Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 3, Cumulated No. 73, March 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1003


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Titles / Authors





Ilizarov Bone Transport with Knee Arthrodesis in the Treatment of Giant Cell Tumor of Proximal Tibia


Abdel-Rahman Hafez Khalifa


Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University



Abstract: For almost two decades extremity amputation has not been the only viable option for patients with osteoclastoma in the region of the knee. Remarkable advances in surgical reconstructive technique provide a new option for surgeons who diagnose and treat bone tumors. Ilizarov bone transport has become widely accepted alternative in limb salvage surgery of the extremities. The aim of this study was to present the outcome of the treatment of bone tumors in the knee region by the use of Ilizarov bone transport with knee arthrodesis. In the period from 2001 to 2008 we adopted new clinical practice protocols for management in candidates with osteoclastoma of proximal tibia including: surgical tumor staging, histopathological verification, determinants of anatomical defect, as well as status of soft tissues. The patients were monitored during ≥24 months after the surgery for detecting possible complications. All procedures were performed without complications during and immediately after the surgery. During the follow-up period not less than 24 months we failed to record any significant complications. Ilizarov bone transport with knee arthrodesis is a good treatment option of bone tumors in the knee region.

[Abdel-Rahman Hafez Khalifa. Ilizarov Bone Transport with Knee Arthrodesis in the Treatment of Giant Cell Tumor of Proximal Tibia. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.01


Key words: osteoclastoma proximal tibia, ilizarov bone transport, knee arthrodesis.

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Flood management in highly developed areas: problems and proposed solutions.


Huda A. Qari1, Ibrahim Jomoah2, Stefano Mambretti3


1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

3DIIAR, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.



Abstract: Water-related disasters have increased considerably worldwide in recent years. While certain trends are global (like climate change), some actions to cope with these problems have to be taken locally. In any case, land characteristics need to be known and analysed in order to cope with the hazards and avoid their transformation into damage or disasters when exceptional events occur. In this study, risk analysis procedures are described, which consist of the systematic actions in a cycle of preparedness, response and recovery where an integrated flood risk management is required. Then, flooding problem characteristics, policies and related measures adopted by different Countries to decrease the risk of floods are considered. Lessons learnt from flood defence are analysed, highlighting that more room for rivers is required, and the balance between present and foreseeable future spatial requirements of both water and people is pointed out. In addition, definitions about the concepts of hazard, vulnerability, risk and damage/disaster are presented, with special attention paid to flood problems, because there is a certain lack of uniformity in the use of terms, which sometimes causes confusion. In this study, structural and non-structural actions that should be performed are analyzed and their significant differences are commented. Furthermore, with regards to the city of Jeddah, the rainfalls which caused the floods in 2009 and 2011 are analyzed and their return period is estimated. It is therefore demonstrated that while under certain conditions it is possible to design structural defences, in other conditions this is not possible and non-structural defences should be designed. Examples for some application of both structural and non structural defence measures in different Countries are shown.

[Huda A. Qari, Ibrahim Jomoah, Stefano Mambretti. Flood management in highly developed areas: problems and proposed solutions. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):6-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.02


Key Words: risk assessment, floods, structural and non-structural defences.

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Utilization of organic (rice straw extract) and inorganic compounds as a fertilizer for phytoplankton and zooplankton under laboratory conditions


Hanaa H.Morsi1,2 Mona R. Al-Shathly1,3 and Mabrouka M. Hemeda1,4


1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Northern Border University, Arar-Saudi Arabia

2Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Egypt

3Biology Department, Science Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

4Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt



Abstract: An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice straw extract as organic fertilizer on the water quality parameters and plankton density, using four treatments compared to two inorganic treatments. No significant effect on the temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity properties of the aquaria water. Nitrate and phosphate were significantly varied among treatment. Fertilizer increased chlorophyll-a concentration in organic treatments C and D, after 7 days. Phytoplankton, with 750 104 cell L-1, had the highest density in treatment F (Inorganic fertilizer) after 35 days; On the other hand, the lowest standing crop (165 104 cell L-1) was recorded at treatment D (Organic fertilizer) after the same period. The present experiment shows that zooplankton population increased remarkably after fertilization. These values varied between 230 and 280 Ind. L-1 to 87 and 81 Ind. L-1 in organic treatment (B) and control aquaria after 7 and 14 days, respectively. There was a significant variation in the total zooplankton count in inorganic treatment, where the density reached maximum (about 2000 Ind. L-1) after 28 days. The application of Rice straw extract as an organic manure to produce sufficient quantity of phytoplankton and zooplankton for nursery fish pond management is not only better but also safe than the raw animal dung.

[Hanaa H. Morsi, Mona R. Al-Shathlyand Mabrouka M. Hemeda. Utilization of organic (rice straw extract) and inorganic compounds as a fertilizer for phytoplankton and zooplankton under laboratory conditions. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):16-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.03


Keywords: Water quality, organic and inorganic fertilizer , phytoplankton, zooplankton.

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Value of 2d High Frequency Ultrasonography in Determining the Causes of Acute Lower Limb Pain


Saad Rezk Abdul Wahed1, Mohamed Ali Ismail2 and Esam M. Abu-Al Fadl2


Radiodiagnosis1 and Rheumatology & Rehabilitation2. Alazhar1 and Sohag2 Universities, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Acute lower limb pain represents one of the most common presentations at emergency department and rheumatology outpatient clinic, its accurate diagnosis is needed for rapid and proper treatment. The availability of 2D high frequency US machines should help in its diagnosis. Aim of the work: 1) Clearing up of most common causes that lead to acute lower limb pain, Assess the role and accuracy of 2D high frequency US in diagnosis of acute limb pain with absence of color flow Doppler (CFD) units at the emergency department (ED) and rheumatology outpatient clinics 3) Applying a diagnostic protocol for acute limb pain including physical examination, D high frequency US. Subjects: 200 patients were presented by acute lower limb pain at emergency department and/or rheumatology outpatient clinic of Sohag University Hospital. Methods: Patients were examined clinically and by B-mode 2D high frequency U/S unit. Results: 40 patients had thrombosed veins, had acute ischemia, had cellullitis, had acute leg hematoma, had ruptured Baker's cyst, had leg abscess, had acute tenosynovitis of peroneii and tibialis posterior tendons, had knee arthritis and injuries, had ankle joint arthritis, and one case had tennis leg. Conclusions; 2D high frequency US can replace CFD in rapid assessment of most cases presented by acute lower limb pain and save time for the physician in decision making.

[Saad Rezk Abdul Wahed, Mohamed Ali Ismail and Esam M. Abu-Al Fadl. Value of 2d High Frequency Ultrasonography in Determining the Causes of Acute Lower Limb Pain. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):29-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.04


Key Words: Lower limb, Ultrasound, Color flow Doppler, Deep venous thrombosis, Musclo-skletal US.

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Academic stress and anxiety among faculty of nursing students


Ikram Ibraheem Mohamed1 and Hala Ramzy Youssef 2


1Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

2Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University



Abstract: Academic stress and anxiety among nursing students have been researched on, and researchers have identified stressors as too many assignments, competition with other students, failures and lack of pocket money. Nursing students suffer from a great deal of anxiety, which sometimes interferes with both classroom and clinical performance. Aim: To explore academic stress and anxiety among the faculty of nursing students at Assiut University and to evaluate correlation between academic stress and anxiety. Sample: A systematic random sample (one by one) was selected from the first and fourth grade students. The number of them was 249 students. Design: A descriptive correlation design was employed. Setting: Faculty of Nursing at Assiut University. Tools: A self- report questionnaire included three parts: Socio demographic data, academic stress scale and Hamilton anxiety scale. Results: The mean age of students was 19.34 1.54 years. 96.4% of them were single, 66.7% of them were residing in rural areas and from the first grade respectively.  It was found that, 53.4%, 45.8%, 43.4%, and 43.0% experienced extreme academic stress related to waiting for results/grades, continuous poor performance, academic workload and feeling of not having enough knowledge for the practical test. Also, 53.6% of students had severe academic stress and 27.7% had moderate academic stress. While, 24.1% had mild to moderate level of anxiety and 24.9% of them had severe to extreme anxiety level. Academic stress was positively and significantly correlated with anxiety (r = 0.415) and (p value = 0.000). Conclusion: More than half of students have severe academic stress, and more than one quarter have moderate academic stress. Also, a great number of them experienced various anxiety levels which ranged from mild to moderate and severe to extreme levels. Academic stress was positively and significantly correlated with anxiety Recommendations: Stress management program is essential to diminish academic stress and anxiety levels among nursing students. 

[Ikram Ibraheem Mohamed and Hala Ramzy Youssef, Academic stress and anxiety among faculty of nursing students. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):35-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.05


Key words: Academic stress, anxiety, and faculty of nursing students

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Effect of L Carnitine against Mercuric Chloride-Induced Nephrotoxicity


Ali M Gado*1, Abdel Nasser I Adam2, Meshaal R. Alanazi 3, Majed M. Alqahtani 3, Fahad I. Alanazi3, Faheid A. Almutairyi 3 and Khalid A. Almutairi 3


Toxicology and Pharmacology1, Physiology2 and Clinical Pharmacy3 Departments

College of pharmacy, Riyadh colleges of Dentistry and pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi



Abstract: The effects of L-carnitine (CAR) against nephrotoxicity of mercury, an oxidative-stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuric chloride (5 mg/kg intra peritoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by significant increase in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Pretreatment of rats with CAR (200 mg/kg/day, ip), starting 5 days before mercuric chloride injection and continuous during the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine and BUN to control values. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data, wherein pretreatment of CAR prevents Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity.

[Ali M Gado, Abdel Nasser I Adam, Meshaal R. Alanazi, Majed M. Alqahtani, Fahad I. Alanazi, Faheid A. Almutairyi and Khalid A. Almutairi. Effect of L Carnitine against Mercuric Chloride-Induced Nephrotoxicity. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):44-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.06


Keywords: Mercury, oxidative-stress, kidney-toxicity.

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Liver and Kidney Functions and Blood Minerals of Shami Goats Fed Salt Tolerant Plants under the Arid Conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt


Donia, G.R.1; Ibrahim, N.H.2; Shaker, Y.M.2; Younis, F.M.2 and Hanan, Z. Amer2,3


1Animal and Poultry Health Department, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt

2Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Mataria, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Biology- Faculty of Science- Jazan University- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding salt tolerant fodder crops to Shami goats during pregnancy and lactation on some blood minerals as well as kidney and liver functions under the arid conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt. Twenty- four of Shami goats were divided into two groups. The first group was fed wheat straw whereas the second one was fed salt tolerant plants (Sorghum vulgare and Pearl millet). Both groups were offered concentrate feed mixture. The levels of some macro and trace elements; sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured in blood serum throughout the different physiological status. Moreover, urea and creatinine (Crea) concentrations in addition to the activity of liver enzymes: alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase were determined. The results demonstrated that feeding salt tolerant plants resulted in increasing levels of serum K (P<0.01) and decreasing Ca (P<0.05) compared to the control group while Na and Mg concentrations increased insignificantly. Moreover, animals of G2 achieved higher values of Mo, Pb and Zn while they had lower values of Cd and Cr than their counterparts of the control group. There was obvious effect of physiological status on blood electrolytes assessment. The concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Cd, Cr, Mo, Pb and Zn tended to decrease in advanced of pregnancy and lactation which might be attributed to the accumulative need of these elements to foetus growth and milk production. Na levels showed an adverse trend. Feeding salt tolerant plants elevated (P<0.01) the activity liver enzymes but decreased both creatinine (P<0.05) and urea levels. Pregnancy and lactation stages increased the ALT, AST, urea and creatinine concentrations. It could be concluded that introducing salt tolerant plants to Shami goats could be an avenue to minimize the feedstuff shortage under arid conditions of Southern Sinai. However, feeding such salt tolerant plants during pregnancy and lactation periods may have adverse effects on blood minerals in addition to liver enzymes activities but not kidney function. These effects might be amplified due to the stress of pregnancy and lactation.

[Donia, G.R.; Ibrahim, N.H.; Shaker, Y.M.; Younis, F.M. and Hanan, Z. Amer. Liver and Kidney Functions and Blood Minerals of Shami Goats Fed Salt Tolerant Plants under the Arid Conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):49-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.07


Key Words: Shami goats; salt tolerant plants; physiological status; minerals; liver function, kidney function

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Bone Mineral Density and Lean Body Mass Response to Selective Exercise Program in Burned Children


Waffa H. Borhan, Khoweiled A. Khoweiled and Fatma elzahraa H. Kamel


 Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of weight bearing exercise and resisted exercise on bone mineral density BMD and lean body mass LBM in post burned children. Forty burned children (ages from 7 to18 years) with 40% or more total body surface area (TBSA) burned (after 6 months of burn) had been participated in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A: participated in a 12-week of physical rehabilitation program supplemented with an individualized and supervised exercise training program (Resisted ex. + Weight bearing ex. + Traditional ex.). Group B: participated in a 12-week of physical rehabilitation program (traditional exercise only) (stretching ex, scar rehabilitation, R.O.M and ADL) three times per week for both groups. Measurements of BMD and LBM by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were collected before treatment and after three months of treatment. There was a significant difference and increase in BMD and LBM values (P<0.05) post treatment in group A compared to group B. Conclusion: BMD and LBM of pediatric patients post burn can significantly increase through participation in a supervised exercise training program.

[Waffa H. Borhan, Khoweiled A. Khoweiled and Fatma elzahraa H. Kamel. Bone Mineral Density and Lean Body Mass Response to Selective Exercise Program in Burned Children. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):60-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.08


Keywords: Burn, Bone mineral density, Lean body mass, Weight bearing exercise, Resisted exercise and Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

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Efficacy of Pulsed Dye Laser on Acne Vulgaris


Wafaa H. Borhan, Hamed A. Hamed and Nancy H. Aboelnour


Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.



Abstract: Acne is one of the most common skin diseases affecting majority of the teens and reaching its pinnacle during adulthood it can persist for years; produce disfigurement and permanent scarring; and have significant psychosocial consequences, including diminished self-esteem, embarrassment, social withdrawal, depression, and unemployment. Pulsed dye laser decreases post-inflammatory erythema left by acne, reducing colonization of the bacterium and ultimately the number of active inflammatory acne lesions. Purpose: The current study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of pulsed dye laser (PDL) in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Methods: - Forty patients with acne vulgaris were randomly divided into two equal groups (PDL group and control group). The methods of assessment included investigator's global assessment (IGA) and photographic method. For PDL Group, they received 3 sessions of PDL therapy with 4 weeks interval plus topical antibiotic medication while the control group received only topical antibiotic medication Results: - The results showed that there was significant decrease in acne counts(p<0.001) in PDL group compared with the control group. In relation to IGA and photographic method, the study revealed that the results obtained in study group were superior to that of control group, Conclusion: - It was concluded that pulsed dye laser PDL was effective in controlling of acne vulgaris lesion in expression of decreasing numbers of acne lesions and improving the appearance.

[Wafaa H. Borhan, Hamed A.Hamed and Nancy H. Aboelnour. Efficacy of Pulsed Dye Laser on Acne Vulgaris. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.09


Key Words: Acne Vulgaris, Pulsed Dye Laser (PDL), Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA)

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Effect of using cross- training on some physical abilities and single and composite skill performance level for football juniors


Mohamed Farouk Yousif Saleh


Faculty of Physical Education, Department of Sport Training, Mansoura University, Egypt

Email: dr_farouk7575@yahoo.com


Abstract: This research aims to design a training program using cross- training for football juniors under 18 years and identify the effect of cross-training on some special physical abilities (speed, agility, power, flexibility) for the football junior under 18 years old, the effect of cross-training on compound skill performances (receiving then passing- receiving, running then passing- receiving, dribbling then passing) and individual (passing accuracy, shooting accuracy) for football juniors under 18 years old, and percentage of improvement for different measurements of both control and experimental groups.Methods the researcher used the experimental method on a sample of 48 football junior under 18 years old, Most important tools of data collection were references survey, physical tests, and single and composite skills tests. Statistical work was done using arithmetic mean, standard deviation, T test, Pearson correlation and skewness coefficient. Results training program using cross-training led to development of some special physical abilities (speed, agility, muscle ability, flexibility) within football juniors research sample, development of some composite skills (receiving then passing- receiving, run with the ball, then passing- receiving, dribbling with ball, and then passing) within football juniors research sample, development of some single skills (Short and medium passing accuracy – shooting with foot accuracy) within football juniors research sample and clear improvement rates between experimental and control groups in all variables under consideration in favor of experimental group.

[Huda A. Qari, Ibrahim Jomoah,Stefano Mambretti. Flood management in highly developed areas: problems and proposed solutions. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):74-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.10


Keywords: cross-training, physical abilities, single and composite skills performance.

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Supplementation of Gluten-Free Bread with Some Germinated Legumes Flour


Yousif1, M.R.G. and Safaa, M. Faid2


1Bread and Pasta Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2 Home Economics Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Moham_Rashad@yahoo.com; dr_safaa2010@yahoo.com


Abstract:  Legume flours, due to their amino acid composition and fiber content are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of gluten-free bread. In this study, the influence of the partial replacement of corn-rice flour by chickpea and sweet lupine flours on the quality characteristics of gluten-free bread was analyzed. The content of nutrients (protein, lipids, ash, dietary fiber and minerals content), amino acid composition, and antinutritional components (tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor's) were determined in control, germinated and dehulled chickpea and sweet lupine flours. Germination caused increase in crude protein, total dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and amino acid contents of all the legume samples. Further increase in mentioned parameters was observed after dehulling the germinated legumes. Tannin, phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor's were reduced on germination and more reduction was observed in dehulled over germinated samples. Addition of chickpea or sweet lupine flour to corn-rice flour at 20% level somewhat retarded the increase in the rate of retrogradation (staling) of gluten-free bread. This point was considered very important because of the major economic losses that stale gluten-free bread may entail. The sensory evaluation data demonstrated that, the chickpea or sweet lupine flour can successfully replace corn-rice flour in gluten-free bread up to 20%.

[Yousif, M.R.G. and Safaa, M. Faid. Supplementation of Gluten-Free Bread with Some Germinated Legumes Flour. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):84-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.11


Key words: Coeliac disease - Gluten-free bread - Lupin - Chickpeas - Germination.

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Cabergoline in Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome and Its Effect on Outcome In Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles


Hazem Ismail Mohamed, Ahmed Yousif Rezk, Mohamed A. Elhadi Farag and Ahmed Sabra Ibrahim Mohamed.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: The most serious and potentially life threatening iatrogenic complication of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is a severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). It complicates less than 0.5-2% of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycles which cause mortality in 1/45000 – 1/50000 per infertile women receiving gonadotrophins. The diagnosis and severity of OHSS were determined using standard criteria. OHSS has been treated empirically over the years, because it is Pathophysiology remained unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a powerful mediator of vascular permeability; it is also strongly implicated in the initiation and development of angiogenesis in the developing embryo and in adult tissue undergoing profound angiogenesis, such as cycling endometrium and the luteinizing follicle. It also plays an important role in the growth and maintenance of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum by mediating angiogenesis. Objectives: To compare the effects of cabergoline in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high-risk women underwent ICSI. Study design: Prospective randomized trial. Patients and Methods: The study included an intervention and a control group. Cabergoline group: 30 patient's received 0.25mg cabergoline tablet per day starting on day of hCG injection and continued for 8 days. Control group: cabergoline tablet was not given after hCG injection in 30 patients. Results: There was no significant difference between baseline characteristics or ovarian stimulation parameters from the two groups. The incidence of OHSS in the cabergoline-treated group, was significantly (P=0.01) lower than that in the control group (12% vs. 36%). Higher rates of clinical and chemical pregnancy were observed after cabergoline administration in ICSI cycles. Conclusions: The present study showed that cabergoline reduces the incidence of OHSS in ICSI cycles. Women at high risk of OHSS, cabergoline can be administered as soon as the hCG injection to prevent early OHSS. Higher rates of clinical and chemical pregnancy were observed after cabergoline administration in ICSI cycles.

[Hazem Ismail Mohamed, Ahmed Yousif Rezk, Mohamed Abdel Hadi Farag and Ahmed Sabra Ibrahim Mohamed. Cabergoline in Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome and Its Effect on Outcome In Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):94-97]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.12


Keywords: Vascular endothelial growth factor, cabergoline, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

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Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbial Strains Isolated from Agricultural Wastewater


Fawzy I. Eissa1; Hend A. Mahmoud2; Osama N. Massoud3; Khaled M. Ghanem1 and Ibrahim M. Gomaa1


1Environment and Bio-agriculture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, 11884, Cairo, Egypt.

2Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Egypt.



Abstract: Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos in mineral salt liquid (MSL) medium under different environmental factors such as pH of media, temperature and different concentrations of pesticide were investigated to optimize the conditions for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by microbial strains. Isolating the microbial strains for identifying those having high chlorpyrifos degradation capability in liquid culture was undertaken as well. Out of thirteen microbial isolates from agricultural wastewater samples collected from different pesticides-polluted locations in Egypt, three isolates were only capable of degrading chlorpyrifos and utilizing it as a sole source of carbon and phosphorus. Isolates’ biomass and chlorpyrifos degradation were found to be optimum at 30 C and pH 7 (for bacteria and actinomycete), and pH 6 for fungi. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. SMF5, Penicillium sp. F09-T10-1 and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus strain A-B based on morphological and biochemical tests as well as 16S rDNA analysis. It was also confirmed that biodegradation potential of the microbial isolates influenced by a range of abiotic factors such as pH of media, temperature and different concentrations of the tested pesticide. The rate of degradation for chlorpyrifos was faster in all inoculated samples relative to the corresponding control. Results showed also that chlorpyrifos was degraded faster by bacteria than fungi followed by actinomycete compared to its respective uninoculated water after 28 days. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos was coinciding with increasing biomass growth in chlorpyrifos contaminated water. Thus, the results from the present study confirmed that the newly isolated chlorpyrifos-degrading isolates can be successfully used for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water.

[Fawzy I. Eissa; Hend A. Mahmoud; Osama N. Massoud; Khaled M. Ghanem and Ibrahim M. Gomaa. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Microbial Strains Isolated from Agricultural Wastewater. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):98-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.13


Key Words: Chlorpyrifos, bioremediation, biomass, water.

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Central Neurocytoma: Experience at King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah Saudi Arabia


Shabnum Sultana, Awatif A. Jamal., Dahlia S. Mirdad, Fahad A. Alghamdi


Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University and Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Introduction: Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare neuroectodermal brain tumours with consistent commitment for neuronal differentiation and a potential for additional glial differentiation and that have an origin from bipotential progenitor cells of the periventricular matrix.   The overall incidence of CNs is 0.25 to 0.5%. These supratentorial tumours typically found in the lateral or third ventricle and can be detected in young and middle age adults with no sex predilection.  Objectives: To study the clinical and pathological features of Central neurocytomas in our region and compare the results with the reported literature. Methods: We retrospectively studied 5 patients with histological diagnosis of Central neurocytomas at King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in a period of 18 years. Clinical and pre operative imaging data was obtained from computerized medical records of the patients. Histopathological material was obtained by craniotomy. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides were examined through light microscope. Data was analysed for age distribution, location, radiological appearance and pathological features.  Results: Of the 5 patients analysed, 4 were males 1 was female with ages ranging between 23 and 43 years.  On pre operative CT scan and MRI, the predominant location of CNs was intraventricular region in 4 out of 5 cases. The tumour showed variable enhancement and appeared as partly cystic with areas of calcification. In all 5 cases, there was evidence of hydrocephalus.  Light microscopy revealed characteristic features of neurocytomas with intraventricular location and atypical features with extra-ventricular location that recurred 3 times in the period of seven years.  Immunohistochemical studies revealed consistent and uniform expression of synaptophysin in all five cases and negative expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Conclusion: CNs are rare brain tumours. Although CNs are considered as benign intraventricular tumours but atypical morphological features, high cell proliferation and extra ventricular location has some correlation with recurrence.

[Shabnum Sultana, Awatif A. Jamal, Dahlia S. Mirdad.,  Fahad A. Alghamdi. Central Neurocytoma: Experience at King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):109-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.14


Key Words: Neuroectodermal, neuronal, supratentorial, intraventriculal tumour.

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Study on the  biological  effect of use flaxseed oil as a source of fat on the Biomarkers of experimental rats


EL-Sayeda, G. E. EL-Sahar and Abor, M. M. Abed EL- Rahman


Home Economics Dept., Faculty of specific Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

drsayedaghandour@yahoo.com; dr_abour33328@yahoo.com


Abstract: Flaxseed oil comes from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, L.). Flaxseed oil contains both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are needed for health. Flaxseed oil contains the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which the body converts into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil. Some researchers think that flaxseed oil might have some of the same benefits as fish oil, but the body is not very efficient at converting ALA into EPA and DHA. And the benefits of ALA, EPA, and DHA are not necessarily the same. Omega-3 fatty acids, usually from fish oil, have been shown to reduce inflammation and help prevent certain chronic diseases, such as heart disease and arthritis. Studies are mixed about whether flaxseed oil is useful for the same conditions. The present study was performed to evaluate the the efficacy of flaxseed oil (FO)) on the Biomarkers of experimental rat , The total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and  glucose , lipids profile and liver and kidney function , heart were measured Rats were divided into five groups; control groups (1&2) negative and positive were fed on basal diet without supplementation. All treated cirrhotic groups (3-5) were fed on experimental diets supplemented with by Flaxseed oil at different levels (20,30 and 40 gm/kg). Results clearly revealed that the best treatment was flaxseed oil (FO) (40 gm/kg  ) which had lowest values of total lipid , triglycerides , total cholesterol, LDL, and had the highest values of HDL. While, all groups fed on basal diet with flaxseed oil (FO) by different levels (20,30,40gm/kg) showed significantly decrease of serum, triglycerides, total cholesterol LDL, HDL, ALK, BIL, ALB, TP, Urea, Creatin and glocouse had significant increase of serum HDL, respectively. It could be concluded that flaxseed oil (FO) by different levels ((20,30,40gm/kg)improve lipids profile and liver and kidney functions especially by flaxseed oil (FO) (40 gm/kg  ) .

[EL-Sayeda, G. E. EL-Sahar and Abor, M. M. Abed EL- Rahman.  Study biological effect of use flaxseed oil as a source of fat on the Biomarkers of experimental rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):116-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.15


Key Words: Flaxseed - serum lipid- liver- kidney functions- heart – Rats.

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Investigation of smoking effects on percutaneous autologous bone marrow injection for nonunion patients


Taher Abd Elsattar Aid1, Adel Ibrahim Alseedy1, Ahmed F. Shams1, Ahmed Abd Elfattah Khalil2.


1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menufiya University, Egypt

2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Al-Menshawy Hospital, Tanta, Egypt



Abstract: Regarding the effects of smoking on fracture healing and post-operative infection after long-bone fracture surgery, there is little reported analysis. Our study aimed to report the smoking effect on percutaneous autologous bone marrow injection for nonunion patients. Twenty patients, 10 smokers and 10 nonsmokers, were referred to us with a nonunion of the tibia and femur after number of previous interventions on bone to procure healing at the time of fracture. A total of 40–80 mL of bone marrow aspirated from the anterior iliac crest and injected in and around the nonunion site under fluoroscopic guidance. The overall success rate obtained from the operation was 70.0% (14/20), but there was a significant difference between the success rates of smokers and non-smokers [50.0% (5/10) vs 90.0% (9/10)]. Generally, smoking was associated with increased nonunion for all fractures. Additionally, smokers trended towards longer mean healing times.

 [Taher Abd ElsattarAid, Adel Ibrahim Alseedy, Ahmed F. Shams, Ahmed Abd Elfattah Khalil.  Investigation of smoking effects on percutaneous autologous bone marrow injection for nonunion patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):124-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.16


Key Words: nonunion, bone marrow, injection, smoking.

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Natural Dye from Red Onion Skins and Applied In Dyeing Cotton Fabrics for the Production of Women's Headwear Resistance to Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR)


1Abdallah Hussein and 2Yousif Elhassaneen


1Department of Clothes and Textile and 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

abdallah_hussein2007@yahoo.com Yousif12@hotmail.com


Abstract: Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation has important public health implications. Wear protective clothing represents one of the most important measures to protect against exposure to UV that are recommended by the WHO. The ultraviolet properties of textiles dyed with synthetic dyes have been widely reported in literature. However,   limited studies have investigated the ultraviolet properties of natural fabrics dyed with natural colorants. The research was carried out to investigate the dying and ultraviolet protection properties of cotton fabric using an aqueous extract of red onion skin as the natural dye. Different factors affecting dyeing ability were also thoroughly investigated and applied for the production of Women's headwear resistance to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). A cotton fabric dyed in a solution containing the OSD showed a shade of yellowish white-brown. It can be observed that the K/S values increase with an increase of dye concentration. In all cases copper sulfate mordant yielded the best dyeing results, and the next good result was obtained in the order of alum and stannous chloride. Comparison of three mordanting techniques showed that the pre-mordanting gave the highest depth of shade on cotton fabric (K/S, 0.89) and UPF (33.2). Thus, pre-mordant was the best technique during mordanting method of dyeing and UVPC. The mordant activity and UPF of the three sequences was as follows: pre-mordant > Simultaneous mordant > Post-mordant > undyed in cotton fabric. It was observed that the ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) and UV absorbance values rated as very good for the cotton fabric. In addition, a darker colour, such as that provided by a copper sulfate mordant, gave better protection because of higher UV absorption. All previous data have been used in the production of women's headwear resistance to UVR. Such clothing supplements could represent a particularly important for people who are exposed to ultraviolet rays whether from natural and/or industrial sources.

[Abdallah Hussein and Yousif Elhassaneen. Natural Dye from Red Onion Skins and Applied In Dyeing Cotton Fabrics for the Production of Women's Headwear Resistance to Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR). J Am Sci 2014;10(3):129-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.17


Key words: onion skin dye, dyeing property, mordanting techniques, color strength, UV protection

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Long Term Immunity to Hepatitis B Vaccine Among a Sample of Secondary School Students in Damietta


Mohamad M. El Mazahi1; Hussein M. Abdel Maksoud1; Mohamed A. Salam1; Mekky A. Ali2; Ali N. El-Nawawy3; Shaimaa M. A. Ahmad1


1 Pediatrics, 2 Clinical Pathology and 3Community Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine ,Al-Azhar University, Egypt. .



Abstract: The aim of the present study was to assess the long term immunity to hepatitis B vaccine among secondary school students aging from 15- 17 years; and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination schedule of HBV vaccine in Egypt. Subjects and methods: A total number of children from 15 to 17 years (teenagers' students) in EL-Zarka district was 1106 from which 200 vaccinated children was the sample size of the study 103(51.5%) males and 97(48.5%) females .The studied students were chosen randomly from 3 secondary schools in EL-Zarka district. 118 students (59.0%) were from rural areas and 82(41.0%) from urban areas. All included children were subjected to complete history taking by the self-administered questionnaire, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations (CBC,  Anti HBs antibodies by ELISA and Anti HBc antibodies by ELISA). Results: The titer of HBsAb in 40% is less than (10IU/L) meaning loss of immunity to hepatitis B, and 59.5% of waning immunity (10-100), only 0.5% had good immunity.  There was significant difference between different HBsAb levels as regard to gender distribution (i.e., gender had an effect on seroconversion of HBV vaccine). There was no effect of residence, socioeconomic status, BMI, ICU admission, feeding pattern, Hgb level and WBCs count on the seroconversion of HBV vaccine level. Conclusion: Hepatitis B vaccine has long lasting immunity extended to at least 15 years. No effect of urbanization, socioeconomic standards, BMI or Hgb% on level of HBsAb seroprotection.

 [Mohamad M. El Mazahi; Hussein M. Abdel Maksoud; Mohamed A. Salam; Mekky A. Ali; Ali N. El-Nawawy; Shaimaa M. A. Ahmad. Long Term Immunity to Hepatitis B Vaccine Among a Sample of Secondary School Students in Damietta] J Am Sci 2014;10(3):140-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.18



Keywords: immunity, hepatitis B vaccine.

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Formulating Salicylic Acid as (Emulsifiable Concentrate, Wettable Granule) and Study Their Nematicidal Efficiency on Root-Knot Nematode.


El-Kady, A.  M. A1, S. E. S. Hamouda1, Hala S.  Ibrahim2 and H. I. Abd-Alla1.


1Formulation Research Department, 2Fungicide, Bactericide and Nematicide Research Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab. (CAPL), Agriculture Research Center (ARC), Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Salicylic acid was prepared in two different formulation types, emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable granules (WG). Both formulations passed successfully all the tests specified by different organizations related to pesticides like WHO and FAO. The nematicidal efficiency of both formulations was evaluated against root-knot nematode on egg plant under green house conditions. Also their effect on growth parameters of egg plant was studied. Generally no significant variations were found between both formulations on all pathogenicity parameters of root-knot nematode and growth parameters of egg plant that inoculated by second stage larvae of root-knot nematode before treatment by 24 hours and after treatment by week. Most tested concentrations of both formulations improved growth parameters of egg plant compared to control. On the other hand the tested concentrations of (WG) formulation before treatment and both formulations after treatment decreased the number of galls / gram root compared to control but this decreasing was not significant in case of first treatment ( before infection by 24 h) and highly significant in second treatment (after treatment by week) . So egg masses / root and second stage larvae / 240 gram soil disappeared with all concentrations of both formulations under the two methods of treatment.

[El-Kady, A. M. A, S.E.S. Hamouda, Hala S. Ibrahim and H. I. Abd-Alla. Formulating Salicylic Acid as (Emulsifiable Concentrate, Wettable Granule) and Study Their Nematicidal Efficiency on Root-Knot Nematode. J Am Sci 2014;10(3):146-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.19


 Keywords: Salicylic acid, emulsifiable concentrate, wettable granules, growth parameters, pathogenicity and root-knot nematode.

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Study of anti-nutrients and antioxidant in date palm fruits (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) from Saudi Arabia and Egypt


Ebtehal Abdulaziz A Al Tamim


Nutrition & Food sciences Department, Home Economics College, Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University,

Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Saudi (Sukkari) and Egyptian (Sewi) palm dates samples were collected from local markets in both countries and were analyzed for nutritional and anti-nutritional composition using standard analytical methods. The results showed significant differences at (p ≤ 0.05) in phytate, tannins, oxalate, Ca, Fe, Zn, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and carotenoids. The levels of phytate and tannins were low in both samples, Egyptian (1.79%) and (1.92%) respectively. There was no oxalate in both samples. The percentages of mineral elements to phytate indicated the abundance of mineral elements. Ca was the most abundant in Egyptian and Saudi samples (3.981%) and (3.7665%) respectively. Fe and Zn were least abundant in Egyptian dates (0.175%) and (0.0286), followed by Saudi Sample (0.167%) and (0.026%) respectively. Also, this study indicated both samples were rich of phenolic compound and flavonoids with greater antioxidant activity, where the Egyptian dates sample had the high levels (532.96%), (54.06%) and (62.79%) respectively. The Saudi sample had the high level of carotenoids (3.48 mg/g). The results illustrate that Saudi and Egyptian dates are good for consumption and processing due to their low levels of anti-nutritional factors and the abundance of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity and carotenoids. The differences in results of Saudi (Sukkari) and Egyptian (Sewi) palm dates samples could be referred to the samples sources, growth conditions and fruit age.

[Ebtehal Abdulaziz A AlTamim. Study of anti-nutrients and antioxidant in date palm fruits (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) from Saudi Arabia and Egypt] J Am Sci 2014;10(3):154-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100314.20


Keywords: Date palm fruit, Anti-nutrients, Phytate, Flavonoids, Tannins, Oxalate, Antioxidant activity.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 5, 2014. 
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