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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi prefix: 10.7537, Monthly

Volume 12, Issue 4, Cumulated No. 98, April 25, 2016

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CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structures beneath the Qattara Depression Area from the Transfer and Receiver Functions method

 

Ali Gharib, Ahmed Hosny, Imam Marzouk, Saud Abdselhady; Mona Hegazi; Gad Alkareem Mohamed; Iman Farag, Ramadan Bakir, Mona Mohamed, Hazem Badreldin and Samar Gharib

 

Seismology Department, National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Egypt.

ahhosny2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath and around the Qattara Depression area using the Transfer (TF), the Receiver Function (RFs), and the joint inversion tool. Tele and regional seismic data recorded by the Egyptian National seismic network (ENSN) were collected for implementing our proposed study. Results obtained by the TF tool are correlated with those obtained by the RFs tool. The results detected a thin layer near the surface with 2.3 km thick and VP of 3.5 km/sec, underlain by a thick layer up to 6.8 km with VP of 4.87 km/sec. Those two layers represent the upper crust, while the middle crust is shown by a thick layer of 7.0 km with VP of 6.1 km/sec, and the lower crust is represented by a thicker layer (14.4 km) with moderate VP of 6.9 km/sec underlain by an upper mantle layer with VP of about 8.2 km/sec. The obtained results of RFs revealed that the crustal thickness beneath the Sallum (SLM) and Dabaa (DB2) site is about 32 km, while it is 35 km beneath the Siwa and Frafra Oasis areas. Due to the thick sedimentary column with surficial soft sediment saturated with hot ground water, the average Vp/Vs ratio that observed beneath these areas was high value of 1.9. Based on the Joint inversion results in regards to the Moho discontinuity, depths are consistent with that obtained from the stacking of the receiver functions. Moho depths are detected at shear wave velocity of 4.3 km/s. A low velocity zone is observed at the surface layer beneath the study area and increasing with depth. Gradational and sharp Moho interfaces are obtained beneath our study area. An average velocity model is derived for locating local and regional earthquakes occur in and around the Qattara region. In comparison with other previous studies concerning the crustal structure of northern Egypt and conducted on the same study area, our results are found to be in good agreement with these previous works.

[Ali Gharib, Ahmed Hosny, Imam Marzouk, Saud Abdselhady; Gad Alkareem Mohamed; Iman Farag, Ramadan Bakir, Mona Mohamed, Hazem Badreldin and Samar Gharib. Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structures beneath the Qattara Depression Area from the Transfer and Receiver Functions method. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):1-13]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.01.

 

Key words: crustal structures, velocity model, north of Egypt.

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Temperature and Electron beam dependence on A.C. electrical conductivity of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends

 

N.I. Aljuraide

 

Faculty of Medical Applied Sciences and Scientific Departments, Department of Physics, Turabah Branch, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, P.O. Box 888, 21974, Saudi Arabia

E-mail: n.aljuraied@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Polymer blends of polypyrrole (PPy)-conducting particles dispersed in poly (ethylene -co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) matrix were prepared. The effect of temperature and electron beam on A.C. electrical conductivity of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends were studied. These properties depend on the relative concentration of the conducting (PPy) and dielectric (EVA) blends. All samples show a decreasing behavior of its ε′ with electron-beam dose indicating the dangling bonds formation. Moreover, the aspect ratio and the depolarizing factor increases with electron beam doses.

[N.I. Aljuraide. Temperature and Electron beam dependence on A.C. electrical conductivity of Poly (Ethylene-co-Vinyl Acetate) (EVA) doped conductive PPy polymer blends. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):14-25]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.02.

 

Keywords: Electrical conductivity, (EVA), conductive PPy and polymer blend.

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Determination of Zinc Trace Element in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Some Areas of Saudi Arabia Kingdom by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

 

S. Arab1, G.B. Mohamed2, and A. Alshikh3

 

1King Abdul-Aziz University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia. Faculty of Science- Alfisalia branch, Jeddah.

2Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, 3Jazan University, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Faculty of Science, Jazan.

Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Due to the importance of trace elements, Zinc (Zn) trace element have been determined in blood, serum, plasma, plasma clot and serum clot samples by using stripping voltammetry techniques for both healthy and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (R.A) in Jizan and Jeddah cities. Statistical analysis was made to analyze the results by use Friedman test at significant (P>0.01) in the different studied samples. Factors that effect on stripping voltammetry of Zinc element in standard solutions, healthy and rheumatoid arthritis patients samples in Jeddah and Jizan cities in different studied samples have been studied (deposition time, deposition potential, pulse time, pulse amplitude, voltage step, time voltage step time, drop size, Equilibration time) on each of voltage and current of behavior of electrical for zinc element under study to identify the best conditions and factors that effect on determination of concentration Zn element using this technique.

[S. Arab, G.B. Mohamed, and A. Alshikh. Determination Of Zinc Trace Element In Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients In Some Areas Of Saudi Arabia Kingdom by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):26-33]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.03.

 

Keywords: Rheumatoid Arthritis; Saudi; voltammetry; Zn trace element

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Impact of External Debt and Foreign Aid on Capital Expenditure in Jordan (2000-2014)

 

Dr. Hana' Alhunaiti1, Dr. FozanAlhrout2

 

 1Dean of Business at the World Islamic Science & Education University, Email: hanahilal@yahoo.com, Amman –Jordan

2Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation - Jordan

Email: fozan.hrout@mop.gov.jo, Amman –Jordan

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study is to build an estimation model for the impact of the external debt and Foreign Aid on the capital expenditures in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan for the period of (2000-2014). A multiple regression model is used and the major findings are: (1) there is a negative and statistically significant impact of external debt on capital expenditures; (2) there is a positive and statistically significant impact of foreign aid on capital expenditures.

[Hana Alhunaiti, Fozan Alhrout. Impact of External Debt and Foreign Aid on Capital Expenditure in Jordan (2000-2014). J Am Sci 2016;12(4):34-40]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.04.

 

Key words: External Debt, Foreign Aid, Capital Expenditure.

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Effect of Sol-Gel Process Parameters on Optical Properties of CuCoMnOx Selective Coat for Solar Energy Applications

 

Nahed El Mahallawy 1, Madiha Shoeib 2 and Sandra Eletriby 1

 

1 Design and Production Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Abasia, Cairo, Egypt.

2Central Metallurgical Research Center, El-Tebbin.Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

sandraeletriby@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight. It has many industrial and domestic applications. The main part of the solar thermal collector is the absorber surface which must have a maximum absorptivity and minimum emissivity of solar radiation. This is achieved by application of CoCuMnOx selective coating on the stainless steel absorber surface using dip coating sol gel technique; in this technique the substrate is dipped in a gel solution and withdrawn with a predetermined rate. This study is directed towards the effect of the different coating process parameters on the optical properties and selectivity of the selective CoCuMnOx coating. The process parameters include different concentrations of the solution, different withdrawal rates and different number of dips. The coated samples were heat treated at 450 ˚ C for 30 minutes. Absorptivity (α) and emissivity (Ɛ) of the coat were the optical properties studied in order to find the maximum selectivity (α / Ɛ) values. The coat properties were characterized by measuring its thickness and roughness. It was found from the results that when applying the coat on stainless steel substrates, a maximum selectivity value of (α/Ɛ) = 0.91/0.09=10.1 was realized. The results indicate that the roughness improves the absorbitivity while it has no sensible effect on the emissivity.

[Nahed El Mahallawy, Madiha Shoeib and Sandra Eletriby. Effect of Sol-Gel Process Parameters on Optical Properties of CuCoMnOx Selective Coat for Solar Energy Applications. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):41-48]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.05.

 

Keywords: Sol-gel, CuCoMnOx selective coating, Optical properties.

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Cardiac Troponin T in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

 

Khalid A. Sanousy1, Hekma S.Farghaly1, and Ghada M. Saied2

 

1Pediatrics and2Clinical Pathology departments, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

Khalidelsanousy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: In the field of cardiovascular disease, troponins have emerged as the most reliable clinical measure of myocyte injury. Despite the widespread use of cardiac troponins as biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification, their condition in cardiomyopathy are not known. Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 20 children with dilated cardiomyopathy, attending the Cardiology Unit of Assiut University Children Hospital, for recurring episodes of heart failure. Determination of serum level of cardiac troponin T was done on admission and discharge after relief of presenting symptoms. Results: Serum cardiac troponin  Tconcentrations were normal ( below the lower detection limit which is 0.01  ng/ml) on admission and on discharge. Conclusion: Serum cardiac troponin Tdoes not increase in dilated cardiomyopathy.

[Khalid A. Sanousy, Hekma S. Farghaly, and Ghada M. Saied. Cardiac Troponin T in Dilated Cardiomyopathy. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):49-55]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.06.

 

Keywords: cardiac troponin T, cardiomyopathy, myocyte injury

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Antiviral activity of olive leaf extract (OLExts) against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)

 

Hayam, S. Abdelkader1, 2 and Mahmoud, M. Rifaat3

 

1Virus & Phytoplasma Research Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

2Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Modern University for Technology and Information (MTI), Egypt.

3Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, KSA.

hayamabdelkader68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: New and safe antiviral agents are needed to prevent and/or overcome severe plant viral infections. We postulated that olive (Olea europaea) leaf extracts (OLExts) can offer an effective interference mechanism upon viral infection. To study the effect of pre incubating TYLCV with aqueous and alcoholic OLEXts on viral activity, 200 mg/ml of TYLCV was mixed with OLExts at different concentrations (50 to 500 g/ml) for two days at 4C and used to infect healthy tomato plants. The results of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both alcoholic and aqueous extracts indicated that both extracts had antiviral activity against TYLCV. The MICs of alcoholic and aqueous extracts were 300 g/mL and 500 g/ml, respectively. The incubation of 200 mg/ml TYLCV with 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 g/ml OLExts prior to infection reduced the viral infectivity to 12%. DAS-ELISA results of tomato plants infected with OLExts-treated TYLCV, showed drastically decreased in viral titers and viral protein accumulation by >50% (virucidal effect). DNA-PCR confirmed that the MIC of OLExts was 500g/ml. Healthy tomato plants were pre-treated with OLExts at different concentrations (50 to 500 g/ml) and then challenged with 200 mg/ml TYLCV. The results of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of alcoholic and aqueous extracts were 200 g/ml and 400 g/ml respectively. DAS-ELISA results of OLExts-treated tomato plants infected with TYLCV, showed drastically decreased viral titers and viral protein accumulation by 46.1%. DNA-PCR confirmed that the MIC of OLExts was 400g/ml. Pre-treatment of tomato plants with OLExts and then challenging with the TYLCV was more efficient than infection by TYLCV mixed with OLExts in reducing virus concentration as evident by the results of ELISA and PCR.

[Hayam, S. Abdelkader and Mahmoud, M. Rifaat. Antiviral activity of olive leaf extract (OLExts) against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). J Am Sci 2016;12(4):56-63]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.07.

 

Keywords: TYLCV, OLExts DNA-PCR, DAS-ELISA, MICs

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Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of X-rays on Vicia faba plant

 

Khadijah, H. Alamoudi

 

Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Kingdom

dr.k.alamoudi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The cytogenotoxic effects of different X-rays doses (54, 108, 162 and 216 Kelo Volt) on Viciafaba plant were evaluated by measuring cytological analysis (in mitotic division) and estimating changes in DNA by using RAPD-PCR analysis. The results showed that the two X-rays treatments (54 and 216 K.V.) caused a marked reduction in mitotic index. On the other hand, all X-rays treatments induced unbalance of mitotic stages percentage. Abnormalities were observed at different treatments and the percentage of this value increased by increasing of X-rays doseexcept for the 108 K.V. X-rays treatment. The most dominant abnormalities were: stickiness, C-metaphase, disturbed and bridges. Other abnormalities such as lagging chromosomes, bi-nucleated, fragments and multipolor occurred but with very low frequencies in some treatments. X-rays treatments showed DNA alteration as with the appearance of polymorphic number of genetic bands.

[Khadijah, H. Alamoudi. Evaluation of cytogenotoxic effects of X-rays on Vicia faba plant. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):64-70]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.08.

 

Key words: Cytogenotoxic effects, mitotic division behavior, RAPD-RCR reaction

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CD10 Expression as a Prognostic Factor in Female Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast

 

Emad Sadaka1; Walid Almorsy1 and Ayman Elsaka2

 

Clinical Oncology Department1, Pathology Department 2 Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Gharbia, Egypt.

e_sadaka@hotmail.com, walidaa1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract Background: CD10 is a cell surface metalloproteinase. CD10 expression in the stroma of various carcinomas was found to be related to aggressive behavior of these carcinomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact ofCD10 expression in female patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Patients and Methods: This study included ninety seven patients with breast invasive ductal carcinoma. CD10 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and scored based on the staining intensity and percentage of the stained cells. Results: CD 10 expression was significantly correlated with N stage (p<0.001), ER status (p<0.001), PR status (p<0.001) tumor grade (p<0.001), lymphovascular invasion (p<0.001) and HER-2 expression (p<0.001). While, there was no significant correlation with tumor size (p=0.113), age (p=0.99) and menstrual status (p=0.99). The 5-years disease free survival (DFS) was 88.7% for negative CD10 expression and 20% for positive expression (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that there was significant 5-years OS rate with CD 10 expression (p=0.003). Meanwhile, there were significant 5-years DFS rate with CD 10 expression (p<0.001), tumor size (p=0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.006). Conclusion: CD10 expression in invasive breast cancer patients was significantly correlated with N stage, ER status, PR status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and HER-2 expression. CD 10 expression, tumor size and lymphovascular invasion were independent prognostic factors for invasive breast carcinoma.Thus, CD10 can be used as independent indicator for poor prognosis and can be used as a target for the development of novel therapies.

[Emad Sadaka; Walid Almorsy and Ayman Elsaka. CD10 Expression as a Prognostic Factor in Female Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the Breast. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):71-77]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.09.

 

Key words: invasive ductal carcinoma, CD10, prognosis

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The Effect of active learning on cognitive and physical abilities of college crawl swimmers

 

Asraf Monir Sabri

 

lecturer of curricula and learning Methods, Faculty of Physical Education, Helwan University, Egypt.

adelahmed3550@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Active learning is a dynamic action; occurring during the educational process, the student must active participate under the supervision and direction of the teacher (Sharon, and Martha 2001). The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of active learning on some physical abilities and cognitive of student crawl swimmers of physical education, El Haram, Helwan Univ. The experimental method was used in this study, 20 students were randomly selected, of the first year, aged 18-19 years, they were divided to two group, one control, the other experimental, (10) student each. The experimental group was subjected to active learning for (8) weeks, 2 lessons per week. The control group were subjected to presentation, demonstration learning lessons. Tests (Physical abilities and cognitive) were performed before and after the programs. The results indicated that the active learning program affected the physical abilities and cognitive one significantly compared to the lessons of demonstration and presentation. It may be concluded that active learning affect positively the physical abilities of the students also the cognitive ones. Active learning is more positive in abilities developments. Also educational process, and change the role of teacher and student reflected on the their performance.

[Asraf Monir Sabri. The Effect of active learning on cognitive and physical abilities of college crawl swimmers. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):78-81]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.10.

 

Key Words: Active learning, physical abilities, cognitive, students, crawl swimmers

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The Relation between Muscle Fatigue and Some Physiological and Biomechanical Parameters

 

Abdel Basset Sedeek1, Mansour Attaallah2, Ahmed Saleh1

 

1Department of Biological Sciences and Health Sports, Faculty of Physical Education, Alexandria University, Egypt.

2 Department of Foundation of Physical Education (Biomechanic), Faculty of Physical Education, Alexandria University, Egypt

dr.mansour.ata-allah@alexu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity muscle fatigue during 60s continuous jump with bent legs and some physiological and biomechanical parameters. Nine recreational male college students (age=18.2 0.8 y; height=179.4 2.9 cm; mass=85.2 14.5 kg) All subjects signed an informed consent document before the experiment. Each player performed two trials of continuous vertical jump for 60s (VJ) with a day of rest between each trial. A bertec force plate (500Hz) was used to collect vertical ground reaction force and (Megawin ME 6000 wireless system, Mega Electronics Ltd., Finland) was used for electromyography analysis. Quadriceps Rectusfemoris (RF), vastuslateralis (VL), vastusmedialis (VM) and biceps femoris (BF) were selected for EMG analysis. Root mean square (RMS) used to rectify the signal and the Area under signal was calculated for each muscle to determine the percent of contribution on the performance (work/loading) and mean power frequency (MPF) to determine the slope of fatigue for each subject. There was more than one parameter to evaluate muscle fatigue but is not necessarily that it will give high correlation between each other due to the mechanism of these parameters and how it works in the human body. In the present study CK and work / loading are high correlated which led us to use these parameter to evaluate muscle fatigue.

[Abdel Basset Sedeek, Mansour Attaallah, Ahmed Saleh. The Relation between Muscle Fatigue and Some Physiological and Biomechanical Parameters. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):82-87]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.11.

 

Keywords: Mean Power Frequency, lactate, creatine kinase, peak force, vertical jump

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Melatonin Versus N-Acetylcysteine In Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity & Nephrotoxicity and in Metabolic Syndrome (Experimental Study)

 

Samah B. Ebaed, Sherif A. Shaltoot, Mary Boutros, Ahmed S. Mohamed, Mohanad M. Shehab.

 

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Benha Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt.

samahbahi2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acetaminophen is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study is divided into two main parts: part I is devoted to investigate the contribution of free radical formation in pathogenesis of the main pathological conditions associated with acute overdose of single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg IP) in mice namely hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity after 4 and 24 hours of acetaminophen administration and the possible protective effect of single dose of melatonin 10 mg/kg i.p or single dose of N-acetylcysteine150mg/kg i.por in combination. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of pathophysiological abnormalities including obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Part II of the present study was designed to investigate the implication of free radical formation in pathogenesis of experimentally fructose induced metabolic syndrome in rats as well as the possible protective effect of melatonin (25ug/ml/ day) versus N-acetylcystein (2g/kg/day). The obtained results in the current work in part I revealed that induction of hepatoxicity and nephrotocity by acetaminophen resulted in significant increase of the oxidative stress with increase in the hepatic and renal functions while administration of single dose of melatonin or N-acetylsysteine decrease the oxidative stress parameters and decrease both hepatic and renal function while combination between both drugs give significant improvement rather than each drug alone. Result of part II revealed that induction of metabolic syndrome by 10% fructose for 8 weeks resulted in significant increase body weight, arterial blood pressure, insulin level, fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR index and lipid profiles at the end of the study, while administration of melatoninor N-acetylcysteine significantly decrease all metabolic parameters with the upper hand to melatonin.

[Samah B. Ebaed, Sherif A. Shaltoot, Mary Boutros, Ahmed S. Mohamed, Mohanad M. Shehab. Melatonin Versus N-Acetylcysteine In Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity & Nephrotoxicity and in Metabolic Syndrome(Experimental Study). J Am Sci 2016;12(4):88-103]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.12.

 

Keywords: acetaminophen; glutathione; lipid peroxidation; metabolic syndrome; fructose; dyslipidemia; hypertension; obesity; melatonin, N-acetylcysteine

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Determinants and Consequences of Advertising on Consumer Trust and Buying Behavior

 

Amir Abou Elnaga1 and Saad Saud Abunayyan2

 

1Assistant Professor, Director of Postgraduate students, College of Business Administration, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2 MBA, Master of Business Administration, Chairman of Omnia Real Estate Development Co.

amirzaki78@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to investigate the determinants and consequences of advertising on consumer trust and buying behavior. This study is descriptive based on the collection and analysis of results of studies, reports, periodicals and books related to the topic of study. In this study several issues has been discussed like advertising definition, types, factors affect on buying behavior, previous studies, international surveys in consumer trust in advertising types has been included in order to investigate the relationship between advertising on consumer trust and buying behavior. Based on descriptive study, and some other statistical reports like Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey, The Gandalf group, ASC Research group, and other surveys mentioned in the research, the researchers has found a positive relationship between advertising and consumer buying behavior, however, there are a significant difference of consumer trust related to types of advertisement type 90 % or consumers surveyed by Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey noted that they trust recommendations from people they know, while 70% trusted consumer opinions posted online. Based on Bart de Proost survey, readers have great confidence in their newspaper. In ASC Research group, Consumers continue to tell us they have greater trust in ads in traditional media. In Global Web Index 2014, people in 26 out of 32 markets are reported to spend more time on digital media forms than traditional ones. Due to difference evaluation from consumer point of views regarding advertising types, the researchers create eight steps to use advertisement properly to build trust and motivate customers to buy companies products and services.

[Amir Abou Elnaga and Saad Saud Abunayyan. Determinants and Consequences of Advertising on Consumer Trust and Buying Behavior. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):104-115]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.13.

 

Keywords: Advertising, Consumer Buying Behavior, Trust

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Effect of Nano-Titanium on Properties of Concrete Made With Various Cement Types

 

Yasser Abdelghany Fawzy

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

Yasser_gaeb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of nano- titanium on fresh property of concrete (slump), mechanical properties (compressive- splitting tensile strength).The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) of cement paste containing various cement types is also investigated. Concrete specimens were prepared with various cement Types (OPC-SRPC- blended cement with sand), water, sand and dolomite or gravel admixed with nano-titanium. The percentage of nano- titanium/ cement was 0, 0.5, 1and 2 % at w/c = 0.50. The effect of quantities of cement (250-350 and 400 Kg/m3) on concrete properties were also considered. The results indicated that, there is no noticeable change in slump values of concrete containing OPC or SRPC, whereas, the concrete containing blended cement with sand exhibited an increase in slump values when compared to concrete made with the other cement types. Increasing the percentage of nano titanium beyond 1% led to decreases the concrete slump. Introducing nano titanium in concrete mix enhances the mechanical properties of concrete, the optimum percentage of nano-titanium in concrete mix made with OPC or SRPC or blended cement with sand is 1%.

[Yasser Abdelghany Fawzy. Effect of Nano-Titanium on Properties of Concrete Made With Various Cement Types. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):116-126]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.14.

 

Keywords: Nano- titanium; concrete; cement types; compressive strength; TGA; blended cement

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Management of spinal infections

 

Gamal Salaheldin Elmorsy

 

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study is to focus on recent means of diagnosis and recent lines of treatment of spinal infections as many modern modalities and surgical techniques emerged. Methods: From 1999 to 2004, thirty patients (23 males and 7 women) suffering from spinal infections had been surgically treated at El-Zharaa University Hospital, El-Helal Red Crescent Hospital, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital and Ibn Sina Specialized Hospital. The age of patients ranged from five to seventy six years. The infection was tuberculeos spondylitis in 18 patients and pyogenic spondylitis in 12 patients. All vertebral levels were affected in this study. The most commonly affected spinal level was the lumber spine in 13 cases. Then comes the dorsal spine in 7 cases, then dorso lumber spine in 5 cases, then lumbosacral spine in 3 cases and lastly cervicodorsal spine in 2 cases. Pyogenic spondylitis had affected twelve patients with lumber spine much more commonly affected (7 patients). The dorsal and dorso lumber were equally affected 2 cases for each while the lumbo-sacral spine was affected in one patient. Tuberculoses spondyilits the affected lumber spine in 6 patients, the dorsal spine in 5 patients the dorso lumber spine in 3 patients and the cervicodorsal spine and lumbo-socral 2 patients for each. Results: Success rate was recorded in twenty eight patients (93.4%). Failure rate was recorded in two patients (6.6%). Conclusion: Surgical spinal fusion after through debridment carries the best short term prognosis and the best available prospect far long term results.

[Gamal Salaheldin Elmorsy. Management of spinal infections. J Am Sci 2016;12(4):127-140]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas120416.15.

 

Key words: Spinal infections, modern modalities and surgical techniques,. pyogenic spondylitis, tuberculeos spondylitis

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from March 1, 2016. 

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2016 Marsland Press

 

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2016 Marsland Press