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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537, Monthly

Volume 13, Issue 8, Cumulated No. 114, August 25, 2017

Cover (jpg), Cover (pdf), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1308

The following manuscripts are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from July 19, 2017. 

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Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

 

CONTENTS   

No.

Titles / Authors

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1

Formulation and Evaluation of Moxifloxacin HCl from Topical Gel preparations

 

Eman M. Samy1, Sayed M. Ahmed2, Mahrous O. Ahmed2, Amany A. abdel-Rheem2, Mohamed A. El-Mokhtar3, Lobna A Abdelzaher4 and Ahmed M. Abd-Eldayem4.

 

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraydah 52571, El-Qassim, Saudia Arabia.

2 Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut university, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt.

amany.ashor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Moxifloxacin HCl (moxi.HCl) is a fourth generation of fluoro-quinolone which has a broad spectrum and improved anti-bacterial activity over other similar quinolones. Topical gel formulations of moxi.HCl were prepared by using gel forming agent like Carbopol 934, methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na CMC) and sodium alginate. Compatibility studies of the drug with these polymers were performed using DSC and FT-IR techniques. Physical characterizations of moxi.HCl gels including drug content, pH measurements and rheological parameter like viscosity were studied. In vitro drug release from the prepared gel and kinetics of release were evaluated. Microbiological studies of moxi.HCl gels were carried out by using agar plate method against the tested micro-organisms. Wound healing study was performed on wound of mice infected with S.aeurus and P.aeuriginosa treated with the prepared gel. Results revealed that all the used polymers in gel preparations are compatible with moxi.HCl. All the prepared gels followed non-Newtonian (shearing thinning) pseudo-plastic flow. Higher percent cumulative drug release (87.68±2.32%) was obtained from formula (F3) containing 0.1%w/w moxi.HCl and using 4% w/v HPMC as a gel base after 7 hrs. While, formula (F5) containing 0.1 %w/w moxi.HCl and using 6%w/v of sodium alginate as a gel base showed the lowest percent cumulative drug release (50.26±1.98%) after the same time. A slight decrease in the release rate of moxi.HCl was observed by increasing the concentration of the drug to 0.5%w/w in the prepared gels. The tested formulae (F1-F5) showed a higher antibacterial activity against S. aeurus and P. aeurginosa. Formula (F3) showed a higher % of wound healing reached to 100% reduction in wound area after 6 days of topical treatment to mice with S.aeurus infected wound. Hence from the overall study, it was concluded that moxi.HCl gel would be promising in the treatment of wounds.

[Eman M. Samy, Sayed M. Ahmed, Mahrous O. Ahmed, Amany A. abdel-Rheem, Mohamed A. El-Mokhtar Lobna A Abdelzaher and Ahmed M. Abd-Eldayem. Formulation and Evaluation of Moxifloxacin HCl from Topical Gel preparations. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):1-11]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.01.

 

Keywords: Moxifloxacin HCl, Topical Gel, Formulation and Evaluation

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Predictive Equation for the performance level of the Straight Somersault of the rear in terms of Kinetic Energy and potential energy on the players of the National Team in Technician Gymnastics for ages (11-14) years.

 

Assistant Professor Dr Zeina Abdel Salam: Assistant Professor Dr Warda Ali Abbas: Professor Dr Esraa Fouad Saleh

 

University of Baghdad College of Physical Education and Sports Science for Girls

Dr.zina_iraq2012@yahoo.com, Dr.israa_af@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The development of a predictive equation for the subject of kinetic and potential energy is one of the foundations on which the sport of the gymnastics is based, especially in the correct and appropriate preparatory situation that the player takes, thus achieving a mechanic position for acquisition of kinetic energy and through the work of a researcher in the sport of gymnastics and through tournaments Localization of the Gymnastic was due to the lack of availability of biomechanical information, especially in kinematics, in addition to the weakness in the performance level of the players in mechanical energy because the skill of the complex skills, which researchers have to study the skill and provide the mechanical knowledge of the proportion of its contribution to Technical her performance technical and put an equation to determine the level of predictive skill performance in terms of kinetic energy and potential research sample on the table ground movements in the artistic gymnastics.

[Zeina Abdel Salam; Warda Ali Abbas; Esraa Fouad Saleh. Predictive Equation for the performance level of the Straight Somersault of the rear in terms of Kinetic Energy and potential energy on the players of the National Team in Technician Gymnastics for ages (11-14) years. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):12-16]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.02.

 

Keywords: gymnastics, kinetic, energy, and potential energy. straight somersault

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The effect of topical application of Strontium Ranelate on induced bone defect's healing in Guinea pigs

 

Mena Tamer Nassief Elsaieed1, Hamdy Abdel-Megid Marzook2, Wael Mohammed Said Ahmed3, Mohamed Abd Elrahman Mohamed4

 

1Clinical Demonstrator, Oral Surgery and Anesthesia Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Delta University, Egypt

2 Associate Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt

3 Assistant Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt

4 Assistant Professor of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt

Dr.MenaTamer@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was done to evaluate histological effect of topical application of Strontium Ranelate on induced bone defect's healing in Guinea pigs. Twelve male guinea pigs were used in this study and randomly divided into three equal groups based on their time of scarification at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post surgically. The animals were subjected to implantation of strontium ranelate (Servier Industries, France) in mandibular surgically induced bony cavity in the right side. Moreover, a second bony cavity of the same size was induced on the left side without application of (SrRan) to serve as control.. All the specimens were examined for evaluation of the healing process of the jaw defects. The control histological sections revealed that healing of the bony cavities proceeded in a normal sequence of bone healing starting from 2 weeks to 6 weeks. There was gradual increase in the formation of bone trabeculae and decrease in the amount of granulation tissue. In the study groups, there was slower formation of bone than in the control group. It was proved that healing was slower or delay with SrRan.

[Mena Tamer Nassief Elsaieed, Hamdy Abdel-Megid Marzook, Wael Mohammed Said Ahmed Mohamed Abd Elrahman Mohamed. The effect of topical application of Strontium Ranelate on induced bone defect's healing in Guinea pigs. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):17-23]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.03.

 

Keywords: effect; topical application; Strontium; Ranelate; bone; Guinea pigs

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Clinical Impact of Early loading on Osseointegration Success of Acid Etched Dental Implants Used in Osteoporotic Patients

 

Mohamed Magdy El-Hawary1, Mohamed Zaghlool Amer2, Ehab Abdel Fadil3

 

1Colleague of Master degree, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University.

3Associate Professor Of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University.

3Lecturer Of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University.

Mohamed-ElHawary@live.com

 

Abstract: Problem statement: Osteoporosis is considered one of the relative contraindications to dental implant specially, when associated with early loading protocol. So, this study was directed to evaluate the clinical impact of early loading on osseointegration success of acid etched dental implants used in osteoporotic patients. Patients and Method: Sixteen patients are seeking replacement of their missing posterior mandibular tooth by dental implant. Patients were divided into two equal groups,1st group consisted of eight mild osteopenic patients (t-score of Dexa<2.5) while, 2nd group contained eight normal patients. All patients were subjected to early loading protocol within 6-8 weeks after implant installation. Patients were assessed clinically using periotest, modified sulcus bleeding index, modified plaque index, peri-implant pocket depth and marginal bone loss either at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results: Regarding to implant stability assessment, statistical significant differences were recorded between both groups at all intervals either immediately or at 3, 6 and 12 months (P= 0.009, 0.007, 0.003, 0.002 respectively). No statistical significant differences were recorded between both groups at all intervals either immediately or at 3, 6 and 12 months regarding to peri-implant pocket depth (P= 1, 0.835, 0.068, 0.258). While, statistical significant differences were recorded among both groups at 6 and 12 months regarding to marginal bone loss (P= 0.004, 0.007). Conclusion: Although, clinical prognosis of implant placement in the posterior mandibular region of mild osteoporotic patient doesn’t represent a challenge by itself with regard to their compromised osseous nature. However, it requires proper selection of suitable patients and compatable loading protocol.

 [Mohamed Magdy El-Hawary, Mohamed Zaghlool Amer, Ehab Abdel Fadil. Clinical Impact of Early loading on Osseointegration Success of Acid Etched Dental Implants Used in Osteoporotic Patients. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):24-31]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.04.

 

Keywords: Clinical Impact; Early loading; Osseointegration; Success; Acid Etched Dental Implant; Osteoporotic Patient

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Geochemistry, diagenesis and mineral associations of laterite deposits along the contact zone of Precambrian basement rocks and Nubia Sandstone between Wadi Dungash and Wadi Shait, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Ibrahim Abu El-Leil1, Hatem M. El-Desoky2 and Ezzat, A. Shafea3

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, PO Box 11884, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

3Mineral Resources Authority (Egyptian Geological Survey), Egypt

 ezzatshafeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, F2O3, Na2O and K2O represent the main restricted factors of laterite occurrence. Distribution of these oxides proved that the investigated laterite had formed in the upland area, predominantly of residual origin, under directly weathering of the parent rock into aluminum and iron by very intense leaching of alkalis and silica. Calculation of CIA, ICV, PIA and CIV indices proved that the investigated laterite had been formed by chemical weathering action of Natash Volcanics and decomposition of mafic minerals, accompanied with increasing of clay minerals, leaching of alkalis and increasing of Al+3 and Fe+3 contents. Mineral associations revealed that the ferruginous rocks often associated with gold, nickel, copper, pyrite and bismuth. Both mottled and ferruginous rocks are associated with Zincite, cerussite, siderite and corundum, to indices their own relationship with laterite occurrence.

[Ibrahim Abu El-Leil, Hatem M. El-Desoky and Ezzat, A. Shafea. Geochemistry, diagenesis and mineral associations of laterite deposits along the contact zone of Precambrian basement rocks and Nubia Sandstone between Wadi Dungash and Wadi Shait, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):32-54]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.05.

 

Keywords: laterite, soil, geochemistry, Eastern Desert, Egypt.

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[J Am Sci 2017;13(8):55-60]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6.

Withdrawn

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Entrepreneurial conduction, Group ingenuity, and New risk of Performance in Iran’s SME Start-Ups

 

Amir Abbas Rahmati Alaei

 

Master Student, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Semnan, Iran. mailto: AA.rahmati@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Research has suggested that sole entrepreneur can be more easily failure than entrepreneurial teams in new venture creation. Most successful new ventures are found to be started by teams. Entrepreneurial leaders and their venture teams are important elements to high potential new ventures. The increasingly interested work focuses on large and medium type enterprises and discusses at individual level, but little work on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and start-ups. Entrepreneurial teams have high impacts on success of new ventures, however, it is difficult to maintain the relationships on team members and to release team members’ creativity in order to increase venture performance. Academic and practical researchers have known little to solve the kind of problems because entrepreneurial teams are multi-dimensioned. The research, therefore, attempts to study entrepreneurial leadership and team creativity at the new venture teams of Iran’s SMEs, which accounts for about 98 percent of the nation’s GDP and makes contribution to economic prosperity, creates innumerable jobs, and promotes social stability. Several hypotheses, related to examine the relationship of entrepreneurial leadership, team creativity, and new venture performance, are developed.

[A. Rahmati Alaei. Entrepreneurial conduction, Group ingenuity, and New risk of Performance in Iran’s SME Start-Ups. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):61-67]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.07.

 

Keywords: small medium and micro enterprises, Entrepreneurial conduction, Group ingenuity, risk of Performance.

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Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Hand Operated Maize Sheller

 

Tanko Bako1*, Boman James Bature2

 

1 Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.

2 Department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering, Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic, Zaria, Nigeria

engbako@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world agricultural economy. It is known as queen of cereals and king of fodder due to its great importance in human and animal diet. Many farmers grow maize but could not afford the cost of acquiring some of the imported shelling machines because of their cost. Such people resort to traditional means of shelling. The traditional shelling methods are rubbing the maize cobs against each another, rubbing on bricks or stone and by using iron cylinder consisting of wire mesh inside. These methods are time consuming and result to low efficiency, high level of wastage and exerting of much labour. In view of this, the study was undertaken to design, fabricate and evaluate a hand operated maize sheller that is low cost and efficient. The maize sheller consisted of a cylinder and a concave. The cylinder made up of mild steel of size diameter 20 cm. The cylinder length 86 cm, having beaters which rotates along the cylinder and separates grains from the cobs. While the concave was fabricated using 2mm size mild steel sheets. The length of concave was 86cm with opening size of 13mm diameter. It was observed that for hand operated maize sheller at a moisture content of 16 % w.b., the shelling efficiency, cobs outlet loss and visible damage was found to be 75.03 %, 24.97 % and 1.3 %, respectively.

[Tanko Bako, Boman James Bature. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Hand Operated Maize Sheller. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):68-76]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.08.

 

Key words: Design, Fabrication, Impact-type, Hand operated, Maize sheller.

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The Potential of Applying Green Wall in Dense Urban Areas: Case Study - University of Jordan Street

 

Khaled Al-Omary 1, Muna Alsukkar 2

 

1. Department of Architecture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

2. Department of Architecture, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

alsukkarmuna@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Green wall is a promising technology and a new design strategy for sustainable building, considered a solution for modifying the urban microclimate and mitigating urban heat island by minimizing the continuous rising temperature in city cores and dense areas, the space available for greening is very limited and green wall can be applied to the exterior facades of the buildings. The study aims to provide with the impacts of the green wall thermal performance for building in dense area of Amman like the university of Jordan street-Queen Rania Al-Abdullah street and count thermal advantages bring by green wall system in comparison to the existing conventional system, the study suggests a green wall building façade design for the existing buildings front of the main gate of university of Jordan side of mixed use building, based on the computer simulation results for the existing construction. The results indicated that the effect of green wall on the building façade succeeds in lowering the urban heat island effects and enhancing comfort at the urban level, reducing the external temperature in dense urban areas, this could be generalized to dense areas where the climatic conditions and building characteristics are quite similar to the study area in this paper.

[Khaled Al-Omary, Muna Alsukkar  . The Potential of Applying Green Wall in Dense Urban Areas: Case Study - University of Jordan Street . J Am Sci 2017;13(8):77-84]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.09.

 

Keywords: Amman, University of Jordan Street; climate change; urban heat island UHI; building façades; green wall,; computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

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Review On Capillaria And Camallanus Nematode Parasites Of Fresh Water Fish In Ethiopia

 

Haftey Sahle1, Gashaw Enbiyale2, Haile Agonafir1, Fentahun Mitiku1, and Tsehaye Neges1

 

1Candidate of Veterinary medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and science, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, P. o. box. 196. 2Field Physician at University of Gondar Veterinary hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and science, University of Gondar, P. o. box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia,.

 Email: haftshdvm@gmail.com

 

Summary: Ethiopia is a country in the horn of Africa endowed with numerous aquatic resources, including over 20 natural lakes, 12 large river basins, over 75 wetlands, and 15 reservoirs. Lake Tana is the largest lake in the country and the source of the Blue Nile River which is stocked with various species of fishes. Fish are a huge group of animals, represented by over 28 000 different species. They are the oldest as well as the largest group of vertebrates. They are characterized by being almost exclusively aquatic throughout their lives. They are limbless, but have two sets of paired fins as well as a variety of single fins. Nematodes are commonly known as roundworms as they are slender, unsegmented worms and round in cross section, nematodes are an amazingly abundant and successful animal group, particularly in the aquatic environment. Camallanus and Capillaria are the most common nematodes affecting fishes. The genus Camallanus is smooth, cylidrical and relatively short round worms than the Capillaria worms. Whereas Capillaria is characterized by smooth, cylindrical, large and relatively long roundworms commonly found in the gut of the fish and it is often recognized by its double operculated eggs in the female worm. Nematodes are frequently regarded as one of the most important and harmful worm parasites deprive their host of food and can feed on host tissues, sera and blood causing emaciation and anaemia the two most common clinical signs in fish. Diagnosis or identification of nematode parasites of fish can be made by complete necropsy of a representative sample of the affected population or by biopsy of external lesions. The paikilothermic nature of fish and the variability of the aquatic habitat cause important environmental effect on the physiology and disease process of fish. These same variables frequently have directly effect on the use of chemotherapeutic agent against fish disease. Prevention is always the best option, especially against those species of nematode that infect areas other than the gastrointestinal tracts of fish.

[Haftey. S, Gashaw. E, Haile. A, Fentahun. M, and Tsehay. N. Review On Capillaria And Camallanus Nematode Parasites Of Fresh Water Fish In Ethiopia. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):85-92]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.10.

 

Keywords: Camallanus, Capillaria; Ethiopia, Fish, Nematode

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Evaluation Of The Growth Performance Of Lands Snail Achatina Achatina Fed With Different Plant Materials In Sangere, Girei Local Government Of Adamawa State, Nigeria

 

1Kwaga, B. T. 1Martha, E.M., 1Ali, A. and 2Khobe, D.

 

1Department of Forestry, Modobbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

2Correspondence: amanoyang@gmail.com

 

Abstract: There is no adequate and reliable information on the plant materials that could contribute significantly to the growth of land snail in the study area. A total of sixty (60) snails were divided into three groups (A, B and C) and fed with three different plant material (paw-paw fruit, orange chaff and combination the two, i.e. paw-paw + orange chaff) for a period of eight weeks. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and descriptive statistics. The results obtained indicated that snail group fed with combination of paw-paw plus orange chaff recorded the highest weight (9.68kg) as against those fed with orange chaff (7.29kg) and paw-paw fruit (6.62kg) respectively. The result of cumulative length gained were 5.58cm, 4.67cm and 4.65cm for combination of paw-paw and orange chaff, orange chaff alone and paw-paw fruit alone respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) between the snails fed with combination of the feds (orange chaff and paw-paw fruit) and the single feeds. There was positive correlation between weight and length of snails fed with the three plant materials. Rearing of Achatina achatina fed with the combination of paw-paw fruit and orange chaff as better plant material is recommended.

[ Kwaga, B. T.  Martha, E.M.,  Ali, A. and  Khobe, D.. Evaluation Of The Growth Performance Of Lands Snail Achatina Achatina Fed With Different Plant Materials In Sangere, Girei Local Government Of Adamawa State, Nigeria. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):93-98]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.11.

 

Key words: snail, length, weight, plant material, performance

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Review on cowdriosis (heartwater)

 

Gebrehiwot Teklu2, Endris Aman2, Gashaw Enbiyale1, Oumer Masrie2, Tsehaye Neges, Andinet Yirga2, Demeke Debalke2, Fentahun Mitku2

 

1Field Practitioner at University of Gondar Veterinary hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine and science, University of Gondar, P. o. box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia, 2Candidate of Veterinary medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and science, University of Gondar, Ethiopia, P. o. box. 196

enbiyalegashaw@gmail.com

 

Summary: Heart-water is a notifiable disease that listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It is caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium, obligately intracellular gram negative bacteria in the order of Rickettsiales and family Anaplasmataceae. It is one of the most important diseases of livestock in Africa. Heartwater is readily introduced into new regions by infected animals or ticks. The known and potential host ticks are widely distributed and can be found on a variety of animals including reptiles. This disease is tick borne and most wildlife species appear to carry the organism asymptomatically and serves as reservoir. The most susceptible animals are those exotic breeds and immunocompromised pregnant animals, where as the endogenous breeds have adaptive immunity for cowdiriosis. Due to this reason, the disease has great economic importance in African countries including Ethiopia. Even though there is no enough research taken place, few researches indicates that cawdriosis is one of the most economic important of blood parasite (pathogen) in Ethiopia. The incidences of cawdriosis from 80 animals 30 of them develop Ehrilichiosis with an average incidence of 12.33 cases per annum or 15% of the herd. Its economic loses per three years of study can also reach up to 141,924.20 Birr (7884.67 USD). This disease cannot be diagnosed easily on a field as well as in laboratory. The most effective way to tackle the disease is prevention before occurrence, through tick control and vaccination rather than treatment. Generally, the disease hinders the modern farm system development in African countries, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper prepared to highlight the current status of Cowdriosis for alarming the professionals to emphasize on this disease.

[Gebrehiwot T, Endris A, Gashaw E, Oumer M, Tsehaye N, Andinet Y, Demeke D, Fentahun M, A review on mechanism of anemia in trypanosomiasis. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):99-106]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.12.

 

Key Words: Amblyoma verigatum, Cowdriosis, Ehrlichia ruminantium, Tick

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Prevalence of Parasitic Helminthes among Slaughtered Animals in Slaughterhouses in Taiz, Yemen

 

Kamal Hezam1,2, Abdo Farae Morshed2, Abdulnaser Hassan2, Abdul Baset Abbas1,3, Hesham Ghaleb4, Juan Zhang1, Anwar Qahtan5

 

1Department of Microbiological and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Life Science and Technology, China Pharmaceutical University

2 Department of Parasitology & Immunology, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University

3Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ibb University

4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, China Pharmaceutical University

5 Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biology, Hunan University

kamalium136@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out in 2012. It aimed at detecting the prevalence of parasitic helminthes infections among goats, sheep, cattle and camels slaughtered in slaughterhouses in Taiz, Yemen. The number of slaughtered ruminants was 636 goats, 47 sheep, 311 cattle, and 12 camels. The highest prevalence rate of hydatid cysts was found in camels (41.66%) followed by cattle (33.76%) followed by goats (6.13%). There was no infection with hydatid cysts in sheep. Also, the highest rate of infection with liver flukes (Fasciola sp.) was observed in cattle (5.47%), goats (3.14%). No liver fluke infection was observed in sheep and camels. Whereas, the prevalence rate of Taenia sp. infection was higher in goats (22.8%) than that in sheep (14.90%); no infections were detected in both cattle and camels. There was a variance in the rate of helminthes infection during 4 months study period and also, among different sexes and age groups.

[Kamal Hezam, Abdo Farae Morshed, Abdulnaser Hassan, Abdul Baset Abbas, Hesham Ghaleb, Juan Zhang, Anwar Qahtan. Prevalence of Parasitic Helminthes among Slaughtered Animals in Slaughterhouses in Taiz, Yemen. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):107-112]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.13.

 

Key words: Helminthes, slaughtered animals, Hydatidosis, Echinococcus, Fasciola, Taeniasis, Taiz.

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Construction and characteristics of stainless steel/calcium silicate manufactured by selective laser melting

 

Ma Zhengjie

 

School of Material Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

laonawugen@163.com

 

Abstract The Selective Laser Melting is a branch of 3D printing. By maneuvering the layered data of the 3D model, the computer is capable of melting the sheer layer power with the high energy laser beam and then forming superposition layer by layer. Compared to traditional processing methodologies, the SLM technique stands out for its high-precision, high customization, and complex internal structure to become the perfect candidate for bone implantation. To explore and produce the perfect stainless steel compound (nCaSiO3) for the SLM bone repairing implants, we are focusing on its physical and chemical performances, such as excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance capability, compact structure, and mechanical properties. We concluded the research directions as below: (1) We have successfully prepared the composite powder material - 316 L/nCaSiO3 of different ratio and proportions using the high energy ball-milling technique. Plus, we have made the nanometer CaSiO3 powder disperse and form a stable layer on the 316L stainless steel matrix powder. (2) Based on the fact that we can produce the 316L/ nCaSiO3 composite powder, we probed into the influences of factors on the production of the composite microstructure. The factors include the process parameters of SLM and various levels of CaSiO3 concentrations. Because of the temperature gradient of the composite powder in the furnace hearth, equiax crystal and dendrite would form inside the material during the process. In addition, along with the increasing content of CaSiO3, the number of defects in the internal material increases and the density of defects goes up.

[Ma Zhengjie. Construction and characteristics of stainless steel/calcium silicate manufactured by selective laser melting. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):113-119]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.14.

 

Keywords: 316L stainless steel, SML Selective Melting Laser, Composite Powder MaterialMicrostructure

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Enhancement the efficiency of some vegetable oils as frying oils

 

GIRGIS, A. Y., ELSORADY, M. E. I. and EL-LABBAN, A.A.

 

Oils and Fats Res. Dept., Food Tech. Res. Inst., ARC., Giza, Egypt

adel_y_girgis@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to identify the best blended oil in terms of physicochemical properties between cotton-seed, sunflower and palm olein oils and their blends. Blending sunflower with cotton-seed oils or by mixing palm olein with cotton-seed oils at the proportion of [25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 (%)] or blending palm olein with sunflower and cotton-seed oils at the proportion of [25:50:25 (%)]. The blended oils were heated at 180 ± 5°C for 32 hrs during four days. Some physico-chemical parameters for blended oils (refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, polar, polymer, oxidized fatty acids contents and oxidative stability) were determined every 8 hrs. The data indicated that blending of 25% palm olein oil + 50% sunflower oil + 25% cotton-seed oil (F1) gave the best results where high oxidative stability after PO and blend oil (B3) (75% palm olein + 25% cotton-seed oil).

[Girgis, A. Y., Elsorady, M. E. I. And El-Labban, A.A. Enhancement the efficiency of some vegetable oils as frying oils. J Am Sci 2017;13(8):120-127]. ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas130817.15.

 

Keywords: Cotton-seed oil, palm olein oil, sunflower oil, physicochemical properties and oil blends

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