificant better response than those treated with weekly sensitization (p=0.538). Thirty-six (72%) patients had treatment interruption and 3 (6%) patients discontinued their planned treatment due to side effects. However, this interruption was not significant between the two arms (p=0.733). Patients treated with weekly sensitization had significantly lower leukopenia, nausea and acute renal injury (p<0.05). The median OS time was 37 vs. 29 months for every 3 weeks versus weekly treated patients with the 2-year OS rate was 72% and 64% respectively (p=0.153). The median PFS was 29 vs. 27 months with the 2-year PFS rate was 68% and 60%respectively (p=0.592). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with weekly low-dose cisplatin is a reasonable and less toxic alternative to high-dose cisplatin given every 3 weeks in the treatment of locally advanced laryngeal SCC. More studies comparing the two regimens are required, particularly in patients with cancer at specific sites who need definitive CRT.

[Alaa Maria and Mohamed Sheta. Concurrent Radiotherapy and Cisplatin Administered Weekly versus Every Three Weeks for Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced laryngeal Cancers. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):7-13]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.02.

 

Keywords: Locally advanced laryngeal cancer, concurrent chemoradiotherapy, weekly cisplatin.

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Lactate As an Alternative Cerebral Fuel in Hypoglycemic Newborns

 

Amira Oshi1, Omer Abdelbasit1, Zain Seidahmed1, Khalid AL. Hussein1, Abeer Miqdad1, Mohsen ALsamadi1, Abdullah Alfaris1, Mosleh Jabari2, Hassan Alshehri2, Jeehan Fareed1, Sohyma khalid1, Fahad Al-Qashar3, Waad Almotairi1

 

1Department of Pediatrics, Neonatology division, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi

Arabia

3Department of Pediatrics, Bahrain defence force Hospital, Royal Medical Services, Kingdom Of Bahrain

a_oshi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Since blood glucose tends to fall physiologically in newborns in the first two hours of life, this fall might be exaggerated in babies who are at risk of developing hypoglycemia. Thus, measurement of blood glucose and serum lactate at the age of two hours may provide an idea about the response of those at risk of hypoglycemia compared to those with no risk of hypoglycemia. We measured serum lactate and glucose levels in term infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and small for gestational age (SGA) babies at 2 hours of age, and we compared them with term newborns with no risk of hypoglycemia. The aim of that is to assess whether lactate increases during hypoglycemic episodes. Patients and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in Security Forces Hospital Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the period from October 2014 to September 2015. All term infants born to diabetic mothers and small-for-gestational age infants during that period were recruited. Term normal newborns with no risk of hypoglycemia born at the same period were used as controls. Plasma glucose and lactate were measured in venous samples taken at the age of two hours. Hypoglycemia was defined as a glucose level below 2.6 mmol/litre while lactate level of 0.5 – 2.2 mmol/l was considered as normal range. Babies with metabolic disorders, major congenital malformations or who sustained Intrauterine or extra uterine hypoxia were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 470 newborn infants were recruited into the study. Of these 214 Babies were normal babies with no risk of hypoglycemia. 232 babies were infants of diabetic mothers, 24 babies were small-for-gestational age. A total of 98 babies developed hypoglycemia; 39 babies were infants of diabetic mothers, 7 were small-for-gestational age and 52 were presumably normal babies. Infants of diabetic mothers and small-for-gestational age who developed hypoglycemia had a significantly high mean lactate level of 3.32 mmol/litre compared to a level of 2.92 mmol/litre in those who did not develop hypoglycemia. (p-value 0.004). In general lactate level was higher in most of the involved babies in our study when compared to the standard institutional laboratory reference range though it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The finding of significant high serum lactate level in our hypoglycemic babies suggests that lactate may have been used as an alternative cerebral fuel in hypoglycemia. Further studies are needed in hypoglycemic babies to explore the neuroprotective alternative fuels used.

[Amira Oshi, Omer Abdelbasit, Zain Seidahmed, Khalid AL. Hussein, Abeer Miqdad, Mohsen ALsamadi, Abdullah Alfaris, Mosleh Jabari, Hassan Alshehri, Jeehan Fareed, Sohyma khalid, Fahad Al-Qashar and Waad Almotairi. Lactate As an Alternative Cerebral Fuel in Hypoglycemic Newborns. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):14-17]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.03.

 

Keywords: Lactate; Alternative Cerebral Fuel; Hypoglycemic Newborn

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The effects of Rhodiola Rosea extract on endurance exercise performance in rats

 

Hui-Ling Jung1,2,5, Mei-Fang1, I-Yuen1, and Chi-Ting Horng 3,4*

 

1Department of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Armed forced General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 802, Taiwan.

2Department of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, 970, Taiwan.

3Department of Ophthalmology, Zuoying branch of Kaohsiung Armed forced General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 802, Taiwan.

4Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Pingtung 907, Taiwan.

5These authors contributed equally to the paper

Tell phone: 886-5834845; Email: h56041@gmail.tw

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the effects of anti-fatigue of Rhodiola rosea extracts. 40 eight-week old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 5 groups: control (fed with drinking water), P-control (fed with essence of chicken), three groups of different doses of Rhodiola rosea extract including low dosage (190mg/kg), mid-dosage (380mg/kg) and high dosage (570mg/kg). After feeding for 8 weeks, the rats ran on a running machine one by one at the speed of 22-24 m/min until exhaustive exercise-induce fatigue occurred and then their biochemical parameters in blood were collected and measured. At the end of this study, these rats were all scarified. Their livers and kidneys were excised for series of examination including serologic tests and histological evaluation. Finally, our results indicated that 3 groups that consumed Rhodiola rosea extracts are found to experience a greater increase in body weight than that of the control group. Moreover, the groups fed with Rhodiola rosea extract may help to significantly reduce the lactic acid concentration in blood, mild increase the liver glycogen to enhance the endurance abilities of the rats. Besides, we found that the Rhodiola rosea extract may possess the anti-oxidant activities and reduce the production of lipid peroxide which may benefit for recovery from the physiological fatigue. Furthermore, SD rats with consumption of Rhodiola rosea extract did not result in liver and kidney dysfunction. In short, Rhodiola rosea extract is proved to be a safe and effective food for promoting recovery from fatigue by mainly the antioxidant ability. Therefore, we suggested that everybody could reinforce the endurance ability and physical fitness performance by regular intake of Rhodiola rosea extract supplementation.

[Hui-Ling Jung, Hui-Ling Jung, Mei-Fang, I-Yuen, and Chi-Ting Horng. The effects of Rhodiola Rosea extract on endurance exercise performance in rats. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):18-32]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.04.

 

Keywords: Rhodiola rosea, anti-fatigue, anti-oxidation, exercise

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A larger and farther smartphone screen with 3D visual effect

 

His-Hsun Chen1, Shuan-Yu Huang2, and Chi-Ting Horng3,*

 

1E-Lead Electronic Co., Ltd, Changhua, 509, Taiwan

2School of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan

3Department of Ophthalmology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forced General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Email: h56041@gmail.tw

 

Abstract: The Project Air is a device that projects smartphone screens midair by utilizing the same technology as the Heads-Up Display (HUD) in the automotive industry. The Project Air consists of a smartphone holder, a concave mirror, and a convex mirror. In this configuration, the smartphone screen will be magnified up to five times and be virtually displayed as far as one meter behind the concave mirror. Besides, a type of mechanism to help smartphone to give immersive 3D effects to normal 2D videos or images is also developed. Through visual experience and visual feeling of human visual system, users will be able to enjoy comfortable 3D effects. As a result, the Project Air can keep the user safe from threats of vision impairment and obtain 3D visual effects.

[His-Hsun Chen, Shuan-Yu Huang, and Chi-Ting Horng. A larger and farther smartphone screen with 3D visual effect. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):33-36]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.05.

 

Keywords: Project Air, smartphone screens, Heads-Up Display, human visual system

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The impact of the use of EFT on some physiological indicators in reducing the anxiety of competition and the performance of some offensive skills of badminton youth

 

Abeer Dakhlal Salme

 

Assist. Prof. College of Physical Education and Sports Science for Girls / University of Baghdad, Iraq.

d.abeer_alsalme@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the research is to use the EFT technique, to know its effect on some physiological indicators of young badminton players, and to identify the level of competition anxiety and the performance of some offensive skills among youth badminton players. (6), the scientific method (experimental method with one group with pre-test and post-test), measuring tools: physiological tests (high and low blood pressure, pulse, and offensive technical tests and the scale of concern of competition prepared by Muhammad Hassan Allawi 1998, (45), after The use of EFT has been positively impacted on some indicators. The use of EFT has been applied for two months. Statistical treatments (the mean, standard deviation, spacing and T test were used for one sample) research results (The use of EFT has had a positive effect on some physiological indicators and reduced competition anxiety and has played a role in developing the offensive skills of badminton players).

[Abeer Dakhlal Salme. The impact of the use of EFT on some physiological indicators in reducing the anxiety of competition and the performance of some offensive skills of badminton youth. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):37-40]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.06.

 

Keywords: EFT, physiological indicators, badminton youth

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Hepatoprotective effects of Juniperus phoenicea L. on trichloroacetic acid induced toxicity in mice: Histological, Ultrastructure and Biochemical Studies

 

Aglal A. Alzergy1 and Saad M.S. Elgharbawy1,2

 

1Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Omar Al Mukhtar University, AL Beida Libya.

2Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cairo University.

E-mail: aglalalzergy@yahoo.com- drsaadelgharbawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Juniperus phoenicea leaves on clinical, histological, ultra structural, and biochemical parameters against exposure to trichloroacetic acid (TCA) induced oxidative stress and liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Eighty female mice 20-26gm were divided into 4 groups. Group I was kept as a control, group II treated orally with TCA 500 mg/kg body weight in drinking water, group III treated orally with aqueous extract of J. phoenicea (40mg/kg body weight.) once daily for 3 successive weeks and group IV treated with TCA and J. phoenicea. Mice were examined for signs of toxicity and weekly body weight changes. Blood and serum samples obtained from sacrificed animals at the end of the study were used to evaluate some biomarker liver functions (ALT, AST and total protein). Specimens of livers were processed for histological studies by light microscopy. Some liver specimens were also processed to be studied by transmission electron microscopy. Neither clinical signs nor abnormalities in behavior and external features were observed in mice treated with aqueous extract of J. phoenicea. Mice treated with TCA showed loss of appetite, loss of body furs and decreased activity. These alterations decreased in mice administrated aqueous extract of J. phoenicea and TCA. Administration of J. phoenicea had protective effect against TCA induce significant decline in the final body weight gain of female mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that intoxicated mice with TCA, led to a significant increases in serum alanin aminotransferas (ALT) and insignificant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Significant amelioration in these parameters was found in mice treated with J. phoenicea and TCA. Serum total protein in all treated groups were not found to be significantly different from the control. Histological and ultrastructure examinations also confirmed the protective efficacy of J. phoenicea. Administrated of TCA showed many severe pathological lesions include prominent vacuolated hepatocytes, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels with intravascular hemolysis of numerous red blood corpuscles, loss of normal histological architecture with stenosis of hepatic sinusoids and hyperplasia of Kupffer cells. Moreover, some hepatocytes exhibited abnormal division. Also, necrosis of some hepatocytes with pyknotic or karyolitic nuclei were noticed. However, focal necrotic areas associated with inflammatory cells infiltration were frequently observed. Furthermore, most hepatocytes revealed severe reactivity with periodic acid Schiff technique (PAS). Mice treated with TCA and J. phoenicea showed marked tissue repair and disappearance of most pathological changes. Moderate reactivity of most hepatocytes with PAS stain were frequently noticed. Electron microscopic examination of liver of mice treated with TCA showed abnormal nuclear features with decrease and abnormal heterochromatin distribution and increase nucleoli. Crowded cytoplasm of hepatocytes with small electron dens granules represented lysosomes and mitochondria with indistinct details beside, few dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum with indistinct attached ribosomes and accumulated lipid droplets of variable size were also recorded. In addition, congested blood sinusoids and hypertrophied endothelial lining cells with few and poorly identifiable organelles were seen. Also, necrotic Kupffer cells with irregular fragmented nuclei were detected. No obvious ultrastucture changes were observed in hepatocytes of mice treated with J. phoenicea. However, few vacuoles, slight increase in glycogen content and dispersed cytoplasm contained clumps of intact organelles in many hepatocytes were demonstrated. Genertally, administration of J. phoenicea lessened most sever alterastructure changes in hepatocytes of TCA intoxicated mice.

[Aglal A. Alzergy and Saad M.S. Elgharbawy. Hepatoprotective effects of Juniperus phoenicea L. on trichloroacetic acid induced toxicity in mice: Histological, Ultrastructure and Biochemical Studies. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):41-61]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.07.

 

Key words: Juniperus phoenicea, trichloroacetic acid, biochemical histopathological and ultrastructure liver mice (Mus-musculus).

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Land Surface Temperature Retrieval of Landsat-8 Data Using Split Window Algorithm-A Case Study of Mosul District

 

Amal Muhammad Saleh

 

College of Agriculture /University of Baghdad

geetakh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to present an operational algorithm to retrieve the Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Surface Emissivity (LSE) in Mosul District, Ninawa Province, Iraq from Landsat-8 data of September 16, 2015. The proposed algorithm is Split-Window (SW) with brightness temperature value of both band 10 (10.60 - 11.19m) and band 11 (11.50 - 12.51 m) of Landsat-8 in thermal infrared range. Normalized Difference Vegetation (NDVI) threshold values have been determined to separate the bare soil, and vegetated areas from each other. Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) was derived with the help of NDVI threshold technique. Emissivity values of bands 10 and 11 are calculated through FVC. The results showed that the spatial variation of land surface temperature was more reliable and accurate in entire Mosul District.

[Amal Muhammad Saleh. Land Surface Temperature Retrieval of Landsat-8 Data Using Split Window Algorithm-A Case Study of Mosul District. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):62-75]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.08.

 

Keywords: Land Surface Temperature; Land Surface Emissivity; Fractional Vegetation Cover; Split-Window; NDVI.

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Hearing Function in Osteoporotic Patients

 

Prof. Dr. Gehan Abd-Elrahman El-Zarea1, Prof. Dr. Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Abdel-Mottaleb2, Prof. Dr. Ashraf Ismail Mustafa and Ahmed Lotfy Abd-Ellatif Hessein1

 

1Audiology Unit, ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine –Al-Azher University, Egypt

2ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine –Al-Azher University (Damietta), Egypt

3Physical Medicine Department, Rheumatology, Rehabilitaion, Faculty of Medicine –Al-Azher University, Egypt

a.lotfy101990@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Osteoporosis is as a progressive systemic skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), The reduction in BMD is measured using T-score. WHO criteria defines T-score of more than -1 as normal, -1 to -2.5 as osteopenic and less than -2.5 as osteoporotic. Hearing impairment and osteoporosis are two of the most common public health problems, metabolic changes and possible degeneration of middle ear ossicles or the cochlear capsule may cause hearing loss in osteoporotic patients. The aim: To evaluate the hearing function in patients with osteoporosis and assessment of type and configuration of hearing loss if present in those patients. Subjects & method: This study included 40 osteoporotic patients and 20 control. Participants underwent DEXA scan, full history taking, basic audiological evaluation, DPOAE. Results: The percentage of hearing loss in the study group was 22 osteoporotic patients 55% and 18 patients 45% had normal hearing. Conclusion: there is a relation between osteoporosis and hearing loss especially SNHL mainly at high frequencies.

[Gehan Abd-Elrahman El-Zarea, Abdel-Hamid Mohamed Abdel-Mottaleb, Ashraf Ismail Mustafa and Ahmed Lotfy Abd-Ellatif Hessein. Hearing Function in Osteoporotic Patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):76-83]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.09.

 

Keyword: Osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD), Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DEXA), Hearing loss, sensor neural hearing loss (SNHL).

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Chemical and nutritional comparison between school's biscuits and supplemented biscuits with another protein sources

Hoda, M. El Gezery

National Nutrition Institute, Egypt
Hodamasoud17@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to study the chemical and nutritional value of school's biscuit and different fortified samples of biscuits. Whey protein and okara were added to biscuits at the level 10% and compared with school's biscuits. The chemical contents, lysine score and antimicrobial properties of tested samples were determined. The results showed that fortified biscuits with whey protein helped to improve the protein content and lysine score. Adding okara didn't effect on the biscuit weight and its volume when compared with school's biscuits. Also, sample with okara helped to improve the antimicrobial properties of biscuits sample followed by protein and the last one was school's sample. So, adding whey protein and okara to the bakery products as biscuits can saved wheat flour and increase the nutritional value and antimicrobial properties of the products.
[Hoda, M. El Gezery. Chemical and nutritional comparison between school's biscuits and supplemented biscuits with another protein sources. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):84-89]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.10.

Keywords: Biscuits; whey protein; okara.

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Comparative study between the magnetic resonance imaging and cone beam computed tomography in the evaluation of temporomandibular joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis patients

 

Abdel Aziz R., Esha K M.

 

MD In Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Cairo University, Professor and Head of the Radiology Department Faculty of Dentistry, Al Minia University

dr.rehab.abdulaziz@qudent.org

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the assessment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients and methods: CBCT and MRI were used to examine 40 TMJs from 20 RA patients who had TMJ complain. All CBCT and MRI images were evaluated separately by two experienced oral radiologists with regard to the presence or absence of osseous abnormalities; the radiologists were blinded to the clinical symptoms and prior TMJ disease. The following joint abnormalities were noted, bone erosion, flattening of the articular surfaces, sub-cortical and generalized sclerosis, sub-cortical cyst, osteophyte, joint space reduction and abnormal position of the condylar head within the temporal fossa. All these findings were tabulated, analyzed and by using CBCT findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performance of MRI for detecting various types of osseous abnormalities was evaluated by calculating its sensitivity and specificity. Results: CBCT was clearly depicted the morphology of the condyle and the surrounding bone structure in all of the cases. The frequency of each osseous abnormality ranged from 72.5% for condylar head erosion to 10% for loose joint body. On the other hand, MRI clearly detected all joint abnormalities the most frequent osseous abnormality was condylar head erosion 52.5% and the least frequent was loose joint body 5%. With the CBCT as a reference standard, MRI had low sensitivity, but high specificity in diagnosis of most of the osseous abnormalities.

Conclusion: Although the high specificity that was obtained with MRI, this modality showed relatively low sensitivity for detecting osseous abnormalities of the TMJ, so value of MRI for the detection of TMJ osseous abnormalities is considered to be limited.

[Abdel Aziz R., Esha K M. Comparative study between the magnetic resonance imaging and cone beam computed tomography in the evaluation of temporomandibular joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):90-96]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.11.

 

Keywords: Comparative study; magnetic resonance imaging; cone beam; tomography; evaluation; temporomandibular joint; rheumatoid arthritis; patient

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Comparative study on the adaptations for air-breathing and jumping in amphibious fish, Alticus kirkii and non-amphibious fish, Gambusia affinis hollobrokii

 

Ahmed N. Alabssawy and Hassan M. M. Khalaf-Allah

 

Marine Biology and Ichthyology branch, Zool. Dept., Fac. Sci., Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt

Ahmed_Alabssawy@yahoo.com; h_Mashhout@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work aimed to comparative study on the adaptations in morphology, structures of skin and muscles of Kirk's blenny, Alticus kirkii and mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis hollobrokii for understand how to air-birthing and jumping in amphibious fish, A. kirkii. 42 of A. kirkii were collected from intertidal zone of Ras Mohamed in Sharm El-Sheikh and 12 of G. affinis hollobrokii were obtained from EL-Sayeda Aisha market during April, 2017. Results showed that the epidermis of A. kirkii can absorb air via cutaneous adaptations; thin epidermis, rich with blood capillaries, highly vascularization and contain three types of mucous cells that permit enhanced perfusion during aerial exposure. While, in the skin of G. affinis hollobrokii contain one type of mucous cells. The giant cells and club cells are not found. The jumping of A. kirkii above the rocks is taken by movement of caudal peduncle with many adaptations in morphometric and structure of skin and muscles in this area. The short of head and trunk and low body weight in the fish helps in jumping of the fish. The caudal peduncle length was stretching for helps in easy encircling during jumping. The stratum spongiosum in the dermis is much thicker and composed of reticular connective tissue dispersed in loose areolar connective tissue for flexibility and bending of caudal peduncle. The stratum compactum is thinner and built up of fibrous connective tissue for reinforcement of caudal peduncle. The adipocytes were large in size, found between dermis and muscles and uses for energy and increasing of spaces. The structure of skin in caudal peduncle of G. affinis hollobrokii was adapted to thrashing movement of this fish. The dermis layer is reduced. The adipocyte layer and red muscles are absent. The axial muscles in caudal peduncle of A. kirkii consists of superficial red layers (slow red muscles) which used mainly for sustained energy efficient swimming and deep white layers (fast white muscle) which used at high swimming speeds. They are sources of high energy and high speeds for intense contraction which required in jumping. The structure of axial muscles in caudal peduncle of G. affinis hollobrokii was consists of white layers (fast white muscle) only.

[Ahmed N. Alabssawy and Hassan M. M. Khalaf-Allah. Comparative study on the adaptations for air-breathing and jumping in amphibious fish, Alticus kirkii and non-amphibious fish, Gambusia affinis hollobrokii. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):97-105]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.12.

 

Key words: Comparative, adaptations, Amphibious, Alticus kirkii, Gambusia affinis

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Surgical Treatment of Fracture Base of Fifth Metatarsal in Adults

 

Prof. Osman Abd Ellah Mohamed, Prof. Mohamed Mostafa Elmenawy and Mostafa Fathey Ragab

 

Assistant Prof. of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Damietta), Al Azhar University, Egypt.

Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Damietta) Al Azhar University, Egypt

Orthopedic Resident (M.B.B.Ch), Faculty of Medicine (Damietta) Al Azhar University, Egypt

mostafaragab948@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fractures of the fifth metatarsal present a unique set of challenges for treatment to the foot and ankle specialist. Understanding the local anatomy, vascular supply, function, and dynamic stresses placed upon the bone, as well as fracture classifications, mechanisms of injury, and expected responses to treatment aid immensely in the decision-making processes. This paper provides a critical review of the current literature with the author’s preferred method of treatment of these injuries to provide the orthopaedic surgeon with a basis for treatment of these injuries based on the most recent literature. We tried to link theoretical informations with our clinical skills in a twenty patients having fracture base of fifth metatarsal in variable ages classification and mechanism of injury.

[Osman Abd Ellah Mohamed, Mohamed Mostafa Elmenawy and Mostafa Fathey Ragab. Surgical Treatment of Fracture Base of Fifth Metatarsal in Adults. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):106-118]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.13.

 

Key words: Fractures of the fifth metatarsal, Orthopaedi c,cannulated screw, surgery, internal fixation

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Toxic Effect of Ammonium Nitrate and Bacillus Subtilis on the Wild Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

 

Hend Sh. Ghareeb

 

Plant Protection Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

hendshokry111111@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effect of ammonium nitrate at different tested concentrations and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores on the mortality of the wild rat, Rattus norvegicus was examined. The antibacterial activity of ammonium nitrate and B. subtilis at the sublethal concentration against the population levels of intestinal bacteria of rats on the Nutrient agar and MacConkey agar media was also investigated. The susceptibility of the isolates to ammonium nitrate and B. subtilis was assayed by disc diffusion method. Results indicated that the mortality percents which recorded by ammonium nitrate at the tested concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% were 46.66, 63.33 and 80% after 28 days of oral administration, respectively. But it wasn’t gave any mortality at the lowest concentration 0.1% till the end of experiment. B. subtilis recorded only 30% mortality at its highest tested concentration 10.4104 spores/ml after 28 days of administration. In concerning to the effect of ammonium nitrate at the sublethal concentration 0.1% on the intestinal bacteria, it was completely preventing the growth of Klebsiella granulomatis on both tested media. While, it was showed observed increasing in the number of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca colonies in comparison with the control. On the contrary, this concentration causing a high decreasing in the count of Staphylococcus epidermidis on the MacConkey agar media. B. subtilis at the sublethal concentration 1.3104 spores/ml was markedly prevent the growth of all bacterial flora in the intestine. The highest antimicrobial effect of ammonium nitrate was recorded against K. granulomatis with inhibition zone diameter 23 mm. On the other hand, B. subtilis was more susceptible to E. coli with inhibition zone 21.6 mm. The latter draws a conclusion that ammonium nitrate considered a promising effective rodenticide and B. subtilis was a successful natural biocontrol agent against the intestinal bacteria of rat which strongly controls all metabolic processes and therefore the rate of nutrition and crops damage in the fields and may be also causing the rat future death.

[Hend Sh. Ghareeb. Toxic Effect of Ammonium Nitrate and Bacillus Subtilis on the Wild Rat, Rattus Norvegicus. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):119-127]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.14.

 

Keywords: Rattus norvegicus, ammonium nitrate, Bacillus subtilis, intestinal bacteria

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Value of Serum Leptin in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis; Its Correlation With disease activity and Musculoskeletal Ultrasound findings

 

Sherin H Hamza1 and Takwa Badr Younes2

 

1Internal Medicine Department- Rheumatology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Cairo Egypt

2Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

drsherinehosny@hotmail.com, takwabadr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: Measurement of serum Leptin in rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA) and it's relation to clinical data, serological measures, disease activity, musculoskeletal US findings, and radiological joint damage score. Subjects and Methods: Our study included (40) patients with RA and (40) potentially healthy age and sex matched individuals as controls. Patients underwent full clinical assessment, assessment of disease activity by DAS28, measurement of serum leptin by ELISA. Plain x-ray hands and feet was done to all RA patients for evaluation of radiological joint damage using modified Larsen score which was done by an expert radiologist. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) using the six joint power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) scoring system for assessment RA joint findings. Results: There was no significant differences (p>0.05) between RA patients and controls as regards the mean level of serum Leptin with a mean of 22.60 16.53 versus24.46 17.06 respectively. There was no significant relation between mean serum leptin levels and the grades of disease activity of RA assessed by DAS28 (p>0.05). The mean serum leptin levels in RA patients showed no significant difference as regards the presence or absence of RF or the titer of anti CCP (p>0.05). The mean levels of serum cholesterol and LDL were higher in RA patients than the control with highly statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Also the mean levels of TG and HDL were higher in the patients than the controls with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was a highly significant positive correlation between the mean serum leptin level and body mass index (r= 0.686, p <0.001), TG (r=0.80, p <0.001), cholesterol (r=0.76, p<0.001), and LDL (r=0,83, p<0.001) among our studied RA patients. There was no significant relation between radiological damage assessed by mean Larsen score and mean serum leptin level (p>0.05). Regarding the MSUS findings; tenosynovitis was found in 12 RA patients (30%), 36 patients (90%) had synovial hypertrophy, 18 RA patients (45% ) had synovial effusion. Positive power Doppler ultrasound signal (PDUS) was found in 23 RA patients (57.5%), showing grade 1 in 16 RA patients (40%), grade 2 in 7 RA patients (17.5%), PDUS score ranged from 0 to 10 with a mean of 3.08 3.06.there was no significant relation or correlation as regard mean serum leptin level and the PDUS score (r=-0.008, p=0.095). Conclusion: Serum leptin levels have no significant correlation with RA clinical findings, disease activity score, serological data, musculoskeletal ultrasound findings and radiological joint damage in our RA patients. Factors as BMI, TG, cholesterol, and LDL influence serum leptin levels. So, according to our results, serum leptin doesn't seem to be a possible marker to monitor presence of inflammation or radiological joint damage in RA.

[Sherin H Hamza and Takwa Badr Younes. Value of Serum Leptin in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis; Its Correlation With disease activity and Musculoskeletal Ultrasound findings. J Am Sci 2017;13(12):128-137]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas131217.15.

 

Keywords: Value; Serum; Leptin; patient; Rheumatoid; arthritis; Correlation; disease; activity; Musculoskeletal

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from November 2, 2017. 

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