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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online); doi prefix: 10.7537; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 72, February 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1002

 

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CONTENTS   

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Mannagement of Severly Subluxated Crystalline Lens Equal to or More Than 6 Clock Hours with Capsular Tension Ring Scleral Fixation at One Point

 

Gamal Mostafa Abo Elmaaty; Mahmoud Rabea; Abd Al Magid M Tag Eldin; Mohamed Al-Taher Abd El-Wahab and Ehab Abd El Samea AL-Azab

 

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Medicine, Al-Azahr University, Cairo Egypt

 

Abstract: Aim of the Work: Non comparative study involving severly subluxated crystalline lens with 6 clock hours or more subluxation by removal of cataract and implantation of scleral fixated standard type capsular tension ring providing good stability and centration to the bag and preventing capsular phimosis and reducing the incidence of PCO. Materials and Methods: A 20 eyes of 16 patients with 6 clock hours of zonulysis, underwent lens extraction, capsular bag fixation with standard CTR, and in-the-bag single-piece eyecryl intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Main outcome measures were intraoperative performance and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), IOL centration, and complications. Results: The mean ages was 27.46 + 15.25 years (6-61 years). Mean extent of subluxation was 7.5 + 1.0 clock hours. Preoperatively, vitreous was detected in the anterior chambers of 4 eyes (20%). Anterior chamber vitrectomy was performed in 4 eyes. Mean follow-up was 10.8 + 1.8 months. Preoperatively only 2 of the 20 eyes (10.0%) had a BCVA of 20/40 or better, as compared to 18 eyes at the last visit (90%). Posterior capsule rupture occurred in 2 eyes, which occurred during fixation of the CTR. In 2 eyes (10%) IOL decentration was noted and repositioning was required in 1 eye. Posterior capsule opacification developed in 6 eyes (30%); 4 eyes (20%) required Nd:YAG capsulotomy. Other complications included posterior synechiae in 2 eye (10%), and retinal detachment in 0 eye (0%). Conclusion: In-the-bag implantation of a standard CTR with IOL appears to be a safe with subluxated cataract, ensuring a stable IOL with few complications.

[Gamal Mostafa Abo Elmaaty; Mahmoud Rabea; Abd Al Magid M Tag Eldin; Mohamed Al-Taher Abd El-Wahab; and Ehab Abd El Samea AL-Azab. Mannagement of Severly Subluxated Crystalline Lens Equal to or More Than 6 Clock Hours with Capsular Tension Ring Scleral Fixation at One Point? J Am Sci 2014;10(2):1-3]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.01

 

Keywords: Mannagement; Subluxat; Crystalline Len; Capsular Tension; Ring Scleral Fixation

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Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt

 

Ismail A-A Hassan1 and Ahmed A Alam 2

 

Department of Pediatrics 1, Sohag University and Department of Clinical Pathology 2, Sohag University, Egypt.

abdoneurology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Prevention of chronic complications of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children can be achieved with a good glycemic control. In developing countries, although IDDM represents a serious public health concern, there is little data on etiology and metabolic control in children. Aim: To determine the current level of the glycemic control in a sample of children with type 1 diabetes. Patients and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out at Pediatric outpatient clinic, Sohag university hospital in the period from 1 July 2009 to 31 December 2011. Children aged 1-12 years with duration of IDDM of more than 1 year were eligible for study. In addition to history, clinical examination (including fundus examination), all included children had there Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) measured every 4 months for one year. In addition, test for microalbuminuria was done for patients with HbA1C more than 10 %. Results: The number of patients that completed the study was 92 patients (56 males and 36 females). Their ages was 7.1 3.1 years. Median duration for IDDM was 16 months. The HbA1C level was 9.0 % 2.2 % at the beginning of study and it was 8.9 % 1.8 % at the end (P = 0.77). The number of patients with good control (HbA1C < 7.0 %) was only 16 patients (17 %). The number of patients with poor control (HbA1C >10.0 %) was 30 patients (33 %). Poor control was significantly associated with older age (9.2 2 versus 6.3 2.1years, p < 0.001), rural residence (24/42 (57.1 % rural versus 6/50 (12.0 %) urban, p < 0.001, relative risk = 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.52), longer duration of IDDM (22.0 6.8 versus 18.1 7 months, p < 0.02), once daily insulin regimen (12/22 (54.5 %) once regimen versus 18/66 (27.3 %) twice regimen, p < 0.02, relative risk = 0.63 (95% CI = 0.39-1.0). Conclusion: Glycemic control in our hospital is poor. This has changed our policy of treatment of IDDM. Shifting treatment of these children from general pediatric outpatient clinic to pediatric diabetes clinic was an essential initial step. Our pediatric diabetes clinic is now being established. An audit to improve glycemic control is underway .

[Ismail A-A Hassan and Ahmed A Alam. Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Sohag University Hospital, Upper Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):4-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.02 

 

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Children, Upper Egypt, Glycosylated hemoglobin, Microalbuminuria

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On the solution of the Fredholm integral equation with hyper singular kernel

 

R. T. Matoog

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

r.matoog@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this work, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of Fredholm integral equation of the second kind with hyper singular kernel is presented. The solution of the integral equation, using the orthogonal polynomial method, is discussed in the Chebyshev polynomial form. Moreover, the stability of the numerical solution is considered.

[R. T. Matoog. On the solution of the Fredholm integral equation with hyper singular kernel. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):10-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.03

 

Keywords: Fredholm integral equation (FIE), Chebyshev polynomial (CP), singular kernel (SK), an infinite system (IS).

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Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Different Regions in Sudan

 

Magdi. Hasan. Saad1,3, Jumaa. Yousif. Tamboul2,4, Mohamed Yousef2,4

 

1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University - Yanbu branch -Yanbu, KSA.

2 Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University Fax: 00966 8475790 P.O: 30001 Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA.

3 Physics department, Faculty of Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology. Khartoum, Sudan

4 College of Medical Radiologic Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology P. O. Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan.

E-mail: mohnajwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate and describe Natural Radioactivity In Different Regions in Sudan.In this work the concentration of radioactive and trace elements is determined in different regions, having different locations, basements, morphology as well as climates. Soil analysis was made by Gamma spectrometer, while Laser Flourimetry was utilized for uranium (U) and for trace elements Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) is used. The analysis indicates that the concentration of radioactive elements is high at Mountains except in the Middle of the Sudan. The radiation dose rates in air are at the normal level except at Nubian areas (south of the central Sudan). The results obtained from the present work provide additional data on the Natural Radioactivity In Different Regions in Sudan. The dose rate in air in northern and central regions of Sudan is in arranged which is recommended by IAEA and WHO. At east and south of the Sudan are observed high radioactivity and radiation background.

[Saad MH., Tamboul J, Yousef M. Evaluation of Natural Radioactivity in Different Regions in Sudan. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):14-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.04

 

Keywords: Natural Radioactivity, Concentration, Element, Gamma spectrometer, Laser Flourimetry

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Measurement of adult and pediatric Patient doses during head CT scan

 

Jumaa Yousif Tamboul1.2, Mohamed Yousef1, 2,,Sawsan Suliman3, Abdelmoneim Sulieman1,3

 

1Taibah University, College of Medical Applied Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiologic Technology, Fax: 8475790 P.O: 30001 Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA

2College of Medical Radiologic Sciences, Sudan University of Science and Technology. P.O. Box 1908, Khartoum, Sudan.

3Shagra University, Shagra, Saudi Arabia

4Salman bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, Alkharj, P.O. Box 422, KSA

E-mail: mohnajwan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The objectives of the study were to investigate doses from CT examinations of adult and paediatric patients in brain CT examination and compare the doses with international standards as provided in DRLs. A total of 59 patients (padiatric and adults) were examined at the Department of Radiology, Al -Ribat University Hospital-Khartoum. The mean age was 40.80 years for adults while the mean weight was 70.04 kg and the mean age for padiatric was 5.10 years while the mean weight was 20kg. DLP for adults were 1000.25 mGy.cm, 733.33 for padiatrics. The mean effective dose for adults patient was 0.48 mSv in rang (0.49-0.44) mSv, while for padiatric patients was 0.31mSv in rang between (0.49- 0.11) mSv. The DRL was 1120 mGy.cm, a value which is higher than the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography. The study has shown a great need for referring criteria, continuous training of staff in radiation dose optimization concepts. Further studies are required in order to establish a reference level in Sudan.

[Tamboul J, Yousef M, SulimanS, Sulieman A. Measurement of adult and pediatric Patient doses during head CT scan. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):19-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.05

 

Keywords: Measurement, adult, pediatric, doses, head CT scan

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Evaluation of DNA damage in beta thalassemic patients undergoing therapy with iron chelators

 

Farida El-Rashidy1, Fathia El-Nemr1, Sobhy Hasab-Elnaby2, Mohsen Deeb1 and Doaa Elian1

 

Pediatric Department1, Faculty of Medicine1, and Zoology Department2, Faculty of Science2, Menoufiya University1, 2.

fmnemr545@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: -thalassemia is a severe transfusion dependent form of thalassemias, which leads to iron overload.  In addition to the organ damage, excess iron can also lead to DNA damage. For these patients, the use of chelating agents, may protect not only against iron-induced organ damage but also against the excessive iron catalyzed, oxidative DNA damage. Aim of the work: to evaluate the DNA damage in -thalassemic patients undergoing therapy with iron chelators. Subjects and Methods: the study included 90 subjects divided into four groups: Group I: 20 β-thalassemic patients with ferritin level<1000 μg /dl and did not start therapy with iron chelators. Group II: 30 β-thalassemic patients with high iron overload (serum ferritin level>1000 μg /dl), they were investigated in two stages: Stage IIa: before regular iron chelation with subcutaneous desferroxamine (DFO).  Stage IIb: after complete six months duration of regular chelation with DFO.  Group III: 20 β-thalassemic patients with high iron overload (serum ferritin level>1000 μg /dl), they were investigated in two stages: Stage IIIa: before regular chelation with oral deferiprone. Stage IIIb: after complete six months duration of regular iron chelation with deferiprone.  Group IV: 20 apparently healthy children of matched age and sex, served as control group. Patients of all groups were subjected to an estimation of DNA damage by: DNA fragmentation assay,  electrophoretic  pattern of nucleic acid, and Pro gel analysis technique. Results: -thalassemic patients (with or without high iron overload) were suffering of double strand breaks of DNA of their peripheral leukocytes as compared to controls.  Non significant decrease in the frequency of the total genomic damage (TGD) of DNA in -thalassemic patients with high iron overload, after six months duration of regular chelation by DFO as compared to the existing damage before regular chelation. While a significant decrease in the frequency of TGD-DNA, after the same duration of regular chelation by deferiprone, compared to the existing damage before regular chelation. There was no significant  correlation between serum ferritin level and TGD-DNA in all -thalassemic patients and controls. Conclusion: A significant DNA damage present in patients of - thalassemia disease. Therapy with DFO as well as deferiprone is not associated with increased frequencies of DNA damage, moreover, they improved this damage, and this improvement was better with deferiprone.

[Farida El-Rashidy, Fathia  El-Nemr, Sobhy Hasab-Elnaby, Mohsen Deeb and Doaa Elian. Evaluation of DNA damage in beta thalassemic patients undergoing therapy with iron chelators. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):24-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.06

 

Keywords:  thalassemia -Iron  chelators – DFO- Deferiprone – DNA damage.

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Outcomes Of Combined   Phaco -Trabectome Surgery in Patients with Cataract and Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

 

Mahmoud M Saleh, MD, Abdalla M Elamin, MD and Hassan M Bayoumy, MD

 

AL Azhar university hospital - Ophthalmology department.

isia992018@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of phaco- trabectome surgery in patients with cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: A study including 22 patients (22 eyes) with primary chronic open-angle glaucoma, all patients suffering from cataract and medically uncontrolled IOP, progressive visual field loss, extensive glaucomatous damage to the optic disc, and an open chamber angle suitable for goniosurgery. Exclusion criteria were young age (<40 years), chronic angle-closure glaucoma and secondary glaucoma due to inflammation or trauma. Results: Mean preoperative variables were best corrected vision, 0.63 (SD 0.4) (20/100 Snellen); IOP, 19.8 (SD 5.3) mm Hg; and number of glaucoma medications, 1.8 (SD 0.8). Mean postoperative results were best corrected vision, 0.2 (SD 0.4) (20/40 Snellen); IOP, 15.8 (SD 3.4) mm Hg; and number of glaucoma medications, 0.4 (SD 0.7). Postoperatively, the mean decreases from baseline were 19.9% for IOP and 88.1% for number of glaucoma medications; 23% of eyes required fewer glaucoma medications and 77% of eyes were medication free, with IOP control. There were no significant postoperative complications. Intraoperative reflux bleeding occurred in 100% of cases. Complications have been minimal and not vision-threatening. Conclusions: The trabectome facilitates minimally invasive and effective glaucoma surgery, which spares the conjunctiva and does not preclude subsequent standard filtering procedures. Combined phacoemulsification and trabectome is a safe, effective, and stable alternative for patients with cataracts and glaucoma.

[Mahmoud M Saleh, Abdalla M Elamin and Hassan M Bayoumy. Outcomes of Combined   Phaco -Trabectome Surgery in Patients with Cataract and Primary Open-angle Glaucoma. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):34-38]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.07

 

Keyword:  Phaco-trabictome  ,  Phaco- Glaucoma surgery  ,Combined cataract and glaucoma surgery.

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Anti-TPO and Anti-Tg Antibodies in Sudanese Patients with Thyroid Diseases and Association of HLA Class-II with Graves’ disease

 

Abdelgadir A. Elmugadam*1,2,  Elshaikh A. Elobied3, Hatim A. Mustafa3, Ghada A. Elfadil1,2, Ahmed M. Makeen4.

 

1College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science & Technology

2College of Applied Medical Science, Taibah University. KSA

3Biotechnology Laboratory, Ahfad University, Khartoum, Sudan

4Faculty of Medicine, Africa University, Khartoum, Sudan.

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate some immunogenetic aspects of thyroid diseases and the possible association of HLA Class-II loci and their frequencies in Sudanese patients with Graves’ disease. Among the 208 thyroid disease patients, 67 diagnosed as hypothyroidism, 57 hyperthyroidism, 56 goiters, 18 Graves’ disease, and 3 Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All blood specimens from thyroid disease patients (n=208), and control group (n=60) were tested for anti thyroid (anti-TPO, and anti-Tg) antibodies by ELISA, and for TSH, T4, and T3 hormones by immulite autoanalyzer.  HLA-class II, DR and DQ alleles were typed from the DNA samples of forty thyroid disease patients and twenty normal individuals. Analysis of the gel was done by using One Lambda DNA/LMT Software. Analysis of case-control data was performed using the Chi-square test with P< 0.05 considered significant.The result of anti-TPO antibody in serum of thyroid disease patients and control group was positive in 21.2% (44/208) and 5% (3/60) respectively, p. value (0.011). But 66.7% (12/18) of Graves’ disease patients were give positive result of anti-TPO antibody, which is highly significant P value (0.000) when compared to control group. HLA-DRB1*0301 found to be carried by 50% of Graves’ disease patients and by 15% of control group, P.value (0.020) and relative risk (5.7). HLA-DQB1*0201 allele carried by 55.6 % of Sudanese patients with Graves’ disease, and in 20 % of control group, p. value (0.023), relative risk (5.0). In contrast, the allele DQB1*0601 found in 27.8 % of patients with Graves’ disease, and in 60 % of control  group, p. value (0.046). We concluded that  anti-TPO antibody is better than anti-Tg antibody as an indicator of Graves' disease. HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DQB1*0201 considered to be a risk candidates for developing Graves’ disease, while DQB1*0601 is a protective allele in Sudanese individuals.

[Abdelgadir A. Elmugadam, Elshaikh A. Elobied, Hatim A. Mustafa, Ghada A. Elfadil, Ahmed M. Makeen. Anti-TPO and Anti-Tg Antibodies in Sudanese Patients with Thyroid Diseases and Association of HLA Class-II with Graves’ disease. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):39-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.08

 

Key words:  Anti- TPO, Anti-Tg, Graves’ disease, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ.

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Benefits of Integrating Green Buildings Smart Systems for Energy Saving to Satisfy Successful Investment

 

Hani N. El-Deep1, Eid A. Gouda2, Magdi M. El-Saadawi3

 

1Elctro-mechanical designer at Msc consultant office, Mecca, KSA

mohandes22212@yahoo.com

2Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

Eid.gouda@yahoo.fr

3Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

saadawi1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the most important challenges facing the scientists today is to design and create a green building design that can not only minimize the impact on the environment, but also remain practical, economical and comfortable for use. This paper introduces the results of the Albogary Plaza Mall project for saving energy by applying smart systems to access energy saving with economical benefits through investment period. The main object of the project is to achieve the most economic way for energy saving while satisfying all the mall requirements. Different techniques are used to fulfill that object. These techniques include applying smart systems, and solar energy, and saving in water resources. The project applies a good combination and harmony between different solutions to satisfy the highest rate of energy saving in a most economic way. The project results in saving 17.4% of energy with minimum additional cost. The mall can payback this cost in approximately 5 years through saving in energy and water consumptions.

[El-Deep HN, Gouda EA, El-Saadawi MM. Benefits of Integrating Green Buildings Smart Systems for Energy Saving to Satisfy Successful Investment. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):43-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.09

 

Key words: Smart systems, Energy saving techniques, Green buildings, Albogary Plaza model.

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The efficacy of peri-incisional local xylocaine injection on postoperative pain after caesarean section: Arandomized controlled trial

 

Amr A. Aziz khalifa, Alaa Eldin H. ELfeky and Ahmed T. Ali

 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

dr_amraziz@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of local anaesthetic infiltration (xylocaine) on the postoperative pain after caesarean section. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized control trial was designed to assess the analgesic efficacy of 20 ml 1% xylocaine solution infiltration in the rectus sheath space and surgical wound compared to control group, in two groups of 75 women for each group. All included women underwent caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia: group I (control group) and group II (xylocaine group) . Postoperative pain scores using the visual analogue scale and the total amounts of pethidine used were assessed at 30 minutes, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours postcaesarean section. Results: Xylocaine infiltration in the rectus sheath space and the subcutaneous tissue for caesarean delivery before wound closure leads to a reduction in the overall consumption of analgesics (70.4430.44 mg pethidine for group II versus 120.54425.44 mg for group I with P < .05), especially in the first 24 hrs, and also significantly increases the time interval until the first request for an analgesic (5.1140.457 hours in group I versus 8.112 0.348 hours in group II). There was significant difference in the visual analogue scale in the two groups. It was lower in group II than group I in all time intervals. Conclusions: The local anaesthetic infiltration of xylocaine appears to be effective in reducing postoperative pain and pethidine use after caesarean delivery.

[Amr A. Aziz khalifa, Alaa Eldin H. ELfeky, Ahmed T. Ali. The efficacy of peri-incisional local xylocaine injection on postoperative pain after caesarean section:Arandomized controlled trial. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):49-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.10

  

Keywords: Caesarean section, Postoperative pain control, Local anesthetics.

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Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficiency of Camel Milk on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

 

1Manal M. E. M. Shehata and 2Eman A. Moussa

 

1Department of Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kafr El-Sheikh University, Egypt

Shehata_manal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in which the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is improperly regulated by insulin. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of camel milk with different treatment. Diabetes and hyperlipidemia was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mg/ kg body weight). Seventy two male albino rats were divided into nine groups of eight rats each and treated as following: G1 was fed on normal basal diet (negative control), G2 diabetic rats (positive control),G3 diabetic + raw camel milk, G4 diabetic + pasteurized camel milk, G5 diabetic + boiled camel milk, G6 diabetic + camel milk stored in the refrigerator at 4C for two days, G7 diabetic + camel milk stored in the refrigerator at 4C for four days, G8 diabetic + camel milk stored in a freezer at -20 C for one day and G9 diabetic + reconstituted freeze dried camel milk. After eight weeks of feeding, results showed significant decrease P < 0.05 in levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, and significant increase P < 0.05 in insulin as compared with diabetic rats. Data revealed significantly decrease P < 0.05 of TC, TG, LDL and VLDL as compared with diabetic rats. However, HDL-C was significantly increase P < 0.05 as compared with diabetic rats. ALT and AST in treated rats were decreased significantly P < 0.05, in contrast the reduced glutathione was increased significantly P < 0.05 as compared to the diabetic group. Urea and creatinine in treated rats were decreased significantly P < 0.05 as compared to the diabetic group. Regarding liver tissue extract, the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly for treated rats with raw camel milk and camel milk stored in the refrigerator at 4C for two days as compared to the diabetic group. Data also indicated that, therapeutic efficiency of camel milk was lost after heating camel at 100C (boiled camel milk). Raw camel milk showed the significant highest efficiency in all parameters. These findings indicate that camel milk have a potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes and play a role in its management as well as reduces the risk of diabetic complications.

[Manal M. E. M. Shehata and Eman A. Moussa. Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficiency of Camel Milk on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):53-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.11

 

Keywords: Camel milk, Alloxan, hypoglycemia, Diabetic, Hypolipidemic, insulin

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Benefits from organic sources by peanut/sorghum under intercropping system using 15N technique

 

Ahmed.A. Moursy*, Hussein A. Abdel Aziz, Mazen M. Ismail and Ezat A. Kotb

 

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Soil & Water Research Department, Abou-Zaabl, 13759, Egypt.

ahmad1a2m3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main point of this study is the interactions of organic sources combination with mineral nitrogen supply levels and effects intercropping productivity. A field experiment was conducted in Nuclear Research Center to study intercropping of Groundnuts/ Sorghum with N application at the rate of 100 kg/ N fed-1 as organic materials or mineral fertilizer (Ammonium sulphate) of sole wheat crop and 50 kg/ N fed-1 as organic manure or mineral fertilizer of intercropping system, 15N-Labeled Ammonium sulphate with 2% 15N atom excess. The application of intercropping system induced an increase of Sorghum grain yield against the sole system. regardless the cultivation system, the over all means of fertilizer rates indicated (50% MF + 50% OM) treatment was superiority 100% OM) and (75% MF+ 25% OM) or those recorded with either un fertilizer when Sorghum grain yield considered. Comparison heed between organic sources reflected the superiority of compost under sole cultivation, while Groundnuts shoots was the best under intercropping. Data demonstrate compost and wheat straw was significantly and positively of 15nitrogen transfer from the groundnuts to grain sorghum plants compared maize stalk and caw manure, data recorded 15nitrogen transfer was 24.25,22.57,22.34,16.80, and 12.29 kg N fed -1.Under combined organic amendment with mineral fertilizer, data showed that the rate of 50%MF+50%OM and 75%MF+25%OM on positively increase than 100%MF of15nitrogen transfer from the groundnuts to shoots sorghum, accounted for 23.63,19.93,15.39 kg N fed -1 respectively. Also rate of 50%MF+50%OM and 100%MF in compost was increased of 15nitrogen transfer from the groundnuts to grain sorghum plants compared caw manure data recorded was 24.69, and 23.30 kg N fed -1.

[Ahmed A. Moursy, Hussein A. Abdel Aziz, Mazen. M. Ismail and Ezat A. Kotb. Benefits from organic sources by peanut/sorghum under intercropping system using 15N technique. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):61-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.12

 

Key words: Intercropping / Organic Sources / 15N-transfer / Sorghum-Groundnuts

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Chronic Renal Failure andAluminum Toxicity on Dentin in Albino Rats

 

Azza El-Badry, Amel Radwan El-Hak and Nancy M. S. Abd el-Hay

 

Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt

 

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to examine the manifestations of uremia and aluminum loading on dentin structure and to determine whether characteristic changes, analogous to those seen in bone, occurs in the dentin of teeth in patients suffering from chronic renal failure (CRF) and may therefore be useful to the clinician in diagnosing renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Thirty albino rats with average 200g were randomized into 3 groups; control, study group I and II. CRF was induced in the study groups I&II by intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 5mg/kg (BW) initially and then with two maintenance doses of 2.5 mg/kg BW every two weeks over a period of one month. Aluminum sulphate was given to the study group II by intraperitoneal injection 1 mg/200 g (BW) for 2 weeks, 3 times per week. After 2 months, all animals were sacrificed at the same time and the mandibles were isolated. Each mandible prepared for histological examination and atomic absorption spectrophotometric analyses. Strong evidence to support that uremia and aluminum deposition in rat's results in dentin changes reminiscent of those noted in bone was observed.

[Azza El-Badry, Amel Radwan El-Hak and Nancy M. S. Abd el-Hay. Chronic Renal Failure and Aluminum Toxicity on Dentin in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):73-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.13

 

Keywords: Dentin, Bone, Chronic renal failure, aluminum toxicity, histological investigations.

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Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Algorithm for Lung Nodule Characterization and Classification in Chest Radiographs using Multiscale Wavelet Transform

 

Amal M. Al Gindi 1,* , Essam A. Rashed 1, Moustafa M. Sami 2

 

1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt

2 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt  algindi_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Lung cancer is of one of the diseases that lead to high mortality rate globally. It is a leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. So, the requirement of techniques to detect the occurrence of cancer nodule in early stage is increasing. This work presents a multiscale wavelet transform for comparing the use of four different wavelet families, that are Daubechies, Haar, Biorthogonal and Reverse Biorthogonal Spline wavelets with a total of  twenty three wavelets applied separately,  for the process of  characterization of malignant and benign lung nodules. This is done using three different Regions of Interest (ROI’s) sizes to separate the nodules to avoid the difficulties and traditionality of segmentation methods used by researchers to separate very small objects from background. A set of real labeled database images is used to evaluate the proposed system. Results showed that the system is certainly competitive to those described by other known conventional CAD nodule detection systems especially in the area of classification into benign and malignant tumors till present.

[Amal M. Al Gindi, Essam A. Rashed and Moustafa M. Sami. Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Aided Diagnostic Algorithm for Lung Nodule Characterization and Classification in Chest Radiographs using Multiscale Wavelet Transform. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):83-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.

14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.14

 

Keywords: x-ray images, Biorthogonal and Reverse biorthogonal spline wavelets, feature extraction, Lung cancer diagnosis.

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Endocrine Effects Followed Chronic Use of Morphine in Long–Term Treatment Model

 

GhadaTabl1 and Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy2

 

1Zoology Department –Faculty of Science, Tanta University

2Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

ghada_tabl@yahoo.com, elwyabdelhamid@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Addiction is a major problem which increasingly developed among the various populations throughout the world, and there are evidences that addiction may affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexual functions. Opioids are the most potent and effective analgesics available and have become accepted as appropriate treatment for acute, cancer and non-cancer chronic pain. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to recognize and manage their endocrine complications. Methods: Forty adult male albino rats of similar weight and age were divided into control groups (8 rats) and experimental groups (32 rats) that were used to evaluate the repeated increasing cumulative dose effect. They were injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) with a single daily dose of 4mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, eight rats were sacrificed and the remaining 24 rats were injected (i.p.) with a single daily dose of 8 mg/kg body weight for another 7 consecutive days. On day 14, eight rats were sacrificed and the remaining 8 rats were injected i.p. with a single daily dose of 12 mg/kg body weight for another 7 consecutive days.  At the end of this experimental period the last 8 rats were sacrificed .The remaining eight rats carried out to examine the delay effect of the tested dose (withdrawal effect). These rats were kept with no drug treatment over a withdrawal time of 21- days after last given dose. At the end of each experimental period, rats were sacrificed quickly with the least disturbance by fast decapitation. Results: There was significant decrease in the levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone among all morphine treated rats with elevation in serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4). Moreover, morphine significantly elevated prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) in male rats. Twenty-one days recovery period after last injection, morphine withdrawal groups remained significantly different compared to control values except testosterone. Conclusion: The present finding pointed out to the risk of thyroid and sexual dysfunction. Morphine toxic effects should be kept in mind during long-term therapy especially in large doses. These findings suggest that, further investigations are required to determine the need for systematic substitutive therapy in chronic use of opioids in long-term treatment of chronic pain.

[Ghada Tabl and Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy. Endocrine Effects Followed Chronic Use of Morphine in Long–Term Treatment Model. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):93-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.15

 

Keywords: Morphine-Addiction- Body weight-Pituitary-thyroid and gonadal axes-rat model.

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Effect of Using Different Types of Yeasts on the Quality of Egyptian Balady Bread

 

Yousif, M.R.G1 and Safaa, M. Faid2

 

1Bread and Pasta Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

2Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Moham_rashad@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Balady bread dough is usually fermented with baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) but in the present study soltani starter and sourdough which obtained by using the mixed culture of S. cerevisiae, Lb. plantarum and B. longum in combination form were used to determine their effect on balady bread quality. Microbiological contents (lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria count and yeasts), acidification characteristics (pH and total titratable acidity), and fermentative end-products (Organic acids and folic acid) contents and the degradation of phytic acid were evaluated during both soltani starter and sourdough corresponding bread dough fermentation. The lowest pH and highest acidity and organic acid content were recorded when sourdough was used in dough fermentation. The leavening ability of yeast was enhanced when used sourdough in fermentation. LAB used in sourdough balady bread increased shelf life and delayed staling. This point was considered very important because of the major economic losses that stale bakery products may entail. In sensory analyses, the soltani starter and sourdough application were preferred well by the panel.

[Yousif, M.R.G and Safaa, M. Faid. Effect of Using Different Types of Yeasts on the Quality of Egyptian Balady Bread. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):100-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16 . doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.16

 

 

Key words: Egyptian balady bread - Baker’s yeast - Soltani starter - Sourdough -  Organic acid - Folic acid - Phytic acid - Staling - Sensory evaluation.

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Parametric Study and Design of Steel Portal Frames according to Egyptian Standards based on Genetic Algorithms

 

Mohamed Safwat Mostafa1, Mostafa Zaki Abdelrehim2, Mohamed Aly Hassan2 and Fayek Abdelkader Hassona2

 

1 Demonstrator, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Egypt

2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Egypt

mhmd_sfwt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm-based parametric study is carried out to present a robust design optimization approach for steel portal frames according to Egyptian standards. The privilege of such an approach is that it can help structural engineers obtain optimal topology and sizing of a steel portal frame without referring to traditional experience-based procedures. The main parameters assessed in this study are frame’s span, column’s height, spacing of frames, roof slope and imposed loads. A new software tool, which combines Finite Elements and Genetic Algorithms, is utilized in this study to produce design tables and charts for a typical single bay pitched-roof steel portal frame subjected to a general case of loading defined by the Egyptian Code of Practice. Hot rolled standard steel sections are adopted for frame’s columns and rafters while frame’s rafters are assumed to be provided with built-up haunches at eaves and apex. Reliability of the present approach is investigated by comparing the obtained designs against their counterparts of traditional procedures as well as other optimization methods. The results indicate achieving considerable savings in steel hardware. Furthermore, the contribution of rafters’ haunched parts in maximizing frame’s structural efficiency is studied. The developed design aids can put structural optimization results into common practice.

[Mohamed Safwat Mostafa, Mostafa Zaki Abdelrehim, Mohamed Aly Hassan and Fayek Abdelkader Hassona. Parametric Study and Design of Steel Portal Frames according to Egyptian Standards based on Genetic Algorithms. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):110-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.17

 

Keywords: Parametric Design, Steel Portal Frames, Egyptian Standards, Genetic Algorithms.

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A comparison of Nuclear Medicine Radiographer and Nuclear Medicine Physician Report on 99mTc Pertechnetate Thyroid Scan: An Experience from Sudan

 

Suliman Salih1,2

 

1 Faculty of Applied Science, Taibah University. P.O. Box 30001, Al-madinah Al-munawarah, KSA

2 National Cancer Institute - University of Gezira, Sudan

Salim_suliman@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The growth in radiographer reporting practice over the past four decades has been necessary to deliver effective clinical imaging services, particularly in developing countries, where there was shortage in health care personnel. The objective of this study is to assess the nuclear medicine radiographer reporting on 99mTc pertecnetate thyroid scan compared to nuclear medicine physician as gold standard. The study involved statistical assessment of nuclear medicine radiographer of report of 100 99mTc thyroid 96 females and 4 males their age ranged between 20-80 years in the department of Nuclear Medicine at National Cancer Institute, University of Gezira, Sudan, thyroid scans were assessed by the NM radiographer and then compared with the gold standard nuclear medicine physician report. This study revealed that 96% of NM radiographer report totally agrees with gold standard, 2% partially agreed with and 2 % not agree with the golden standard. This study concluded that nuclear medicine radiographer reporting on thyroid scan is accurate compared with nuclear medicine physician.

[Suliman Salih. A comparison of Nuclear Medicine Radiographer and Nuclear Medicine Physician Report on 99mTc Pertechnetate Thyroid Scan: An Experience from Sudan. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):121-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.18

 

Keywords: Nuclear medicine radiographer, Image reporting, thyroid scan.

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Burn-up credit in criticality safety of PWR spent fuel

 

Rowayda F. Mahmoud1, Mohamed K.Shaat2, M. E. Nagy3, S. A. Agamy3 and Adel A. Abdelrahman1

 

1Metallurgy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.

2Reactors Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority.

3Professor of Nuclear Engineering, Nuclear and Radiation Department, Alexandria University.

elthakeel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The criticality safety calculations were performed for a proposed design of a wet spent fuel storage pool. This pool will be used for the storage of spent fuel discharged from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The mathematical model based on the international validated Codes, WIMS-5 and MCNP-5 were used for calculating the effective multiplication factor, keff, for the spent fuel stored in the pool. The data library for the multi-group neutron microscopic cross sections was used for the cell calculations. The keff were calculated for several changes in water density, water level, assembly pitch and burn-up with different initial fuel enrichment and new types and amounts of fixed absorbers. Also, keff was calculated for the conservative fresh fuel case. The results of the calculations confirmed that the effective multiplication factor for the spent fuel storage is sub-critical for all normal and abnormal states. The future strategy for the burn-up credit recommends increasing the fuel burn-up to a value greater than 60.0 GWD/MTU, which requires new fuel composition and new fuel cladding material with the assessment of the effects of negative reactivity build up.

[Rowayda F. Mahmoud, Mohamed K. Shaat, M. E. Nagy, S. A. Agamy and Adel A. Abdelrahman. Burn-up credit in criticality safety of PWR spent fuel. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):125-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.19

 

Keyword: Burn-up, credit in, criticality, PWR, spent fuel.

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LABVIEW Real Time Control for Pneumatic Transfer System in TRIGA Research Reactor

 

Adel A.M. Abdelrahman

 

Metallurgy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

elthakeel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: K5088 board USB interface has been programmed using LABVIEW software to real time control the sample exchanger in Pneumatic transfer System PTS, for TRIGA nuclear research reactor with very short time response to facilitate the exchange of samples in pneumatic system optimizing the delay time. This is a replacement of the well-known PLC (programmable Logic Controller), to be compatible with the recent development of personal computers, USB hardware and, recent windows software. Development of control system with the reliability and robustness is a basic requirement of nuclear instrumentation and control in nuclear systems.

[Adel A.M. Abdelrahman. LABVIEW Real Time Control for Pneumatic Transfer System in TRIGA Research Reactor. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):132-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.20

 

Key Words:  LABVIEW / Real time control /sample exchanger/ Pneumatic System.

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Demography and seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in blood donors in Mashhad in 2009

 

Hamidreza Safabakhsh1, Gharib Karimi2, Farahnaz Tehranian1, Behnaz Tehranian1

 

1. Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Mashhad, Iran

2. Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Iran

G.karimi@IBTO.IR

 

Abstract: Cytomegalovirus is a member of the human herpesvirus family. CMV is a common virus that infects most of people at some time during their lives. CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but in immunocompromised patients is associated with serious morbidity and mortality. CMV is transmissible through transfusion of blood components. In this study serprevalence of CMV infection and the correlation with demographic variables were examined in blood donors in Mashhad. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, demographic characteristics of 1008 donors were imported in the questionnaire. Simultaneous to the routine screening tests, the donated bloods in this study were tested in terms of anti-CMV antibodies using the ELISA method. The results were analyzed by using SPSS -17 software. Anti-CMV IgG positivity was not associated with age.  99.2% of the subjects had a history of infection and past exposure to the virus. IgM seroprevalence in women was significantly higher in men (P<0.001). There was no association between IgG and IgM positivity and age of donors. The overall seroprevalence of CMV infection was 99.2%. Although it is thus unnecessary to test blood donors routinely for CMV, immunodepressed and other risk subjects should receive CMV-negative or leukocyte-depleted blood.

[Safabakhsh H, Karimi G, Tehranian F, Tehranian B. Demography and seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in blood donors in Mashhad in 2009. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):139-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  21. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.21

 

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Blood donors, Prevalence, Mashhad, Iran

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Knowledge-Based Marketing for Social Innovation in Post-Revolution Egyptian Higher Education Marketing Environment – Founding Cairo University Social Innovation Center (CUSIC)

 

Wael Kortam and Ghada Gad

 

Department Of Business Administration, Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

wakortam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how knowledge based marketing as a conceptual framework to achieve social innovation at Egyptian universities. The paper proposed founding a social innovation center that will seek to integrated multidisciplinary research, integral education and innovative community service. Research propositions argue how can the principles and tools of knowledge-based marketing can be used to create knowledge through research on burring social issues and use education to develop innovators through the acquisitions of this knowledge and apply this knowledge creatively to address this burning issues.

[Wael Kortam and Ghada Gad. Knowledge-Based Marketing For Social Innovation In Post-Revolution Egyptian Higher Education Marketing Environment – Founding Cairo University Social Innovation Center (CUSIC). J Am Sci 2014;10(2):143-147]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.22

 

Keywords: Knowledge-Based Marketing, Social innovation, Egyptian universities.

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Effect of an Educational Module on Nursing Student’s Performance in Caring for Hepatitis C Virus Patient

 

Hanan Sobeih Sobeih1, Amal Talaat Abd Elwahed2, Randa Mohamed Adly3

 

1Medical Surgical Department, 2Maternal Neonatal Heath Department, 3Pediatric Department

Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

Amalsharkawy8000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The benefits use of an educational module (EdM) improves the students' chances and opportunities to master a subject. Aim: To evaluate the effect of an educational module on nursing student’s performance in caring for hepatitis C virus patient. Hypothesis: The level of nursing student’s knowledge, practice, and attitude about hepatitis C virus will be higher than pre- implementation of EdM. Design: A quasi experimental design was used to conduct this study. Setting: The study was carried out in the Faculty of Nursing affiliated to Ain Shams University. A purposive sample including the nursing students of both sexes (400). Tools: 1- Student’s characteristics sheet.2- Student’s knowledge questionnaire to assess the level of student’s knowledge pre/post EdM and follow-up period. 3- Likert scale to assess level of student’s attitude pre/post EdM. 4- Observation checklist to assess the level of student’s practice pre/post and during follow-up period of EdM5- Student’s opinionair to assess student’s opinion towards the EdM. Results: There were highly statistically significant differences between nursing students’ level of knowledge and practice pre/post EdM and during follow -up period. There were also highly statistically significant differences between total score of students’ knowledge, practice and their working in hospital or no pre/ during follow-up and students attitude pre/post EdM. High percentages were found at the end of follow-up period of in relation to students’ opinions as regards EdM. Conclusion: The level of nursing students’ knowledge about hepatitis C virus and their practice as regards safety of drug injection for patient with HCV increased significantly after implementation of the educational module. As well, nursing students’ attitude towards patient with hepatitis C virus improved positively. Recommendations:Encouraging nursing faculties to design learning modules to a variety of curricula topics according to students needs and teaching strategies. Further studies are recommended for applying the educational module for student curricula and as a part of students’ activities theory and practice.

[Hanan Sobeih Sobeih, Amal Talaat Abd Elwahed and Randa Mohamed Adly. Effect of an Educational Module on Nursing Student’s Performance in Caring for Hepatitis C Virus Patient. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):148-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.23

 

Keywords:Educational Module- Students’ Performance-Hepatitis c Virus.

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Malaria vector bionomics in Abagana community of Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria

 

Onyido, A.E., Ugha, C.N., Eneanya, O.A., Umeanaeto, P.U., Egbuche, C.M, Obiechina, I.O., Ezugbo-Nwobi, I.K and Nwangwu, U.C.

 

Department of Parasitology and Entomology Nnamdi Azikiwe University P.M.B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria

chibuzorugha@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A study on malaria vector bionomics was carried out in Abagana community, Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria, between April and August 2012. Mosquito larvae breeding sites were determined using simple larval collection methods of ladle, sieves and bowl. Man biting adult mosquitoes were collected using pyrethrum knockdown method. A total of 177 mosquito larvae were collected from 49 sampling sites made up of ground pools 17(9.60%), used vehicle tyres 19(10.73%) and domestic containers 13(7.34%). Of the 177 larvae collected, 64(36.16%) were collected from ground pools, 73(41.24%) were collected from used vehicle tyres, and 40(22.59%) from domestic containers. A. gambiae larvae were collected from ground pools 67(32.85%) and domestic containers 4(2.26%). A total of 152 indoor resting and biting adult mosquitoes were collected and A. gambiae were 95(62.5%) with a room density of 5.3 mosquitoes per man per night. A. gambiae was observed to be breeding and biting in all the villages of the community were at risk of acquiring malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. Self protection by the individuals and general provision of mosquito control strategies in the community were suggested.

[Onyido, A.E., Ugha, C.N., Eneanya, O.A., Umeanaeto, P.U., Egbuche, C.M, Obiechina, I.O., Ezugbo-Nwobi, I.K and Nwangwu, U.C. Malaria vector bionomics in Abagana community of Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):157-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.24

 

Keywords –A. gambiae, bionomics, ladle, pyrethrum, room density.

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Protective effect of Green tea on Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) toxicity in the pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland of rat

 

Hekmat O. Abdel Aziz and Eman k. Ahmed

 

Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

Hekmatosman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate. DEHP is known to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. It is one of a commonly used phthalate. Green tea has been used as antioxidants to antagonize the deleterious action of free radicals and to protect body from damage. Numerous reports suggested that green tea has antioxidant effects. Aim of the work: This work was carried to evaluate the possible protective role of green tea on DEHP induced toxic effects of male albino rat. Materials & Methods: 45 adult male rats were used for this study and were divided into three groups (15 animals each): The first group (Group I) served as control group. The second group (Group II) DEHP treated group which received 2.85 mg/kg body weight of DEHP orally once daily for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The third group (group III): that received DEHP in the same previous dose and Green tea extract was administered orally in a dose of 300 mg/kg b.w once daily by gastric intubation for 12 weeks. The pituitary gland was dissected out and processed for examination by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: in DEHP treated rats, most cells of the pars distalis, particularly somatotrophs and gonadotrophs showed many histological changes. Somatotrophs, exhibited heterochromatic nuclei with chromatin margination, dilated rER cisternae, swollen mitochondria and vacuolated cytoplasm. The gonadotrophs showed dilated rER with small amount of secretory granules and swollen mitochondria. Binucleated gonadotrophs were observed. These cellular changes were found to be ameliorated completely in somatotrophs and partially in gonadotrophs by green tea. Conclusions: From the present study it could be concluded that exposure to DEHP induced a toxic effect on the pars distalis and concomitant administration of green tea decreased the toxicity of DEHP.

[Hekmat Osman Abdel Aziz and Eman khalifa Ahmed. Protective effect of Green tea on Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) toxicity in the pars distalis of the anterior pituitary gland of rat. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):163-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.25

 

Key words: DEHP, green tea, pars distalis, pituitary.

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Stimulation of Androgenesis in Cabbage (Brassica olecracea var Capitata) Anthers cultivated in Vitro by Growth Regulators and Medium Sucrose Concentration.

 

Magdi Ali Ahmed Mousa1, 2*, Ahmed Abdullah Said Bakhashwain1 and Mohamed Abdul Raheem. Shaheen

 

1Department of Arid Land Agriculture, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2 Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt

m_a_ahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Induced androgenesis of cabbage anthers using BAP in combination with NAA and 2,4- D, and different sucrose concentrations were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 2013 at the lab of plant tissue culture, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdullaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Anthers at the stage of microsporogenesis of the first formed flower buds and the MS Basel media supplemented with AC (0.5gL-1) were used. The culture medium was supplemented with BAP in combination with NAA and 2,4- D and different sucrose concentrations. The culture medium MS-7 (1mgl-1 BAP + 0.5mgl-1 2, 4- D) enhanced 90% of the cultured anthers to form embryos followed by MS-8 (1mg.l-1   BAP + 1mgl-1 2,4- D) with 89.67%. The MS supplemented with 5mgl-1 BAP + 1mgl-1 NAA (MS-2) prevented the development of cabbage anthers. The formed embryos were stimulated to develop callus and plantlets on the medium supplemented with lower concentration of BAP and 2,4- D (MS-7 and MS-8). The MS-7 medium improved 49.60% of the formed embryos to develop callus and 27.60% to plantlets. Percentage of embryos that formed callus on MS-8 medium was 51.82% of which 19.87% developed plantlets. Higher concentration of BAP in the culture medium decreased percentage of embryos producing plantlets.   Higher percentage (89 and 90%) of anthers induced embryos and embryos formed plantlets (34.31 and 26.67%) were stimulated on MS medium with lower sucrose concentration (20gl-1 and 30 gl-1). Increasing sucrose concentration to 50gl-1 in the culture media enhanced embryos to develop callus and reduced the percentage of embryos developing into plantlets.

[Magdi Ali Ahmed Mousa, Ahmed Abduallah Said Bakhashwain and Mohamed Abdul Raheem Shaheen. Stimulation of Androgenesis in Cabbage (Brassica olecracea var Capitata) Anthers cultivated in Vitro by Growth Regulators and Medium Sucrose Concentration. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):174-180]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.26

 

Key words: BAP, NAA, 2,4- D, sucrose, androgenesis, cabbage, anther culture

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A Model for the Study of Induced Skeletal Anomalies in Albino Rat Fetuses

 

Metwally A. Mansoor, Amal S.Sewelam, Maha M. Abdul Rahman and Mohamad A. Sabry

 

Department of Anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

abou_mo3az@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Objective: This work aims at studying the phenytoin-induced skeletal anomalies in albino rat fetuses, using double stain for fetal rat skeleton with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to be considered as a model for the study of induced skeletal anomalies. The study was done by a stereomicroscope. Design: In the present study stereomicroscope was used to study the double stained skeleton for rat albino rat fetuses in control and phenytoin-treated groups. Material and Methods: Forteen adult albino female rats weighing about 170–250 g were used in this study. Three female rats were mated with one male overnight. The female rats were examined for sperms in the vaginal smear next morning, and sperm positive ones were considered as 0.5 day pregnant. The pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups :(control and treated). In group-1 (control group), the rats were injected with an intraperitoneal (IP) dose of 0.3 ml physiological serum at 09:00 a.m. on the 8th, 9 th, and 10 th days of pregnancy. In group-2 (treated group), the rats were received an intraperitoneal (IP) dose of 25 mg/kg/day phenytoin diluted with physiological serum at 09:00 a.m. on the 8 th, 9 th, and 10 th days of the pregnancy. On the 20 th day of pregnancy, all rats were anaesthetize d by ether inhalation and the fetuses were removed by transversal abdominal incision then dissected carefully. All the fetuses had been weighed using a scale and the crown-rump lengths were measured by a ruler. The fetuses were sacrificed with ether and examined for any gross external malformation. A number of 84 fetuses (44 from the group-1 and 40 from the group-2) were taken for the staining process, using Alizarin red S and Alcian blue stains. Results: Out of the 40 fetuses of phenytoin-treated group, no ossification signs appeared in some skull bones. Also, ossification was fine in other bones. Costal separation and costal angulation anomalies were observed in some fetuses of the treated group. No ossification was determined in the radius and the ulna of five fetuses. As for the metacarpal bones, no ossification was present in some of the metacarpal bones of four fetuses. Deficiency was also seen in the cartilage drafts of the metacarpal bones and phalanges in four fetuses. No ossification was determined in the coxal bones of four fetuses of this group. Tibia and fibula in 6 fetuses were completely cartilaginous in nature. No ossification was observed in the metatarsal bone drafts of one fetus. None of the phalanges of the foot of this fetus was ossified. Deficiency was also seen in the cartilage drafts of the phalanges. The mean value of the weights and lengths of the treated fetuses showed a highly significant difference as compared to control fetuses. Conclusion: Based on this study it can be concluded that phenytoin is a teratogenic substance, even with the lower doses, on the bone development of rats.

[Metwally A. Mansoor, Aml S. Swilam, Maha M. Abdul Rahman and Mohamad A. Sabry. A Model for the Study of Induced Skeletal Anomalies in Albino Rat Fetuses. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):181-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.27

 

Key words: Teratogenicity, Phenytoin, Induced, Skeletal anomalies, Rat.

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Jordanian Nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward Cancer-related Fatigue as a Barrier of Fatigue Management

 

Maysoon S. Abdalrahim1, Maram S. Herzallah 2, Ruqayya S. Zeilani 3, Fadwa Alhalaiqa 4

 

1.Faculty of Nursing - The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan, Tel: +9626 5355000 Ext: 23109

Email: maysoona@ju.edu.jo

2.Faculty of Nursing - The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan, Email: maram.sadeq@yahoo.com

3.Faculty of Nursing - The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 Jordan, E-mail: r.zeilani@ju.edu.jo

4.Faculty of Nursing - Philadelphia University, Amman 11942 Jordan, E-mail: Fhalaiqa@phialdelphia.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Cancer related fatigue is the most common symptoms reported by patients. The nurses’ lack of knowledge and attitudes considered the most important barrier to its management. Objective: To identify the Jordanian nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and barriers toward Cancer Related Fatigue (CRF). Materials and method: A descriptive cross sectional design was used to collect data from 81 nurses in an oncology specialty hospital in Jordan using Fatigue Knowledge and Attitude Survey guided by the Piper Fatigue Integrated Model and the City of Hope Quality of Life Model. Results: The results identified the nurses' attitudes and beliefs about CRF in terms of: incidence and prevalence, pathophysiology, assessment, management, and patient’s outcomes.  Half of participants recognized low hemoglobin as a cause of fatigue; 68% were able to differentiate between CRF and depression; 60% believed that fatigue is underreported by patients; 58% appreciated fatigue management; and 65% recognized fatigue effects on all aspects of patients’ lives. However, 62% of the participants believed that CRF was not associated with reducing children’ activities. Conclusion: Jordanian nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward cancer related fatigue is not sufficient to improve patient’s quality of care. There is a need to improve nurses’ knowledge to enhance fatigue management, thus, improving patients’ quality of life.

[Maysoon S. Abdalrahim, Maram S. Herzallah, Ruqayya S. Zeilani, Fadwa Alhalaiqa. Jordanian Nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward Cancer-related Fatigue as a Barrier of Fatigue Management. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):191-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.28

 

Key words: Cancer related fatigue; knowledge; attitudes; barriers

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Multislice Ct in the Evaluation of Potential Living Donors for Liver Transplantation

 

Osama Mohamed Ebied (MD)1, Waleed Abd el Fattah Mousa (MD) 1, Mohamed Mohamed Houseni (MD)2 and Dina Metwaly Barseem (M.B. B.Ch.) 2

 

1Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Egypt

2 Radiology & interventional Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Egypt

hamza_said_2000@yahoo.com, d.rezk1980@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to determine the role of Multislice CT as a possible tool in evaluation of potential cases of living liver donors for liver transplantation before surgical interference. Background: Multislice CT provides comprehensive and accurate preoperative examination of potential donors undergoing living liver transplantation. That is because of it provide a good data concerning liver parenchyma, all hepatic vasculature including arterial, venous and portal vessels. It also provide a good information about liver volume including total liver, right lobar and left lobar volume. Patients and Methods: One hundred out of two hundred and ten consecutive potential donors had sufficient data & MSCT films selected from national liver institute. All donors underwent multi-slice CT of the abdomen and Imaging was performed as part of preoperative workup for potential living-donor liver transplantation. Results: Of the 100 patients evaluated by MDCT, about 92 (92%) are accepted. Eight patients (8%) were excluded from surgery because of Parenchymal & anatomical criteria based on CT findings. Diffuse fatty infiltration in two exclusion (2%), Portal vein variants that precluded surgery resulted in one exclusions (1%) and insufficient liver volume resulted in five exclusions (5%). Conclusion: Multislice CT provides important information in evaluation of potential living donors for liver transplantation.

[Osama Mohamed Ebied, Waleed Abd el Fattah Mousa, Mohamed Mohamed Houseni, and Dina Metwaly Barseem. Multislice Ct in the Evaluation of Potential Living Donors for Liver Transplantation. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):198-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.29

 

Keywords: Liver transplantation; Multislice CT; Living donors.

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Effect of Different Timing of PGFInjection after CIDR Removal on Estrus Response and Pregnancy Rate in Nelore Cows

 

Mohamed Ali

 

Department of animal production, Qassim University, College of agriculture and veterinary medicine, Buraidah 6622, Saudi Arabia.

Phone number: 00966592735549email: mohamed0_9@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of estrus synchronization protocol on estrus response, follicular dynamics, corpus luteum function and pregnancy rate in Nelore cattle. Cows were selected and subdivided into four groups, namely the Control and Groups 1, 2 and 3. The Control (n=15 cows) were treated with CIDR inserts for 15 days. Cows in Groups 1 (n=14), 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=16) were treated with CIDR inserts for 15 days and given 500 μg of synthetic prostaglandin F at 9, 14 and 19 days post CIDR removal, respectively. Estrus was observed for all cows and then artificially inseminated. Blood samples were collected twice per week during the research. The proportion of cows observed in estrus was higher in the Control group (80%) than the other groups. The pregnancy rate was higher in G2 (33.3 %) than the other groups. However, the difference was not significant. The interval from treatment to the onset of estrus and ovulation time (h) was highest (P<0.05) in G2 than other groups.  Mean time from standing heat to ovulation (h) was not significant among groups. Normal progesterone profile was evident in G1, whereas the other groups showed delayed progesterone profile throughout the estrous cycle. In conclusion, the results indicated that CIDR inserted for 15 days alone resulted in a higher percentage of cows in estrus, but with lower pregnancy rate. However,  the use of PGF at different times after CIDR removal could improve fertility. In particular, cows in G2, given PGF14 days post CIDR removal had better fertility rates than cows in other groups. This study also indicated that animals treated with PGF at 9 days after CIDR removal could give acceptable estrus response and a single timed insemination would give acceptable pregnancy rates.

[Mohamed Ali. Effect of Different Timing of PGFInjection after CIDR Removal on Estrus Response and Pregnancy Rate in Nelore Cows. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):207-214]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.30

 

Keywords: Estrus response, pregnancy rate, follicular dynamics, corpus luteum (CL), CIDR, PGF2α.

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Numerical Analysis of Ground Improvement by Group of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns

 

Eied M. M., Helmy H. M., El-Kaissouny M. G.

 

Geotechnical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt.

mln2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The stone columns technique are widely used to improve the load settlement characteristics of soft soils either as an infinite pattern under wide spread loading or as a column group beneath shallow foundations. The design is usually based on analytical and semi-empirical procedures. For extreme raft, the analytical analysis is practically impossible due to the boundary modeling and the consumed time. This paper aims to develop 3-D numerical model to represent the soil and the stone column under the foundation. The numerical model is based on finite element (ABACUS- program). Comparative study is performed to determine the suitable analysis to evaluate the behavior of the stone columns group below foundation. The numerical results are calibrated with in situ-measurements.

[Eied M. M., Helmy H. M., El-Kaissouny M. G. Numerical Analysis of Ground Improvement by Group of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):215-223]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.31

 

Key Words: stone column, soft clay, settlement, cam clay model, geosynthetics, geogrid, encased stone column, 3-D Numerical modeling, ABACUS.

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Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and its Relations with the Complications in Type I Diabetic Children

 

Zeinab F. Osheiba1, Ensaf K. Mohammed1, Mervat Abo-Eleneen2, Ahmed Taha,3 and Rasha Al-Sayed3

 

1 Department of Pediatrics, 2Clinical Pathology, Al-Azhar University for Girls and 3Department of Vascular Surgery and Pediatrics, National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology

motargim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is increasingly used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. Its use relies on its ability to predict future clinical cardiovascular endpoint. The aim of this study: was to evaluate the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients with type I diabetes and to investigate its relations with diabetic microvascular complications (nephropathy and retinopathy). Patients and Methods: 50 children and adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus attending regularly the Outpatient Pediatric Clinic of National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology and from Al-Zahraa University Hospital aged from 6 to 18 years with Mean SD (13.4 3.46) years, mean BMI was (19.16 4.06 kg/m2) and mean diabetic duration was (7.36 2.57 years). And another 50 apparently healthy children and adolescents matched for age and sex as control group were included in this study. All patients and control groups were subjected to detailed history taking, throughout clinical examination and measuring of: fasting, postprandial glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile (TC, TG, HDLC and LDLC), kidney functions (urea, cratinine) urinary albumin,creatinine ratio, complete urineanalysis with culture and sensitivity, C-reactive protein, complete blood picture, liver functions (AST, ALT), fundus examination searching for retinopathy and assessment of carotid intima media thickness (CTMT) by high resolution B mode ultrasound for determining the presence of atherosclerosis. Results: Our results revealed significant increase in carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in diabetic patients compared to normal controls (0.54 0.08 mm) vs (0.41 0.04 mm) respectively with p. value (0.0001). CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic patients with HbA1C ≥8% than in diabetic patients with HbA1C < 8% (0.55 0.08 vs 0.40 0.004) with p value (0.012). CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic patients with duration of disease ≥ 8 years than those with duration of disease < 8years. Mean SD was 0.58 0.09 vs 0.53 0.07 mm respectively with p value (0.02). CIMT was significantly higher in patients with nephropathy than patients without nephropathy (0.56 0.09 vs 0.54 0.08 mm). CIMT was significantly higher in diabetic patients with retinopathy than in patients without retinopathy (0.62 0.09 vs 0.52 0.07 mm) respectively; p value (0.0001). A statistically significant higher results were found in CIMT with the multiplicity of diabetic microvascular complications with (p value 0.008). Statistically significant increase in CRP level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins levels and A/C ratio in diabetic patients than control group with p value (0.001), (0.003), (0.0001), (0.0001) and (0.0001) respectively. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between carotid intima-media thickness and HbA1C (p < 0.01), triglycerides (p < 0.05), A/C ratio (p < 0.01), diabetic retinopathy (p < 0.05), duration of diabetes (p < 0.05) and the number of diabetic microvascular complications with p < 0.05. Conclusions: CIMT was positively correlated with diabetic microvascular complications (nephropathy and retinopathy), HBA1C, duration of diabetes, triglycerides and the multiplicity of the microvascular complications so we should consider the importance of these risk factors in development and progression of atherosclerosis.

[Zeinab F. Osheiba, Ensaf K. Mohammed, Mervat Abo-Eleneen, Ahmed Taha, and Rasha Al-Sayed. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and its Relations with the Complications in Type I Diabetic Children. J Am Sci 2014;10(2):224-230]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.32

 

Key words: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, atherosclerosis, Type 1 diabetes, microvascular.

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The Relation between Social Institutions and Professional Compatibility of Social Workers (Case Study)

 

Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy

 

Social Work and Community Development Department, Faculty of Education Al-Azhar University

Alsharifa_Amel@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Compatibility means the ability of the individual to be in harmony with oneself and his social environment in its different aspects, one of those aspects is the professional compatibility. The aim of this research is to focus upon the effect of the field of work on professional compatibility among social workers through their practice in some of the social work fields. The study deals with some of the social work institutions which are the elderly care institutions, special care institutions, industrial field institutions, and medical field institutions. In accordance to the research results, it has been found that the social workers in the elderly care field were professionally compatible, while those in the special categories field care, industrial field care, and medical field care were not professionally compatible. As social work is the work for the social community which includes helping people and trying to solve their problems, therefore professional compatibility is considered to be essential for every worker in the social work field.

[Sherif Yehia Mahmoud Fahmy. The Relation between Social Institutions and Professional Compatibility of Social Workers (Case Study). J Am Sci 2014;10(2):231-240]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.33

 

Keywords: social worker, professional compatibility, social institutions.

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Scrutinizing of Trace Elements and Antioxidant Enzymes Changes in Barki Ewes Fed Salt-Tolerant Plants under South Sinai Conditions 

 

Hanan, Z. Amer1,3; Ibrahim, N. H.1; Donia, G. R.2; Younis, F. E.1 and Shaker, Y. M.1

 

1Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Animal and Poultry Division, Desert Research Center, El-Mataryia St., Egypt

2Animal and Poultry Health Department, Animal and Poultry Division, Desert Research Center, El-Mataryia St., Egypt

3Department of Biology- Faculty of Science- Jazan University- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

nagy_drc7777@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In attempt to monitor the pattern of trace elements and antioxidant changes in ewes as a result of feeding silage of salt tolerant plants during different physiological status under South Sinai conditions. Forty two Barki ewes were randomly divided into two equal groups (21 each). The first group (control, G1) was fed berseen hay while the second group (G2) was fed silage form of salt tolerant plants and concentrates feed mixtures. This experimental was carried out at South Sinai Station (Ras Sudr) belonging to Desert Research Center (DRC), Ministry of Agricultural and Land Reclamation, Egypt. Blood samples were collected from the all animals during dry, gestation (early, mid, late) and early lactation periods. The profiles of trace elements (Cu, Se, Mn and Zn), malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), antioxidant catalase (CAT) enzymes] were analyzed in plasma. On the other hand, antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPX) activities were analyzed in erythrocyte. The obtained results declared that there were significant differences in plasma levels of trace elements (Cu, Mn, Se and Zn) and consequently antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX) between treatment groups. On the other hand, pregnancy and lactation constituted the most oxidative stress facing the animals of the two groups since oxidative stress index (MDA) was increased and TAC was decreased and were significantly different in treatments and physiological status. It could be concluded that feeding silage form of salt tolerant plants was not harmful for desert Barki ewes raised under semi- arid condition of South Sinai. Furthermore, pregnancy and lactation periods constituted oxidative stresses on animals even fed traditional or untraditional (salt tolerant plants) diets. So, it is recommended that supplementing trace elements diet in order to improve antioxidant status (defense system) which consequently enhances growth performance and animal productivity.

[Hanan, Z. Amer; Ibrahim, N. H.; Donia, G. R; Younis, F. E. and Shaker, Y. M. Scrutinizing of Trace Elements and Antioxidant Enzymes Changes in Barki Ewes Fed Salt-Tolerant Plants under South Sinai Conditions. J. Am. Sci., 2014; 10(2):241-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34. doi:10.7537/marsjas100214.34

 

Keywords: Salt tolerant plants, Barki ewes, pregnancy, trace elements, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from January 30, 2014. 
 
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