Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), Monthly

Volume 11, Issue 3, Cumulated No. 85, March 25, 2015

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1103, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003


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Titles / Authors





Influence of the Visual Semiotics of Media and the Socio-Cultural Changes of the Rural Masses in Sri Lanka

(A Sociological Analysis)


Dr. Dharma Keerthi Sri Ranjan


Faculty of Mass Media / Center for Media Research (CMR), Sri Palee Campus, University of Colombo, Horana, Sri Lanka.

ranjan@spc.cmb.ac.lk / ranjan2007@gmail.com


Abstract: The concepts of semiotics and visual communication in the media landscape have become popular themes in the 21st century. These have formed a new conceptual and theoretical frame as a new carrier in the field of social sciences. The masses experience the world predominantly through perspectives. Unique power of the vision of the man constructs the visual perception through worldly matters and discerns the meaning and notices the differences between them. Signs and symbols are influential in visual communication and they can be described denotatively and connotatively. Syntactic, semantic and pragmatic are the main theoretical aspects of semiotics. The conventional masses have to engage in a contradictory mission since the inception of modern visual communication of media into the rural territoriality. This traditional ideology and the culture have been changed to a greater extent by the visual methods of numerous channels of media. Audience segmentation is the specific case of this social construction. Early segmentation was based on gender, race or ethnicity, caste etc. But it has been quickly developed into a complex of factors that push and pull individuals towards diffusion and assimilation or the maintenance of socio-cultural distinctiveness of the dominant society constructed by the visual aspect of media communication.

[Dharma Keerthi Sri Ranjan. Influence of the Visual Semiotics of Media and the Socio-Cultural Changes of the Rural Masses in Sri Lanka, (A Sociological Analysis). J Am Sci 2015;11(3):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1



Keywords: Visual Communication, Ideology, Rural Masses, Social Change.

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Family Witnessed Resuscitation: Through the Eyes of family Members


Ibraheem Bashayreh 1, Ahmad Saifan 2


1. Assistant Professor, College of Nursing, Philadelphia University, Amman, Jordan.

2. Associate Professor. College of Nursing, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan.



Abstract: Family witnessed resuscitation (FWR) is still a debated subject. FWR was started in the Foote hospital, United State. Since then, many resuscitation councils have adopted FWR guidelines. However, family members in many occasions still denied this right. In Jordan, there is no guidelines for FWR. The aim of this study is to explore family members’ attitudes, beliefs, perceptions regarding FWR in adult critical care settings. An explorative qualitative design was adopted. Face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with 14 family members were done. Three major themes were produced: family members’ perceptions about FWR, positive versus negative families’ experiences during CPR, and what could family members do in the resuscitation room? All family members favored FWR This study showed that family members with experience of witnessing CPR will insist to attend CPR in future. Uniquely, this study adds that many family members want to witness CPR for religious purposes. This study explained that family members focus on their loved one’s life in the first degree. Family members wanted this option for religious, cultural and social reasons. There is a need to organize this issue and there is a need for more studies in this field.

[Bashayreh I, Saifan A. Family Witnessed Resuscitation: Through the Eyes of family Members. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):7-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2



Keywords: family witnessed resuscitation (FWR), critical care, resuscitation, Jordan.

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Predictors of Post -Cardiac CatheterizationFemoral Artery Hematoma and Bleeding


Intessar Mohamed Ahmed


Critical Care &Emergency Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhur University, Egypt.



Abstract: Cardiac catheterization is performed routinely in hospitals all around the world. Extensive analyses of complications have been performed in the 1980s and early 1990s, showing a relatively stable mortality rate between 0.1% and 0.2% and an overall complication rate between 0.8% and 1.8%. However, there are few data about procedural complications of cardiac catheterization. Complication rate may be significantly lower in recent years because advanced catheter technologies have improved cardiac catheterization significantly. the incidences of vascular access complications alone have been reported to be anywhere from 0.1% to 61%, depending on the definition of complications and covariates, including the type of procedure, anticoagulation, closure devices, age, sex, and co morbidities. Nurses need to develop safe protocols of care for patients post CC and PCI that are research and evidence based. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to determine incidence of post cardiac catheterization hematoma and bleeding and investigate the significance of risk predictors for these complications. Methods: The study was carried out at coronary care unit at the main university hospital, Alexandria University. Included 100 patients and an assessment tool was used to investigate the patients. It consisted of 3 parts Patients, characteristics, information of Cardiac catheterization and risk factors. Results: It was found that hematoma occurred with 31% of the studied sample. In addition diabetes mellitus was risk factor for the occurrence of hematoma with significant difference 0.038. Sex, age, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, indication, type of procedure, BMI, French sheath size, PCI and compression time cannot be considered risk factors for the occurrence of hematoma. Conclusion: Cardiac catheterization staff and nurses caring for these patients must work together to prevent complications, when possible, and treat complications when they occur. Diligent assessment and monitoring are required to meet these goals. Nurses with specialized training are needed to assess, identify and manage vascular.

[Intessar Mohamed Ahmed. Predictors of Post -Cardiac Catheterization Femoral Artery Hematoma and Bleeding. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):16-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3



Keywords:Predictors, Post -Cardiac Catheterization, Femoral Artery, Hematoma, Bleeding.

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A Study of Social Intelligence & Academic Achievement of College Students of District Srinagar, J&K, India


M.Y Ganaie1, Hafiz Mudasir 2


1.  Associate Professor, Department of Education, University of Kashmir

2.  Ph.D Research Scholar, Dr. C.V Raman University, Chhattisgarh, India.



Abstract: The ability to make sense out of the actions of others is critical to people’s daily functioning. Humans are social experts. They understand that people’s actions are directed at goals and are driven by intentions. Keeping this fact in view the present study is done with the purpose to examine and measure the Social intelligence and academic achievement of college students. For this purpose the samples were selected on the basis of random sampling technique which consisted of 275degree college students (Science = 150 and Social Science = 125) selected from various degree colleges of district Srinagar. The variables included for the study include Patience, Cooperativeness, Confidence, Sensitivity, Recognition of Social Environment, Tactfulness, Sense of Humor and Memory. A standardized questionnaire developed by N.K. Chadha and Usha Ganeshan was administrated for this purpose. Proper statistical treatment was applied in order to obtain the results. The study indicates that social science college students have better social intelligence than science college students. However, it was found that Science students have better academic achievement than their Counterparts.

[M.Y Ganaie, Hafiz Mudasir. A Study of Social Intelligence & Academic Achievement of College Students of District Srinagar, J&K, India. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):23-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4



Key words: Social Intelligence, Academic Achievement, College Students, etc.

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Natural radioactivity measurement and evaluation of radiological hazards in some environmental materials from Aswan area, Upper Egypt


Shadiah S. Baz, A.H. Al-Ghamdi, Afaf Ahmed Fakeha and Zain M. Alamoudi


Physics Department, Girls Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Natural radioactivity due to 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the common environmental materials collected from Aswan area in upper Egypt were performed using a NaI (Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for all samples under investigation were found to be lower than the world average (50 Bq / kg for 226Ra and 232Th and 500 Bq / kg for 40K) present in environmental materials (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Raeq values of the environmental materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq/kg (21). The values of internal and external hazard index in the present environmental materials are less than unity. The annual effective dose of all measured Aswan environmental materials are at an acceptable level. The measurements enable one to assess any possible radiological risks to human health and help in the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of environmental materials.

[Shadiah S. Baz, A.H. Al-Ghamdi, Afaf Ahmed Fakeha and Zain M. Alamoudi. Natural radioactivity measurement and evaluation of radiological hazards in some environmental materials from Aswan area, Upper Egypt. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):28-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5



Key words: Natural radioactivity concentration, environmental materials, hazard indices

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Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Its Relationship to Academic Achievement among University Students


Dalia A. Hafez1,2 , Garsa A. AL Shehry1, Huda A. AL Jumayi1 and Eman H. AL Garni1


1Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Designs and Home Economics, Taif University, kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2Home Economics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.



Abstract: The development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resources. It has been argued that health is an important factor for academic achievement at school and in higher education. Consequently, in the context of universities or colleges, promoting the health and well-being of all members means promoting effective learning. Understanding the nature of the causal relationship between health and education is important to determine the exact relation between them. The present study was undertaken to study the relationship of academic achievement with the nutritional status of university students. Samples of 150 students enrolled in Taif University, Faculty of Design and Home Economics, Nutrition and Food Science Department were taken. Objectives of the study were to evaluate the food intake of university students with energy, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, to find out relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement of university students, to find out the anthropometric measurements like weight and height, to find out dietary assessment by using a 7 day dietary recall to find out relation between food intake and anthropometric measurements, to assess the nutritional status of university students, to find out the effect of nutritional status and anthropometric measurements on academic achievement of university students.

[Dalia A. Hafez, Garsa A. AL Shehry, Huda A. AL Jumayi and Eman H. AL Garni. Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Its Relationship to Academic Achievement among University Students. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):34-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6



Keywords: nutrition status- academic achievement – university students.

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Improve Sensory Quality and Textural Properties of Fermented Camel's Milk By Fortified With Dietary Fiber


Alaa H. Ibrahim1 and S. A. Khalifa2


1Department of Animal and Poultry Breeding, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Food Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt



Abstract: Both camel's milk and dietary fibers itself are well known for their beneficial health effects, and together they may constitute a functional food with commercial applications. This study investigated the effects of addition of date and orange fibers obtained from juice and date syrup by-products at three different ratios (1.5, 3 and 4.5%) on physiochemical properties, colour parameters [L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values] and sensory evaluation of camel's yoghurts during 21d of storage period at (4 1C). Results given revealed that, the addition of orange fibers had significant (P<0.05) effect on pH-value and titratable acidity %. At the end of the storage period the highest acidity 1.280.01% and lower pH 4.570.09 was recorded in yoghurts fortified with 4.5% orange fiber. Moreover, yoghurts fortified with 4.5% orange fiber had significantly (P<0.05) higher L* and b* and lower in a* values when compared with yoghurts fortified with date fiber. Furthermore, the incorporation of either orange or date fibers in camel's yoghurt formulation resulted in an increase in product firmness and viscosity in comparison with the control samples but, the highest (P<0.05) viscosity, firmness and lowest syneresis values were found in the yoghurt fortified with 4.5% orange fiber throughout storage period. Also, orange fiber presence in camel's yoghurt enhanced bacterial growth and survival of S. thermophiles and probiotic bacteria (Lb. acidophilus and B. animalis subsp. Lactis) through whole period of storage. Sensory analysis results indicated that 4.5% orange fiber is an ideal amount to add in camel's yoghurt production. Panelists gave the highest flavor, texture, appearance and overall acceptability scores to the yoghurt fortified with orange fiber.

[Alaa H. Ibrahim and S. A. Khalifa. Improve Sensory Quality and Textural Properties of Fermented Camel's Milk By Fortified With Dietary Fiber. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):42-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7



Keywords: Camel milk, yoghurt, Orange and Date dietary fibers.

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Productivity of Pepper Plants Grown Under Different Nitrogen Levels As Influenced By the Use of Different Cyanobacteria Forms


1F. M. Ghazal, A. A. Ali1 and Afaf H. Ali2


1Agric. Microbiol. Dept., Soils, Water and Environ. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

2 Botany Dept., Women Collage for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstracts: The present work was conducted at the Experimental Farm of El-Kassasin Horticultural Research Station (30 37 36.869˝ N for Latitude and 31 56 22.227˝E), Ismailia Governorate, during two seasons of 2011 and 2012, to study the effect of cyanobacteria inoculation applied with different methods (Dry, Soaking and Billets) in combination with reduced nitrogen rate of 75 % N compared to full nitrogen rate (100% N) on both yield and quality of sweet pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L.) (cv. Marconi) M some soil chemical and soil rhizosphere biological activity. Results revealed that the use of cyanobacteria with different forms along with 75 % N improved the pepper yield and its components, its plants N, P and K concentration and content in both tested seasons. The pepper yield obtained by the treatment of Dry + Soaking + Billets + 75% N was not significantly differed from those recorded due to the control treatment (100 % N). As well as, the use of cyanobacteria with different forms along with 75 % N enhanced the soil available N, P and K status and the soil rhizosphere pepper plants biological activity in terms of total cyanobacteria count, total bacterial count, dehydrogenase activity and CO2 evolution amount. In conclusion, the use of cyanobacteria with different forms along with 75 % N, has the possibility to save 25% of the mineral nitrogen required for the sweet pepper cultivation although this phenomena need to be executed and tried for other vegetable crops in different soil types and location to be recommended.

[F. M. Ghazal, A. A. Ali, and Afaf H. Ali. Productivity of Pepper Plants Grown Under Different Nitrogen Levels As Influenced By the Use of Different Cyanobacteria Forms. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):55-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8



Keywords: Pepper crop (Capsicum annuum L.) – Methods of cyanobacteria application – Nitrogen fertilizer.

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Effect of Different Types and Orientations of Fusible Interlinings On Men Striped Shirt Cuffs


Zeinab Amar 1, Ghada Al-Gamal2


1. Assisstant professor at Faculty of Education, Seuz Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

2. Lecturer at Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Interlining is a layer of knitted, woven or non-woven fabric placed between the garment fabrics and facing to reinforce, to give form and to prevent stretching, the interlining type and its cut direction affects physical and mechanical properties of the garment. The aim of this study is to research the effects of different interlinings and their orientation on shirt cuffs characteristics. In this study, woven fabrics fused with five different fusible interlinings were examined by subjective and objective methods. Both fabric and fusible interlining were cut and fused in following directions 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 to form 30 cuff specimens. All specimens were subjected to microscopic examination, bending rigidity for fusible interlining, bending rigidity for fused fabric, bending rigidity for seamed fused fabric, lamination force (N), elongation (%) and appearance tests. Results were analyzed statistically. The highest bending rigidity for cuffs was detected by using the fourth type of fusible interlining at orientation 15, 30, 60 and 90, the lowest bending rigidity was detected by using the fifth type at 15, the highest lamination force was recorded by using the fifth type of at 45, the highest elongation was shown by using the first type at 45, the best appearance for the cuffs was established by using the first type at 45.

[Amar Z, Al-Gamal G. Effect of Different Types and Orientations of Fusible Interlinings on Men Striped Shirt Cuffs. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):66-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9



Keywords: shirt cuff, fusible interlining, bending rigidity, lamination force

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Toxicological and pathological studies of Ivermectin on male albino rats


Rabab, R, Elzoghby1, Aziza Amin2, Ahlam, F, Hamouda3, and Abdel Fatah, Ali4


1 pharmacology Department,2 pathology department, 3 Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, and 4 clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.



Abstract: Ivermectin (IVM), natural fermentation product derived from the soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis, is a broad spectrum anthelmintic, insecticide and acaricide. The present study was designed to detect the effect of therapeutic and double therapeutic dose of ivermectin on liver and kidney function parameters, sperm count and abnormalities as well as, histopathological alterations on liver, kidney and tests. Thirty male white albino rats were equally divided into three groups, group (A): control, group (b): have therapeutic dose of ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg BW/SC), group (C): have double therapeutic dose of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg BW/SC). The rats were injected once weekly for eight weeks. In both treated groups a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, uric acid and creatinine were recorded. Albumin and total protein were significantly decreased than that of the control group. Moreover, significant decrease in total sperm count with significant increase in sperm abnormality was also demonstrated. Various pathological changes in liver, kidney and tests were also detected. The severity of these changes varied from mild to severe changes according to the dose as histopathological changes were more severe in male rats injected with double therapeutic dose than that injected with the therapeutic one. Following to the present results, the administration of either therapeutic or double therapeutic dose of ivermectin produced alterations in some biochemical parameters which correlated with histopathological changes as well as, it has deleterious effect on male fertility. Consequently, it could be concluded that, it is not preferable to use ivermectin particularly at double therapeutic dose mostly to breading males.

[Rabab, R, Elzoghby, Aziza Amin, Ahlam, F, Hamouda, and Abdel Fatah, Ali. Toxicological and pathological studies of Ivermectin on male albino rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):73-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10



Key words: Ivermectin, male rats, histopathology, biochemical parameters, male fertility

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Effect of Diet and Aerobic Exercises on Blood Pressure in Prehypertepnsive Individuals


Samy Hasan Nouh1, Bahy Aldeen Albahnasawey2, Azza Abd El-Aziz Abd El-hady3, Gihan Samir Mohamed 3, Mona Arafa Arafa EL-Laban4


1 Cardiology Department Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

2Internal medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

3Physical Therapy Department for Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder & Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy Cairo University, Egypt.

4 Faculty of Physical Therapy Cairo University, Egypt.



Abstract: Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of diet and aerobic exercises on blood pressure in prehypertensive individuals. Subjects and methods: 80 prehypertensive individuals (28 men and 52 women) with age ranged from 40-50 years old; diagnosed as prehypertension or high normal blood pressure were selected randomly from the outpatients clinic of the internal department from Desouk General Hospital, Desouk, Kafr El-sheikh Government. They were randomly divided into two groups; group (A) (40 patients; 16 men and 24 women), they were instructed to use the DASH diet eating plan and aerobic exercises for 45 minutes / three times/ week for four weeks as a part of lifestyle modification. Group (B) (40 patients; 12 men and 28 women), they were instructed to follow a selected program of eating (Dietary approach to Stop Hypertension). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured pre treatment and after four weeks. Results: Showed that there were statistical significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure within each group before and after four weeks. There were significant statistical differences between both groups in diastolic blood pressure. Significant difference concerning systolic blood pressure was seen between both groups in favor of group (A). Conclusion: Both DASH & Aerobic exercises together as a lifestyle modification was more effective in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects more than the DASH alone.

[Samy Hasan Nouh, Bahy Aldeen Albahnasawey, Azza Abd El-Aziz Abd El-hady, Gihan Samir Mohamed, Mona Arafa Arafa EL-Laban. Effect of Diet and Aerobic Exercises on Blood Pressure in Prehypertepnsive Individuals. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):84-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11



Keywords: Effect; Diet; Aerobic Exercise; Blood Pressure; Prehypertepnsive Individual

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Evaluation of Transvaginal Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation as A Conservative Treatment for Refractory Menorrhagia


Refaat I. Alsheemy*, Samia M. Eid,* and Abd- Elrahman*


* Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Excessive menstrual loss, or menorrhagia, is a significant health care problem in the developed world. Surgical management had been the standard of treatment in menorrhagia due to organic causes (eg, fibroids) or when medical therapy fails to alleviate symptoms. A number of minimally invasive treatment options are now available, but the final consensus on the best treatment modality is still to be determined. The novel operation of bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL operation) as an alternative to hysterectomy seems to be a promising treatment of both menorrhagia and most of the associated uterine pathology. Our objective: was to determine the feasibility of transvaginal bilateral uterine artery ligation as a conservative minimally invasive treatment for refractory menorrhagia. Methods: The study included 50 women of gynecology outpatient department of Damietta university hospital (Al-Azhar University) attendants with refractory menorrhagia; where other types of therapy as medical and hormonal had failed to control the bleeding. For all cases; pre and post-procedural clinical assessment and ultrasound Doppler study were done to evaluate the changes. Results: At 12 months postoperative, there was a statistically significant decrease in the following measured outcomes: menstrual blood loss (84%); dysmenorrhea (85.7%); dyspareunia (33.3%); uterine volume (30.1%). Conclusion: Transvaginal bilateral uterine artery ligation(VBUAL) was found to be a safe, efficacious, feasible, cost-effective procedure with good patient satisfaction rates with a conservative approach for treating refractory menorrhagia.

[Refaat I. Alsheemy, Samia M. Eid and Abd- Elrahman S. Evaluation of Transvaginal Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation as A Conservative Treatment for Refractory Menorrhagia. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):91-98]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12



Keywords: refractory menorrhagia, cesareanscar defects, niche, pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, not yet classified causes of abnormal uterine bleeding, myometrial hyperplasia, uterine artery occlusion, VBUAL.

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Calcium Intake and Prevalence of Osteopenia among a Sample of Female College Students in Holly Makkah


Mervat Youssef


Clinical Nutrition Program, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Alqura University, Holly Makkah, KSA.



Abstract: Introduction: Calcium is a major component of bone mineralization. Adequate dietary calcium intake in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity may contribute to healthy bones and play a role in practical prevention of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is estimated to affect 200 million women worldwide. It is estimated that1 in 3 women over age 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures, as will 1 in 5 men aged over 50 worldwide. The risk of vertebral fractures can be doubled by a 10% loss of bone mass. The combined lifetime risk for hip, forearm and vertebral fractures coming to clinical attention is equivalent to the risk for cardiovascular disease. Osteoporosis presents a huge personal and economic burden. In Europe, the disability due to osteoporosis is greater than that caused by cancers. Objectives: The aim of the study was to estimate calcium intake, and assess the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis among a sample of female college students. Explore the relationship between calcium intake and body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and bone mineral density (BMD), as a pilot. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among female students at Umm Alqura University in Holly Makkah. 267 female students, aged ≥17 years were included in the study. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to assess (BMD) of 73 participants using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A 24-hour recall for two week days and one week end was administered to assess food intake for 3 days. The average intake for one day was used for data analysis. Analysis of calcium content of the food was estimated using Nutrisurvey 2007 software (Food and Agricultural Organization, FAO). Results: Age of the participants ranged between 17 and 25 years. The mean dietary calcium intake in this study was 559.34 32.15 mg/day. 96.25% of studied sample consumed Ca below 1000 mg/day. 54.7% of the subjects consumed <550 mg/day. 58.9% of the studied ≥sample had normal BMD, 39.7% osteopenia, and 1.4% osteoporosis. Subjects who consumed calcium <550 mg/day had significantly higher body weight and BMI than ≥550mg/day (p values=0.040), and (0.008) respectively. Conclusion: Calcium intake was lower than the recommended daily intake in most of the female college students included in the study, with high prevalence of osteopenia.

[Mervat Youssef. Calcium Intake and Prevalence of Osteopenia among a Sample of Female College Students in Holly Makkah. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):99-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13



Key words: Calcium, intake, prevalence, osteopenia, osteoporosis, female, and college students.

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Calpastatin Polymorphism in Barki Lambs and their Effects on Growth and Carcass Traits


A. H. M. Ibrahim1, I. M. Ismail1, M. F. Shehata1, A. R. El-Beltagy2


 1Department of Animal Breeding, Desert Research Center, 1 Mathaf AlMatariya St., Cairo, Egypt

 2Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail: adelhosseiny2005@yahoo.com


Abstract: The objectives of this study were to identify the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms of the calpastatin gene in Barki sheep and to assess the effect of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits of Barki sheep. Forty two males of Barki lambs were phenotyped for growth (Birth weight, pre-weaning daily gain, weaning weight, post-weaning daily gain and marketing weight) and carcass (hot carcass weight, dressing%, neck%, shoulder%, racks% , loin%, flanks%, legs%, tail%, 9-10-11 rib cut weight, lean meat%, fat% and bone%) traits. The polymerase chain reaction- restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) tool was used to identify the allelic and genotypic polymorphism in the calpastatin gene. The associations between the variation in calpastatin gene (calpastatin genotype and the absence/presence of each calpastatin allele in animal genotype) and the studied traits were tested using the general linear model for the version 19 of SSCP software. Four alleles (M, N, O and P with frequencies of 0.62, 0.13, 0.10 and 0.15, respectively), and six genotypes (MM, NN, OO, MP, NO and OP with frequencies of 0.55, 0.05, 0.05, 0.14, 0.16 and 0.05, respectively) were detected. The association of calpastatin genotype was significant with lean meat % (P < 0.01) and fat % (P < 0.05). The presence of allele O was significantly associated with the higher (P < 0.001) lean meat % and the lower (P < 0.01) fat%, however the presence of allele M was significantly associated with the lower (P < 0.01) lean meat% and higher fat% (P < 0.05). Finding the association of variation in calpastatin gene with growth and carcass traits in Barki sheep may be useful to get less carcass fat and great carcass lean meat.

[A. H. M. Ibrahim, I. M. Ismail, M. F. Shehata, A. R. El-Beltagy. Calpastatin Polymorphism in Barki Lambs and their Effects on Growth and Carcass Traits. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14



Keyword: Calpastatin, PCR-RFLP, growth, carcass, Barki sheep

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Pedicled muscle sparing myocutaneous flaps: versatility and various applications


Ahmed Ali Ebrahiem, M.Sc. and Ahmed Rezk El Nagger, M.Sc.


Department of plastic reconstructive surgery, Faculty of medicine; Cairo University, Cairo. Egypt



Abstract: Muscle flaps have been classified by Mathes and Nahai into five types according to the principal means and pattern of their blood supply. Harvesting a myocutaneous flap almost leads to Loss of its motor function in all the cases, because all or Part of the muscle is included. Perforator flaps demonstrate the latest descendent in the line of progression that started with the random pattern flaps. Kroll and Rosenfield stated that perforator flaps integrate the reliable blood supply of musculocutaneous flaps with lessened donor site morbidity of a skin flap. The reduced donor site morbidity often leads to faster recovery and reduced hospital stay. Safe perforator flap dissection requires Nominated expertise and a steeper learning curve, as this flap is dependent on specifically harvested perforators from either the main branch or pedicle. If adequately-sized perforators are not available, the perforator flap can be converted into a muscle-sparing flap as in case of thoracodorsal artery perforator flap or lateral circumflex femoral artery perforator flap as salvage procedure. If some portion of that muscle chosen as the flap and the rest is left intact at its insertion and origin with retention of its innervation, some function will be preserved after the rest of the muscle has been transferred. Twelve patients with various soft tissue defects of the trunk and extremities were reconstructed with those muscle sparing latissmus and vastus lateralis flaps in this study and their outcome was evaluated.

[Ahmed Ali Ebrahiem and Ahmed Rezk El Nagger. Pedicled muscle sparing myocutaneous flaps: versatility and various applications. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):113-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15



Key words: flaps, muscle, sparing, thoracodorsal, circumflex femoral.

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The Study Advance on The Role of Vitamin D in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)


Yuanson Zhang1, Xiao Hao1, Wei Sun1, Hongbao Ma 2, Yan Yang3, Yucui Zhu4, Huaijie Zhu1*


1. The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 2 Jingba Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450014, China. jacksun689@gmail.com

2. Life Science College, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, China

3. Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA

4. Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA


Abstract: This article summarizes the evidence for an association between vitamin D find and recent investigation on the Vitamin D with the notable function; The Vitamin D discovery and to used since the year of 1940, it has long been known to be an important factor for normal calcium metabolism and skeletal health. But in the past decade, resurging interest and new research has implicated vitamin D deficiency as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of many extra-skeletal conditions, including vascular diseases such as high blood pressure and kidney disease. And the recent experimental animal and observational human studies have repeatedly suggested that supplementation with vitamin D metabolites may lower the risk for hypertension and kidney injury, but definitive human trials favoring the adoption of vitamin D therapy for the primary or secondary prevention of these conditions are still pending. So that, this article would be as the basic data to fulfill the Vitamin D to be a novel agents to make the bigger contribution on the Hypertension and all the cardiovascular disease (CVD).

[Zhang Y, Hao X, Sun W, Ma H, Yang Y, Zhu Y, Zhu H. The Study Advance on The Role of Vitamin D in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). J Am Sci 2015;11(3):120-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16



Keywords: Hypertension; Cardiovascular disease (CVD); Diabetes; Vitamin D; 25 hydroxyvitamin D; 1; 25(OH)D; Cardiovascular risk, vitamin D receptor (VDR).

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Using the Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLT) in Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP)


Mohamed Hassan Dardig


English Language Center (ELC), Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. dardig2002@yahoo.com


Abstract: Recently, ESP teaching and learning in Sudanese higher education has undergone unexpected development particularly after the implementation of Arbicization in 1991. Many ESP departments in the tertiary level started to rely on their ESP instructors to select or design ESP course materials for the various academic disciplines. However, most of these ESP instructors do not adhere to the students' needs and interests as well as they mainly focus on structural patterns and lexis. Therefore, this study attempts to suggest the CLT approach as an alternative to replace the traditional structural method when designing ESP course materials. The CLT approach can best meet the students' needs, interests and motivation as CLT offers perfect pedagogical combination of communicative skills and implicit structural patterns.

[Mohamed Hassan Dardig. Using the Communicative Language Teaching Approach (CLT) in Teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP). J Am Sci 2015;11(3):126-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17



Keywords: Communicative Language; Teaching; English Purpose

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Relationship between Ciprofloxacin and blood glucose level, glucose transporters in adult male rats


Nora E Abdel-Hamaid and Mostafa, I. M


Department of Physiology, Faculty of Vet Medicine, Zagazig University; Pharmacist, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University. E mail: snoura77@yahoo.com


Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of oral administration of ciprofloxacin on blood glucose level and glucose transporters in adult male albino rats. The animals were divided into four equal groups (n= 10 per group). The first group, kept as control. The second group; hypoglycemic ciprofloxacin treated rats. The third group; diabetic ciprofloxacin treated rats. The fourth group; ciprofloxacin treated rats. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment (7 days treatment with ciprofloxacin), serum was obtained for determination of blood glucose level, and tissues (brain, heart and kidney) were taken for determination of glucose transporters (GLUT 1, 2, 3, 4). The results revealed a significant increase in blood glucose in the second, third and fourth group compared with the control, while, the level of glucose transporters (GLUT 1, 2, 3, 4) was significantly lower compared with control. in conclusion: this study revealed that disturbed glucose transporters function may be the cause of the dysglycemic effects of ciprofloxacin. Moreover, patients with diabetes should be aware in the use of ciprofloxacin.

[Nora E Abdel-Hamaid and Mostafa, I. M. Relationship between Ciprofloxacin and blood glucose level, glucose transporters in adult male rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):132-137]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18



Key words; ciprofloxacin, hypoglycemia, diabetes, glucose transporters

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An Economic Study of Egyptian Garlic Exports to Foreign Markets


Hussein Hassan Aly Adam and Amal Zien El-Abdeen Mohamed


Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Aswan University

The General Directorate of Drug Control



Abstract: In 2013, Egypt recorded the world fifth garlic producer after China, India, Korea, and Russia, with production quantity estimated at 218.48 thousand tons, of which 13.23 thousand tons worth US$10.66 million have been exported to global markets. Average vegetable planted area in Egypt amounted to 1969 thousand feddans representing 59.92% of the average area under horticultural crops, and 14.12% of the average agricultural planted area for the period 2004-2013. Garlic is one of the major promising export crops for Egypt. Average garlic planted area amounted to 15.68 thousand feddans representing about 0.79% of the total vegetable planted area in Egypt. Studying the main markets importing Egyptian garlic indicated that Italian market occupied the top rank in terms of Egyptian garlic imports volume over the two study periods, with stable imports over a full decade. Studying the competitive price position indicated that Egypt has been facing fierce competition from Saudi Arabia, India, and the UAE during the past decade, in addition to Iran during the last five years. Elasticities obtained from estimating the demand function for Egyptian garlic exports to the Italian market indicated that 1% increase in Egyptian garlic export price leads to 1.41% increase in quantity demanded by 1.41%, which contradicts the economic logic as it indicates a positive relationship between the price and quantity demanded. However, the estimated cross elasticities indicated that 1% increase in the prices of garlic exported by competing countries (France, Spain, and Holland), leads to reducing the quantity demanded from France and Holland by 2.14% and 0.87%, respectively, whilst a 1% increase in the price of Spanish garlic leads to increasing demand for Egyptian garlic by 1.51%. The two results regarding the cross elasticity of French and Dutch garlic contradict the logic of economic theory; but the result regarding the cross elasticity of Spanish garlic (which indicated increasing the demand for Egyptian garlic as the price of Spanish garlic increases) matches the logic of economic theory. Such result can be explained by the real competition between Egyptian and Spanish garlic exports because both are produced in the same time, and belong to the same climatic Zone, i.e., the Mediterranean Sea Zone.

[Hussein Hassan Aly Adam and Amal Zien El-Abdeen Mohamed. An Economic Study of Egyptian Garlic Exports to Foreign Markets. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):138-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19



Keywords: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA), Market Share, Market Penetration Ratio, Relative Prices

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Econometric Study to Predict the Meat Gap in Egypt Using ARIMA (Box-Jenkins) Method


Abo Ragab, S. Al-Said


Economic Department, Desert Research Center, Matariya, Cairo, Egypt



 Abstract: The study aims to predict the population number, the production and consumption of red meat, poultry meat and fish meat in Egypt until 2025 using the model (Box - Jenkins), a probabilistic model. The results indicated that the ARIMA model (1, 1, 2) is the best model for forecasting the population number, while the ARIMA model (2, 1, 1) is the best model for the production of red meat, and the ARIMA model (0, 1, 1) is the best model for prediction of the consumption of red meat and production and consumption for both of poultry, and fish meat. The results showed the efficiency of these models and estimates of landmarks in the process of expectation based on the analysis of residuals (error). The results have been as close as possible to reality. Where the study predicted that the population number increase by about 29.1% in year 2025 compare to year 2014. The amounts of production of red meat will be decreased in year 2025 by about 66.7% compared to 2014, and  consumption and the size of gab of red meat in year 2025 will be increased by about 48.3%, 323.9% respectively compared to 2014. The study expected that the amounts of the production, consumption and the size of gap of white meat in 2025 will be increased by 47.7%, 78.4%, 246.3% compared to 2014. The study expected that the amounts of production and consumption of fish meat in 2025 will be increased by 64.4%, 43%, and the size of gab of fish meat will be drop in year 2025 by about 71.4% compared to 2014.

[Abo Ragab, S. Al-Said. Econometric Study to Predict the Meat Gap in Egypt Using ARIMA (Box-Jenkins) Method. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):150-161]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20



Key Words: Econometric, Predict, Gap, Autoregressive (AR) Integrated Moving Average (IMA).

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Histological and morphometric changes in adrenal cortex of aged male albino rats


1Hanaa L. Sadek and 2Doha S. Mohamed


1Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

2Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Adrenal Cortical hormones play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance, cardiovascular homeostasis, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses, sexual development and reproductive function Aim of the work: The aim of this work to study the histological changes in different zones of aged adrenal gland and changes in the zonular pattern of the gland. Material & Methods: 20 male albino rats were used. The animals were divided into 2 groups, ten rats for each group. The animals were scarified at age (5months) and old age (2 years).The adrenal glands were processed for histological studies (light and electron microscope) and morphometric studies. Results: Variable histological and morphometrical changes were observed in the aged adrenal cortex compared to the adult one. Conclusion: Marked histological and morphometrical changes were observed in this study in aged adrenal cortex that could hinder its function, additional studies must be performed to do trials for attenuating these changes through addition of certain Food Supplements containing suitable antioxidants.

[Hanaa L. Sadek and Doha. S. Mohamed. Histological and morphometric changes in adrenal cortex of aged male albino rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):162-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21



Keywords: Adrenal gland, aging, albino rats

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Structural and Quantitative Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland of Ovariectomized Rats


1Eman E Abou –Dief, 1Doha S. Mohamed, 1Hoda M. Elsayed and 2 Moustafa I. Hassan


1Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

2Histology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University, Egypt

Email: dohasaber@yahoo.com


Abstract: Background: Saliva composition shows hormone related changes suggesting that hormones may have a role in the control of salivary gland functions. Aim of the work: The aim of this work is to throw light on the effect of female sex hormones on the submandibular salivary gland. Material and methods: A total number of 50 adult female Albino rats were used in the present study. Animals were divided into 3 groups as follow: Group І (GІ): included 10 animals were used as control. Sham operation was performed for them. Group ІІ (GІІ: OVX): included 10 animals were bilaterally ovariectomized. Group ІІІ: included 30 animals: bilaterally ovariectomized and received hormonal replacement therapy 1month after ovariectomy and divided into 3 subgroups; 10 animals each. Group ІІІa: received estrogen only in a dose of 2.7 microgram/ day orally for one month. Group ІІІb: received progesterone only in a dose of 0.27 mg orally for one month.Group ІІІc: received both estrogen and progesterone of the previous doses orally for one month. Sections were obtained and subjected to examination with light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy,morphometric study and statistical analysis:

Results: Marked light, electron microscopic and morphometric changes were observed as a result of hormonal depletion which improved by hormonal replacement. Conclusion: there is an intimate relation between the SMG and the ovarian functions. Monitoring of the latter has been done by several methods like, basal body temperature or by using the cervical mucous but these methods may be misleading.

[Eman E Abou Dief, Doha S. Mohamed, Hoda M. Elsayed and Moustafa I. Hassan. Structural and Quantitative Changes in the Submandibular Salivary Gland of Ovariectomized Rats. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):174-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22



Keywords: Submandibular, ovariectomized, progesterone receptors

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Perceived Impact of Halitosis on Individual’s Social life and Marital Relationship in Qassim Province, KSA


Nabila Ahmed Sedky*


*Department of Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA



Abstract: Objectives: To assess self-perception of halitosis, oral hygiene practices and the impact of bad breath on individual’s social life and marital relationship among male and female visitors of commercial malls in Qassim Province, KSA. Materials and Methods: Self-administered anonymous questionnaire was administered to the visitors of two grand commercial malls in the city of Buraidah in Qassim. The questionnaire was completed by 2490 subjects. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and chi-square tests, as well as regression analysis. Results: More than 69.00% and 53.00% of males and females had coatings on their tongue. About 67.00% and 59.00% of males and females self-perceived that they had bad breath. Social embarrassment due to bad breath was sensed by 74.81% and 66.95% of males and females. About 70.00% and 68.51% of males and females emphasized that their spouses experiencing bad breath. The vast majority of females asserted that there is impact of bad breath on the marital relationship. Sag relationship between the couple was reported by 53.61% of the participants, while 36.52% of the studied group were tolerating from spacing and 9.87% became divorced. Conclusion: Halitosis is an annoying social problem causing some social difficulties. An impact of bad breath on the marital relationship was found in the form of sagging or spacing in the relation between partners.

[Nabila Ahmed Sedky. Perceived Impact of Halitosis on Individual’s Social life and Marital Relationship in Qassim Province, KSA. J Am Sci 2015;11(3):187-196]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23



Key words: halitosis, self-perceived, social problems, marital relationship, bad breath.

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from February 15, 2015. 

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