Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 4, Cumulated No. 74, April 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1004


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Titles / Authors





Daylighting: An alternative approach to lighting buildings


Firas M. Sharaf


 The University of Jordan



Abstract: An investigation to improve daylighting use in office buildings is presented in this paper. This investigation was initiated by a major company in Saudi Arabia which required proposals to reduce energy consumed by artificial lighting in its office building in Dhahran city. Measurements include the amount of daylighting required for the building with little changes the architectural design. Daylight Factor (DF) is used to measure the internal natural lighting of the building. Results indicate a great amount of energy will be saved in the application of daylighting and recommended amendments to improve natural daylighting in buildings.

[Sharaf F. Daylighting: an alternative approach in lighting buildings. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1.  doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.01


Keywords: Daylighting; green building; daylight factor; sustainable architecture

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Fish Farms as a source for parasites transport: Parasitological and developmental studies of Prohemistomum vivax with the ameliorating role of Moringa oleifera in the treatment


Areej Jameel M. Alghabban


Biology Department, Faculty of science, University of Tabuk, KSA



Abstract: Fishes are good source of quality protein, but various diseases including parasitic infections pose a threat to fish culture. Catfish, Clarias gariepinus is one of most famous fishes in fish farms that infected with Prohemistomum vivax metaceracriae. Prohemistomum vivax was rarely recorded to infect human and may cause death. This work aimed to study the development to adult worms in vivo, its maturation, recovery rate, time of appearance of the first egg in the stool of infected rats, the percentage of recovered worms and distribution of the parasite within the intestine of the host. In addition to the ameliorating role of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of experimental infected rats with metacercaria of Prohemistomum vivax. The experiments were performed on 70 male albino rats weighing 100 10g and of 7-8 week’s age. Encysted metaceracriae were isolated, counted and force feeidng infection was made by a blunt forceps. Rats were infected with 50050 metaceracriae and only three infected rats were scarified at different internals (1hr, 3hr, 6hr, 12hr, 1 day, 2 day, 3 day and 1 week). After one week of infection; rats were treated with moringa for five days. Our results shows that the encysted metacercariae of Prohemistomum vivax were scattered in between the muscle fibers of the head, trunk and caudal regions of naturally infected catfish. Three days were enough to adult worm development and the 1st eggs were detected in the stool after 3 days. The recovery rate was significantly decreased with the increase of treatment time. Duodenal sections in infected rats with Prohemistomum vivax showed villi were marked epithelial compression and erosion, atrophy, hemorrhage, inflammatory cells infiltration of mucosal stroma, cytoplasmic vacuoltions, congested blood vessels, goblet cell depletion and crypt hyperplasia. No adult worms were appeared in the rat stool before treatment whoever after treatment with moringa, the adult worms were detected in 2nd day of treatment and completely disappeared at the 4th days of treatment.

[Alghabban AJM. Fish Farms as a source for parasites transport: Parasitological and developmental studies of Prohemistomum vivax with the ameliorating role of Moringa oleifera in the treatment. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):6-14]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.02


Keywords: Prohemistomum vivax metaceracriae; fish farms; Catfish; development; adult worms; Rat

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Fast ion chromatography separations of strontium and some metal ions by activated carbon produced from mazot ash


A.A. Emam*, A. A. El-Bayaa, N.A. Badawy, A. E.Zidan.


Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

* a_a_emam@yahoo.com


Abstract: A fast ion chromatographic system is described which uses shorter column lengths and compares various eluent profiles in order to maximize the performance without sacrificing the chromatographic resolution. Equilibrium distribution coefficient, kd for the different metal ions such as Sr(II), Fe(II), Zn(II), K(I), Ca(II) and Ba(II) in the presence of nitric acid and nitric acid + alcohol mixture of variable concentrations were determined at 25C. The separation and determination of six target cations was achieved using a short column packed with activated carbon produced from mazot ash. The adsorption strength is influenced by the polarity of alcohol. It has been shown that adsorption strength increases in the order methanol < ethanol < propanol < acetone for each individual cation, and in the order Fe < K< Ca< Zn < Sr < Ba series for individual alcohol. K (I) and Fe(II) is not adsorbed on the adsorbent from 0.25 M HNO3 in methanol, while K(I) are adsorbed from ethanol, propanol and acetone. Separation is also possible from alcohol mixtures. Strontium separation, is may be from iron in presence of 0.25 M HNO3 – methanol or ethanol or propanol or acetone while the efficiency of separation increases with a decrease of the polarity of the used alcohol.

[A.A. Emam, A. A. El-Bayaa, N.A. Badawy, A. E.Zidan. Fast ion chromatography separations of strontium and some metal ions by activated carbon produced from mazot ash. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):15-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.03


 Key Words: Separation; Strontium; Alkaline earth-;Aactivated carbon;Chromatographic.

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Detection of oral potentially malignant lesions among tobacco users; Identafi and Microlux versus histopathology


Safia Al attas1, Suzan Ibrahim2, Zeinab Darwish3, Hala Amer4, Mona Hassan5


1 Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

2  Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, king Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia and Ain Shams University, Egypt

3 Department of Oral pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, king Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia and Alexandria University, Egypt

4 Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia and Alexandria University, Egypt

5 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, and Alexandria University, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Detection of oral cancer in an early stage improves patient survival significantly and reduces morbidity and cost of treatment. Screening of high risk groups of individuals such as tobacco users has been achieved through many research projects using the devices such as Microlux and Identafi that have been invented to serve as aids in the examination of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. The aim of the current study was to evaluate Identafi and Microlux versus oral biopsy as a gold standard. Methods: The material of the study includes 39 oral lesions from tobacco users examined by conventional oral examination, Identafi, Microlux and histopathology. The findings of the study were recorded and statistically analyzed. The results of the 4 methods of examination (clinical, Identafi, Microlux and Microlux with toluidine blue) were compared with the histopathological findings that served as a gold standard. Results: Showed sensitivity of 80%, 80%, 100% and 100% respectively, while the specificity was 14.7%, 14.7%, 32.4% and 35.3% respectively. The accuracy was 56.5% for clinical examination, 48.7% for Identafi, 38.5% for Microlux and 35.9%  for Microlux with toluidine blue. The contingency coefficient was 0.82%, 0.81%, 0.71% and 0.72% respectively. Conclusion: We can conclude that Identafi and Microlux can be used as aids to help identification of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. However we have to realize that still the histopathological examination is the most accurate method of diagnosis.

[Safia Al attas, Suzan Ibrahim, Zeinab Darwish, Hala Amer, Mona Hassan. Detection of oral potentially malignant lesions among tobacco users; Identafi and Microlux versus histopathology. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):24-30]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.04


Key Words: oral premalignant lesions, oral cancer, identafi, microlux, tobacco users.

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Examination Of Psychophysiological Condition Of  Highly Skilled Sportsmen


Dzhankuldukova Asel Dzhambulovna1, Dzhetimov Myrzabay Aytmukhanovich1, Andasbayev Yerlan Suleimenovich1, Yesengabylov Ilyas Zhanserkenovich1, Haibullin Marvat Ramazanovich2


1Zhetysu State University named I. Zhansugurov, Taldykorgan, 040010, Microrayon 4, house 68, apartment 31, the Republic of Kazakhstan, e-mail: make_d_61@mail.ru, 2Institute of human and animals physiology, Almaty, the Republic of Kazakhstan


Abstract: In the performed research the bases for the new approach development to the solution of individualization problem of the training process of highly skilled sportsmen of various specialization are laid. The basis of the offered approach is the complex analysis of the key factors influencing sports effectiveness at different stages of the training process. The performed analysis of parameters of heart rate variability (hereinafter HRV) detected increase of adaptable possibilities of the sportsmen who demonstrated high results in the current season at competitive period. The greatest tension of the organism functional systems of these sportsmen is observed during the precompetitive period. The greatest tension of functional systems of the organism of the sportsmen who have shown low or satisfactory sports result in the current season was fixed in the competitive and precompetitive periods. Reliable difference of VHR indications of sportsmen with various productivity are more distinctly shown in the end of precompetitive  and during the current competition periods which is connected with raised physical and psycho-emotional loadings specific for the given periods.

[Dzhankuldukova A.D., Dzhetimov, M.A., Andasbayev, E.S., Yesengabylov I. Zh., Haibullin M.R. Examination Of Psychophysiological Condition Of  Highly Skilled Sportsmen. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):31-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.05


Keywords: adaptation, chronic reflex meter, psycho-physiological condition,  functional condition, training process.

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Validity of D29 Phage Method in the Detection of Multi Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sudan


Mogahid M Elhassan 1,3*, Ahmed A Kashan2, MiskElyemen A El Mekki 1,3 , Salma A Abdulsalam 2  and Mohamed E Hamed 4


1Department of  Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al medenah Al monawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Internal Medcine, Armed Forces Hospital, Ministry of Defense, Southern Region, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

3Department of Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

4Department of  Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

E-mail: mogahidelhassan@yahoo.com


AbstractTuberculosis is still one of the major health problems worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity. While third of the world population is infected with TB bacilli, the situation is getting worse by the rising emergence of multi drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Conventional method for drug susceptibility testing requires months before results can be reported. However, rapid methods such as phage assay have been developed and recorded as useful tools for more rapid diagnosis.This study is a descriptive cross-sectional laboratory based study which aimed to evaluate the usefulness of phage assay compared to proportional method and PCR in the diagnosis of MDR TB.Sputum specimens were collected from ninety (n=90) acid fast bacilli consented patients, and were processed for direct D29 and culture.  All successful cultured isolates were subjected to biochemical tests for phenotypic characterization and further genotypic confirmation was made by amplification of IS 6110.  For drug susceptibility testing, proportional method was adopted followed by both indirect D29 and amplification of rpoB gene.The results showed that 21/90 (23.3%) of the specimens were identified  as rifampicin resistant by direct D29 method, 75/90 (83.3%) of the specimens showed growth on LJ medium similar to MTB complex colonies while 5/90 (3.3%) were tentatively identified as rapid growers. 60 out of the 75 slow growers (80%) were confirmed as MTB complex members depending on their biochemical and molecular  characters (yielding a band of 123 bp of IS 6110). DST results for the 60 MTB isolates showed that 31/60  were drug resistant and that isoniazid composed for the highest percentage of resistance (20/31), followed by rifampicin  (19/31) while MDR was detected in 18/60 of the isolates. Furthermore  15/60 were confirmed as rpoB positive.The study highlighted the high prevalence of MDR TB in Kassala State.  Also the use of D29 phage method in its first trial of application in Sudan revealed high sensitivity and specificity, which when added to its major character of time saving, can represent a reliable method for detection of MDR.

[Mogahid M Elhassan, Ahmed A Kashan, MiskElyemen A El Mekki, Salma A Abdulsalam and Mohamed E Hamed. Validity of D29 Phage Method in the Detection of Multi Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sudan. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):36-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.06


Keywords: D29 Phage typing, IS 6110, MDR tubercuosis, Kassala, Sudan.

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What are the Economic Characteristics of Fish Farming Ponds in Southern Sidi-Salem District (Kafr El-Sheik Governorate)?


Ahmed El-Kholei


Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Menofia University, Egypt

Email: elkholei@yahoo.com


Abstract: The study explores socio economic characteristics for fish farming sector in southern Sidi Salem district, Kafr El-Sheik governorate and access the factors affecting net farm income. To reach the paper’s goal, a questionnaire was designed to collect primary data for study analysis. The results show that net farm income was significantly influenced by level of productivity, feed cost, labor cost, fixed cost farm area, and grower’s age. The most common problems face fish growers (according to its relative frequency) are; the high feed cost, high cost of fry, quality of fry, diversity of fish species, unavailability of fuel in addition to its high prices, increasing land rent by either government or private sector, fish prices fluctuations, lack of capital and finance supplied by Principal bank of Development and Agricultural Credit,  lack of security due to relatively short lease contracts, using drainage water and lack of export channels.

[Ahmed El-Kholei. What are the Economic Characteristics of Fish Farming Ponds in Southern Sidi-Salem District (Kafr El-Sheik Governorate)? J Am Sci 2014;10(4):43-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.

7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.07


Keywords: Fish Farming, Socio-Economic and Kafr El Sheik.

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Achieving Optimum Functional Properties for Producing Automotive Airbags Fabrics


Metwaly, F., A., Ramadan, E., M., and Abdel-Tawab, H., K.


Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Department, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Egypt



Abstract: Transportation is the largest user of technical textiles where textiles provide a very high performance specifications and special properties required such as safety, weight efficiency, comfort and material durability of the transporting medium .As safety of driver and passengers is the paramount consideration in case of a collision, this research aims to produce fabrics suitable for being used in cars airbags. In this research all samples under study were woven on rapier weaving machine with polyester warp yarns of 300 denier and warp set of 36 ends/cm. Three materials of weft yarns were used, nylon and polyester of 150, 300 and 450 denier and polypropylene yarns of 300 and 450 denier. Three weft sets were also used 8, 10 and 12 picks/cm with three weaving structures plain, hopsack 2/2 and twill 2/2 weaves. The best 20 samples, according to Radar analysis, were coated with a thin layer of silicon rubber. Tests were carried out to evaluate samples under study and more results were reached.

[Metwaly, F., A., Ramadan, E., M., and Abdel-Tawab, H., K. Achieving Optimum Functional Properties for Producing Automotive Airbags Fabrics. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):55-69]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.

8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.08


Key words: Technical textiles ,automotive textiles, cars safety  devices, cars airbags, coated airbags.

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Implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors using Fuzzy Sets


Mohamed A. Gaheen1 and Adel A. M. Abdelrahman2


1Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 13759, Abou Zaabal, Egypt

2Metallurgy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, 13759, Abou Zaabal, Egypt



Abstract: A method of assessment the application of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors using fuzzy sets is presented. In this paper, the fuzzy sets are used to represent the linguistic answer of the experts to indicate the level of accomplishment of implementation of the Code provisions. Assessments of two areas of the Code of Conduct using fuzzy sets are presented and results are discussed. It is shown that using fuzzy sets to some extent is more realistic tool to identify areas of satisfactory application of the Code of Conduct and areas needing improvement. However, assessment through IAEA regional and international meetings is always important.

[Mohamed A. Gaheen and Adel A. M. Abdelrahman. Implementation of IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors using Fuzzy Sets. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):70-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.09


Key Words: Nuclear Safety, Research Reactors, Fuzzy Sets.

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Accuracy of left gastric vein hemodynamic changes as screening test for gastroesophageal varices in cirrhotic liver patient using color Doppler ultrasound.


1Abdelgawad Saied, 1Mohamed Elfiomy, 1Ashraf Elbahrawy, 1Atif Abouelfotoh, 1Ahmed

Elwasseif, 1Nabil Rafaat, 1Assem El-Sherif, 2Mokhtar Ragab, 2Ehab A. Helal, 2Sad Rezk Abdul Wahed.


1Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology unit, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Department of Diagnostic- Radiology Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Portal hypertension is one of complication of cirrhosis which results in the development of spontaneous porto-systemic collaterals at a number of anatomic sites as a response to increased pressure. Objective: To test the accuracy of left gastric vein (LGV) color Doppler homodynamic changes as a screening tool for the presence and severity of gastroesophageal varices (GEV) in cirrhotic patients. Patients and methods: One hundred consecutive cirrhotic patients were included in this study. All patients underwent endoscopy before ultrasonic examination. The method of left gastric vein identification unified for all patients. Measurements of diameter, flow direction and flow velocity in the left gastric vein (LGV) as well as the presence of paraesophageal varices were done in all patients using ultrasonography Doppler study. Results: According to presence of oesophageal varices (OV), 53 patients had OV and 47 patients had no OV. According to presence of gastric fundal varices (FV), only 9 patients had varices. Moreover, only 3 patients had gastric forniceal varices. The Mean diameter of LGV was 61.5 mm with mean flow velocity 15.7 6.7 cm/s. Conclusion: The results suggest that portal hemodynamics changes in cirrhotic patients are characterized by passive congestion and increased blood flow. However, these 2 features had different preponderances in different parts of the portal venous system. Flow velocity, direction and diameter of the left gastric vein done by ultrasonic Doppler study may be play a role in evaluation of portal hypertension and relation with the development and size of varices.

[Abdelgawad Saied, Mohamed Elfiomy, Ashraf Elbahrawy, Atif Abouelfotoh, Ahmed Elwasseif, Nabil Rafaat, Assem El-Sherif. Mokhtar Ragab, Ehab A. Helal, Sad Rezk Abdul Wahed. Accuracy of left gastric vein hemodynamic changes as screening test for gastroesophageal varices in cirrhotic liver patient using color Doppler ultrasound. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):75-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.10


Key Words: Left gastric vein; Hemodynamics; Gastroesophageal varices; Liver cirrhosis; Color Doppler ultrasound.

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Povidone-iodine Pleurodesis versus Talc Pleurodesis in Preventing Recurrence of Malignant Pleural Effusion


Islam M. Ibrahim (MD)1; Mohammed F. Eltaweel (MBBCh)1; Alaa A. El-Sessy (MD)2 and Ahmed L. Dokhan (MD)1


1Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Shepin El-Kom, Menofia, Egypt.

2General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Shepin El-Kom, Menofia, Egypt.

Corresponding Author: islammoheb@hotmail.com


Abstract: Objectives: To compare the efficacy, safety, and outcome of Talc Powder Pleurodesis (TPP) with Povidone-iodine Pleurodesis (PIP) through a chest drain as a palliative preventive treatment of recurrent malignant pleural effusion. Methods: A total of 39 neoplastic patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial. Twenty-one patients received Talc pleurodesis (group A), and eighteen patients (group B) underwent pleurodesis by instilling Povidone-iodine through a thoracotomy drain. Results: Our study included 11 males and 28 females, the mean age was (71.0 5.0) years for group A and (70.9 5.1) years for group B (non-significant). Post-procedure analgesic requirements were recorded in both groups. Four patients in each group had fever (>38C) within 48 hours of the procedure. Both groups achieved good symptomatic relief. There were no in-hospital deaths. The mean post-procedure hospital stay was (4.7 1.2) days for group A and (4.2 1.0) for group B (non-significant). At follow-up recurrence of significant pleural effusion requiring intervention was noted in four and five patients in group A and group B, respectively (non-significant difference). Conclusion: Povidone-iodine pleurodesis can be considered as a good alternative to Talc pleurodesis for recurrent malignant pleural effusion. The drug is available, cost effective, safe and can be administered through a thoracotomy drain and repeated if necessary.

[Islam M. Ibrahim; Mohammed F. Eltaweel; Alaa A. El-Sessy and Ahmed L. Dokhan. Povidone-iodine Pleurodesis versus Talc Pleurodesis in Preventing Recurrence of Malignant Pleural Effusion. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):86-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.11


Keywords: Pleural airleak/effusion; Pleural space (drainage, management).

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The influence of Cationic Surface Active Agent on Physical Properties of Some Egyptian Soils


Mohamed M.M


Soils and Water Dept., Fac.of Agric, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Present work describes the effect of ethanediyl-1,2-bis (dimethyldodecylammonium chloride; CS12) as cationic surfactant on physical properties of sandy and calcareous soils from Cairo Alexandria desert road (Sadate city) and Amria region respectively. In this study, surface soil samples were collected, (CS12) was added at rates of 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0% and mixed thoroughly with the tested soils portions. Then the soil was subjected to wetting and drying cycles for six weeks. Whereas, the lower and upper soil moisture contents were in the range of 5% to 15%, respectively. Data indicated that the presence of CS12 improved soil physical properties with increasing its ratio. Aggregate percentage, total porosity and available water were increased while hydraulic conductivity values were decreased in the sandy soil and increased in calcareous soil due to redistribution of soil pores. These findings indicate that an addition of CS12 improved physical properties of both soils used.

[Mohamed M.M. The influence of Cationic Surface Active Agent on Physical Properties of Some Egyptian Soils. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):92-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.12


Key Words: Cationic surfactant-physical properties-sandy soil-calcareous soil.

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Efficacy of metam sodium and metam potassium on root-knot nematode and Fusarium root rot fungus in cucumber plants in controlled agricultural systems


Ahlam, M. El-Ghonaimy1, Karima, H. E. Haggag2 and Wafaa M. A. El-Nagdi3


1Plant Protection Department, Nematology Unit, Desert Research Center, Cairo

2Department of Pest Rearing, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

3Nematology Laboratory, Department of Plant Pathology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



Abstract: Effects of metam sodium (Solasan 51% SL, a.i., w∕v) [MS] and metam potassium (Tamifume 69% SL, a.i., w∕v) [MP], in addition soil treated with essential plant oils  such as Aloe-vera barbadensis (Aole-vera), Eucalyptus globules (Eucalyptus), Lupinus luteus (Lupinus) and Sesamum indicum( Sesame) on populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), disease incidence (%) of root rot (Fusarium solani),total microbial counts of fungi, aerobic bacteria  and spore forming bacteria, frequency (%) of common fungi and yield of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied, in controlled agricultural systems, under commercial plastic house conditions after 45 and 90 days of treatment. Two experiments were conducted. An experiment I was designed to estimate the effect of MS and MP, separately. A second experiment was conducted to study the effect of MP only or combined with essential plant oils. Results revealed that all treatments highly reduced the populations of M. incognita parameters, than untreated control. In experiment I, MP highly reduced the total final population of nematode, than MS as well as untreated control, where rates of built up reached to 0.035 & 0.065 with MP, 0.068 & 0.080 with MS, compared to 1.130 & 2.620 in untreated control, respectively. In experiment II, soil fumigated with MP plus treated essential plant oils of Aole-vera, Eucalyptus and Sesame highly reduced the nematode population, than other treatments. Our results also revealed that all treatments highly reduced the incidence (%) of root rot disease, than untreated control.MP highly reduced the disease incidence, than MS in experiment I. In experiment II, MP only, MP + Aole-vera and MP + Eucalyptus highly reduced the disease incidence, than other treatments. Effects of treatments on microbial counts as well as on frequency % of common fungi in rhizospheres of treated cucumber plants as well as untreated control were determined. All treatments increased the yield parameters of cucumber fruits.i.e. averages of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant in one harvest as well as fruit yield weight per plant in one season (about 12 harvests).

[Ahlam, M. El-Ghonaimy, Karima, H. E. Haggag and Wafaa M. A. El-Nagdi. Efficacy of metam sodium and metam potassium on root-knot nematode and Fusarium root rot fungus in cucumber plants in controlled agricultural systems. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):96-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.13


Key words: Cucumber, root-knot nematode, Fusarium root rot fungus, microbial count, metam sodium and metam potassium

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The Effect of Orlistat and Metformin Treatment on Body Weight, Liver Steatsis, Leptin and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Rats Fed High Fat Diet


Sanaa Jameel Thamer*


*Biology Department, College of Sciences, Basrah University, Iraq.



Abstract: The anti-obesity drugs are indicated for obesity management when used in conjunction with reduced calorie diet, some researches hesitate to use the medical treatment for NAFLD. The aim of the research is to study the short term effect of orlistat and metformin on body weight and liver histology in obese rats feeding high fat diet. The obesity was induced by feeding wistar female rats with high fat diet (HF 45%) for 12 weeks with a control group low fat diet (LF 10%), the obese rats divided to three subgroups: the first group treated with orlista, the second group treated with metformin, the third group without treatment (placebo) for 4 weeks with feeding high fat diet. The food intake and body weight were recorded. At the end of experimental period, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hormonal measurements with liver histological study. Treatment obese rats for 4 weeks with orlistat and metformin reduced significantly (p<0.05) food and energy intake (65.4730.767 gm/week, 68.110.363gm/week; 309.693.632 kcal/week, 321.043.602 kcal/week), body weight (320.542.291 gm, 319.3472.518 gm), BMI (0.6550.009, 0.6530.013), LOI (0.3090.001, 0.3090.002) and AI (8.430.560, 8.260.852), in addition to modulate plasma Leptin and Insulin concentrations (3.500.437, 3.020.682ng/ml ; 0.7700.094, 0.6510.129 ng/ml) and improve Insulin sensitivity by reducing fasting plasma glucose and HOMI (12.620.321mmol/L, 12.250.500mmol/L; 9.170.867, 7.750.596). The two drugs had favorable effects on fasting plasma lipids and lipoprotein concentrations. Liver steatosis was decreased in both drugs and decreased levels of liver enzymes (131.3750.929, 167.7510.350; 115.600 0.620, 157.497 0.306 IU/L). Treated obese rats with orlistat or metformin can correct obesity, Leptin and Insulin resistance in high fat fed obese rats and have anti atherogenic properties in addition to improve liver function and histological response in NAFLD.

[Sanaa Jameel Thamer. The Effect of Orlistat and Metformin Treatment on Body Weight, Liver Steatsis, Leptin and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Rats Fed High Fat Diet. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):107-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.14


Key words: anti obesity drugs, liver steatosis, Leptin and Insulin sensitivity.

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Treatment of Cotton Knitted Garments with Natural Silk Fibroin for Skin Care and Ultraviolet Radiation Protection


Yousif A. Elhassaneen1 and Abdallah A. Hussein2


1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, 2Dept. of Clothes and Textile, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

Corresponding author: yousif12@hotmail.com


Abstract: This study aimed to investigate some chemical structure of Egyptian natural silk fibroin (NSF) as well as using their solutions with knitted cotton fabrics for the production of functional clothing for skin care and protection from UV radiation. As for the fibroin chemical composition consists of residues of 23 amino acids whose ratio varies between different areas of its supramolecular structure. Glycine, alanine and serine were the most abundant amino acids, together comprising 83.24% of the total amino acids present. By after 15 consecutive days of application on twenty volunteers, the designed/tested tools manufactured from knitted cotton fabrics treated with NSF and thickening agents (starch or gum arabic) such pillow and T-shirt induced significant improvement in all panel test evaluation factors including moisturization, softening, relaxation, and overall appearance. Also, cotton knitted fabric treated with NSF showed good class of UV protection (UPF values 15-24) which improved by treating with different thickening agents and recorded very good class (UPF values 25-40). In conclusion, like of those industrial applications will be opened new avenue in the field of medical and cosmetic sciences through producing of some effectiveness and low coast functional clothing for skin care and protection from UV radiation.

[Yousif A. Elhassaneen and Abdallah A. Hussein. Treatment of Cotton Knitted Garments with Natural Silk Fibroin for Skin Care and Ultraviolet Radiation Protection. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):115-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.15


Keywords: fibroin structure, ultraviolet protection factor, spectral analysis, functional clothing, T-shirt.

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Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions using composite hydrogel prepared by gamma irradiation


H. Kamal


Polymer Chemistry Department, Nanatiol Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: The adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) cationic dye from aqueous solution was carried out by using polymeric hydrogels of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) with inorganic clay. The hydrogels were prepared by gamma irradiation technology and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The factors influencing adsorption capacity of the prepared hydrogels such as copolymer composition, clay content, pH, initial dye concentration, ionic strength, and temperature were investigated. To describe the adsorption data, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used and the results clarified that these models were well fitted. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process was consistent with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The results demonstrated that the PVA/AA/clay composite hydrogel can be used as efficient adsorbent for the removal of MB dye from waste water.

[H. Kamal. Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions using composite hydrogel prepared by gamma irradiation. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):125-133]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.16


Key words: Composite hydrogel, gamma radiation, Methylene Blue, adsorption isotherm

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Returns and Economical Efficiency of Barki Sheep Fed on Salt Tolerant Plants in Sinai, Egypt


Mona I. Mohammady, A.H. Hammam and N. H. Ibrahim


Animal Production and Poultry Division, Desert Research Center, Mataryia, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Forty Barki ewes (3.5 – 4.5) years, averaged (35 3.5 kg) body weight, fed conventional feeding (berseem hay and concentrate feed mixtures) and non conventional feeding (halophytic silage and concentrate feed mixtures) cultivated in salt affected soil to evaluate biological and economical efficiency from flushing stage until weaning age in South Sinai. Ewes were randomly divided into 2 groups (20 each). Group 1 (G1) received berseem hay and concentrate feed mixture (control), while group 2 (G2) received halophytic silage and concentrate feed mixture. Biological efficiency was estimated as, the ratio of total weaned lambs to the total feed intake as dry matter (DM). The result showed that, lambing rate was estimated as 90%for G1 and 80% for G2. Average DMI per head was found (292.8 kg vs. 274.1 kg) for G1 and G2 throughout the experimental period (298 days). Type of feed had no significant effect (P < 0.05) on birth weight (3.41 and 3.32 kg), weaning weight (14.25 and 11.07 kg) and average daily gain of lambs (0.120 and 0.087 kg) for G1 and G2, respectively. The values of biological and economical efficiency were 24.2 and 30.97 kg and 50 and 68.9 for G1and G2, respectively. Both economical biological were comparable and have the same trend. The study concluded that, halophytic silage could be utlized in feeding Barki ewes without severe biological disorders.

Mona I. Mohammady, A.H. Hammam and N. H. Ibrahim. Returns and Economical Efficiency of Barki Sheep Fed on Salt Tolerant Plants in Sinai, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(4):134-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100414.17


Keywords: Biological efficiency, economical efficiency, halophytic silage, Barki sheep.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 15, 2014. 
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2014 Marsland Press