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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online)

Volume 10, Issue 11, Cumulated No. 81, November 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1011, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003

 

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CONTENTS   

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Evaluation of puberty in relation to iron overload in multi transfused B-thalassemia patients

 

Alzahraa EA Sharaf¹, Safaa H. Ali1 and Hasnaa A. Abo-Elwafa²

 

1Pediatric Department, 2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

safaah003@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective; Prospective study to determine the prevalence of delayed puberty in thalassemia major patients in Sohag University Hospital. This study also aimed to determine serum gonadotropin and sex hormone levels in these patients and correlate these to their serum ferritin. Methods; This cross sectional study included 30 Thalassemia Major Patients, aged 12 to 18 years. Puberty was assessed clinically and the laboratory values of various hormone levels were stratified with their age and sexual maturity. Relation between serum ferritin level and sex hormone was assessed. Results. of 30 patients, 66.7% had not attained puberty, and 100% of the girls had primary amenorrhea. F.S.H level was 1.45 ±1.88 mIU/ml before giving gonadotropin hormone analogue and after 4 hours of giving hormone, it was 3.78 ±4.19 mIU/ml. LH level before giving gonadotropin hormone analogue was 1.91 ±4.79 mIU/ml, while after 4 hours it was 6.52 ±7.50 mIU/ml. 88.24% of male cases had low serum testosterone level. 84.62% of female cases had low serum estradiol level. Correlation between serum ferritin with F.S.H, L.H, estradiol, testosterone before and after giving G.N.R.H analogue were statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Hypogonadism was frequent findings. The results support the need for vigilant clinical evaluation of puberty, as well as appropriate hormonal evaluation in poly transfused thalassemic children in order to detect and treat endocrine dysfunction early. The authors also recommend aggressive and adequate chelation from early life so that permanent damage to the endocrine glands can be prevented.

[Alzahraa EA.Sharaf, Safaa H. Ali and Hasnaa A.Abo-Elwafa. Evaluation of puberty in relation to iron overload in multi transfused B-thalassemia patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.01

 

Keywords: Multitransfused thalassemia. Hypogonadism. Delayed puberty.

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Diagnostic Performance of Multi-slice Computed Tomography in evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts

 

Islam Shawky, Ahmed Yehia, Shady Mansy, MostafaIsmaeil, A-Rahman Sharaf and M. Salim Elbaz.

 

Cardiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University.

 

Abstract: Background. Assessment of bypass grafts body and their anastomotic sites by invasive coronary angiography have a risk of potentially life-threatening complications and often require extra procedure time, contrast load, and radiation exposure. Cardiac CT angiography (CTA) is most frequently performed to assess the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to exclude significant stenosis. The modality shows excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value in patient with low-to-intermediate pretest probability for CAD.1We sought that dual-source multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) angiography will have an excellent role in the assessment of graft patency and degree of stenosis in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Objective: The objective of the study is assess the diagnostic accuracy of dual source 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in diagnosis and assessment of severity of stenosis of aortocoronary bypass grafts. Patients and Methods. A 64-dual-source MSCT was performed to 51, 49 men and 2 women and their age ranges from 38 to 76 years with a mean of 58.6 ± 8 years. All the patients were symptomatic patients with previous CABG surgery. The time interval between the surgery and enrollment in the study ranged from 3 to 252 months with a mean of 73.41 ±65.84 months.The patients underwent MSCT coronary angiography followed by invasive coronary angiography within four weeks without any coronary attack between the two studies. Heart rate control was done with oral beta blockers. Sublingual nitrates was given 2-3 min before the scan. A total of 142 graft body and 142 anastomotic sites were analyzed by two independent blinded observers. Six grafts were excluded because they were non-evaluable by MSCT. Results. MSCT identified non-significant stenosis in 94 grafts body, 103 anastomotic site (total = 197) and significant stenosis in 48 grafts body and 39 anastomotic site (total = 87). ICA identified non-significant stenosis in 92 grafts body, 100 anastomotic site (total = 192) and significant stenosis in 50 grafts body and 42 anastomotic sit (total = 92).There is no statistical significant difference between MSCT and ICA for detection of stenosis and assessment of its severity (P = NS). Thus the MSCT is sensitive (sensitivity = 94.57%) and specific (specificity = 97.52%) for diagnosis and assessment of the severity of stenosis of coronary artery bypass grafts (body and anastomotic site) with a positive predictive value of 94.57%, negative predictive value of 97.52%, and diagnostic accuracy of 96.60%. Conclusion. Noninvasive MSCT angiography is an excellent tool for evaluating patency or degree stenosis of bypass grafts body and their anastomotic sites in post-CABG patients.

[Islam Shawky, Ahmed Yehia, Shady Mansy, MostafaIsmaeil, A-Rahman Sharaf and M. Salim Elbaz. Diagnostic Performance of Multi-slice Computed Tomography in evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):8-17]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.02

 

Keywords: Diagnostic Performance; Multi-slice; Tomography; coronary artery bypass grafts

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Rheological characteristics of Arabic gum suspension and Plantago seeds mucilage

 

Dalia M. El Sheikh

 

Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

dr_dalia2@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Rheological characteristics of different fluids are useful technologically to identify the most appropriate food system design as well as optimize operating conditions. This study was carried out to compare between chemical composition and rheological properties of Arabic Gum and Plantago seeds. Arabic Gum contained higher crude protein content, fat, total carbohydrates and ash (15.53, 2.13, 62.36 and 9.11, respectively) compared to Plantago seeds. Meanwhile, Plantago seeds had contained higher value of crude fiber (26.65). The higher mean sugar percentage was recorded to galactose in Arabic gum (40.3%) and glucuronic acid in Plantago seeds (15.3%). The shear rate-shear stress data of Arabic gum suspension and Plantago seeds mucilage at concentration 15, 20 and 25%w/v indicated behaved as non-Newtonian pseudo plastic fluid. Consistency index (k) and flow behavior index (n) increases as Arabic gum concentration increased while it decreases as Plantago concentration increased. The maximum apparent viscosity was dictated for Arabic gum at concentration 25% While, the maximum viscosity for Plantago dictated at concentration 15%. Moreover, only Arabic gum indicated thixotropic effect at concentration 15, 25%.

[Dalia M. El Sheikh. Rheological characteristics of Arabic gum suspension and Plantago seeds mucilage. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):18-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.03

 

Key words: Rheological - Arabic gum – Plantago seeds mucilage

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FPGA Implementation of the Non-Redundant Error-Correcting Scheme Based on Chaotic Dynamics

 

Hikmat N. Abdullah and Sarab K. Mahmood

 

Department of Electrical Engineering, Al-Mustansiryah University, Bab Al-Moadham, Baghdad 10001, Iraq

hikmat_04@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper presents the design procedure and implementation results of a non- redundant error correcting scheme based on chaotic dynamics using Altera Cyclone III family FPGA board. The scheme is first designed using MATLAB-Simulink then converted to VHDL codes for implementation purposes using the modern tool “Simulink HDL Coder”. The simulation waveforms have been obtained using ModelSim Altera 6.5b. Synthesis reports and board programming files have been obtained using the QUARTUS II 9.1 package. ALTERA-Cyclone III FPGA board has been used as target devices for implementation purpose. The hardware test results show that the coding scheme functions successfully.

[Abdullah HN and Mahmood SK. FPGA Implementation of the No-Redundant Error-Correcting Scheme Based on Chaotic Dynamics. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):25-30]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.04

 

Keywords: Analogue channel coding; Chaotic signals; noncoherent detection; Field programmable gate arrays.

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Occupational hazards to anesthetists and their prevention

 

Safaa M. Helal1, Ayman A. Rady1, Alaa Eldin A. Aiad1, Mahmoud A. Zahran2.

 

1Anesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management Faculty of Medicine, Menoufyia University, Egypt.

2Shebein el-kom teaching hospital, Egypt

dr_safaahelal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and objectives: Newer developments and advancements in anesthesiology, surgical and medical fields have widened the functional scope of anesthesiologist thus increasing his professional responsibilities and obligations. While at workplace, anesthesiologist is exposed to a wide array of potential hazards that can be detrimental to his overall health. Numerous risks and safety concerns have been mentioned in this article, but the magnitude of challenges in anesthesiology practice are far greater than those cited and anticipated. This article is an attempt to bring a general awareness among anesthesia fraternity about the various health hazards associated with anesthesia practice. Also, a genuine attempt has been made to enumerate the various preventive methods and precautions that should be adopted to make practice of anesthesiology safe and smooth. Content: We present a classification of risk and its relationship to occupational diseases. Also, the various preventive precautions that should be adopted. Conclusion: Control of occupational hazards to which anesthesiologists are exposed daily is necessary in order to develop an appropriate workplace and minimize risks to the good practice of anesthesiology. This contributes to decrease absenteeism, improve patients’ care and quality of life of anesthesiologists.

[Safaa M. Helal, Ayman A. Rady, Alaa Eldin A. Aiad, Mahmoud A. Zahran Occupational hazards to anesthetists and their prevention. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):31-36]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.05

 

Keywords: Anesthesiology, Occupational Diseases, Occupational Health, Risk.

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Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin and Vitamin C against Cisplatin Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in Albino Rats

 

Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Mansour H. Zahra, Ahmed A. Hendawy, Reham Z. Hamza and Gehad A. Mekky *

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

ge.mekky@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Curcumin, a biologically active compound from turmeric and vitamin C act as a natural antioxidant and potent chemopreventive agent. The objective of the study was to investigate whether the combined pretreatment with curcumin and vitamin C offers more beneficial effects than that provided by either of them alone in reversing cisplatin (Cis) - induced hepatotoxicity. This was done through studying the effects of cisplatin and its combination with either curcumin or vitamin C and their combinations on some liver function parameters like liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, and globulin as well as antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH and MDA) in liver homogenates. For this purpose, 90 male Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups (n = 10). The 1st (normal control group) received distilled water. The 2nd (Saline group) injected interperitoneal with physiological saline. The 3rd (Gum acacia group). The 4th (Curcumin treated group), rats were given curcumin (20 mg/kg b.wt). The 5th (Vitamin C treated group), received vit. C (100 mg/kg b.wt). The 6th (Cisplatin treated group), rats were intraperitoneal (i.p.) injected with cisplatin(0.4 mg/kg body weight b.wt). The 7th (Cis + vitamin C treated group), The 8th (Cis + Cur treated group) and The 9th (Cis + vitamin C + Cur treated group), rats were pre-treated with a single dose of vitamin C (100 mg/kg b.wt), curcumin (20 mg/kg b.wt) and combined vitamin C with curcumin, respectively, for 20 minutes prior the administration of cisplatin. After 60 days of first injection, blood samples and liver specimens were collected. Liver function parameters and antioxidant enzymes were investigated. Results showed Cisplatin revealed a significant increase of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a significant reduction of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activities and GSH level compared to the saline group. It elicited a marked increase of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and decreasing in total protein, albumin and globulins levels. Pre-treatment with combined curcumin and vitamin C improved the liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, Mansour H. Zahra, Ahmed A. Hendawy, Reham Z. Hamza and Gehad A. Mekky. Hepatoprotective Effect of Curcumin and Vitamin C against Cisplatin Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):37-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.06

 

Keywords: Cisplatin, Oxidative stress, Curcumin, vitamin C, Hepatotoxicity

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Features and development directions of non-cash transactions via electronic payment systems in information economy

 

Akif F.Musayev1, Alovsat G.Aliyev2, Elza H.Musayeva3

 

1Doctor of Economics, Professor, Correspondent members of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences)

2Head of department of the Institute of Information Technology of ANAS, Ph.D. in economics, as. professor

3Senior scientist of Institute of Information Technology of ANAS

1 Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan

2,3Institute of Information Technology of ANAS, Baku, AZ1141, Azerbaijan

1akif.musayev@gmail.com, 2 alovsat_qaraca@mail.ru, 3depart8@iit.ab.az

 

Abstract: The paper substantiates the relevance of non-cash payments and transactions in the formation of the modern information economy. The main objective of the non-cash payments is explained and the impact of psychological factors is analyzed. Modern electronic payment systems are classified, and requirements to them are shown. The process of improving payment systems through POS terminals and the foreign experience in this process are analyzed. A number of proposals and recommendations are put forward basing on a real statistics as the result of the analysis of non-cash transactions in Azerbaijan.

[Akif F. Musayev, Alovsat G.Aliyev, Elza H. Musayeva.. Features and development directions of non-cash transactions via electronic payment systems in information economy. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):49-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.07

 

Keywords: electronic payment systems, non-cash payments, non-cash transactions, POS terminals, ATM, payment cards, Internet banking

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Effect of Drinking Natural Sea Saline Water on Growth Performance, Some Blood Parameters and Carcass Traits on New Zealand White Rabbits

 

Huda Qar1 and U. M. Abdel-Monem2

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, King Abdul Aziz University, Rabgh, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagaig University, Zagazig, Egypt

ormamohamed_2010@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: This experiment was carried out to study the effect of drinking natural sea saline water on growth performance and some blood parameters of growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits reared under Saudi Arabia conditions. The obtained results indicated that the final body weight, live body gain daily feed intake, feed conversion, water intake, plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, total lipids, cholesterol and urea-N were decreased (p<0.05&0.01) significantly with drinking growing rabbits natural sea water. Also, the carcass weight, dressing % and prime cuts % were decreased, while the rectal temperature and respiration rate were insignificantly affected by the using natural sea saline water up to 20% / litter well water.

[Huda Qar and U. M. Abdel-Monem. Effect of Drinking Natural Sea Saline Water on Growth Performance, Some Blood Parameters and Carcass Traits on New Zealand White Rabbits. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):55-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.08

 

Key words: salinity, rabbits, growth performance, blood parameters

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Clinical Evaluation of Cox-2 Inhibitor for Management of Post Operative Complications after Odontectomy of Impacted Lower Third Molar

 

Shimaa. S. Ahmed; Eman. A. ElSharrawy and Tamer. A.Hamed

 

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University

shimaa_surgery@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: to compare the efficacy of cox-2 inhibitor (celebrex) with NSAID (ibuprofen) on the postoperative complications after odontectomy of impacted lower third molar which are pain edema and trismus. Patients and Methods: atotal of 40 patients (20 males, 20 females) with impacted lower third molar divided into two equal groups. Group I: twenty patients treated with 600 mg/12h ibuprofen, GroupII: twenty patients treated with 200mg/12 h celebrex. Results: the results showed that compared with NSAID (ibuprofen) cox-2 inhibitor(celebrex) had superior analgesic effect on all measures of analgesic efficacy, in the 1 day post-operative it was 4.35 ± 1.14 in the NSAID group and 3.05 ± 1.64 in the cox-2 inhibitor group with p-value 0.01 * but at the 3 days post-operative it was 1.60 ± 2.04 in the NSAID group and 0 in the cox-2 inhibitor group with p- value 0.03 *, but there is no significant difference in the assessment of edema and trismus between the two groups. Conclusion: cox-2 inhibitor (celebrex) had superior analgesic effect when compared with the traditional NSAID (ibuprofen) but there is no significant difference between them in reduction of edema and trismus.

[Shimaa S. Ahmed; Eman. A. ElSharrawy and Tamer. A. Hamed. Clinical Evaluation of Cox-2 Inhibitor for Management of Post Operative Complications after Odontectomy of Impacted Lower Third Molar. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):60-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.09

 

Key words: Celebrex, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) inhibitor, NSAIDS, ibuprofen, pain, edema and trismus.

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Study of serum Cystatin C and Resistive Index as predictors of hepato-renal syndrome in Egyptian patients with advanced liver disease

 

Elsayed G. Ammar1, Mahmoud B. Ismail2 Mahmoud Elsayed morsy3, Ismail M. El mansy3 and khaled S. Karam4

 

Tropical Medicine Departement1, Clinical Pathology Departement2, General Medicine Departement3 Radiodiagnosis Department4 Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar Univerisity

drsaidammar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Liver cirrhosis is a common problem in Egypt due to prevalence of hepatitis C virus, hepatorenal syndrome(HRS)is one of major complications of cirrhosis.Serum cystatin C concentration is a reliable and accurate marker of GFR so Cystatin c is a more specific than serum creatinine in detection of impaired renal function in patients with (HRS).also Duplex Doppler can be used to assess vascular resistance in the small renal intraparenchymal vessels through simple analysis of the Doppler waveform by a parameter termed the resistive index (RI)an elevated RI (reflecting intrarenal vasoconstriction)has been observed in various conditions associated with elevated renal vascular resistance should be detectable in liver disease related Intense intracranial vasoconstriction is an early hallmark of this functional kidney failure. The aim of this work was Study of serum Cystatin C and Resistive index as predictors of hepato-renal syndrome in Egyptian patients with advanced liver disease. Method: this study was conducted on 30 patients with advanced liver disease admitted at Tropical medicine department, Al-Azhar university hospitals during the interval between September 2013 – May 2014. All patients were subjected to the followings. Full history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations, Serum Cystatin c at day 0 and 2 month. Abdominal U.S, Renal Doppler U.S. Results: From this study Serum cystatin c is statistically significant in both groups at 0 day in comparison with serum creatinine which elevated only in control group. Serum Cystatin c is significantly elevated in both groups (Mean is 2.040 ± SD 0.676) for the study group and (Mean is 2.073 ± SD 0.632) for control group.There is a highly significant elevation of serum Cystatin c either at 0 day or at 2m with (Mean 2.0 ± SD0.7) at baseline and (Mean 2.4± SD 0.5) at 2m.in the study group but with no statistically significant difference in serum Cystatin c during follow up from 0 day to 2m.,renal Doppler ultrasound in both groups shows Increased Resistive Index (RI) was detected in about 10 patients = 66.67%, in study group and11 patients = 73.33% in control group Conclusion: Cystatin c is a more specific than serum creatinine in detection of impaired renal function in patients with (HRS), Renal Duplex Doppler ultrasonography used as noninvasive predictor of kidney dysfunction and hepatorenal syndrome in advanced liver disease.

[Elsayed G. Ammar, Mahmoud B. Ismail Mahmoud Elsayed morsy, Ismail M. El mansy and khaled S. Karam. Study of serum Cystatin C and Resistive Index as predictors of hepato-renal syndrome in Egyptian patients with advanced liver disease. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):64-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.10

  

Keywords: cystatin c, resistive index and hepatorenal syndrome

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The Effect of Pentoxifylline in the Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis

 

Mohamed S El Frargy1,Mohamed A Rowisha1 and Azza M. Hassan2

 

Departments of 1Pediatrics and 2Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

farargy2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficiency of pentoxifylline as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of neonatal sepsis. Patients and Methods: A prospective case -control study was conducted on 50 neonates with neonatal sepsis on the basis of both clinical and laboratory criteria. They were collected from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Tanta University Hospital from June 2013 to June 2014, and were divided into two groups:Group 1(G1):25 neonates with sepsis received pentoxifylline (Trental, Boehring-Hoechst, Germany) intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg per hour for 6 h. the infusion was repeated on the 2nd and 3rd day of therapy and received also antibiotics according to the standard protocol and Group 2(G2): 25 neonates with sepsis not receiving pentoxifylline but received antibiotics according to the standard protocol. So, the two groups given antibiotics according to the standard protocol (Ampicillin plus Gentamycin). Results. Shows that there is a significant reduction in CRP level in PTX group than control group with statistical significance between both groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Administration of pentoxifylline as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of sepsis in neonates is associated with improvement of clinical and laboratory outcome of septic neonate with better prognosis and outcome.

[Mohamed S El Frargy,Mohamed A Rwisha and Azza M. Hassan. The Effect of Pentoxifylline in the Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):71-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.11

 

Keywords: pentoxifylline, neonates, sepsis

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Antimicrobial Activities of Some Herbs Extracts on Food Borne Bacteria.

 

Mohamed Abdel-Raouf1, Mohamed Nabil2, Mona El-Sayed2

 

1 Gastro - Enterology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Vet. Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

mohamed.raouf999@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Food poisoning illness outbreaks caused by some pathogenic bacteria and / or their toxins is still a concern for both consumers and the food industry.The increasing antibiotic resistance of some pathogens that are associated with food borne illness is another concern. There is growing interest in using natural antibacterial compounds, such as extracts of spices and herbs for food preservation. The present investigation was planned out to throw a light on the presence of food poisoning bacteria in different food samples and study antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of some medicinal plant. Salmonella was detected in chicken thighs meat, chicken wings and chicken livers with 66.7%, 37.5%, and, 40% respectively while were not isolated from chicken frankfurters, beef sausages or peanut butter. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from chicken thighs, chicken wings. Chicken livers, chicken frankfurters and fresh beef sausage with 25%, 37.5%, 13.3%, and, 25% respectively. Bacillus cereus found in chicken livers, chicken frankfurters, fresh beef sausages, frozen beef sausage and peanut butter with 20%, 75%, 83.3%, 60%,and, 42% respectively. Pseudomonas was isolated from chicken thighs, and chicken wings with 25% and 37.5%. Klebsiella was isolated from chicken livers, and chicken wings with 40% and 37.5%. Citrobacter was isolated from chicken livers, and chicken thighs with 20% and 50%. Enterobacter was isolated from chicken thighs, chicken wings, with 8.4% and 25% respectively. Seven spice (Cloves, Cinnamon, Black cumin seeds, Cumin, Black and White pepper and Ginger) were shown to have an inhibitory effect against Salmonella, S. aureus and B. cereus which are an important pathogen in food poisoning. Cloves, Black cumin seeds extracts were found to be the most effective plant against almost tested microorganisms. Fennel, Garlic, Cardamom and Red chili pepper ware found to be ineffective against the isolated bacteria.

[Mohamed Nasr Mohamed. Elkatry Criminal Protection against Corruption. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):76-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.12

 

Keywords: Food poisoning, Antimicrobial, Medicinal plant.

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Effect of the Anti-Rheumatic Drug Leflunomide (Avara®) on The Pyloric Region of Stomach of Adult Male Albino Rats and The Possible Protective Effect of Ranitidine (Histological and Histochemical Study)

 

Gamal Mohammed El- Badawy Hagras, Magda Ahmed Mansour, Nagwa Saad Ghoneim , Ramadan Abd El- Wanis-EL Damhogy and Seham Ahmed Mohammed Abdel Aziz.

 

Department of Histology -Faculty of Medicine- Menoufyia University

dr.sehamhist@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The study was aimed to determine the histological and histochemical changes induced by leflunomideon the pyloric region of rat stomach and to clarify the possible protective effect of ranitidine. Background: Lefluomide (Avara®) is an immunomodulating agent and disease modifying anti rheumatic drug with anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive activity. Ranitidine (Histamine H2 receptor antagonist) is used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats weighting 100-150g were divided into four groups: group (1), 10 rats received 2ml distilled water by oral route for 4 weeks and served as -ve control. Group (2), 10 rats received ranitidine at a dose of 20mg/kg b.w/ day by I.m injection for 4 weeks and served as + ve control group. Group (3) 20 rats received avara at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w/ day dissolved in 2ml distilled water by oral route for 4 weeks. Rats of this group were divided into 2 equal subgroup. Subgroup (A) was sacrificed after 4 weeks. Subgroup (B) was left for another 2 weeks without treatment and served as recovery group, Group (4), 10 rats received leflunomide and ranitidine at the same previous doses and the same route of administration for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, samples were dissected, processed for both L/M and E/M studies. Also sections were immune-stained for caspase-3 and PCNA. The area% of collagen in the submucosa, mucosal thickness, number of +ve caspase-3 cells and +ve PCNA cells were statistically analyzed. Results: This study revealed that avara treated group showed histological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes in pyloric mucosa.Concomitant administration of ranitidine with avararevaled good in the histological pictures. However recovery group revealed very mild improvement.Conclusion: Leflunomide induces histological, histochemical and ultrastructural changes in the gastric mucosa and these changes were improved with coupling therapy of leflunomide with ranitidine so ranitidine is highly recommended with leflunomide.

[Gamal Mohammed El- Badawy Hagras, Magda Ahmed Mansour, Nagwa Saad Ghoneim, Ramadan Abd El- Wanis-EL Damhogy and Seham Ahmed Mohammed Abdel Aziz. Effect of the Anti-Rheumatic Drug Leflunomide (Avara®) on the pyloric region of stomach of Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Protective Effect of Ranitidine (Histological and Histochemical Study). J Am Sci 2014;10(11):86-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.13

 

Key words: avara, ranitidine, pyloric mucosa.

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Electrodiagnostic studies in workers Exposed to hand–arm vibration

 

Essam M. Ebrahim1, Mohammad E Omar1, Wael Osman Mohamed1, Sabry Mohamed Fathy1, Esam M. Ghamry2, Hossam Abd El Monem Ali1 and Sherif M. Al shazly1.

 

1Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt.

2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo

esamghamry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is an occupational disease that may afflict workers who operate hand held vibrating tools. The risk of developing HAVS relates to a number of factors which include individual worker susceptibility, as well as the frequency, duration and amplitude of exposure. Vibration may cause damage to the vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal systems of the upper limbs which may manifest as HAVS, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) or both. Aim of the study: To verify the electrodiagnostic pattern of different types of neuropathy among workers who using hand held vibrating tool in Damietta (Becatronics CNC machine). Patients and methods: The study included 100 subjects. Group A: (Exposure group) Manual workers exposed to hand-held vibrating tool (Becatronics CNC machine) more than 2 years (50 subjects). Group B: (Control group) who not exposed to hand-held vibrating tools (50 subjects). Group A divided into three groups with Stockholm Workshop scale (SWS), SN0 6(12%),SN1 29(58%) SN2 15(30%). All subjects underwent electrophysiological assessment of median, ulnar and radial nerves. The following parameters were observed; sensory and motor terminal latencies, conduction velocity, amplitude of SNAP (sensory nerve action potential) and CMAP (compound muscle action potential), F wave latencies, insertional activity, MUP (motor unit potential), and interference pattern. Results: In our case controlled comparative study, for both median and ulnar nerves there was significant prolonged motor and sensory latencies, increase F wave latency, while there was significant decrease of NCV and motor amplitude. In addition, EMG results of both median and ulnar nerves revealed that; there were significant denervation in exposure group when compared to control but right side more affected than left side. Furthermore, both radial nerves show no affection, and the duration of the work is the most common determinant factor for nerve conduction abnormalities detected in the present study. Finally, median nerve is the most nerve affected of workers who exposed to vibration then ulnar nerve less affected and radial nerve which not affected. Conclusion: Cases expose to hand held vibration tool (Beca tronics CNC machine) had changes in the nerve conduction and EMG studies. And the most powerful determinant factor for these changes was the duration of exposure. In addition there was NCV (nerve conduction velocity) changes (demyelination) in cases without clinical symptoms. Thus, NCV can be used for early detection of nerve affection in cases with HAVS.

[Essam M Ebrahim,, Mohammad E Omar, Wael Osman Mohamed, Sabry Mohamed Fathy, Esam M. Ghamry, Hossam Abd El Monem Ali and Sherif M. Al shazly. Electrodiagnostic studies in workers Exposed to hand–arm vibration. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):101-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.14

 

Key words: Hand-Held Vibration tool, NCS, EMG

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A prospective comparative study between trabeculectomy alone versus trabeculectomy with Ologen for patients with open angle glaucoma two years follows up.

 

Mohamed A El-Malah, Abdallah E Shelil, Gamal Tahoon, Mahmoud A Saleh, Ahmed I Galhoom, Ahmad G Elmahdyand Hossam El din A Ziada

 

Ophthalmology departments, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo.

 

Abstract: Subject: A prospective comparative study between trabeculectomy alone versus trabeculectomy with Ologen for patients with open angle glaucoma two years follows up. Introduction: Recent studies reported that the use of a biodegradable collagen glycosamino-glycan matrix (ologen) implant in the subconjunctival space offers an alternative method for wound healing modulation of MMC after glaucoma surgery. Ologen is composed of a three-dimensional disc-shaped porous structure that implanted over scleral flap before closure of conjunctiva during trabeculectomy. Ologen regulate aqueous flow by keeping pressure on top of the scleral flap and by acting as a reservoir, as aqueous gets absorbed into its porous structure. Patient and Methods: A prospective randomized clinical study was done in Al-Azhar university hospitals. Thirty-two eyes were presented by POAG or PEX glaucoma included in this study. 16 eyes treated by trabeculectomy alone (control group) and the other 16 eyes treated by trabeculectomy with subconjuctival implant of ologen (ologen or study group). Follow up for 2 years were done. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS program and Student’s test. Results: It is found that; mean IOP in ologen group was 13.16±1.68mmHg and in the control group mean IOP 16.47±3.56mmHg. Regarding to postoperative antiglaucoma medications, in ologen group, the mean was 0.31±0.48 compared to control group 1.06±0.85 drugs, p-value is 0.05. Success rate was 15/16 eyes (93.75%) in the ologen group, in comparison to control group, success rate was 12/16 eyes (75%). Conclusion: This new degradable collagen implant (ologen) improves and normalizes filtering surgical wound healing with more loosely organized bleb tissue and healthy than that unaugmented blebs.

[Mohamed A El-Malah, Abdallah E Shelil, GamalTahoon, Mahmoud A Saleh, Ahmed I Galhoom, Ahmad G Elmahdy and Hossam El din A Ziada. A prospective comparative study between trabeculectomy alone versus trabeculectomy with Ologen for patients with open angle glaucoma two years follows up. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):109-113]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.15

 

Key words: POAG, trabeculectomy, Ologen.

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Design of a synchronized Chaotic Secure Communication in multipath fading channel

 

A. A. Elkouny

 

Faculty of Information Systems & Computer Sciences October 6 University, Cairo, Egypt

aelkouny@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper focuses on the synchronization of two chaotic systems, when they are connected, using a multipath fading channel. The proposed algorithm is then applied to secure communication and realizing it using VHDL. The results reveal that signals to chaos ratio of -248 dB and synchronization are achieved. Performance analysis have been conducted to investigate the robustness of the encryption system against different types of attacks.

[A. A. Elkouny. Design of a synchronized Chaotic Secure Communication in multipath fading channel. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):114-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.16

 

Keywords: Chaotic; encryption; fading channel; synchronization.

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Impact of Nursing Teaching Protocol on reduction of Complications for Patient with Permanent Artificial Pacemaker:

 

Nagwa Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed and Zienab Abd El-Lateef Mohamed

 

Department of Medical-surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.

karambakheet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A cardiac pacemaker is an electronic device that delivers direct stimulation to the heart, the purpose of the pacemaker is to initiate and maintain the heart rate when the heart's natural pacemaker is unable to do so. The aim of this study is three-fold; the first is to determine the educational needs of patients with permanent artificial pacemaker, the second is to design a nursing teaching protocol and the last is to evaluate the impact of the nursing teaching protocol on patient's reduction of pacemaker's complications among a study group as compared to control group. Quasi-experimental research design was utilized to fulfill the aim of this study. The sample comprised 60 male and female adult patients having permanent artificial pacemaker (30 patients for each study and control groups) four tools were utilized for data collection; socio-demographic and medical data sheet, pre-post test questionnaire sheet, observational checklist for radial pulse measurement, and complication assessment sheet. Structured interview and direct observation techniques were utilized for data collection. The mean knowledge scores of both study group was significantly increased post protocol application. Related to patient's ability to count their own pulses improved through it doesn't reach the level of statistical significance. About one third of the control group subjects (30%) developed pacemaker complications as compared to one subject (3.3%) in study group. Establishment of an in-service training center and a hot line contact in additions provision of pamphlets and simple booklet are recommended.

[Nagwa Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed and Zienab Abd El-Lateef Mohamed. Impact of Nursing Teaching Protocol on reduction of Complications for Patient with Permanent Artificial Pacemaker. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):122-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.17

 

Key words: Cardiac pacemaker, Nursing teaching protocol.

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Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy

 

Mohamed Algabsi1, Rafe H1 and Omr El Shourbagy2

 

Surgery1 and Community Medicine2 Departments, Alwahda Hospital- Derna, Faculty of Medicine, Omar Almukhtar University, Libya.

mohd_as15@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Numerous single-institutional randomized clinical trials have assessed the efficacy of laparoscopic and open appendectomy. The results, however, areconflic ting. Objective: To compare length of hospital stay, duration of the operation, in-hospital complications, and rate of routine discharge between laparoscopic and open appendectomy. Methods: Patients with primary ICD-9 procedure codes for laparoscopic and open appendectomy were selected from the inpatient sample, 120 representing 20% of all Alwahda hospital discharges, Derna, Libya, during the year 2006. In addition, 30 inpatient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy at St. Marian hospital, Mulhein an der Ruhr, Germany. Results: Thirty (30) patients (20%) underwent laparoscopic and 120 patients (80%) open appendectomy. Patients had an average age of 26.7 years. Laparoscopic appendectomy was associated with shorter median hospital stay (laparoscopic appendectomy: 2.3+0.9 days, open appendectomy: 3.7+1.2 days, P < 0.001), lower rate of infections (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4 [0.38, 0.66], P < 0.001), decreased gastrointestinal complications (OR = 0.8 [0.68, 0.96], P = 0.02), lower overall complications (OR = 0.84 [0.75, 0.94], P = 0.01), and higher rate of routine discharge (OR = 2.8 [2.5, 4.5], P < 0.001). Conclusions: Laparoscopic appendectomy has significant advantages over open appendectomy with respect to length of hospital stay, rate of routine discharge, and postoperative in hospital morbidity.

[Mohamed Algabsi, Rafe H and Omr El Shourbagy. Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):131-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.18

 

Key Words: Laparoscopy, Appendicitis, Complications, Open appendectomy, Hospital stay.

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Educational Challenges to the Teacher as Seen by High School Teachers in Saudi Arabia

 

Khalid bin Nasser Al-Ohaly

 

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Qassim University

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to identify the educational challenges of the teacher as seen by high school teachers in Saudi Arabia, by answering the following research questions: 1. What are the educational challenges from the perspective of secondary school teachers in Saudi Arabia? 2. Does the educational challenges of the teacher as seen by high school teachers in Saudi Arabia change according to the variables of: the teacher's qualification, experience of specialization, and educational qualification? To achieve this, the researcher chose a sample of (300) teachers from the secondary stage in the Qassim region. Then the Tool was developed to measure the educational challenges of secondary school teachers, consisting of (35) paragraph with a five gradation scale. The tool enjoyed the stability of transactions suitable for application to the study sample. After the study, the analysis of the data showed the following results: 1. There are statistically significant differences at the level of statistical significance (µ ≤ 0.05) between the sample mean estimates of on the area of educational challenges to the teacher as seen by teachers secondary stage in Saudi Arabia, due to the variable "qualification" at all areas, and in favor of the estimates of teachers with high Qualification. 2. There are no statistically significant differences at the level of statistical significance (µ ≤ 0.05) between the mean estimates of the sample on the areas of educational challenges to the teacher as seen by teachers secondary stage in Saudi Arabia due to the variable experience in all areas, except for the area of ​​technology, where the differences were in favor of the estimates of teachers with (less than 5 years, and 5-10 years) of experience. 3. There are statistically significant differences at the level of statistical significance (µ ≤ 0.05) between the mean estimates of the sample on the areas of educational challenges to the teacher as seen by secondary school teachers in Saudi Arabia, due to the variable "specialization" at all areas, in favor of the estimates of the scientific specification. 4. There are no statistically significant differences at the level of statistical significance (µ ≤ 0.05) between the mean estimates of the sample areas on the educational challenges of the teacher as seen by high school teachers in Saudi Arabia, due to the variable "educational qualification".

[Khalid bin Nasser Al-Ohaly. Educational Challenges to the Teacher as Seen by High School Teachers in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):135-146]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.19

 

Keywords: Educational challenges, secondary school teachers, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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Testicular toxic effect of Di-N-Butyl phthalate on adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of Vitamin C & E (ultrastructural, histological and histochemical study)

 

Hala Elharoun1 and Manar A. Bashandy2

 

Histology1 and Anatomy2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

A_z491@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are industrial chemicals used as plasticizers. They are present in a wide variety of products as building materials and food products. Several experimental studies have widely demonstrated the testicular toxicity caused by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Aim of the work: The aim of the present study is to clarify the possible protective effect of vitamin C & E with di-n-butyl phthalate induced testicular germ cell toxic model using simple histological, histochemical and ultrastructure methods. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male albino rats were subjected to experiment for ten days. The animals were divided randomly into four equal groups: control; vitamin C & E treated; treated with Di-N-Butyl phthalate (DBP) and protective (DBP and vitamin C & E treated). Control group, rats in this group were given orally the same amount of vehicle (distilled water and corn oil) and vitamin C & E treated group, received vitamin C & E at a dose of (250 mg/kg b.wt /day) orally daily. Di-N-Butyl phthalate treated group, was administered (DBP) orally with daily dose of (500 ml /kg b.w/day). Protective group, received vitamin C & E at a dose of (250 mg /kg b.wt /day) orally daily 1 hour before oral administration of Di-N-Butyl phthalate. All the animals were sacrificed at day eleven. Both testis of each animal were processed for histological, histo-chemical and ultrastructural studies. Results: In Di-N-Butyl phthalate treated group, histologically and histochemically, rat testis showed marked vacuolations of the lining germinal epithelium of the semineferous tubules, which show marked distortion with very wide lumen, no sperms, a reduction in the thickness of their epithelial lining and reduction of seminefrous tubules diameter. Degeneration of germinal epithelium was observed as well as interstitial tissue. There was strong PAS reaction in relatively thickened basal lamina of seminefrous tubules and overall reduction of PAS reaction in seminiferous tubules germinal epithelium. The ultrastructral changes showed irregular thickened basement membrane, degeneration and shrinkage of spermatocytes. Disorganization of the germinal epithelium, with loss of the spermatogenic cells especially spermatocytes and spermatids with variable sized intracellular vacuoles were observed also. The previous histolopathological changes reported in Di-N-Butyl phthalate treated group confirmed by morphometric measurements as: decrease in tubular diameter, reduction in germinal epithelial height and decrease in testicular weight when compared to control group. Additionally, histological, histochemical and ultrastructural examination of the protective group treated with vitamin C & E displayed improvement in semineferous tubules structure, but still some tubules appeared degenerated. Conclusion: toxic effect of Di-N-Butyl phthalate should be kept in mind during chronic usage. Vitamin C & E advised to be administered in concomitant with DBP as it could ameliorate its adverse effect on rat testis.

[Hala Elharoun and Manar A. Bashandy. Testicular toxic effect of Di-N-Butyl phthalate on adult male albino rat and the possible protective role of Vitamin C & E (ultrastructural, histological and histochemical study). J Am Sci 2014;10(11):147-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.20

 

Key Words: Di-N-Butyl phthalate – vitamin C – vitamin E- rat testis

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Colloid versus Crystalloid Co-load with Spinal Anesthesia during Emergent Cesarean Section and Their Effect on Hemodynamic Changes

 

Mamdouh E. Lotfy1; Ashraf M. Moustafa1; Elham M.E. El Feky1 and Ibrahim A. Mowafy2

 

1Anesthesia and Intensive care Department; Faculty of Medicine-Menoufia University. Egypt.

2Anesthesiology resident, Ministry of Health, Egypt.

mowafy_ibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The study aimed to compare between colloid, crystalloid co-load or combination between them, with spinal anesthesia during emergent cesarean section and their effect on hemodynamic changes. Background: Maternal hypotension is the commonest serious problem following spinal anesthesia for Caesarean section, with an incidence up to 83%. Volume preloading has been recommended for prevention of spinal-induced hypotension in this situation. However, controversy regarding the different preloading regimens remains unresolved. Patients and methods: the present study was carried out on75 females presented for emergent CS at Menoufia University Hospital. Those females were randomly allocated to one of three equal groups; the first group(A) in which females were co-loaded with crystalloid solution; group(B) in which females were co-loaded with colloid solution and group(C) in which females were co-loaded with both crystalloid and colloid solution. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained just before induction of spinal anesthesia (basal values) and then every 5 minutes after co-loading, till 30 min, then every 10 min til the end of operation. Episodes of hypotension, vasopressors and side effects such as nausea and vomiting were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between studied groups as regards to demographics, basal measurements, heart rate or oxygen saturation at any time, total amount of ephedrine or Apgar score at 1st or 10th minute. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease of SBP, DBP and MAP at group (A) in comparison to either group (B) or group C. First episode of hypotension was reported with significant difference between studied groups. In addition, there was significant difference between studied groups as first bolus of vasopressors. The total number of boluses significantly increased in group A and B in comparison to group C. Nausea and vomiting occurred with a significant increase in group A in comparison to group B and group C .Furthermore, there was significant increase of total fluid volume in group A in comparison to group B and group C. Finally, patient satisfaction was reported as a questionnaire and there was a significant increase of satisfaction in groups C and B when compared to group A . Conclusion: Both colloid and crystalloid coload is effective in preventing hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for emergent CS. In addition it decreases nausea and vomiting and vasopressor usage.

[Mamdouh E. Lotfy; Ashraf M. Moustafa; Elham M.E. El Feky and Ibrahim A. Mowafy. Colloid versus Crystalloid Co-load with Spinal Anesthesia during Emergent Cesarean Section and Their Effect on Hemodynamic Changes. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.21

 

Keywords: colloid, cystalloid, coload, spinal anesthesia, cesarean section

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Activity Concentrations and Mean Annual Effective Dose of Spices Food Consumed by Inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. 

 

A.H. Al-Ghamdi

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, king AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

aalgamdi5@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in Fourteen different spices food collected randomly from different markets in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia by using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration of 226Ra varied between 6.08±0.30 (Nankhah) to 105.02±4.517 Bq kg-1 (Cloves) with an average value 44.02 Bqkg-1, 232Th varied between 3.02±0.26 (Indian Circuit) to 124.23±7.55 Bqkg-1 (Cloves) with an average 30.97 Bqkg-1 and 40K varied between 229.95±1.8 Bqkg-1 in (White pepper) to 1116.56±9.6 Bqkg-1 in (Cloves) with average 605.84 Bqkg-1. The total effective dose ranged from 5.63μSv y-1 in Nankhah to 64.92μSv y-1 in Cloves with a mean value of 23.26 μSv y-1, all these values are less than the world total dose value 290 μSv y-1 for all foods reported by UNSCEAR 2000. This study could be useful as a baseline data for radiation information of Saudi Arabia. The baseline data of this type will almost certainly be of importance in making estimations of populations exposure.

[A.H. Al-Ghamdi. Activity Concentrations and Mean Annual Effective Dose of Spices Food Consumed by Inhabitants of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):164-168]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.22

 

Keywords: Natural radioactivity, Ingestion dose

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Efficacy of Extracellular Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces levis Strain LX-65 as a Potential Herbicidal Agent

 

Mohamed Helal El-Sayed1, Zeinab Khaled Abd El-Aziz2 and Asmaa Mohamed Abouzaid²

 

1Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Drsemo_1212@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Weeds are known to cause enormous losses due to their interference in agroecosystems. Because of environmental and human health concerns, worldwide efforts are being made to reduce the heavy reliance on synthetic herbicides that are used to control weeds. In recent years there has been a rising interest in the discovery of environment friendly bioherbicidal compounds and biocontrol agents. In this regard an actinobacterium strain isolated from cultivated soil of Luxor governorate, Egypt was found to produce extracellular metabolite exhibited effective antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal activity against some weeds associated with the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays). The produced metabolite exhibited percents of killing against Eruca sativa, Raphanus sativus, Lolium multiflorum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Triticum sativum and Zea mays, this percents varies with concentration, it was found that the germination reduced by range from 100 to 0%. The root length reduced by range from 100 to 8%, while the shoot length reduced by range from 100 to 10% and it was noted that the produced metabolite give stimulatory effect and the shoot length increased up to 80%. The degree of reduction increased with the filtrate concentration increasing. The produced metabolites have less significant effect on Triticum sativum and Zea mays growth and germination with some stimulatory effect in the case of Zea mays. Identification of the producer strain was performed according to spore morphology and cell wall chemo-type, which suggested that this strain is a streptomycete. Further cultural, physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene indicated that this strain is similar to Streptomyces levis (accession number KJ938645) and it was given the name Streptomyces levis, strain LX-65.

[Mohamed Helal El-Sayed, Zeinab Khaled Abd El-Aziz and Asmaa Mohamed Abouzaid. Efficacy of Extracellular Metabolite Produced by Streptomyces levis Strain LX-65 as a Potential Herbicidal Agent. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):169-180]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.23

 

Keywords: Actinobacterium, bioherbicidal, Streptomyces levis strain LX-65, phenotypic and phylogenetic identification

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Study of the Incidence of Convulsive and Non-Convulsive Seizures in the Acute Phase of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Stroke

 

Tahoun S, Abdallah T, Abdelmonem S and Meligy H

 

Department Of Critical Care, Faculty Medicine University Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

hmeligy1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Stroke is a major health problem including both ischemic and hemorrhagic types. Although a long-recognized clinical phenomenon, there remain many questions regarding the epidemiology of Seizures and epilepsy after ischemic stroke, their effect on outcome, and their treatment. This pilot study assesses the incidence of Seizures in acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Objective: To assess the incidence of convulsive and non-convulsive seizures during the first two weeks after ischemic stroke. Patients and Methods: The study was carried out on all patients presented within the first 24 of ischemic cerebrovascular stroke admitted to the units of Critical Care Medicine, Alexandria Main University Hospital, during a period of 6 months. EEG was performed in the first 24 of presentation, at the end of the first and second week of admission and if the level of consciousness deteriorated at any time during the acute phase of cerebral infarction and not explained by CT findings or any metabolic derangement. Results: Among all the study group, the incidence of overall Seizures was 20%, of them, incidence of non-convulsive Seizures were 13.3% compared to 6.6% of the patients showed convulsive seizures. Most seizures occurred on the first 24 hours of ischemia (66.7%) compared to those occurring at the end of first week (25%) and those at the end of the second week (8.3%). Conclusion: Ischemic stroke is considered as a risk factor for the development of seizures and status epilepticus both convulsive and non-convulsive types especially during the first twenty-four hours.

[Tahoun S, Abdallah T, Abdelmonem S and Meligy H. Study of the Incidence of Convulsive and Non-Convulsive Seizures in the Acute Phase of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Stroke. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):181-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.24

 

Keywords: Convulsive, Non-Convulsive, Seizures, Ischemic, Cerebrovascular

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(IS-CFAR) - Aided Complex Wavelet De-noising

 

Dr. Riyadh Ali Abdulhussein, Hussein M. Hathal, Sarmad K. Ibrahim

 

Al-Mustansiriya University, College of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq

Riyadh_alhilali@yahoo.com, husssat@gmail.com, sarmad_8888@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A novel use of the complex wavelet transform (CWT) for the study and application in the de-noising of radar signals is presented in the main part of the paper. This paper includes an application of complex wavelet transform (CWT) in de-noising problem of noise smoothing for reference cells. Since, complex wavelet transform has significant advantages over real wavelet transform for de-noising problem. In this paper another technique is added to Improved Switching – Constant False Alarm Rate (IS-CFAR) algorithm to further reduce the effects of the non-homogenous and clutter wall, since CFAR detectors are commonly used in modern radar detection systems. In radar systems, the target is isolated from noise by setting detection thresholds through using CFAR algorithms, thus keeping the false alarm rate at certain level. The main goal of the paper is to show the de-noising algorithm based upon the complex wavelet transform (CWT) that can be applied successfully to enhance noise removal. The simulation tests presented detection performance of (IS-CFAR) improvement system by employing complex wavelet de-noising for homogenous and non-homogenous cases. Simulation results demonstrate that the Complex Discrete Wavelet Transform based de-noising outperforms conventional discrete wavelet de-noising. Approximately access gains in SNR about (1.2) dB and (2.3) dB are achieved compared with (IS-CFAR) system with homogeneous environment, swerling II and III cases for the same probability of detection.

[Dr. Riyadh Ali Abdulhussein, Hussein M. Hathal, Sarmad K.Ibrahim. (IS-CFAR) - Aided Complex Wavelet De-noising. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):185-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.25

 

Keywords: CFAR; IS-CFAR; discrete wavelet transform (DWT); complex discrete wavelet transform (CDWT); de-noising; reference cells.

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Enhancing Medical Textiles Functionalities by Nanotechnology Treatment

 

Faiza F.S.Ebrahim1 & Gihan E.H.Ali2

 

1Academy of Specialized Studies, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2Faculty of Science & Education, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

f_wutext@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The use of medical textile and fibrous materials are already prevalent in the healthcare sector. This paper investigates the possibility to improve the comfort and functionality of these textiles with nanotechnology by assessing all of the above concerns and compare the benefits of nanotechnology with its disadvantages. Fabric comfort is determined by its physical and mechanical properties which are being influenced by the finishing treatment. This paper studies the effects of Nano-silver finishing on the physical and mechanical properties. Twill 1/3 weave of 100% cotton fabrics have been finished with five distinct solutions concentrations (100,200,300,400 and 500 PPM) and have been compared to the raw fabric. The physical and mechanical properties including air permeability, water permeability, water repellency, bacterial &microbe numbers, elongation, tensile strength, soil release, static protection and weight have been measured. The results illustrated that by increasing the solution concentration of the Nano-silver finish, air permeability, water repellency thickness, tensile strength, soil release and weight have been increased and there is a great difference between Nano-finished samples and the unfinished one. Also by increasing the solution concentration, a great decrease in water permeability, bacterial &microbe numbers, elongation and static protection. Also an irregular increase in thickness. All these consequences have been confirmed by the mean of statistical analysis.

[Faiza F, Gihan E. Enhancing Medical Textiles Functionalities by Nanotechnology Treatment. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):191-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.26

 

 Keywords: Nanotechnology; Cotton; physical and mechanical properties, medical textiles, Nano-silver finish

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Immunohistochemichal Expression of DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Comparison to c-KIT

 

Hala Said El Rebey and Hayam Abdel-Samie Aiad

 

Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University, Shebin El Kom, Egypt

halasaid1212@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Accurate diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has become imperative because of availability of treatment by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). About 4% to 15% of GISTs show weak or negative staining for c-KIT/CD117. Diagnosis of these tumors remains a significant challenge. Studies have suggested that antibodies against DOG1 could serve as specific immunohistochemical markers for GIST irrespective of the underlying mutation or c-KIT expression by IHC. Aim of the work: To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of DOG1 in comparison to c-KIT in GIST. Material and Methods: Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for 51 GISTs was performed using c-KIT and DOG1 antibodies. Other mesenchymal tumors (13 cases) were included in the study and stained for both markers to test for their sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy. Results: Out of the 51 cases of GISTs, 35/51 (68.6%) cases were positive for both c-KIT and DOG1 antibodies. Thirteen cases were DOG1-positive c-KIT-negative. Three cases were DOG1-negative c-KIT-negative. A statistically significant concordance was found between c-KIT and DOG1 immunoreactivity (p=0.008), with mild agreement between the two markers (kappa=0.24). For c-KIT, the PPV for the diagnosis of GIST was 100%, the NPV was 44.8%, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 75%, with a sensitivity and specificity of 68.6 % and 100% respectively. As for DOG1, the PPV was 100%, the NPV was 81.3%, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 95.3% with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.1% and 100% respectively.

Conclusions: DOG1 is a more sensitive immunohistochemical marker for GIST than c-KIT and we recommend using DOG1 as the first choice antibody for the diagnosis of GIST.

[Hala Said El Rebey and Hayam Abdel-Samie Aiad. Immunohistochemichal Expression of DOG1 as a Diagnostic Marker for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Comparison to c-KIT. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):198-205]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.27

 

Keywords: c-KIT, DOG1, Diagnosis, GIST

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Diet for the Students of the University and Its Relationship to Osteoporosis

 

Dalia I. Hemdan, Wafaa Sh. Ali and Dalia A. Hafez

 

Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Designs and Home Economics, Taif University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

dr_dhemdan@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Food plays especially in the period of growth, an important role to achieve the maximum level of bone density after the age of adolescence. Whenever increase bone density in young adulthood increased as the amount of metal in them. Hence the importance of this research and this study aimed to learn about the diet of the students of Faculty of Designs and Home Economics in Taif University and the proportion of mother's worker habits and genetics and the impact of this system on the health of bones that are about. Based work on the drafting of a questionnaire to measure calcium intake daily quantity and located in many of the foods that have been measured by the study of food history for girls and their mothers, as well as the study of some of the habits that affect the level of taken daily calcium such as exercise and some wrong eating habits, as well as to identify the presence of some systematic pathological symptoms related to osteoporosis. The results show that there is a direct correlation between the social and economic level of the students and the intake of nutrients. It turns out that most of the food students similar habits to some extent their mothers, a large number of respondents are likely of contracting osteoporosis as a result of irregular eating some foods rich in minerals important for bone health and vitamins, such as fruits and vegetables, citrus fruits, dairy products, and more than half of the respondents do not eat final fish, and nearly one-third of the sample drank soft drinks daily, and deals with them as well as fast food 3-4 times weekly. In conclusion, there is at present a paucity of information in Saudi Arabia on student nutrition, eating habits and underlying influences, and the impact of intervention in student’s nutrition. It is thus imperative that both educational authorities and researchers attend to this area, and that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in the education curriculum.

[Dalia I. Hemdan, Wafaa Sh. Ali and Dalia A. Hafez. Diet for the Students of the University and Its Relationship to Osteoporosis. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):206-215]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.28

 

Key words: Osteoporosis; Taif University; bone density

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Internal Rate of Return: A suggested Alternative Formula and its Macro-economics Implications

 

Yassin El-Tahir and Derar El-Otaibi

 

Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences, King Khalid University, KSA

 

Abstract: The study focusing in formulating an accurate mathematical formula that calculates precisely the internal rate of return. Internal rate of return uses as crucial criteria in assessment and evaluating investment projects. The study discussed different properties of the suggested formula with respect to the existing ones, particularly the unique solution which the formula could able to provide. Furthermore the shortcomings of the suggested formula were introduced with their recommended remedies. Another concern to the study is the macroeconomics implications of the formula, here the study demonstrated a positive and direct relationship between investment and market rate of interest. The paradox of interest and investment is argued, in addition to the impacts which convey when tackling the issue of macro- policies and consequently stability fallout as well as repercussions.

[Yassin El-Tahir and Derar El-Otaibi. Internal Rate of Return: A suggested Alternative Formula and its Macro-economic Implications. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):216-221]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.29

 

Keywords: IRR, Macroeconomics and paradox of IRR

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Rheological, mechanical and durability properties of self-compacting mortar containing nano-TiO2 and fly ash

 

Mojdeh Mehrinejad Khotbehsara1, Mehdi Zadshir2, Bahareh Mehdizadeh Miyandehi1, Ehsan Mohseni1, Samaneh Rahmannia1 and Shadi Fathi3

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

Ehsan.mohseni172@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study investigates the compressive strength, water absorption, electrical resistivity, and chloride permeability of self-compacting mortar (SCM) specimens containing fly ash and nano-TiO2 (NT). Portland cement has been replaced by 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5wt% TiO2 nanoparticles and then fly ash (FA) with the ratio of 25% of the weight of cement was constantly added. Rheological, mechanical and durability properties of the produced samples were assessed. Water absorption, electrical resistivity, and rapid chloride permeability tests (RCPT) were conducted to determine the durability properties of SCMs. The results show that the presence of the nanoparticles could enhance the mechanical properties and durability of specimens. In terms of compressive strength the greatest result was obtained by mixtures containing 5wt% of nano-TiO2 while specimens involved 4wt% NT had the best result in water absorption and electrical resistivity and also the highest chloride permeability improvement was observed through 5wt% replacement of nanoparticles. On the whole, it can be concluded that the properties of mixtures have been significantly improved by replacing cement with nano-TiO2.

[Mojdeh Mehrinejad Khotbehsara, Mehdi Zadshir, Bahareh Mehdizadeh Miyandehi, Ehsan Mohseni, Samaneh Rahmannia and Shadi Fathi. Rheological, mechanical and durability properties of self-compacting mortar containing nano-TiO2 and fly ash. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):222-228]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.30

 

Key words: Nanomaterial; self-compacting mortar; fresh and mechanical properties; Electrical resistivity; Rapid chloride permeability test.

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An experimental investigation on nano-Al2O3 based self-compacting mortar

 

Bahareh Mehdizadeh Miyandehi1, Babak Behforouz2, Elham Mehrinejad Khotbehsara3, Hamed Azar Balgouri1, Shadi Fathi4 and Morteza Mehrinejad Khotbehsara5

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Najaf Abad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najaf Abad, Iran

3. Department of Civil and Architecture Engineering, Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

4. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran

5. Department of Civil Engineering, Bandar-Anzali Branch, Islamic Azad University, Anzali, Iran

BaharehMehdizadehMiayandehi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study investigates the effect of using Al2O3 nanoparticles on rheological, mechanical, and durability properties of self-compacting mortars (SCM) incorporating fly ash. Al2O3 nanoparticles (NA), with maximum size of 15nm, with three different quantities of 1%, 3%, and 5% of the binder by weight were partially replaced with cement with a constant fly ash amount of 25% of the weight of cement for all mixtures. Compressive and flexural strength tests were done at the ages of 3- and 7-day as early age, 28-day as standard age, and 90-day as late age to obtain the mechanical properties of samples. Also, water absorption, electrical resistivity, and rapid chloride permeability tests (RCPT) were considered observing the durability properties of SCM specimens containing fly ash. The results showed that 1% and 3% of the binder are the best percentages of the compressive strength and flexural strength of nanoparticles NA. For all combinations, the strength increased and reached their peak on the 90th day. This important effect can be seen on water absorption as well. In fact, specimens with 1% nano-Al2O3 had the lowest and greatest water absorption and resistivity respectively among all samples. In terms of chloride permeability, in general, specimens with different contents of nanoparticle had relatively similar resistance to chloride permeability. However, they were all more resistant than control sample.

[Bahareh Mehdizadeh Miyandehi, Babak Behforouz, Elham Mehrinejad Khotbehsara, Hamed Azar Balgouri, Shadi Fathi and Morteza Mehrinejad Khotbehsara. An experimental investigation on nano-Al2O3 based self-compacting mortar. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):229-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.31

 

Keywords: Self-compacting mortar; Nano-Al2O3; Mechanical properties; Water absorption; Electrical resistivity; Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT).

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Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genetic Polymorphism And Susceptibility To Endometriosis In Egyptian Women

 

Sherif Mohamed Yousry ¹, Amr Hazim Abbassy²

 

¹ Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kasr Al-Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

² Reproductive Medicine Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

sherifyousry2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Endometriosis is a gynecologic pathology with a high prevalence and unknown etiology. Therefore, an increasing number of studies has been undertaken to search for associations between endometriosis and alterations or polymorphisms in candidate genes that interact with each other and with environmental factors to produce the phenotype, including glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) genes. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of many disease-causing carcinogens and mutagens that are present in human environments. An association between the incidence of endometriosis and the GST genotypes of patients has been suggested. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 are related to endometriosis in Egyptian population. Genotyping of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was analyzed by multiplex PCR in 101 women diagnosed with endometriosis and in a control group of 101 women without complaints related to this pathology and showed that only the frequency of GSTM1 null genotype (P = 0.04, odds ratio 1.48) was statistically significant in endometriosis patients compared to controls. Analysis of the combined effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphism found a significant association of endometriosis risk with the GSTT1 GSTM1 double-null type only (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the GSTM1 gene and the GSTM1 GSTT1 double-null genotype may be a risk factor for endometriosis in Egyptian patients.

[Sherif Mohamed Yousry, Amr Hazim Abbassy. Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Genetic Polymorphism And Susceptibility To Endometriosis In Egyptian Women. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):234-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.32

 

Keywords: Endometriosis, GSTs, GSTM1, GSTT1, PCR

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Effect of Some Pre and Postharvest Treatments on Quality and Storability of Strawberry Fruits

 

Khreba, A.H1.; Hassan, A.H. 2; Emam, M.S. and 2Atala, S.A.

 

1Vegetable Dept. Fac. of Agric., Cairo. University., Egypt

2 Postharvest and Handling of Vegetable Crops Res. Dept., Hort.Res.Inst. Agric, Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

drhassannali5@yahoo.com, Hassanali5@agr.cu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This study was conducted at Qalubia Governorate, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011- 2012 and 2012- 2013 to elucidate the effect of pre-harvest foliar spray with humic acid at 2 L / feddan and amica at 2 cm 3/ L apply every 15 days with a total of 5 application times as well as modified atmosphere of (16% O2 plus 20% CO2) or vacuum packaging or chitosan at 1.5% and vapor gard at 0.1% as post-harvest treatment on the storability of strawberry fruits cv. Sweet Charlie during storage at 0°C and 95% relative humidity. A complete randomized (factorial design) with three replicates. The results indicated that sparing plants with amica in growing season reflected higher values in general appearance, total soluble solid percentage, ascorbic acid, firmness, color, texture, titratable acidity, total sugars content and lower values in weight loss, decay percentage, pH and anthocyanins content compared to other treatments. Therefore, these amica can be recommended for strawberry to improve fruits quality and storability. Concerning the modified atmosphere packaging MAP (16%O2 +20%CO2) gave better results (total soluble solid percentage, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, color, total sugars content, firmness and pH) than other treatments. On the other hand, using spraying the plants with amica combined with MAP caused a significant increase in storability concerning weight loss, decay percentage, general appearance, total soluble solid percentage, ascorbic acid, firmness, color, texture, titratable acidity, total sugar content, pH and anthocyanins content.

[Khreba, A.H.; Hassan, A.H.; Emam, M.S. and Atala, S.A. Effect of Some Pre and Postharvest Treatments on Quality and Storability of Strawberry Fruits Cirrhosis. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):239-248]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.33

 

Keywords: Strawberry, preharvest, amica, humic acid, postharvest, modified atmosphere, chitosan, vacuum, vapor gard.

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Association of Gastric Cancer with Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene C3435T Polymorphism in Egyptian Population

 

Khadiga M. Abou-gabal1, Hanan M. farhan1, Alaa A. Marzouk2, Hoda H. Abou Gabal3, Heba El-Sayed1

 

1Clinical and Chemical Pathology Deprtment and 2 General Surgery Deprtment, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University and 3Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Egypt.

Khadiga20047@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Gastric cancer is a disease with high death rate making it the second most common cause of death worldwide. Host genetic factors play a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The multidrug resistance 1(MDR1) gene mediates the expression of p-glycoprotein, which has a role in active transport of various substrates including xenobiotics and so has a protective function in many tissues and organs like gastrointestinal epithelial cells. C3435T polymorphism of MDR1 gene influences p-glycoprotein expression and activity in gastrointestinal tract. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of MDR1 gene C3435T polymorphism with gastric cancer incidence and its clinicopathological features in the Egyptian population. Subjects and Methods: In our study 24 gastric cancer patients were diagnosed and compared with 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Genomic DNA was extracted by Gene JET Genomic DNA purification kit. The MDR1 C3435T gene polymorphism was studied by a polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Results: Among the clinicopathological features of patients group we found that MDR1 mutant genes CT&TT showed higher frequencies within stages T3&T4 and also in patients with distant metastasis, although these differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive distant metastasis showed statistically significant higher frequency of T allele versus negative metastasis among patients group with odds ratio (OR)=5.176, 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.000 - 27.064 (p=0.038). Conclusions: Our data add to the growing literature of the relationship between genetic variation in MDR1 gene and the susceptibility to gastric cancer and suggests the association between MDR1 gene polymorphism and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer where patients with the mutant genotypes were more in the advanced cases.

[Khadiga M. Abou-gabal, Hanan M. farhan, Alaa A. Marzouk, Hoda H. Abou Gabal and Heba El-Sayed. Association of Gastric Cancer with Multidrug Resistance 1 Gene C3435T Polymorphism in Egyptian Population. J Am Sci 2014;10(11):249-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34. doi:10.7537/marsjas101114.34

 

Keywords: Gastric cancer; gene polymorphism; MDR1

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 26, 2014. 

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