Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Special Issue 12 (Supplement Issue 12), December 25, 2013

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0912s

 

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CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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1

Influence of rapid unilateral mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis on the temporomandibular Joint (An experimental study)

 

Elsagaly A.H. *, Abd Elmonem K. **, Metwalli S.A. ***, and Elkasaby M.***

 

* Lecturer, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tripoli University.

** Lecturer, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ain Shams University.

***Assistant professor, Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Ain Shams University.

Corresponding Author: k.monem74@gmail.com

 

Abstract : Purpose: Evaluation of the effect of unilateral mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis at a rapid, hyperphysiologic, rate of 2 mm per day on the temporomandibular joint. Materials and Methods: Eighteen young adult healthy female goats weighing 20-25Kg were included in the study. Animals were divided into 3 equal groups (n=6 in each): group I(control), while group II and III (the experimental groups). All animals of group II, III were subjected to unilateral mandibular body lengthening of the right mandibular side by distraction osteogenesis through the use of custom made stainless steel distractor. Distraction was performed at a rate of 2 mm per day for five days and a consolidation phase for four weeks. Animal sacrifice was performed post consolidation phase by one month in group II and by 6 months in group III. All temporomandibular joints were evaluated radigraphically for joint spaces evaluation and histologically for detection of changes in Joint architecture. The measured Joint spaces were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that comparing changes in measurements of Joint spaces between different groups revealed no significant differences. Evaluation of histological changes in Temporomandibular joint(TNJ) revealed that in group II mild inflammatory and degenerative changes were detected. All these changes were within the adaptive capacity of the joints as; all these changes were mostly reversible in group III (6 months post consolidation).Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that mandibular unilateral lengthening by distraction osteogenesis at a rate of 2 mm per day may lead to initial mild inflammatory and degenerative changes in TMJ. However, all condyles showed adaptive and remodeling signs within 6 month period post consolidation.

[Elsagaly A.H., Abd Elmonem K., Metwalli S.A., and Elkasaby M. Influence of rapid unilateral mandibular lengthening by distraction osteogenesis on the temporomandibular Joint (An experimental study). J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):1-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.01

 

Key words: Osteogenesis, Condyles, Mandibular unilateral lengthening

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Highway Traffic Noise Modeling and Estimation Based on Vehicles Volume and Speed

 

Amir abbas Rassafi1, Jafar Ghassempour2

 

1. Associate Professor, Department of civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2. Master Sicence, Department of civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

jafar.ghassempour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Traffic noise estimation models are useful in evaluation of the noise pollution in current circumstances. They are helpful tools for design and planning new roads and highways. Measurement of average traffic noise level is possible when traffic speed and volume are known. The objective of this study was to devise a model for prediction of highway traffic noise levels based on current traffic variables in Iran. The design of this model was to take the impact of traffic congestion into consideration and to be field tested. This study is a library research augmented by field study conducted on Saeedi Highwaylocated south west of Tehran. The period for the field study lasted 5 days from 7-12 February, 2013. This study examined liner and non-liner methods in formulation of its model. Liner method without a fixed coefficient was the best fit for the intended model. The proposed model can serve as a decision making tool to estimate the impact of key influential factors on sound pressure levelsin urban areas in Iran.

[Amir abbas Rassafi, Jafar Ghassempour. Highway Traffic Noise Modeling and Estimation Based on Vehicles Volume and Speed. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):11-16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.02

 

Keywords: noise modeling, highway, volume, speed

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Smanifestation of Individuation Process in Sonnets by Molana Khaled Naghshbandi

 

Nasrin Chireh

 

A student of Ph.D. program of Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch

Nasrin.chireh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Perfection and striving for perfection are two important issues in mysticism. Individuation process in Jungian psychology refers to harmonization of a person with self - a state which provides for his psychological development and facilitates his drive toward perfection. Self has especial position among archetypes. It is the platform for individuation and perfection. Arts and literature drive archetypes to conscious realm. Archetypes are important elements in studying artist and poets' mentalities. They play especial roles in the personality development of artists and poets. Sonnets display the poets' mental state more than other poetry styles. They are appropriate platforms for psychological manifestation of individuation process. Sonnets display the development trajectory of the poet as they go through self-realization in an endeavor to achieve perfection. The present study searches for signs of individuation process in sonnets composed by Molana Khaled Naghshbandi. Research methodology is descriptive-analytic. This paper provides a brief introduction to Naghshbandi Tariqa and Molana Khaled's life as a Naghshbandi promoter. The theoretical principles of individuation process are discussed next. Symbols of individuation process and the tools for achieving it are also mentioned. Anima is evident in Molana Khaled's sonnets. They reveal poet's struggle for individuation. The first encounter with Anima takes place in Love stage. The encounter with shadow comes next. Meeting the wise old man happens during different encounters with Anima. Images of Mandala are observable in manifestation of individuation process in Molana Khaled sonnets. Negative aspects of Anima are presented as an unkind beloved. Yet, the positive aspects are depicted as a beloved who represent the freed up Anima of the lover - a loved one that is essential for individuation process and manifestation of intuition if they are to drive the lover toward perfection.

[Nasrin Chireh. SManifestationof Individuation Process in Sonnets by Molana Khaled Naghshbandi. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):17-30]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.03

 

Keyword: Mysticism, Molana Khaled Naghshbandi, Individuation Process, Anima, Persona, Shadow, Ego

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Corporate Governance: Board of Directors’ Strategic Role and Its Influence on Financial Function Automobile Companies registered and listed in Stock Exchange of Tehran

 

Mahmoud Manouchehri Amoli1, Ghasem Esmaeili2

 

1 Master of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Tehran University, Tehran-Iran

2 Master of Industrial Management, Faculty of Finance, Islamic Azad university of Tehran-Iran

 

Abstract: Corporate governance is a crucial factor for efficiency and productivity improvement in any economy and economical system. It characterizes a set of mutual contacts and interactions among board of directors, corporate management, shareholders, and other stakeholders. Corporate governance provides a structure for development of corporate goals, facilities to accomplish those objectives, and means to supervise and watch over the corporate performance. Corporate governance mechanisms are important for company performance. This study investigates the internal mechanisms applied by board of directors and their effects on financial performance by strategic planning. It uses a case study of automobile corporations registered and listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. The role of directors’ board in strategic management is decided and determined by their extent of involvement and participation in strategic planning. In order to measure the directors’ board role in strategic management, this study employed a questionnaire prepared based on Hunger-Wheelen and Nadler Models. This questionnaire was distributed to 105 board members of auto companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. 75 questionnaires from 78 respondents were included in this study. The financial performance (Tobin's Q) was calculated based on corporate balance sheets. The findings of this study showed a significant relation between the board of directors’ role in strategic management and financial performances. It means that board of directors with catalyst role, active participation, or nominal participation in strategic management had positive effect on corporate financial performance. In contrary, board of directors with minimal review, rubber stamp, or phantom roles in strategic management had negative effect on corporate financial performance.

[Mahmoud Manouchehri Amoli, Ghasem Esmaeili. Corporate Governance: Board of Directors’ Strategic Role and Its Influence on Financial Function Automobile Companies registered and listed in Stock Exchange of Tehran. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):31-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.04

 

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Auto Industry, Strategic Management, Board of Directors, Corporate Financial Performance.

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Identification, composition & prioritization of Performance Appraisal criteria in economical departments of export guarantee fund of Iran (EGFI)

 

Mahmoud Manouchehri Amoli1, Ghasem Esmaeili2

 

1 Master of Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, Tehran University, Tehran-Iran

2 Master of Industrial Management, Faculty of Finance, Islamic Azad university of Tehran-Iran

 

Abstract: The main objective of this research is identify, compensation and prioritize financial and non-financial performance indicators based on two well known and widely used models: balanced scorecard (BSC) and the European foundation for quality management (EFQM). In The aim aspect, this study includes applied research and in tool aspect, it is descriptive-survey. Export Guarantee Fund of Iran's population are employees of whose population size of 124 individuals using judgmental sampling (non-probability purposeful) based on Morgan, 92 of the sample was also assessed. First, a questionnaire to collect raw data that was designed by researcher based on the literature and previous research; and then the survey of experts and Guarantee Fund experts and professors of 8 types of the original questionnaire design, and was distributed. For data analysis and ranking, PASW Software was used; so that for ranking the common and general indicators with exploratory factor analysis method, and for ranking the special units indicators of guarantee fund, Friedman and W. Kendall's test was used. Finally 55 indicators were composition and prioritization. Of these, 14 numbers indicators, a set of indicators were public and common, and 41 indicators in special indicators cluster for economical units Triple of export Guarantee Fund of Iran were classified.

[Mahmoud Manouchehri Amoli, Ghasem Esmaeili. Identification, composition & prioritization of Performance Appraisal criteria in economical departments of export guarantee fund of Iran (EGFI). J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):39-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.05

 

Keywords:Performance appraisal, Performance appraisal indicators, Performance appraisal models, exploratory factor analysis, export guarantee fund of Iran.

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A Pattern Recognition Based Approach for Prediction of Protein Drug Interactions Using Neural Networks

 

Attia Anis1, Muhammad Abuzar Fahiem1, Muhammad Hassan Rasheed2

 

1.Department of Computer Science, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan.

2. Department of Computer Science, FAST National University of Computer and Emerging Science, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan.

attiasultana22@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The prediction of protein-drug interaction is a key area in drug discovery and it is considered to be a complex task. Drug discovery is a crucial task therefore there is a deep motivation towards developing new methods for identifying protein-drug interaction efficiently. The study aimed is to predict that how strong binding orientation exists between protein-drug interactions, and these interaction results further used for drug discovery. The research was carried out from various datasets of protein-drug interaction gathered from different databases and all these datasets are considered as an unstructured data. This research is focuses on drug-target interaction networks in human beings involving protein families such as, Enzymes, Ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Nuclear Receptors, Alpha and Beta. The comprehensive pattern recognition technique is used for predicting new protein-drug interactions. Implementation is done using neural network pattern recognition tool. Neural Network is considered to be a most efficient method for the datasets related to bioinformatics and neuron sciences. The satisfactory result of our research is 93%. The success of our approach is evident from the result. The study recommended that the proposed technique should be implemented in health department for efficient drug discovery results.

[Attia Anis, Muhammad Abuzar Fahiem, Muhammad Hassan Rasheed. A Pattern Recognition Based Approach for Prediction of Protein Drug Interactions Using Neural Networks. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):51-56]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.06

 

Keywords: Drug Discovery; Protein-drug interaction; Pattern Recognition; Neural Network.

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Personalized Learning Path Delivery in Web based Educational Systems using a Graph Theory based Approach

 

C. Beulah Christalin Latha1, Dr. E. Kirubakaran2

 

1Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Applications, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

2Additional General Manager, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Trichy, Tamilnadu, India

beulsonline@gmail.com

 

Abstract. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge or skill. It is the process of filtering, storing and organizing information in our brains. E-learning is defined as an innovative approach for delivering well designed, learner centered, interactive and facilitated learning environment to anyone, at any place and at any time by exploiting the potential of digital learning resources and technologies well suited for open, flexible and pervasive learning environments. The efficiency of learning depends upon various factors including the way in which the knowledge is dissipated to the learner. Each learner learns in a unique way. Learning proves to be more effective if the teaching process becomes compatible with the characteristics of the learner such as his learning style, his learning goal and his learning need. In classroom teaching, the teacher takes care of the characteristics of the learner and can train the learner in the appropriate manner. In web based educational systems, the absence of a teacher or trainer becomes a bottleneck in delivering contents in an appropriate manner to the learner. Intelligent tutoring systems provide solution to this problem by tailoring the delivery of contents that suits the characteristics of the learner. These systems treat learners as unique individuals and deliver the contents in a variety of ways. Intelligent tutoring systems thus provide various means of providing an efficient learning including adaptation or personalization. Personalization is the process of making a generalized content specific to the needs and traits of the user. Personalization in e-learning is tailoring learning materials or contents according the learning style of the learner, learner’s profile, learner’s interests, previous knowledge level, learner’s goal and pedagogical method. It provides a way to alter the one size fits all approach that is generally followed in traditional web based education systems. This paper proposes a novel way of recommending a personalized learning path to a user using a graph theory based approach in web-based learning systems in order to make the learning process effective.

[C. Beulah Christalin Latha, E. Kirubakaran. Personalized Learning Path Delivery in Web based Educational Systems using a Graph Theory based Approach. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):57-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.07

 

Keywords: Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Personalization, Pedagogical Issues, Learning Path, Graph Theory

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The Therapeutic Effect of Honey on Stomatitis Complicating Chemotherapy in Children at Sohag Governorate

 

Hekmat E. Abd-El-karim1; Yousseria Elsayed Yousef 2; Sabra Mohamed Ahmed2 and Soumaya Elsayed Hadhood3

 

Departments of Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut1 and Sohag Universities2, Pediatric Medicine, Sohag University Faculty of Medicine3

 

Abstract: Background: Stomatitis is an inflammation of the lining of any of the soft-tissue structures of the mouth. It is usually a painful condition, associated with redness, swelling, and occasional bleeding from the affected area. Stomatitis can result from cancer treatment such as chemotherapy and some of diseases like (herpetic infections, gonorrhea, measles, leukemia, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease), and lake of vitamin C. The role of pediatric nursing care is of great importance in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis. Aim of the work: to assess the therapeutic effect of honey on stomatitis complicating chemotherapy as a treatment of malignancy in children in Sohag Governorate .Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out in the cancer institute at Sohag Governorate. The research is a quasi–experimental design. This study included 100 children aged 6-12 years complaining of stomatitis complicating chemotherapy. They were divided into two groups each included 50 children: first group (study group) received a honey as a therapy for stomatitis (29 males and 21 females): the second group (control group) received routine medicine for stomatitis (17 males 33 females). Results: The manifestations of stomatitis, grades of inflammation and the effect of stomatitis on eat and drink were nearly similar in both groups with no significant differences. Among children of the study group, nearly half of them improved within 4 days (24 of 50) while other half required 5-7 days to improve. On the other hand, 56% of children of the control group (28 out of 50) improved within 7 days, 20% (10 out of 50) required 10 days and more to improve while 25% (11out of 50) improved within 4 days. The difference was statistically significant. Among children of the study group, half of them required 5-7 days to improve the majority of them (24 out of 26) had moderate and severe forms of stomatitis. No children in the study group required more than 7 days to respond to treatment. On the other hand, 3 children of the control group who had mild stomatitis required 10 days and more to improve. Meanwhile 7 children in the control group who had severe stomatitis required 10 days and more to improve. Conclusions: It is concluded that, the use of natural source like pure honey showed excellent results in the treatment of stomatitis complicating chemotherapy in children with rapid healing even in the severe forms of stomatitis. Honey is very useful as a healing agent and compared to pharmaceutical products, has the advantages of being inexpensive, natural and effective within short duration.

[Hekmat E. Abd-El-karim; Yousseria Elsayed Yousef; Sabra Mohamed Ahmed and Soumaya Elsayed Hadhood. The Therapeutic Effect of Honey on Stomatitis Complicating Chemotherapy in Children at Sohag Governorate. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):68-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.08

 

Keywords: Children, Stomatitis, Honey, Cancer Chemotherapy, Sohag Governorate.

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Histological Study of Survivin Expression in Experimentally Induced Renal Failure

 

Ayman M. Ghallab, Maha A. Abdallah, Gamal A.Attia and Ghada A. Elsammak

 

Histology and Cell Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

maha18770@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Survivin is a member of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family that has been implicated in both apoptosis inhibition and regulation of mitosis. Nowadays, involvement of survivin in renal repair mechanisms is considered as a matter of controversy. Aim of the study: This study was done to detect the expression of survivin in the normal renal cortices and in experimentally induced acute renal failure of adult male albino rats. Materials & Methods: Twenty healthy adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were equally divided into two groups; control (I) and experimentally induced acute renal failure; ERF (II). Rats in group (II) were injected by 20 mg cisplatin per kg body weight intraperitoneally dissolved in saline and then subdivided into two subgroups according to the time of sacrifice after ERF. Subgroup A (IIA) sacrificed after 24 hours while subgroup B (IIB) rats were sacrificed at the fourth day. Rats of control group (I) were injected with saline by the same dose and route of administration. They were also subdivided into two subgroups (IA&IB) according to the time of sacrifice. Renal cortices were dissected out and were processed for examination by light microscope. Immune reaction of survivin and P53 were carried out. Area percentage and optical density of both survivin and P53 were estimated and statistically analyzed. Results: Twenty four hours after induction of ERF, renal cortices contained apparently normal corpuscles and markedly dilated convoluted tubules with luminal casts in some of them. Most of the tubular cells had deeply stained nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. Others had deeply acidophilic cytoplasm. Thin collagen fibers still present around renal tubules, corpuscles and within the corpuscles between the glomerular capillary tuft. Few blood capillaries were also observed among the tubules. Concomitant with these changes, marked reduction of survivin expression with highly expressed P53 were observed. Four days after ERF, moderate improvement of renal tubular architecture with focally affected tubules. Most of the tubules were lined by cuboidal cells with pale stained cytoplasm and round pale nuclei. Some tubules still had vacuolated cytoplasm. Flattened cells with flattened nuclei were observed around renal tubules. Many blood capillaries were observed among the renal tubules. Moderate aggregations of collagen fibers were observed around the renal corpuscles and the affected tubules. Strong positive immune reaction for survivin was observed in the apparently improved renal tubules. While weak positive one was still noticed in renal corpuscles and the affected tubules. P53 immune reaction was negative in apparently normal tubules and corpuscles. Weak positive P53 immune reaction was noticed in the affected tubules. Estimated and analyzed data of area percentage and optical density of survivin and P53 confirmed the results. Conclusion: Variable structural changes were observed in renal cortices after experimentally induced acute renal failure. These changes were correlated with marked reduction in survivin expression and high expression of P53. After that, moderate improvement of renal structure was associated over expression of surviving and marked reduction of P53 and. These results encourage further evaluation of survivin for prevention and /or treatment of acute renal failure.

[Ayman M. Ghallab, Maha A. Abdallah, Gamal A.Attia and Ghada A. Elsammak. Histological Study of Survivin Expression in Experimentally Induced Renal Failure J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):75-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.09

 

Key words Ssurvivin-P53-renal cortex-inhibitor of apoptosis family- cisplatin nephrotoxicity

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Ultra-structural adaptation toward iron deficiency in Thermosynechococcus elongatus cells

 

El-Mohsnawy, Eithar

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Damanhour University, 22713, Egypt.

Visitor Researcher at Plant Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany

eithar2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Iron is considered one of the most essential elements required by all organisms. It involves both photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains. Since the biological availability of iron in nature is limited and it is highly required by cyanobacteria, focusing on the adaptation or tolerance mechanism in thermophilic cyanobacteria has a lot of attention. Through the present work, a highlight on the ultrastructural changes of Thermosynechococcus elongatus cells due to iron deficiency is investigated. Beside biochemical and spectroscopical analysis, transmitting electron microscope images have been used for description these changes. Results showed remarkable rising in DNA, protein and lipids contents, while reduction in cell size and chlorophyll content. Transmitting electron microscopic images showed reduction in cell diameters, length and width. Moreover, the thylakoid thickness and cytoplasm area have reduced, while the nucleoplasm area was increased. In addition, this work adopts for the first time an effective indicator ratio (A280/A440) that could be used as fast monitor for ultrastructural changes. Thermosynechococcus elongatus cells thought to adapt Fe-limitation by decreasing the proteins containing iron and synthesis specific proteins that decrease the rate of photosynthesis. Hence, energy was saved by reduction the cells size and cytoplasm area. Cells produced iron resistant and regulators proteins to achieve the necessary metabolism. Observed changes in cell size, thylakoid membrane thickness and the large nucleoplasm area could be taken as monitor in response to iron-deficiency.

[El-Mohsnawy, Eithar. Ultra-structural adaptation toward iron deficiency in Thermosynechococcus elongatus cells. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):86-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). .http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.10

 

Keywords: Thermosynechococcus elongatus, iron deficiency, cell size, thylakoid membrane, transmitting electron microscope, protein content, DNA content.

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Immediate versus Delayed Oxytocin Infusion following Amniotomy for Induction of Labor in Primiparous Women:A randomized controlled trial

 

Shafik A. 1*, Korany S. 1, Kamal K. 1, Yosri S. 2

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Research Fellow, Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital

Shafikadel@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare immediate versus delayed (after 4 hours) oxytocin infusion following amniotomy in primiparous women planned for induction of labor at term singleton pregnancy. Methods: The current randomized controlled trial was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity hospital The study included primiparous women admitted to the labor/delivery ward for planned induction of labor of a term living singleton pregnancy (at gestations between 37 and 41+6 weeks). The recruited women were randomly allocated into one of two groups: group I including women who had amniotomy and immediate oxytocin infusion; and group II including women who had amniotomy and delayed oxytocin infusion (after 4 hours). Results: A total of 120 women were included in the study. The mean gestational age was 40.08 1.33 weeks (range: 37.29 – 41.71 weeks). The median oxytocin-to-onset of the active phase, oxytocin-to-delivery and onset of the active phase-to-delivery intervals were slightly lower in women of group II when compared to women of group I, but not to a significant level. The median amniotomy-to-onset of the active phase and amniotomy-to-delivery intervals were significantly higher in women of group II when compared to women of group I. The median VAS for labor pain was significantly higher in women of group I when compared to women of group II. There were no significant differences between neonates of both groups regarding 1-min and 5-min Apgar scores. Conclusion: Early oxytocin infusion, following amniotomy for induction of labor in primiparous women, seems to be advantaged over delayed oxytocin infusion (after 4 hours) by the significantly shorter duration of labor and better women satisfaction, without any significant adverse impact on the maternal and perinatal outcome.

[Shafik A., Korany S., Kamal K., Yosri S. Immediate versus Delayed Oxytocin Infusion following Amniotomy for Induction of Labor in Primiparous Women a randomized controlled trial. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):93-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.11

 

Keywords: induction of labor – immediate oxytocin infusion – delayed oxytocin infusion – amniotomy

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Designing an Innovative Flat Floor Covering By Using Remains Yarns on Face to Face Carpet Machines for High Functional Performance to Multiple Purposes

 

 Hend Ahmed Amen Abdallah

 

Spinning, weaving and knitting Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt.

hend_a.a2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper concerned with the production of flat floor coverings with innovative designs using the remnants of pile yarn in factories carpets and rugs, and this will be on the face-to-face carpet machines, quality of double shot, where mixing more than textile installation with each other to get this innovative design with the effects of colors by which can be used different degrees of one color from pile yarn without affecting on the quality of the design appearance, and this with higher functionality when used, this with higher functionality when used. In this research, has been producing a number of innovative designs for flat floor coverings, was then testing them to demonstrate their suitability for high functional performance to multiple purposes, Also conducted a questionnaire to indicate the acceptance of the different categories of consumers for this kind of floor coverings. All the steps and all test methods were explained and results were discussed to demonstrate the possibility of producing this kind of floor coverings, suitability for the functional performance and the acceptance of its consumer.

[Hend Ahmed Amen Abdallah. Designing an Innovative Flat Floor Covering By Using Remains Yarns on Face to Face Carpet Machines for High Functional Performance to Multiple Purposes. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):99-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.12

 

Key words: flat floor coverings, face to face woven carpet, double shot machine carpet, carpet structures, pile yarn.

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Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbial Strains Isolated from Agricultural Wastewater

 

Fawzy I. Eissa1; Hend A. Mahmoud2; Osama N. Massoud3; Khaled M. Ghanem1 and Ibrahim M. Gomaa1

 

1Environment and Bio-agriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

2Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Egypt.

fawzy.eissa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos in mineral salt liquid (MSL) medium under different environmental factors such as pH of media, temperature and different concentrations of pesticide were investigated to optimize the conditions for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by microbial strains. Isolating the microbial strains for identifying those having high chlorpyrifos degradation capability in liquid culture was undertaken as well. Out of thirteen microbial isolates from agricultural wastewater samples collected from different pesticides-polluted locations in Egypt, three isolates were only capable of degrading chlorpyrifos and utilizing it as a sole source of carbon and phosphorus. Isolates’ biomass and chlorpyrifos degradation were found to be optimum at 30 C and pH 7 (for bacteria and actinomycete), and pH 6 for fungi. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. SMF5, Penicillium sp. F09-T10-1 and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus strain A-B based on morphological and biochemical tests as well as 16S rDNA analysis. It was also confirmed that biodegradation potential of the microbial isolates influenced by a range of abiotic factors such as pH of media, temperature and different concentrations of the tested pesticide. The rate of degradation for chlorpyrifos was faster in all inoculated samples relative to the corresponding control. Results showed also that chlorpyrifos was degraded faster by bacteria than fungi followed by actinomycete compared to its respective uninoculated water after 28 days. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos was coinciding with increasing biomass growth in chlorpyrifos contaminated water. Thus, the results from the present study confirmed that the newly isolated chlorpyrifos-degrading isolates can be successfully used for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water.

[Fawzy I. Eissa; Hend A. Mahmoud; Osama N. Massoud; Khaled M. Ghanem and Ibrahim M. Gomaa. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbial Strains Isolated from Agricultural Wastewater. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):116-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.13

 

Key Words: Chlorpyrifos, bioremediation, biomass, water.

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Health Risk Behaviors among Port Said University Students

 

1Mona Abd El-Sabour Hassan; 2Soheir Gouda and 3Inas Mohamed Abd Allah

 

1Family &Community Health Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

2 Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Egypt

3 Maternity, Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal University, Egypt

dr_mona_sabour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of concurrent health risk behaviors among Port Said University students. Subjects and Methods: a cross sectional descriptive design was used; the study carried out at all faculties of Port Said University, the sample size was 1222 students. Self administered standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, it includes two parts part one include sociodemographic data, second part include: modified and tested version of National College Health Risk Behavior Surveillance System Questionnaire (YTBSS). Results: The results indicated that the majority of the studied students (87.9%) never or rarely wore a seat belt while a passenger, 12.3% of students had participated in physical fights, 8.1% of the students were actually admitted suicide, 2.4% were drug users,1.6% were alcohol consumers, 5.3% were smoker, and 4.7% of the student were sexually active. In addition, 59.7% of the students never or rarely interested to eat a balanced, where 66.4% of them did not practice physical activities regularly. The findings also indicated that male students were more engage to such risk behaviors than female students. Conclusion: Unintentional injuries had been the most prevalent health risk behavior followed by physical inactivity, unhealthy dietary habits, intentional injury. Fortunately, the study found that the students were not invulnerable to smoking, alcohol or drug use, and sexual risk behavior. Recommendations: Health education programs should be carried in the universities, in summer camps and in public places to raise their awareness about the hazards of these risk behaviors and reinforce competence in adopting healthy behaviors. More researches should be conducted, in the other universities in Egypt, to identify the magnitude of the problem against university students.

[Mona Abd El-Sabour Hassan; Soheir Gouda and Inas Mohamed Abd Allah. Health Risk Behaviors among Port Said University Students. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):127-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.14

 

Key words: Health risk behaviors, university students.

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Prevalence of spousal physical Violence among married women in El-Sinbelawin Center, Al-Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt

 

Yasser A. Yasein

 

Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

dryasser1975@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Violence by intimate partners is an important public health problem. It occurs in all countries, irrespective of social, economic, religious or cultural group. Resolving it requires the involvement of many sectors. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, investigate risk factors, and to determine health consequences of spousal physical violence among married Egyptian women Subjects & Methods: A cross sectional study conducted during the year 2012 at El-Sinbelawine Center, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The study was conducted on 292 married women (151 from urban area and 141 from rural area) with a mean age of 30.83 7.34 years. The data was collected through interviews with all participants. Results: The prevalence of violence in the last 12 months before the current study and lifetime was 26.0% and 45.9%, respectively. The violence was more common among women living at the lowest economic levels (70.7%), illiterates (87.5%), less educated (78.1%) and non working women (54.5%). The most common causes of violence were; disobey the husband (29.1%), economic problems (23.1%), jealousy (20.9), refuse to practice the legitimate rights of husbands (9.8%), and extravagance and waste of money (7.5%). The negative health outcomes of violence were; psychological disturbance (35.2%), bruises (26.8%), cut wound (11.9%), pain (9.7%), broken bone (7.5), haemorrhage (6.7%), and burn (2.2%). Out of studied women exposed to violence, (58.2%) tried to seek help. The reasons of not seeking assistance were; to keep the family (26.8%), considering violence as a part of life (21.4%), fear of further violence (19.4%), fear of divorce (17.9%) and embarrassment (14.3%). Conclusions: Violence still represents an important social problem among married women in Egypt, and the following are recommended: community mobilization to raise public awareness that violence against women is not legitimate or acceptable and that it harms the health and well-being of women. Initiate pilot programs to sensitize young men and engage them to develop more respectful and egalitarian behaviours toward women. There is a need for better mechanisms to assess the legal, social, and health needs of women facing violence to respond to these needs, and to protect them from further harm, in addition to encouraging education and employment among females.

 [Yasser A. Yasein. Prevalence of spousal physical violence among married women in El-Sinbelawin Center, Al-Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(12s):139-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.15

 

Key words: Physical spousal violence, married women, prevalence, risk factors, health consequences.

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doi:10.7537/marsjas0912s13.15

 

 

 

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