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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 5, Cumulated No. 63, May 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0905

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CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

China - Pakistan Cooperation in developing Gwadar port and its impact on Chabahar

 

Afshin mottaghi1, Mahdi Nouri2, SH. Faraji Nasiri

 

1Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University

2 Abdanan branch, Islamic Azad University, Abdanan, Iran

3 Ph.D political science, University of Isfahan

 

Abstract: China's high economic growth will increase the country's need to energy day by day. A great attention has been paid to Persian Gulf due to its high energy reserves. China’s efforts to develop its relations with Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf littoral states, especially Iran can be evaluated in this regard. But the symbols and symbolic presence of china in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean is manufacturing Pakistan's Gwadar port by them. In this paper, it is intended to explain the impacts of developing and equipping Pakistan Gwadar port on Iran Chabahar port by an analytical descriptive approach. Finally, some guidelines are provided for developing and expanding of the Chabahar port in competition to Gwadar. The results indicate that despite the high potential in Chabahar port, it has failed to successfully compete with the Gwadar Port for variety of reasons such as lack of necessary investment, lack of infrastructure facilities, poor advertising.

[Afshin mottaghi, Mahdi Nouri, SH. Faraji Nasiri. China - Pakistan Cooperation in developing Gwadar port and its impact on Chabahar. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  1

 

Keywords: China, Gwadar, the Persian Gulf, oil, security, port of Chabahar.

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2

Samanids and revival of national heritage

 

E zatollah Khodadee

 

 Department of History,  Shoushtar  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar , Iran   

 

Abstract: After Saffarids of Sistan which their Rule did last too long , Samanids who ruled much of vast and developed Transoxania and Khorasanhave to be considered the first of great persianate dynasties . They formed an independent government from the Baghdad caliphates. They considered themselves the progeny of Sassanid’s and were proud of their national heritage. Samanids made big efforts and took great strides in expanse of Persian heritage. Samanids supported and nurtured scientists and literates such as Bal’ Ami and Rudaki and Daquqi. Because of their efforts , during their reign many of a Persian liter a true were published and came to existence. They, far from nationalistic bias were open to thoughts of freedom and democratic principle and freedom of expression and practiced tolerance and interaction and acceptance of differing thoughts and opinions. Samanids laid an optimum fertile ground for flourishing of knowledge and in particular rational kind of thinking and principles and sciences. The legacy of revival of proud Farsi language and native Persian culture and heritage is theirs. Samanids monarchs were tolerant and seeker of knowledge and scientists. Ahmad ibn Ismail valued educated and shunned the military. Nasribn Ahmad (NasrII) from amongst seventy scientists chose three to consult him and speak freely to him and in front of him. All Samanids monarchs chose scientists as their ministers such as Jihoonee , Bal ’ Ami, Muhammad ibn Ahmad salami, Atabi ,These monarchs not only created pleasant circumstances for the scientists but also with active encouragement furthered the cause of knowledge and culture during reigns. One important point to consider at this era is the number of Iranian scientists from Khorasan and Transoxania is several times over the other parts of Iran at the same era. More importantly, amongst these scientists and those we know of their birth date and age at time of demise, many have lived beyond eighty and some beyond 100 years. This is an indication of what a life of luxury and wealth and comfort these scientists have had in these times to live such a long lives, and, all because the wealth and opulence the Samanids monarchs had provided them.  Samanids used Arabic in official governmental communication as a matter of motto of unifying the whole empire. At the same time facilitated the political and social apparatus to be in service of political and cultural brokers . Knowingly or not this started a cycle of intellectual and cultural developments. During Samanids , this cycle of change because of prevalence of idealconditions took such an encompassing turn which created perfect atmosphere for flourishing of principles freedom of expression and free exchange of Ideas, cultural cooperation, acceptance, interaction and tolerance of differing cultures and nationalities became the norm.

[E zatollah Khodadee. Samanids and revival of national heritage. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):7-11]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  2

Keyword: Samanids and revival of national heritage.

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3

Influence of Relationship Marketing on Customer Satisfaction and Relationship Quality: The Case Study

 

Aysel ERCİŞ1 and Reza Rasouli2

 

1 Professor of Management, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Production Management and Marketing, University of Ataturk, Erzurum, Turkey.

2 Ph.D Student of Marketing Management, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Production Management and Marketing, University of Ataturk, Erzurum, Turkey.

 

Abstract: Having understood the importance of customer satisfaction and relationship quality, organizations gradually distanced from the traditional marketing toward relationship marketing. Given the importance of this new approach for today’s organizations, this paper investigates the relationship the foundations of relationship marketing, including Trust, communications, commitment, competence and conflict handling have with customer satisfaction with and relationship quality to bank services. The present paper is a descriptive study of co relational nature which draws on multivariate regression. It includes statistical population of 384 customers of Urmia’s commercial banks. The collection tool is questionnaire and the data are analyzed using regression method.

[Aysel ERCİŞ and Reza Rasouli. Influence of Relationship Marketing on Customer Satisfaction and Relationship Quality: The Case Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):12-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  3

 

Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Quality, Urmia Commercial Banks.

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4

Clinical and Electromyography Evaluation of the Effect of LinedOver Denture for Patient with Hypodontia

 

Saeed M Abdullah and Faten A. Abu Talep

 

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

drafaten@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Congenital absence of teeth affects 2-6 per cent of the population. Ectodermal dysplasia(ED) is accompanied with multiple tooth abnormality, and absence of one or more teeth from the dentition. The prosthodontic management depends on the degree of anodontia/hypodontia. In complete anodontia, the treatment would comprise of complete dentures, either conventional or implant supported ones. In patients with partial anodontia, removable/fixed partial dentures and over dentures may be considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare between conventional and lined over denture with soft liner "Bitem" clinically and Eelectomyographyically on patients with Hypodontia. The result of this study as regards pocket depth and gingival index showed that there was no significant difference in groups A & B during the follow up period at one week, three months& six months .Also in comparing between the two groups there was no significant difference between them during the follow up period. Electomyographyically, the masseter muscle activity decrease at follow upperiod for groups A & B but the decrease was insignificant in group A & significant in group B. There was not statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in all intervals. As regards chewing time in seconds, there was significant difference in groups A & B at follow up period,in comparing between the two groups the difference was insignificant at baseline & significant at six months. Finally, the result of chewing strokes showed that, there was significant difference in groups A& B at follow up period and also between groups at six months, but there was insignificant difference between the two groups at baseline follow up period.

[Saeed M Abdullah and Faten A. Abu Talep. Clinical and Electromyography Evaluation of the Effect of Lined Over Denture for Patient with Hypodontia. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):22-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

 

Key wards: Hypodontia –Overdenture- soft liners -electromyography.

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5

Investigation of return on investment for Iranian banking system

 

Ghabezi Roohallahe 1, Kessmati Mohammad Reza 2

 

1. Scientific Board Member, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Iran.

2. Scientific Board Member, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Iran.

ghabezy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates return on investment for Iranian banking system. Banking is a major part of financial sector in an economy. For evaluating economic performance of institutes, we must use of competitive measurements for evaluating financial and economic impact of these decisions and then judge their performance. A basic goal of research is to assess investments rate for Iranian banking system and compare it with Industry average rate and rate of investment for private and governmental companies in Iranian economies. In this research three hypothesis were identified and tested. As the result shows, rate of return obtained from Iranian banking system less than private companies. On the other hand, there is no significant difference between the rate of return obtained from Iranian banking system and Industry average rate of return and governmental company’s rate of return.

[Ghabezi Roohallahe, Kessmati Mohammad Reza. Investigation of return on investment for Iranian banking system. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):36-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

 

Key words: investment, rate of return, banking system, monetary system economy, financial sector.

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6

Study on the relationship between preferential teaching styles and self-esteem of high school students

 

Kazem Shariatnia 1, Ali Asghar Bayani 1, Solmaz Baghaeifar2, Ali Hosseinaei1

 

1. Department of Psychology, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Golestan, I R. Iran

2. MA Student, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Golestan, I R. Iran

hosseinaiyf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this research was examining the relationship between preferential teaching styles and self-esteem of high school third grad students in Gonbad-e-Kavoos city. To achieve this purpose, changed of mousapoor and Kiamanesh (1999)  teaching style questionnaires and cooprsmith’s (1975) self-esteem were implemented on 335 students who had been selected by cluster sampling method and outcomes were analyzed using statistical package for social science (spss). The results indicated that there is a relationship between student-centered teaching style and self-esteem. The results of regression analysis also indicated that student-centered style (0.226) predicts the variance positively and teacher-centered style (-0.291) predicts the variance negatively. It means that students’ self-esteem increases by student-centered style and decreases by teacher-centered style. There was no meaningful difference between female and male students’ means self-esteem. Totally, the results of this study indicate that students’ self-esteem can be changed by changing the teaching style.

 [Shariatnia K, Bayani AA, Baghaeifar S, Hosseinaei A. Study on the relationship between preferential teaching styles and self-esteem of high school students. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):43-47]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

 

Keywords: student-centered teaching style; teacher-centered teaching style; self-esteem; students

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Left ventricular mass assessment in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients

 

Mohamed Kamal, Gamal A .Badr, Mohamed M.Hashem, Essam M. Ghamry, Moussa A. Hussin, Ibrahim Gh. Ramadan and Wael M.Attia*

 

Departments of General Medicine and Cardiology*, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

esamghamry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is increased in individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Increased left ventricular mass may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk because left ventricular hypertrophy which is an ominous prognostic sign and an independent risk factor for sudden death, ventricular dysarrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, coronary heart disease and heart failure, is often present in type 2 DM patients. The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of LVH, and risk factors for its development, in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients without antihypertensive. Subjects and methods: A total of 100 age- and sex-matched subjects were selected (50 cases, diabetic normotensive and 50 controls, nondiabetic normotensive). The study was performed at El- Hussein Hospital, Al-Azhar University, between October 2011 and May 2012. All patients were suspected to full history taking, complete physical examination, full lab, resting twelve leads ECG, plain x-ray chest and heart p-A view, transthoracic echocardiography (including 2D, M-mode, pulsed Doppler imaging) with standard views have been taken. LVM and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were calculated using Echocardiographic parameters and body surface area. Results: FBS, 2HPPBS, B. urea, S. creatinin, HbA1C, TG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol) were significantly higher in group I than group II (p <0.05) while HDL- cholesterol were significantly higher in-group II when compared to group I) (p <0.05). LV posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWTD), and interventricular septal thickness at end diastole (IVSTD) were higher in group I than group II (p <0,001), while there were no statistical difference between the two groups as regard males and females and left ventricular internal dimension at end diastole (LVIDD). LV mass (LVM) correlated with weight (r=0.465), BMI (r=0.351), BSA(r=0.427), 2hppBS (r=0.357), HBA1C(r=0.666) and duration of diabetes (r=0.645) but not correlated with other studied parameters. LVM index (LVMI) correlated with 2hppBS (r=0.363), HbA1C (r=0.644) and duration of diabetes(r=0.654). It is recommended that all patients of type 2 diabetes should be routinely and repeatedly subjected to 2D-guided M-mode echocardiography for early detection of high LVM. This is because increased LVM is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its early diagnosis and prevention is important, drug therapy can cause improvement in left ventricular function and can decrease cardiovascular morbidity.

[Mohamed Kamal, Gamal A .Badr, Mohamed M.Hashem, Essam M. Ghamry, Moussa A. Hussin, Ibrahim Gh. Ramadan and Wael M.Attia. Left ventricular mass assessment in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of American Science 2013;9(5):48-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

 

Key Words: septal thickness, LV mass, type 2 diabetes, normotensive nondiabetic

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8

Utility of α-Oxoketene Dithioacetals in Organic Synthesis: Synthesis of Some New Spiro Quinazolin-4-(3H)-one Derivatives

 

Mounir A. A. Mohamed* and H. Salah

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

mounir_abbas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A convenient synthesis of a series of substituted 4'-oxo-3',4'-dihydro-(1'H)-spiro[pyran-4,2'-quinazoline]-3-carbonitrile and 4'-oxo-3',4'-dihydro-(1'H)-spiro[pyran-4,2'-quinazoline]-3-ethylcarboxylate via the reactions of versatile and readily accessible 3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2(1H)-ylidene)pentane-2,4-dione 1 with the appropriate reagents, is described here.

[Mounir A. A. Mohamed and H. Salah. Utility of α-Oxoketene Dithioacetals in Organic Synthesis: Synthesis of Some New Spiro Quinazolin-4-(3H)-one Derivatives J Am Sci 2013;9(5):54-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

 

Keywords: α-Oxoketene, dithioacetals, spiro, quinazolone.

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Effect of Self Care Instructional Guidelines on Quality Of Life of Patients with Psoriasis

 

Hanan Shehata Mohamed1; Salwa Abd Allah2; Manal Salah 1 and Asmaa Hamdi1

 

1 Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2 Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Military Medical Academy, Armed Forces

Dr.hananshehata@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : Psoriasis is one of the most common skin diseases which consider a chronic and recurrent course. Living with a chronic disease such as psoriasis poses problem for the individual concerned with functioning and daily living activities. It is linked with social stigmatization, pain, discomfort, physical disability and psychological stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of self-care instructional guideline on quality of life of patient with psoriasis Subjects and methods: A quasi experimental design was used to conduct this study, purposive subjects of 40 adult patients suffering from mild-moderate psoriasis with the following criteria, ages above 18 years, free from any other concomitant medical condition can interfere with their abilities in performing daily life activities. Setting: The study was carried out at phototherapy unit affiliated to the Dermatology outpatient clinic in El-Demerdash teaching hospital. Tools: 4 tools were used to collect data, (1) an intervening questionnaire include socio demographic characteristics of the study subjects, assessment of patients knowledge about the psoriasis and how to control it, and assessment of patient self care activities related to psoriasis (2) psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) (3) psoriasis disability index (PDI); (4) patients with Psoriasis self assessment quality of life instrument. The results: the study revealed an improvement of patient's level of knowledge, self care and subsequently improves on their quality of life. The study concluded that there is positive effect of self care instruction guideline on psoriasis patients' quality of life. The study recommended increase public awareness about concept of psoriasis and how to prevent and manage it. Teaching and counseling program to improve self care activities for those patients should be done.

[Hanan Shehata Mohamed; Salwa Abd Allah; Manal Salah and Asmaa Hamdi. Effect of Self Care Instructional Guidelines on Quality Of Life of Patients with Psoriasis. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):60-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

 

Keywords: Self care, Instructional guideline, psoriasis symptoms, quality of life.

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Can Ultrasound Be an Effective Imaging Tool In Life Threatening Complications of Pregnancy?

 

 1Gihan Hassan Gamal and 2Lamyaa M. Yosry

 

1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculties of Medicine, 6th October University

2Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculties of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

dr.gh_006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract : Acute life threatening complications can arise during pregnancy and early postpartum period and result in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Common clinical signs are vaginal bleeding and pelvic or abdominal pain. The aim of this work was to improve the role of Ultrasound in identifying the causes, differential diagnosis and management of major acute life threatening complications of pregnancy  Sixty eight pregnant women complaining of vaginal bleeding with pelvic or abdominal pain were followed up in the US out patients, US emergency unit at 6th October hospital over a period of one year. Ten cases were in the postpartum period and the remaining cases were at different ages of gestation. They were examined by trans abdominal, using 3.5 MHz sector probe or transvaginal technique according to the suspected clinical examination. Our results could depict, according to US findings, five groups of pregnant complications: ectopic pregnancy, placenta previa, placenta morbid adhesion, placenta abruption and retained product of conception. Conclusion: It was proved that US is an important and helpful tool in investigation and diagnosis of threatening life complications of pregnancy, but should not override the clinical obstetric judgment.

 [Gihan Hassan Gamal and Lamyaa M. Yosry. Can Ultrasound Be an Effective Imaging Tool In Life Threatening Complications of Pregnancy? J Am Sci 2013;9(5):66-70]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

 

Key Words: US : Ultrasound, MHz : Megahertiz

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Patients' Perceptions As Indicators of Quality of Nursing Service Provided At Al Noor Specialist  Hospital at Makkah Al Moukarramah, KSA

 

Hala Y. Sayed1, Hoda A. Mohamed 2 and Esraa E. Mohamed 3

 

1,4 Nursing Administration of  Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University. Egypt  2,4nursing obstetric & gynecological of   Faculty of Nursing, El-Minia University and 3,4  Medical & Surgical nursing Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University;  4 Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, KSA.

Hala_yehia11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Patients' perception and their expectations of care are valid indicators of quality nursing care and to improve health services in hospitals require to measure their own performance in order to improve upon current system of service delivery. Well-designed health care delivery system can reduce hospitalization, improve quality of life and provide patient satisfaction. Aim: to assess the patients perceptions toward  quality of nursing service provided at Al Noor Specialist Hospital. Subject and methods: A descriptive correlation design was used in the present study. Ninety patients admitted to medical, surgical, burn and obstetric wards, they  were selected from Al Noor Specialist Hospital. Tool: Consumer Perception of Service Quality Sheet (SERVQUAL) was used to measure both  patient expectation and perception of  service quality.  It consisted of five dimensions as follows tangibility; (assess the appearance of physical facilities and appearance of nurses), reliability; (assess nurses ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), responsiveness; (assess nurses  willingness to help patients and provide a prompt service), Assurance; (assess nurses knowledge and courtesy of the service providers) and Empathy; (assess caring, individualized attention of nurses). Results the finding of the study showed that the overall patient expectation was (3.75 0.71) and the overall patients' perception means was (3.560.60). Conclusion patients' perception have become an important health care element in the evaluation of health care. The findings of the study provide nurses with information about aspects that enhance or hinder patient satisfaction. The present study concluded that patients' perception were satisfied with the nursing services rendered to them. Recommendations: Educational programs about raising nurses' awareness towards the importance of patient satisfaction specific to nursing services and educational program about how to improve quality of  nursing services   

 [Hala Y. Sayed, Hoda A. Mohamed and Esraa E. Mohamed.  Patients' Perceptions As Indicators of Quality of Nursing Service Provided At Al Noor Specialist  Hospital at Makkah Al Moukarramah, KSA. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):71-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

 

Key Words: Keywords: Patients ' PerceptionService Quality,   Nursing Care

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Subchronic haemotoxicity and histotoxicity of Citrullus colocynthis.

 

A. Elgerwi*1, Z. Benzekri2, S. Awaidat1, A. El-Magdoub1, A. Abusnina1, A. El-Mahmoudy3

 

1Department of Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tripoli University, 13662 Triploi, Libya;

2Menchya Clinic, Ministry of Health, 5688 Tripoli, Libya;

3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, 13736 Moshtohor, Egypt

amer.elgerwi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at examination of the toxicity of Citrullus colocynthis extract in rats after oral administration of of LD50 every week for 10 weeks. The oral LD50 was determined for the extract of Citrullus colocynthis plants obtained from three different localities in Libya including Tarhona, Alzawia and Suq-Alkhamis, which were calculated as 100, 101.7 and 162.4 mg/kg. b.wt., respectively. Rats used in the present experiment were classified into four groups; the first, the second and the third groups were given the extract of the plant collected from Tarhona, Alzawia and Suq-Alkhamis, respectively, while the fourth one was kept as a control. Blood samples were collected for haematological and biochemical examination. Specimens from lung, liver, kidney, intestine, stomach and spleen were taken from the treated and control rats for histopathological examination. The treated rats suffered from severe yellow diarrhea, dyspnea, depression and weakness of hind limbs. The blood picture of treated rats showed marked changes in total RBC count, PCV %, Hb concentration, WBC count and differential leukocytic count. Serum GPT, GOT, ALP, glucose, total protein, urea and creatinine and serum electrolytes were severely affected. Pathological changes in lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine were recorded in the treated rats.

[A. Elgerwi, Z. Benzekri, S. Awaidat, A. El-Magdoub, A. Abusnina, A. El-Mahmoudy. Subchronic haemotoxicity and histotoxicity of Citrullus colocynthis.. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):79-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

 

Key Words: Citrullus colocynthis, Rats, Hematological, Biochemical, Histopathological.

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Effect of Sweet Violet (Viola odorata L.) Blossoms Powder on Liver and Kidney Functions as well as Serum Lipid Peroxidation of Rats Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride

 

Yousif Elhassaneen*, Sherif Sabry, Thoraya Musalum, Azza El-Eskafy and Abeer Abd El-Fatah

 

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, Minoufiya University, Shebin El-kom, Egypt

yousif12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of sweet violet (Viola odorata L.) blossoms powder (SVBP) on liver and injuries of rats injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Thirty six mature albino rats, weighting 130-150 g per each, were used and divided into two main groups, the first group (Group 1, 6 rats) fed on basal diet and the other main group (30 rats) was injected by CCl4 for two weeks to induce liver impaired rats then classified into sex sub groups as follow: group (2), fed on standard diet only as a positive control; groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 fed on standard diet containing 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 % of SVBP respectively. At the end of the experiment, 28 days, liver and kidney functions as well as serum lipid peroxidation were determined. The results indicated that treatment of animals with CCl4 caused a significant increased (p≤0.05) in liver functions (AST, ALT and ALP activities), kidney functions (urea and creatinine levels) and serum lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level, MDA) compared to normal controls. Supplementation of the animal diets with SVBP (0.2 to 1.6 g/100g) prevented significantly (p≤0.05) the rise of mean serum AST, ALT and ALP activities; urea, creatinine and MDA levels. The rate of preventative was increased with the increasing of the SVBP supplementation level. It could be concluded that SVBP was effective in protecting against CCl4-induced liver and kidney injuries. Therefore, we recommended like of that plant part, sweet violet blossoms, by a concentrations ranged 0.2-1.6 % amount to be included in our daily diets, drinks and food supplementation.

[Yousif Elhassaneen, Sherif Sabry, Thoraya Musalum, Azza El-Eskafy and Abeer Abd El-Fatah. Effect of Sweet Violet (Viola odorata L.) Blossoms Powder on Liver and Kidney Functions as well as Serum Lipid Peroxidation of Rats Treated with Carbon Tetrachloride. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):88-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

 

Key words: Viola odorata, blossoms, ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde.

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Histological and Ultrastructural Study of the Effect of Nandrolone on the Testis of Adult Male Albino Rat

 

Ahmed F. AlDomairy,   MD

 

Department of Anatomy – Faculty of Medicine – October 6 University

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the changes produced by the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate on the testicular tissue, and to clarify the reversibility of these changes. Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided in 6 groups, treated with oil vehicle (C), therapeutic (T) and high (H) doses of nandrolone decanoate respectively for eight weeks. Each regimen was divided into effect (A) and recovery (B) groups, in which rats were sacrificed two days and eight weeks after the last injection, respectively. The histological findings of the present work showed severe degeneration of seminiferous tubules structure, there were irregular basement membrane, arrest of spermatogenesis in different levels, apoptosis of germ cells, disarranged intratubular cells, reduction of Leydig cells and interstitial tissue edema. The statistical analysis showed a highly significant difference between the control group and the other groups as regards seminiferous tubules diameter, the high dose effect and recovery groups showed a statistical significant lower values than the therapeutic dose effect and recovery groups respectively. As regards the epithelial thickness measurement, a highly significant lower value in the high dose effect group and a significant lower values in the other three treated groups in relation to the control group were found. The ultrastructural findings included Apoptotic and completely degenerated cells, shrinked or pale degenerated nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, degenerated cytoplasm, loss of cytoplasmic organelles, cytoplasmic vacuolization, many fat globules and lysosomes and thick irregular basement membrane. From the present work, it is concluded that, nandrolone administration causes a dose dependent, long lasting testicular tissue damage even in a therapeutic dose, leaving a testicular stigma which may lead to permanent hypofertility or infertility.

[Ahmed F. AlDomairy. Histological and Ultrastructural Study of the Effect of Nandrolone on the Testis of Adult Male Albino Rat. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):96-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  14

 

Key words: nandrolone - anabolic steroid -  testis - ultrastructure – rat

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Comparative Study between Predicted and Observed Records of Implementation Dewatering Systems at Abu Qir Intake Power Plant, Alexandria

 

M.H. Rabie

 

Geotechnical Eng., Civil Eng. Dept., Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt,

m.rabie@talk21.com.

 

Abstract: When a deep excavation reaches groundwater, that water must be extracted from under the development to provide a stable foundation during construction. The configuration of the extraction system depends largely on the soil properties and the volume of water that must be removed. This paper presents a case history of Abu Qir thermal plant units since dewatering system required for construction of the foundation of the intake structure was studied using the conventional design equations, then the results of recorded field data after pumping test have been used to calibrate the dewatering system model. Moreover, a comparison study has been carried out between the values of drawdown estimated by equilibrium formulas (closed form solutions), 3D finite difference code (Visual Modflow), and those values obtained from field measurements. Accordingly, the accuracy and predictability of the proposed analytic solution was evaluated.

[M.H. Rabie. Comparative Study between Predicted and Observed Records of Implementation Dewatering Systems at Abu Qir Intake Power Plant, Alexandria. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):106-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

 

Keywords: Ground water control, Dewatering, Pumping test, Deep well, Piezometer.

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Evaluation of therapeutic effects of vicine against leishmania donovani. in vitro

 

Najwa M.J. A. Abu-Mejdad and Athraa A. A. Al-Hilfy

 

Biology department / Science College / Basrah university/Iraq

Najwa_22_4_1978@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: During study isolated vicine from Hibiscus sabdariffa and Helianthus annus, identified by 13 chemical test, UV and IR spectral analysis techniques beside of determined melting point for it. Also tested purified it by thin layer chromatography and estimated activity as antileishmaniasis by killing promastigote of Leishmania donovani in vitro. Prepared five concentrations of vicine as followed :(1 gm / ml, 0.5 gm / ml, 0.25 gm / ml, 0. 125 gm / ml, 0.05 gm / ml) the results showed the vicine which extracted from H.sabdariffa more activity in killing of promastigote compared with vicine which extracted from H.annus. So minimum rat for numbers of living promastigote reached (0) in fourth day at 1gm/ml by effect vicine which extracted from H.sabdariffa while maximum rat reached 3025 in first day at 0.05 gm / ml where as the vicine which extracted from H.annus appeared minimum rat for numbers of living promastigote 100 at 1 gm / ml while maximum rat reached 5350 in first day at 0.05 gm / ml. Tested cytotoxicity of vicine against red blood cells and the results appeared no toxic against it.

[Najwa M.J. A. Abu-Mejdad and Athraa A. A. Al-Hilfy. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of vicine against leishmania donovani. in vitro. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):115-120]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

 

Keywords: vicine, antileishmanial,therapeutic effects

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Evaluation of Educational, Social and Psychological Problems of College Students: A Case Study of King Faisal University of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Nasser Saad Al-Kahtani1, Zafrul Allam2

 

1. Dean, College of Business Administration, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2. Department of HRM, College of Business Administration, Salman Bin Abdul Aziz University, Al Kharj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

nasalka1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, the authors evaluated the educational, social and psychological problems associated with college students. The purpose of this study was to find out existed problems in relation to educational, social and psychological aspects and suggested some measures to make learning process more effective for the college students. The sample consisted of 380 students selected randomly from different level of study of College of Administrative Sciences and Planning at King Faisal University of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A self made questionnaire was used to gather the information related to problems of students. Percentage statistical method was used to analyze the data obtained. Results revealed that most of the items pertaining to the dimensions of the scale found to be existed but in varying degrees. Discussion focuses on the need for educational, social and psychological problems and solutions to bring hope and success that can promote quality of education system in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This paper also shows several implications that need the attention of the educational system as well as the accomplishment of the visions of the university.

[Al-Kahtani, NS, Allam, Z. Evaluation of Educational, Social and Psychological Problems of College Students: A Case Study of King Faisal University of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):121-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

 

Key words: educational problems, social problems, psychological problems, students, teachers, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Role of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in diagnosis of intra-axial contrast enhanced brain masses

 

Ali Abdel-Fattah Alsyed Esmael, Mahmoud Abu-el-fadl; Mustafa Motawe, Ismail Badawy, Seham Abbas Aly and Emad Fawzy

 

 Radiology &Neurology Departments, Faculty of medicine, Al-Azhar & Benha univarsity

ali_helil@yahoo.com, isia992018@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Differentiation of intra-axial brain masses with conventional MRI or CT imaging is difficult especially neoplastic from non neoplastic masses. Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as diffusion weighted MR imaging, perfusion MR imaging and MR spectroscopy can further improve the diagnostic accuracy of conventional CT and MR imaging. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging may detect inflammatory processes, whereas characteristics of peritumoral area may help to distinguish between metastases and glioblastomas. In solid tumors DWI, may also aid the differentiation between low grade gliomas and malignant tumors. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging also provides adjunctive information for detection of demyelinating processes. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging has an important role in diagnosis & differential diagnosis of the ring enhanced intracranial lesions with the conventional MR sequences after IV contrast injection. Purpose: To determine the accuracy of a Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in diagnosis and to differentiate and characterize the intra-axial enhancing focal lesions, according to its histopathological findings or clinical diagnosis. Materials and Methods: 40 patients (25 men and 15 women), mean age, 34.5 years) with neurological symptoms with or without previous investigations were enrolled into this study. Results: Search results showed 10 patients with high-grade and 5 with low-grade primary neoplasm, 10 with abscesses, 4 with lymphoma, 8 with demyelinating diseases, and 3 with metastases. Those lesions revealed different patterns of DW and ADC values. Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is significant in diagnosis and accurate in differentiation of several intra-axial brain focal lesions.

[Ali Abdel-Fattah Alsyed Esmael, Mahmoud Abu-el-fadl, Mustafa Motawe, Ismail Badawy, Seham Abbas Aly and Emad Fawzy. Role of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in diagnosis of intra-axial contrast enhanced brain masses. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):131-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

 

Keywords: weighted MR; Imaging; diagnosis; intra-axial; brain; mass

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The effect of HUCB Stem Cells Transnsplantation on Preservation of Liver Vasculature in Mice

 

Dalia Ibrahim1, Gamela M. Nasr2, Hamdi Sleem1 and Heba M. Wagih3
 
Departments of 1Physiology, 2Cardiology Internal Medicine and 3Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University. isia992018@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: Background and aim: Liver fibrosis is an accumulation of scar tissue in the liver caused by liver disease like hepatitis. However, numerous chemicals and drugs, like alcohol, can also cause fibrosis As a result, effective antifibrotic treatments are urgently needed. Recently, many studies demonstrated that stem-cell-based therapies might be developed for effective treatment of liver disease by ameliorate liver fibrosis and preserve vascular endothelial function by reducing the biochemical markers of inflammation (Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) ) and increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Objective: The present work is designed to investigate the effect of HUCB stem cells transnsplantation on preservation of vasculature of liver and decrease inflammation and fibrosis of portal tract mice. Methods:. Induced hepatic fibrosis in mice with CCl4, HUCB stem cells were infused systemically through the tail vein immediately after exposure to CCl4 Then continues injection of CCl4 for10 weeks, control mice received only saline infusion. After 10 weeks of the first dose of CCl4 mice were killed under anesthesia, liver was taken for histopathological examination, Blood was collected for measuring sICAM- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Results. Found that The serum level of sICAM-1 increased significantly in G2 (non treated) compared to G3(control group). Stem cells reduced the increase in sICAM-1 significantly (P<0.05). Induction of liver fibrosis increased significantly the release of sVEGF compared to the control group. Treatment with stem cells increased significantly the release and expression of sVEGF .Histological examination suggested that hepatic damage recovery was much better in the stem cells treated mice as the portal tract inflammation, fibrosis were statistical significantly lower in treated mice than in non treated. Conclusion. The results suggest that Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem cells improve and preserve vasculature of liver and decrease inflammation and fibrosis of portal tract mice.
[Dalia Ibrahim, Gamela M. Nasr, Hamdi Sleem and Heba M. Wagih. The effect of HUCB Stem Cells Transnsplantation on Preservation of Liver Vasculature in Mice. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):140-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

 

Key words: Carbon tetrachloride CCl4, VEGF, Adhesion molecules (sICAM1) liver fibrosis.

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Effect of Calcium Lactate on the Quality parameters of Galia Melons Compote

 

Abd El-Hady, M.M. M.; Assous, M.T. M. and Ginat El-Sherif

 

Food Tech. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt.

magdy_abdelhady2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Galia’ melon (Cucumis melon var. cantalupensis Naud.) is one of the most common melon cultivars produced for fresh consumption. The main problem with ‘Galia’ is its short shelf-life during marketing. The objective of this study was to identify extend of opportunity for develop melon compote from melon fruit and to evaluate its nutritional and physical properties. Fresh melon fruits were cut into cubes and filled with 40% sugar syrup into glass jars. Calcium lactate added  by 0, 400, 600 and 800 ppm as firming agent at either room temperature or 60C.The obtained results declared that the combination of Ca lactate with 60C was more effective for maintaining  the quality indices. Ca content and firmness of melon compote were increased as increasing the level of Ca lactate. The results of sensory evaluation of melon compote showed that 600ppm Ca lactate 60C compote obtained the highest degree of acceptability.

[Abd El-Hady, M.M.M; Assous, M.T.M. and Ginat El-Sherif. Effect of Calcium Lactate on the Quality parameters of Galia Melons Compote. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):145-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

 

Key Words: Galia’ melon compote – Firmness- Calcium lactate

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Relationship between serum YKL-40 and BMI

 

Gamil M. Abdalla1, Farid M. Hamada2, Ossama A. Mansour1, Wafaa A. Fahmy3, Ahmed A. El-Husseiny1,*

 

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Department, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt

3National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedhelal1984@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Obesity is a chronic condition recognized as a low-grade inflammatory process. YKL-40 is a protein secreted by activated macrophages, was found to be elevated in conditions that are characterized by inflammation like obesity and its complications. The circulating level of YKL-40 in obesity has not been adequately studied. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between the level of YKL-40 and different levels of increased body mass index (BMI) in Egyptian subjects. Research Design and Methods: Serum levels of YKL-40, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin and other parameters were assessed in 60 subjects of different levels of increased body mass index(>25 kg/m2) compared to 20 subjects of normal body mass index (>18.5 up to 25 kg/m2) with matched age and sex. Serum YKL-40 and insulin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) whereas CRP levels were measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. Results: Serum YKL-40 levels were found to be significantly elevated in overweight, obese and morbid obese subjects when compared with normal control subjects. Its levels were 121.7, 121.3 and 131.6 ng/mL among overweight, obese and morbid obese respectively and 88.2 ng/mL for normal BMI. This level of YKL-40 is significantly higher compared to normal subjects at P< 0.05. YKL-40 level was found to be also significantly positively correlated with BMI, body fat percentage (BF %), index of central obesity (ICO) and CRP. CRP level was found to increase significantly with the rise of BMI. The level was 4.09 mg/L among overweight rises to 4.85 mg/L among obese and shoots up to 10.86 mg/L among morbid obese while normal control subjects CRP was 2.40 mg/L. Conclusion: The study suggests that YKL-40 and CRP levels are elevated in overweight, obese and morbid obese subjects in relation to BMI.

[Gamil M. Abdalla, Farid M. Hamada, Ossama A. Mansour, Wafaa A. Fahmy, Ahmed A. El-Husseiny. Relationship between serum YKL-40 and BMI. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):152-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

 

Key words: BMI= body mass index and CRP= C reactive protein

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Mutation in the precore region of HBV in chronic hepatitis B patients

 

Kader O. 1, Metwally D.E.1, Helaly G. F.1, El-Batouti G. A. 2, Elsawaf R. 1

 

1 Microbiology Department, Medical Research Institute University of Alexandria.

2 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharos University

dr.dalia.ragab@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs-Ag) in Egypt is of intermediate endemicity (2–8%). Nearly 2-3 million Egyptians are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBs Ag and HBe Ag are particularly important in the management of CHB. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may present either HBe-Ag-positive or HBe-Ag-negative. Objective: The aim of the present work is to use the different HBV virological markers and HBV-DNA viral load to evaluate HBV infection, detect mutant forms of HBV. Methods: The current study included 52 HBs Ag positive patients; they were investigated for the following: anti- HBe, HBe Ag by ELISA, HBV DNA viral load, detection of precore, core promoter viral mutations in some HBV-DNA positive HBe antigen negative, anti-HBe positive patients by DNA sequencing. Results: Among the 52 HBs Ag positive patients only 4 (7.6%) were HBe Ag positive, HBV DNA was detected in 32 (66%) cases out of the 48 HBe Ag negative anti HBe positive patients, with the viral load ranging from 102 to 105 IU/ml. Thirteen (27 %) out of the 48 anti HBe were inactive HBs Ag carriers. Twenty seven (56.25%) cases were anti HBe CHB. Three out of the 5 sequenced strains with the precore mutation were associated with HBe Ag negative CHB. None of these strains developed the triple BCP mutations.

[Kader O, Metwally DE, Helaly GF, El-Batouti GA, Elsawaf R. Mutation in the precore region of HBV in chronic hepatitis B patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):157-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

 

Key words: HBV, HBe Ag, pre-core, mutation.

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Factors Affecting Nurses' Career Development

 

Mayssam Hamed Ismaiel1 Alice Edward Reizian2, Ghada Mohamed Hamouda 3

 

1Vice Principle Aswan Technical Nursing Institute, Aswan Governorate.

2Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

3Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

ghada_hamouda88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rapid changes in the health care sector during the latest decades of the 20th century place new demands on nursing and nurses. That makes health organizations face a challenge to collaborate with individual nurses on career-development activities that will enable them to continue to provide high-quality care. Therefore the study aims to identify the factors that affect nurses' career development. The study was conducted at all hospitals affiliated to Aswan Directorate of Health Affairs (N=11). The study sample represented 50% of Aswan nurses (N=300) who were available at the time of data collection. The Career Development Questionnaire (CDQ) was used; it includes three dimensions measured by (98 items): personal factors, Job factors and organizational factors. The result concluded that nurses personal behaviors and career development practice, satisfaction, autonomy, management support and the career developmental plans that affect nurses' career development. It was recommended that administration support through in-services training programs, provide resource; and opportunities for further education to upgrade the general awareness level of career development strategies.

 [Mayssam Hamed Ismaiel, Alice Edward Reizian and Ghada Mohamed Hamouda. Factors Affecting Nurses' Career Development. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):163-172]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

 

Keywords: Factor; Affect; Nurse; Career; Development

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Optimal Design of Earthing System Base on Genetic Algorithm

 

Mohamed Ahmed Mehanna1 and Mokhtar Hussien Abdullah 2

 

1Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Nasr-City, Cairo, Egypt

2Senior Projects Engineer, Mazoon Electricity Company S.A.O.C

mehanna2002@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The ground resistance, the ground potential rise, touches and step voltages are the basic design quantities of the grounding grids. Such quantities greatly depend on the safety of grounding system. The aim being pursued is to minimize these mentioned quantities, while the safety restrictions required by the standard regulations are met. The innovative aspect of the proposed approach is the influences of reflective coefficient of one-layer soil and the thickness of upper-layer soil, the irregular grounding grid area are analyzed when using this approach for optimum grounding grid design with best economic approach. By discussing the genetic algorithm, architecture of multi-objective optimization design of substation grounding grids, step voltage, mesh voltage, touch voltage, and cost. Calculation shows that the method is feasible and the optimal results can minimize these mentioned quantities which are not subject to hierarchical structure of soil and irregular grounding area only depend on such as number of rod in horizontal and vertical, length of rods and the depth of buried grid conductors .

[Mohamed Ahmed Mehanna and Mokhtar Hussien Abdullah. Optimal Design of Earthing System Base on Genetic Algorithm. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):173-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

 

Key words: Grid resistance, step voltage, touches voltage, mesh voltage, and Genetic algorithm.

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Relationship between Organizational Climate and Nurses’ Outcomes

 

Nahed Mohamed Zayan1, Alice Edward Reizian2 and Ghada Mohamed Hamouda3

 

1El-Kabary Hospital, Ministry of Health and Population, Head of Operating Department.

2Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Professor.

3Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Lecturer.

ghada_hamouda88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Organizational climate is a setoff measurable property of the work environment; it is a systems concept that reflects the entire life style of an organization. Therefore, organizational climate is favorable when employees are doing something useful that provide a sense of personal worth. This can be done through several factors which affect nurses' job outcomes including: empowerment, job design, organizational factor, nurse-client relationships, nurse-supervisor relationships and peer to peer relation. Therefore the study aims to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and nurses’ outcomes. The study was conducted in all the inpatient and outpatient units in El-Kabary hospital. All nursing staff (N=160) who were available in the stated units and working in all shifts were included. Direct care worker experiences and job outcome questionnaire was developed and used to measure the relationship between organizational climate and nurses’ outcomes. The result concluded that nurses' job outcomes have positive and moderate link with the organizational climate dimensions, while there was no significant relation between nurses’ experience toward organizational climate dimensions and nurses' job satisfaction. It was recommended that the administration should provide recognition, encouragement, appreciation and professional development for nurses, allow them active participation in group discussion, giving and receiving effective feedback for improving their performance.

[Nahed Mohamed Zayan, Alice Edward Reizian and Ghada Mohamed Hamouda. Relationship between Organizational Climate and Nurses’ Outcomes. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):184-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

 

Keywords: Relationship; Organization; Climate; Nurse; Outcome

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Impact of Nursing Intervention about Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Patient

 

Soad Sayed Byomi and Soad Abd Elhameed Sharkaway

 

* Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt.

 

Abstract:  Sleep disturbance are common in the general adult population, and as the population ages. Among several changes that occur with ageing, changes in sleep quality and quantity can be the most difficult for many older adults. The aim of this study was to improve elderly knowledge and practice related to sleep disturbance. The aim was to be reached through achievement of the following objectives: To assess elderly knowledge and practice concerning sleep disturbance; To develop and implement an educational training program about sleep disturbance and To evaluate the effect of educational training program on elderly knowledge and practice. A quasi-experimental design was used in carrying out this study, with pre-post assessment. This study carried out in outpatient clinics at Assiut University Hospital. It includes diabetes mellitus, chest, cardiac, cancer, hypertension, hepatitis viruses and physiotherapy clinics. The sample included 200 elderly patients suffering from sleep disturbance. An interview questionnaire sheet was developed by the researchers based on a review of relevant literature. It consists of three main parts: Part I:  It includes items related to socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex, educational level and marital status Part II:  It includes items related to history of medical problems and information regarding sleep condition. Part III: program about exercise and sleep hygiene tips it include question about importance of exercise, technique of exercise and tips to improve sleep condition. Data was collected in a period of 6 months starting from January 2012 to the end of June 2012. Results: Two hundred adults aged ≥ 60 years with sleep disturbance mean age 63.17 SD 3.9 years; 46% male & 54% female. The vast majority of the elderly had complained from coronary disease, diabetes, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The majority of sample 87.5% had drinking tea before sleep and the minority 10.5% of them practice exercises also 40.0 % of them take antihypertensive drugs and only 8.5% of them take hypnotics drug. After the program they improved in sleep quality on the sleep latency period (p=0.04), sleep duration (p=0.001), and also had reductions in use of sleep medications (p=0.000). As regards to elderly knowledge about sleep hygiene tips it was found that there is statistical significance difference before and after program about sleep hygiene tips. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that the educational program which includes the moderate intensity physical exercise plus sleep hygiene education is effective in improving self reported sleep quality and quality of life in older adults with sleep disturbance. In The light of these results, it is recommended to that general approach to detecting sleep disorders in an ambulatory setting. Patient with sleep disturbance should be educated about good exercise, sleep hygiene, home ventilation, and balanced diet. It can be achieved through mass media, health classes in different health agencies.

[Soad Sayed Byomi and Soad Abd Elhameed Sharkaway. The Impact of Nursing Intervention about Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Patient. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):193-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

 

 Keywords: Sleep disturbance, elderly.

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Preschool Children Injuries in Rural and Urban Communities at Assiut Governorate: A Comparative Study

 

Soad sayed Bayomi* and Amal Ahmed Mobarak**

 

*Community Health Nursing. - Faculty of Nursing Assuit University, Egypt.

**Pediatric Nursing.- Faculty of Nursing Assuit University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Childhood injuries may result in death or significant disability, with significant number of years of productive life lost to society. In Egypt, the overall prevalence is high among children below the age of 5 years. The aim of this study was to compare preschool injuries between urban and rural communities in Assiut Governorate. This cross-sectional comparative research was carried out in Assiut city and surrounding rural areas on 2 groups 200 mothers each, one rural and one urban. An interview questionnaire sheet was designed to collect data regarding preschool child injuries after pilot testing. Data collection lasted from November 2010 to May 2011. The results showed similarity in the personal and family characteristics of the two groups with few exceptions as enrollment in nurseries and parents; education, while the housing conditions were better in urban group. More rural (70.5%) than urban (58.0%) children experienced injuries (p=0.009). Household injuries were higher in rural (p<0.001), while street injuries were higher in urban children (p=0.026). Also, more urban children had fractures or dislocations (p=0.008) and smoke inhalation (p=0.048). The most common injury site in both groups was the extremities. For first aid, more urban mothers used disinfectants and bandaging (p<0.001), whereas more rural mothers used coffee (p<0.001) and oven dust (p=0.004). The role of the nurse was more prominent in the urban (65.5%) compared with rural (21.3%) samples, p<0.001. Mother's job status had significant relation with the occurrence of injuries (p<0.001). The conclusion is that rural preschool children are more prone to injuries compared to urban ones, and they have less adequate first aid management. The study recommends improving the level of parents’ education, especially unemployed mothers regarding household injuries and first aid management. The role of the nurse needs to be fostered.

[Soad sayed Bayomi and Amal Ahmed Mobarak. Preschool Children Injuries in Rural and Urban Communities at Assiut Governorate: A Comparative Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):203-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

 

Key Words: Child, Injuries, Accidents, First-aid

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Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Late Neoproterozoic Dokhan Volcanics at Wadi Abu Hamra area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

 

Hatem M. El-Desoky

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University

hatem_eldesoky2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present work deals with geology, petrography, geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic environment of Dokhan volcanics at Wadi Abu Hamra area. The studied Dokhan volcanics have composition of rhyolites, spherulitic rhyolites, rhyodacites, quartz dacites, bedded dacitic tuffs and subordinate andesitic tuffs. Rhyolites are usually found as large outcrops in the western part of the Gabal Abu Hamra area. Spherulitic rhyolites contain veinlets of quartz and minor outcrops occur at the beginning of Wadi Abu Hamra. Dacites are found as microcrystalline hard rocks of brownish grey in color and massive structure. Andesitic tuffs are characterized by dark grey, very fine-grained to glassy and sheared. Petrochemical characteristics and trace element distribution indicate that the Dokhan volcanics are calc-alkaline in nature with a rather tholeiitic affinity. The Dokhan volcanics represent a well developed active continental margin or island arc with a thick continental crust. The behavior of many elements supports mantle as well as crustal affinities. Association of both mantle and crust suggests deep source, probably the mantle, and differentiation of the magma as it ascended into the crust with which it interacted. The initiation and termination of the eruption in divergent settings indicate that the magmatic activities were generated from a common source. The final emplacement of the Dokhan volcanics in a continental setting is suggestive of a prolonged divergent activity initiated at great depth. The magma traced and utilized the rift until the last batch completely solidified as rhyolites, rhyodacites and tuffs on the continent.

[Hatem M. El-Desoky. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Late Neoproterozoic Dokhan Volcanics at Wadi Abu Hamra area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):212-235]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

 

Key words: Dokhan volcanics, geochemistry, Neoproterozoic, petrogenesis, petrography, geotectonic and Egypt. 

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Life forms and rangeland for many habitats of Jarjar oma in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar on Mediterranean sea

 

Abusaief, H. M. A.

 

 Agron. Fac. Agric., Omar Al-Mukhtar Univ.

Bossef_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out during 2010 to 2011 to determine the important plants of in Jarjar oma in Al- Jabal Al- Akhdar-Libya, which includes about 179 species belonging to 51 families and 144 genera. They are represented by 75 perennial, 101 annual and 3 biennial species. Most characteristic families are Asteraceae containing 28 species, the dominance of Asteraceae indicates the range deterioration and dominance of unpalatable species. Fabaceae represented by 22 species, Poaceae including 18 species, Asparagaceae by 7 species, Brassicaceae by 6 species, Caryophyllaceae by 6 species, Euphorbiaceae by 6 species saline and rocky. Apiaceae, Lamiaceae and Polygonaceae including 5 species. Noticed that 56.2 % of species was annuals and 42.1 % was perennials and 1.7 % was biennials. Whereas autumn and summer increase perennials to reach 100 % more than spring and winter wherein increase annuals species to attain 55 %, to display disappear biennial in autumn and summer seasons in all habitat except rocky habitat in autumn. Out of the surveyed, Kinds of Forbs gave 109 species followed shrubs by 38 species, Grass 26 species, Trees 6 species. Of the most dominant species was broad-leaved (Forbs) plant species found in the region. According to palatability 107 species were palatable and 72 species were unpalatable. For annuals, 61 species were palatable and 40 species were unpalatable, while perennial, 44 species were palatable and 31 species were unpalatable. The species belongs to six different life forms. Therophytes 58.7%, is represented by the largest number of species, while, Geophytes represents about 14% of the flora, Hemicryptophytes has a moderate value of 10.6%, Chamaephytes has 10.1% of the flora Jarjar oma area, Phanerophytes contains 11 species, which are Pistacia lentiscus, Rhus tripartite, Tamarix tetragyna, Ceratonia siliqua and Nitraria retusa. Hydrophytes record on species Posidonia oceanica found in sand formation. The relationship life forms with seasons in Jarjar oma habitat increase Therophytes reach 30-57% in winter and 50% in spring. Chamaephytes highly during season summer of 30-50%. Hemicryptophytes low in all seasons. Geophytes highest during autumn season in sandy beach, while Phanerophytes high during summer season.

[Abusaief, H. M. A. Life forms and rangeland for many habitats of Jarjar oma in Al- Jabal Al-Akhdar on Mediterranean sea. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):236-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  29

 

Keyword: Rangeland, habitats and life forms.

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Evaluation of Mushrooms Broth Cube and Its Compared With Maggi Broth Cube Products in Saudi Arabia

 

Fatima M. M. Al-Subhi

 

Nutrition and Food Sci. Dept., Fac. of Appl. Med. Sci., Umm El-Qura Univ., Saudi Arabia

fmmsobhi@uqu.ed.sa  

 

Abstract: Mushrooms were formerly called ˝meat of poverty˝ in center Europe because the composition of mushroom proteins is higher nutrition value than of most plant protein. Therefore, mushroom broth stock was prepared and it compared with Maggi cube products (vegetable, chicken and beef) then evaluated from chemically analysis, sensory evaluations and microorganisms were estimated. The results from Maggi cubes (chickens, beef and vegetables) products and mushrooms broth cube showed that the chemical compositions of chicken cube was the highest protein content (8.6%) followed by mushrooms broth cube (7.9%) and beef cube (6.9%), whereas the vegetable was the lowest protein content (4.8%). Crude fat, total fiber and ash were found ranging between 2.9 to 4.7%, 25.9 to 38.1% and 19.6 to 30.8% dry matter, respectively. The sensory evaluation results from the mushroom broth cube and Maggi cubes (vegetables, chicken and beef) products were no significant differences among of the soup samples in color/appearance, taste, mouth feel, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability. However, the mushroom soup is the most acceptable of all the traditional soups. Biological activity as total bacteria and fungi count were estimated in mushroom broth cube and maggi cubes (vegetables, chicken and beef) products and the results are showed that the total count bacteria and fungi were obtained no variation in the total count bacteria (3.06 to 3.5910-6 CFU) and fungi (1.01 to 1.54 10-2CFU) respectively. The mushroom and Maggi cubes (vegetables, chicken and beef) products on vegetative growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in liquid media were studied. The various mushroom and maggi cubes (vegetables, chicken and beef) extracts supported good vegetative growth of A. flavus and the results showed that the best growth was obtained from mushroom cubes (216.67 mg) followed by Maggi vegetable cubes (176.67 mg), the least growth was observed for beef cubes (96.67 mg). The aflatoxins B1, B2 G1, and G2 were not formed in the mushroom and Maggi cubes (vegetables, chicken and beef) products. It may be recommended that the mushroom and Maggi cubes (vegetable, chicken and beef) products are acceptability and safety soup from any resident microorganisms and aflatoxins. Therefore, mushroom broth cube is improved stability of products and safety to consume as good food sources.

[Fatima M. M. Al-Subhi. Evaluation of Mushrooms Broth Cube and Its Compared With Maggi Broth Cube Products in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):250-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

 

Key word: Mushrooms, Maggi, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin

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A Study of Rural Development in Iran through the White Revolution: Comparing with South Korea’s Rural Development Program (Saemaul Undong)

 

Hung-Tae, Yoo, Hosein Massud Niya, Hosein Harsij

 

PH.D Student of Politics, University of Isfahan, Iran

allnationsyoo@gmail.com

Assistant Professor, Department of Politics, University of Isfahan, Iran

Associate Professor, Department of Politics, University of Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: Iran and South Korea had walked a similar way on the modernization and industrialization in the basis of a similar political system which means dictatorial authoritarianism. Mohammad Reza Shah began the rural development program for increasing income and quality of life of farmers through land reform and tried that the rural would not alienate from modernization and industrialization. Saemaul Undong as the rural development program was began in 1971 under the direction of President Park Chung-Hee in South Korea. The rural development of both countries stated from the top with same goal in the case of Iran got a visible and good result through land reform at the first time but didn’t last long. However, in the case of South Korea, the rural development program got to improve the quality of life and keep pace with modernization and industrialization through sustainable development.

[Hatem M. El-Desoky. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Late Neoproterozoic Dokhan Volcanics at Wadi Abu Hamra area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt J Am Sci 2013;9(5):256-265]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

 

Keywords: White Revolution, Iran, rural development, South Korea

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Prevalence of Hepatitis virus C and Hepatitis virus B in patients who had ICSI at Azhar ART unit and its impact on the outcome?

 

Adel E. Ibrahim, Ehab H. Mohamed, Abdel monem M. Farag

 

Assisted Reproductive Unite and Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.

Adel.sayed29@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To detect the prevalence of HBV and HCV in patients who had ICSI at Azhar ART unite and its impact on the outcome of the first ICSI-embryo transfer cycle. Study design: A retrospective cohort study.Setting: Azhar ART unites. Material and methods: 3764 patients had the first ICSI cycle to estimate the prevalence of HBV and HCV a among such patients, then we have chosen HCV seropositive patients (154 patients) and HBV seropositive patients (26 patients), in addition to 200 seronegative patients for HCV and HBV having the ICSI, embryo transfer cycle during the same time period used as control. Statistical analysis of data were done regarding, prevalence of HCV seropositive patients, HBV seropositive patient characteristics, pattern of ovarian stimulation and clinical pregnancy rate. Outcome measures: prevalence of HBV&HCV,  duration of gonadotropin treatment, total dose of gonadotropin stimulation, number of growing follicles, oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, number of grade 1 embryos, the number of embryos transferred, pregnancy rate (clinical pregnancy rate). The results: Among the 3764 patients, having the first ICSI cycle, the prevalence of HCV was 4.10 % (154 patients) while the prevalence of HBV was 0.7 % (26 patients). Regarding the duration of HMG stimulation, there were shorter duration of stimulation in an HCV seropositive group (11.322.06), and HBV seropositive group (10.73.91) if compared with control group (12.161.99). The highest clinical pregnancy rate was obtained in the control group 34 % versus 25% for HBV seropositive group and 26 % for HCV seropositive groups, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV, HBV in our study much lower if compared with a national prevalence rate. Also we concluded that HCV, HBV did not affect the ICSI outcome, which support the worldwide trends of providing assisted reproductive surfaces for patients infected with HCV and HBV.

[Adel E. Ibrahim, Ehab H. Mohamed, Abdel monem M. Farag. Prevalence of Hepatitis virus C and Hepatitis virus B in patients who had ICSI at Azhar ART unit and its impact on the outcome?. Journal of American Science 2013; 9(5):266-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

 

Key Words: HCV, HBV, Prevalence, ICSI outcome.

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European Woman from the Viewpoint of Two Iranian Logbook-Writers

 

Esmaeil Mahmoudi 1*, Ali Akbar Kajbaf 2, Asghar Foroughi Abari 3

 

*1Ph.D Student, Department of History, University of Esfahan.

2Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Esfahan.

3Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Esfahan.

*Corresponding Author: Esmaeil52@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Iranian logbooks left from Qajar era emphasis on the social and cultural differences between Europe and Iran and the reports on some modern characteristics of the European society such as liberty, law, order, instrumental modernity, women liberty, and women attendance in public have played a major role in introducing the European society to Iran. This research project attempts to study and compare Talebi and Garmroudi, two Iranian logbook writers, viewpoints about European women and discuss the consequences for Iranian society. The findings focus on this point that liberty of European women and their attendance in public were the most astonishing features of European life to both logbook writers and one difference between Europe and Iran. Talebi took a positive viewpoint, but Garmroudi criticized it severely. More importantly, they looked at women attendance in public superficially, though from contrary viewpoints, and led to a superficial understanding of European woman and a dilemma, say, copying them or avoiding similarities. Such arguments still exist and continue.

 [Esmaeil Mahmoudi, Ali Akbar Kajbaf, Asghar Foroughi Abari. European Woman from the Viewpoint of Two Iranian Logbook-Writers. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):271-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

 

Keywords: logbook, European woman, Mirza Aboutalebkhan, Mirza Fattah Garmroudi

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Study of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Status and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients

 

Abeer A. AL-Refai 1, Ahmed R. Tawfeeq 2

 

Medical Biochemistry Department 1, Internal Medicine Department2, Faculty of Medicine, al-Menoufyia University, Egypt.

drabeer512@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Low Vitamin D levels have been suspected to be a risk factor for glucose intolerance, and several studies suggest an active role for vitamin D in functional regulation of the pancreatic beta cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients compared to control and to study its relation to glycemic control and other DM- related metabolic parameters. Subjects& methods: A total of 50 subjects, with established diabetes mellitus T1DM (n=20), T2DM (n=30), and 20 age matched healthy subjects as a control were recruited for this study. Demographic data were collected, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels using, Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay "ECLIA" were measured. Also, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phoasphatase, lipid profile and renal function were determined in diabetic patients and control group. Results: both cases and controls had vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. Median (IR) 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] was significantly low, in diabetic patients [9.05 (5-13) ng/mL] against in controls [14.95 (12.23-22) ng/mL] (p=0.001). 14% of diabetic subjects were vitamin D insufficient compared to 35% in the control subject, while 86% of diabetes group were deficient {60.5% of them had severe vitamin deficiency (< 10 ng/ml)}, compared to 65% of control group (p<0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between serum 25(OH) D and both blood glucose and alkaline phosphatase in diabetic patients, a significant negative correlation between serum 25(OH) D and glycosylated hemoglobin was determined among diabetic patients with severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml) and patients with increased BMI. A significant positive correlation among serum vitamin D levels and both serum calcium and phosphorus was determined. Conclusion: These results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is common in diabetic patients and low 25 (OH) D level is associated with worse glycemic control. We recommend further study in large sample size of diabetic patients to assess vitamin D status and effect of vitamin D replacement on glycemic control.

[Abeer A. AL-Refai, Ahmed R. Tawfeeq. Study of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Status and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients. Journal of American Science 2013;9(5):277-286]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

 

Key words: diabetes mellitus, vitamin D

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Validity and Reliability the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) for Iranian Adult Athletes

 

Elahe Saadatifard1 (Corresponding author), Mohammad Keshtidar2, Jafar Khoshbakhti2

 

1. MSc of Physical Education, University of Birjand

2. Assistant Professor of department of Physical Education, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Birjand

 

Abstract: The test of performance strategies (TOPS) is a capable test appraising the most important psychological factors in exercise and competition. The purpose of this study is to investigate validity and reliability the test of performance strategies (TOPS) in the Iranian adult athletes. This test for the first time was designed by Thomas et al. (1999) to estimate the most important psychological factors including competition and practice. This test was constructed based on the scientific research and results that were obtained from the current psychological questionnaires. TOPS were gradually reviewed and changed in different years and different points of the world.  In the current study was used the latest test version including 8 and 9 factors for practice and competition respectively. In the present study 259 subjects that they had been selected from the Iranian adult athletes, have completed this questionnaire. These athletes (Mean age: 25.32 years old) were male and female athletes of varying ability levels (7 levels) from 19 different sports. The confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha method) were used to compute the TOPS's confirmatory factorial validity and reliability, respectively. Based on the confirmatory factor analysis, the validity of the TOPS was justified (17 factors that include 66 statements). Reliability of competition (0.73) and reliability of practice (0.74) were obtained from the extracted factors (8 factors related to exercise and 9 factors were related to the competition). So, TOPS can be used for appraising the most important psychological factors in Iranian adult athletes.

[Elahe Saadatifard, Mohammad Keshtidar, Jafar Khoshbakhti. Validity and Reliability the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS) for Iranian Adult Athletes. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):287-294]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

 

Keywords: validity, reliability, Test of performance strategies (TOPS), Iranian adult athletes

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Mandibular Implant-Retained Overdentures with two Different Implant Designs

 

Ibrahim R. Eltorky

 

Associate professor of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt.

ibrahim_eltorky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prosthetic management of the edentulous patient has long been a major challenge for dentistry. Complete maxillary and mandibular dentures have been the traditional standard of care, however most patients report significantly more problems adapting to their mandibular denture due to a lack of comfort, retention, stability, and to the inability to chew and eat. Recent scientific studies have determined that the benefits of a mandibular-implant overdenture are sufficient to propose this treatment modality rather than the conventional denture as the first treatment option. The aim of this study was to compare the micromotion between two types of dental implants supporting mandibular overdentures and analyze the bone mineral density (BMD) in the implant site of the mandible. Material and methods; twenty male patients were selected for this research with their ages ranged from 55-65 years. The patients were divided into two equal groups. Group A: the patients received mandibular complete overdenture supported by two Osteocare midi dental implants. Group B: the patients received mandibular complete overdenture supported by two Microdent dental implants. Stability and radiographic evaluation was carried out for every patient at the time of implant insertion, after 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The results; Clinical implant stability measurements showed that no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). Radiographic evaluation showed that bone density of alveolar ridge proved no marked difference between the two groups. Regarding the bone density around dental implants at mesial and distal sides; there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The bone density at mesial and distal sides of dental implants in group A was higher than in group B. It could be concluded that the surface characteristics of dental implants can affect the bone density around them.

[Ibrahim R. Eltorky. Mandibular Implant-Retained Overdentures with two Different Implant Designs. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):295-300]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

 

Key Words: overdenture; conventional denture; dental implants, micromotion.

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Ultrastructural Study Of Hepatic Changes After Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In Chronic Murine Schistosomiasis

 

Hala Naguib Hosni1, Mohammed Faisal Darweesh1, Hoda Ahmed Yehia2 and Ranya Magdy Elsheikh2

 

1Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Pathology, Electron Microscopy Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Egypt.

Faisal_path@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The contribution of hematopoietic stem cells to liver therapy in different forms of liver injury remains debatable. In the last decade, the number of transplantations of hematopoietic cells derived from cord blood has increased, where numerous literature reports documented the feasibility and effectiveness of the transplantation of cord blood for the treatment of a broad range of disorders. Aim of the work: This xenogenic research is designed to highlight, by light and electron microscopic study, the possibility of engraftment of human umbilical cord blood derived stem cells in the livers of immune-competent mice infected with chronic schistosomiasis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 20 Swiss Albino immune-competent mice. The mice were subdivided into four groups (5 mice each). (Group 1) was infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae for 20 weeks’ duration, then intrahepatically transplanted with CD133+ human cord blood mononuclear cells, cultured on nutrient media, and isolated using the MACS Separation Unit from Miltenyi Biotec. (Group 2) was infected with S.mansoni, but not transplanted, (group 3) was normal and transplanted, and (group 4) was normal and non transplanted. All mice were sacrificed 3 weeks following the transplantation of groups 1 and 3. Engraftment of transplanted human cells was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry; using antibodies against human Hep Par1 and α-fetoprotein. Histological examination was performed using the Zeiss light microscope, and ultrastructural study was carried out by the Philips TEM 208 S electron microscope. Results: By light microscopic examination, livers of the infected transplanted group (group 1) and the infected non transplanted group (group 2) showed variable sized fibrocellular and fibrous schistosomal granulomas. (Group 1) exhibited as well more prominent bile duct proliferation than (group 2). Sections of (groups 1&3) showed small and large eosinophilic cells different from the surrounding murine hepatocytes. By immunohistochemistry, some cells in (groups1&3) sections showed positive cytoplasmic staining for the two anti human hepatocyte markers used; (Hep Par 1 and α-fetoprotein). Electron microscopic examination of (group 1) grids distinguished variable immature cells in the form of small progenitor cells, intermediate hepatocyte-like oval cells and larger premature hepatocytic cells. The transplanted healthy group (group3) showed similar cells. The previously noted cells were not seen in the remaining control groups, (groups 2&4). Conclusion: This research proved engraftment of the human umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells after their intrahepatic transplantation into the livers of mice suffering from chronic hepatic schistosomiasis, and their attempt to give rise to premature forms of cells with hepatocytic lineage. Extensive studies are still needed to clarify the possible utility of these cells in resolving damaged organs and tissues.

[Nazek A. AL-Essa. Analysis of a Public Key Cryptosystem Using Standard and Homomorphic Approaches. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):301-310]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

 

Key words: Umbilical cord, blood stem cell transplantation, Schistosomiasis, Hepatic changes.

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Evaluation of variables modern technology and knowledge from the viewpoint of constitutional poets of Iran and modern Tajikistan

 

Mohammad Beiranvandi1, Dr Nabiyev Abdulkhaliq2

 

1. Address: Academy of science of republic of Tajikistan ( institute of language, literature, est. and legacy of  handwritten of Rudaki)

Email: rbeiranvandi@gmail.com; Phone number: 00989163674494

2. Address: Academy of science of republic of Tajikistan ( institute of language, literature, est. and legacy of  handwritten of Rudaki); Email: Anabavi46@mail.ru.com; Phone number: 00992951530541

 

Abstract: Interdependence of poets and poetries of the world, immigrations, break of cultural boundaries and globalization of human civilizations all are the causes of creation of comparative literature. In other words, comparative literature is a garden for us to benefit from its trees and fruits; it is a pair of glasses through which we can see varieties, it is an ear through which we can hear different sounds. In the second half of nineteenth century or in the beginning of twentieth century, some evolutions happened in Iran and Fararood that totally separated the content of literature of these two countries from their past literature. Political evolutions of Iran were called “constitutional revolution” and consequently, the literature of this period was called “constitutional literature or awakening literature”. Moreover, evolutions of middle Asia also brought about a literature called “education-oriented literature and later modern literature”. This research has tried to have a comparative- contrastive study on the process of modern evolutions happened in Iranian Persian poetry and Tajik Persian poetry, regarding that these two literatures have had common background, but  some political, social and cultural breaks has happened for them in the recent periods. Comparative and contrastive analysis includes human wisdom. Therefore, in order to achieve pure truth, we have chosen comparative and contrastive analysis for our research.

[Mohammad Beiranvandi, Nabiyev Abdulkhaliq. Evaluation of variables modern technology and knowledge from the viewpoint of constitutional poets of Iran and modern Tajikistan. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):311-314]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

Keywords: modern technology, constitutional poets, contrastive analysis

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Response of Sakkoti Date Palms to Foliar Application of Royal Jelly, Silicon and Vitamins B

 

Moamen M. Al- Wasfy

 

Hort. Dept. Fac. of Agric. Qena, South Valley Univ. Egypt.

 

ABSTRACT: This investigation was established during 2011 and 2012 seasons to test the effect of spraying royal jelly at 0.025 to 0.1 %, potassium silicate at 0.05 to 0.2 % and vitamins B (B1 at 250 ppm + B6 at 100 ppm and B12 at 250 ppm) either singly or in all possible combinations on growth, leaf content of N, P, K and Mg, yield as well as physical and chemical characteristics of Sakkoti date palm fruits. Single and combined applications of royal jelly, silicon and vitamins B were very effective in enhancing growth, nutrients namely N, P, K and Mg in the leaves, yield and fruit quality in relative to the check treatment. Using royal jelly was superior than using silicon in this respect. Combined application was preferable than using each compound alone in enhancing fruiting. Carrying out four sprays of a mixture containing royal jelly at 0.05 %, potassium silicate at 0.1 % and vitamins B (B1 at 250 ppm, B6 at 100 ppm and B12 at 250 ppm) gave the best results with regard to yield and fruit quality of Sakkoti date palms.

[Moamen M. Al- Wasfy. Response of Sakkoti Date Palms to Foliar Application of Royal Jelly, Silicon and Vitamins B. J Am Sci 2013; 9(5):315-321]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

 

Keywords: Sakkoti date palm, royal jelly, silicon and vitamins B.

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Deflection of Free End Lapped Connected Z Cold Formed Purlins

 

H.M. Maaly

 

Structural Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt

dr_h_maaly@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cold-formed steel Z sections are widely used in modern roof systems as purlins. To maintain their continuity, these sections might be overlapped over their interior supports. The overlapping operation introduces cross-sectional changes which would affect the structural behavior of the purlins upon loading. In this study, many parameters that affect the structural behavior of Z purlins are introduced. The finite element technique was used to simulate the structural behavior of lapped connections over the internal supports in multi-span cold-formed stiffened steel Z purlin systems. The considered beams had span lengths of 500,600,700 and 800 cm with nominal web depths of 20.0 cm. and thickness 2.0 mm. The work program includes modeling of a single Z section beam with lap lengths 50,100,125,150 and 175 cm. The considered lap models for free ends lap joint without bolts on the web at the lap ends plus self-drilling screws at the top flange. The case of simply supported Z purlins is also considered in the work for comparison. Based on this analysis using the (ABAQUS 6.8) the deflections of lapped beams of stiffened Z sections are studied and presented. Empirical equations were obtained to predict the deflection of free end lapped purlin. The results based on these equations were compared with the experimental results and good agreement is achieved.

[H.M. Maaly. Deflection of Free End Lapped Connected Z Cold Formed Purlins. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):322-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

 

Keywords: Lapped Connection, Cold Formed Section, Free End, Purlin.

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Assessment and Comparison of Nanoleakage and Resin Tag Length of Three Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: An In-vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

 

Kamal El- Din M. El Motayam; Walid Ali Fouad and Randa Youssef

 

Department of Pedodontics and Dental Public Health, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

Randa.youssef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To assess nanoleakage and resin tag length of three different Pit and Fissure Sealants using scanning electron microscope. Material and Methods: The occlusal surfaces of 15 intact extracted human maxillary first premolars (divided into three equal groups), were cleaned with pumice, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 sec, rinsed and dried. Premolars were then sealed with; Group A: Fisseal Flowable composite, Group B: Vertise Flow composite and Group C: Embrace WetBond. Teeth were stained with modified silver staining technique. With the aid of SEM, nanoleakage was measured using the Dye absorbance method and length of resin tags were determined. Data management and analysis were performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17. Comparisons between the different sealants were done using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The test was considered significant when p<0.05. Results: Nanoleakage is significantly less, and length of resin tags is significantly longer in Vertise Flow group followed by Embrace WetBond then Fisseal groups, which were not significantly different from each other, (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that, there is a negative correlation between resin tag length and nanoleakage; the longer the resin tags, the lesser the nanoleakage, and the better the cariostatic action of Pit and Fissure Sealants and the use of Vertise Flow composite as good alternative for sealing pits and fissures is recommended.

[Kamal El- Din M. El Motayam; Walid Ali Fouad and Randa Youssef. Assessment and Comparison of Nanoleakage and Resin Tag Length of Three Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: An In-vitro Scanning Electron Microscope Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):329-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

 

Key words: Nanoleakage, length of resin tags, Pit and Fissure sealant, Flowable composite, Vertise Flow composite, Embrace WetBond, SEM, Dye absorbane method.

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Comparing the Effect of Using Weight Training and Complex Training to Develop Muscular Strength on the Performance Level of High Jump Scoring in Handball

 

Zeinab Ali Muhammad Hathot

 

Assistant Professor in Games Department, Faculty of Physical Education for Girls, Zagazig University

awatefala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Physical preparation is considered a basic part of the sport training with the aim of improving the level of physical performance of players to the maximum limit allowed by their abilities. Muscular ability is one of the most important special abilities in handball. Using weight training exercises leads to developing the muscular strengths with its different types (maximum – muscular strength – power endurance), developing technical performance and enhancing preparation level for practicing sport activity as well as protecting muscles and achieving balance among different muscular groups in the body.

 [Zeinab Ali Muhammad Hathot. Comparing the Effect of Using Weight Training and Complex Training to Develop Muscular Strength on the Performance Level of High Jump Scoring in Handball. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):338-344]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

 

Keywords: plyometricexercises- Complex exercises- The skill of scoring in handball.

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Outcome of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Type 2-Diabetes

 

Gamal A. Eltohamy1 and Hassan E. EI-Batae2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, AI-Azhar University, Egypt.

 2Department of Tropical Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

gamaltohamy@ymail.com

 

Abstract: Type 2-DM may affect the mortality and outcome of cirrhotic patients. However, few studies assessing the prevalence and the impact of type 2-DM on the outcome of cirrhotic patients are available. The present study was performed to evaluate the rate of type 2- DM and their impacts on the outcome of patients are available with liver cirrhosis. The study included 138 patients with liver cirrhosis, with and without diabetes at AI-Azhar and Tanta University Hospitals between January 2009 and October 2010. Patients were divided into two groups; group I included 76 patients with type 2-diabetes; group 11 included 62 patients without diabetes. History and clinical examination were performed to all patients with special emphasis on diabetes: Child's Pugh Score, and complications of liver cirrhosis. Liver and renal function tests, FBS, PPBS, HbAlc, a-feto protein, CBC, viral markers and abdominal ultrasongraphy were performed to all patients. The incidence of type 2-diabetes (group I) was 76/138 (55%) most of them had HCV infection (56/76 =73.5%) and 20% had ~V infection; in contrast to non-diabetic patients had IiBV infection 31/62(50%) and 27/62 (43.5%) had HCV infection. Group I patients had severe liver disease (Child Pugh score C) than group 11 (p<0.001). Serum levels of hemoglobin, platelet and albumin were significantly lower while serum levels of bilirubin, ALT, AST, FBS, PPBS, creatinine, HbAlc, a-feto protein, BM! and HOMA IR were significantly higher in group I. All liver cirrhosis complications were significantly higher in group I. Using Multiple regression analysis the following variables were predictors of death in patients with liver cirrhosis; high serum levels of HbAlc (OR=4.5, 95% CI=2.5-9.5, r=0.680, p<0.01), Child-Pugh class C (OR=4.5, 95% CI=2.2-8.5, r=0.620, p <0.01), low serum levels of albumin (OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.3-5.7, r=0.580, p <0.01) and high serum levels of creatinine (OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.1-3.2, r=0.500, p <0.01).Conclusions: The incidence of DM was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients (55%) and significantly increases their complications and mortality rate. High HbAlc, Child-Pugh class C, low serum levels of albumin and high serum levels of creatinine were impendent predictors of death.

[Gamal A. Eltohamy and Hassan E. EI-Batae.  Outcome of Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Type 2-Diabetes. J Am Sci 2013; 9(5):345-349]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

 

Keywords: Outcome; Patient; Liver; Cirrhosis; Diabetes

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Analysis of a Public Key Cryptosystem Using Standard and Homomorphic Approaches

 

Nazek A. AL-Essa

 

Princess Noura University, Science Faculty, Math Department, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

nazekaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information security within an organization is important in the last decades. The security approach based on cryptography can transform information messages to make them secure and immune to attack. This works discusses and presents the important mathematics for the RSA algorithm as one of the most popular public key cryptography. The steps of the RSA algorithm are: key generation, encryption, and decryption. The algorithm involves a public key for encrypting messages and a private key for decryption. The necessary mathematics based on number theory are analyzed, discussed, and presented. The encryption and decryption of any messages depend on N; where N is the product of two prime numbers. Both the public key and the private key are dependent on these prime numbers. Because RSA can be broken by factoring N; the security based on integer factorization problem is discussed and handled. Three factorization methods will be applied and compared. Moreover, two homomorphic encryption algorithms are also analyzed and discussed. Such algorithms are considered scalar and probabilistic. The inspiration for homomorphic encryption came from the properties of RSA. The homomorphic encryption algorithms are promising for providing security to many applications. The performance of both the RSA algorithm and those based on homomorphism is evaluated and compared.

[Nazek A. AL-Essa. Analysis of a Public Key Cryptosystem Using Standard and Homomorphic Approaches. J Am Sci 2013; 9(5):350-360]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

 

Keywords: Public key Cryptosystem, RSA Algorithm, Prime Numbers, Factorization Problem, Modular Exponentiation, and Homomorphic Encryption.

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Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Copper Mating with Smooth and Rough Stainless Steel 304

Counterfaces

 

Dr. Mohammad Asaduzzaman Chowdhury 1, Dr. Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman 2, Biplov Kumar Roy 1,   Muhammad Mahmudur Rahman 1, Md. Abul Kalam Azad 1, Md.Mijanur Rahman 1, Shazib Bhumik 1

  

  1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur, Gazipur1700, Bangladesh, 2. Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering University Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia.

 asadzmn2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, friction coefficient and wear rate of copper sliding against SS 304 are investigated experimentally. In order to do so, a pin on disc apparatus is designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out when smooth or rough SS 304 pin slides on copper disc. Experiments are conducted at normal load 10, 15 and 20 N, sliding velocity 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s and relative humidity 70%. Variations of friction coefficient with the duration of rubbing at different normal loads and sliding velocities are investigated. Results show that friction coefficient is influenced by duration of rubbing, normal load and sliding velocity. In general, friction coefficient increases for a certain duration of rubbing and after that it remains constant for the rest of the experimental time. The obtained results reveal that friction coefficient decreases with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity for copper mating with smooth or rough SS 304 counterface. Moreover, wear rate increases with the increase in normal load and sliding velocity. The magnitudes of friction coefficient and wear rate are different depending on sliding velocity and normal load for both smooth and rough counterface pin materials.

[Chowdhury MA, Nuruzzaman DN, Roy BK, Rahman MM, Azad MAK, Rahman MM, Bhumik S. Friction Coefficient and Wear Rate of Copper Mating with Smooth and Rough Stainless Steel 304 Counterfaces. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):361-368]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

 

Keywords: Friction coefficient; wear rate, copper, SS 304, normal load, sliding velocity.

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Effect of Different Time Durations of Static Stretching of the Calf Muscle on Vascular Response in Popliteal Artery

 

Waleed Salah El-din Mahmoud 1, 3*, Ahmed Fathy Samhan 2, 3, Nermeen Mohamed Abd-Elhalim 2, 3 and Mustafa Z. Mahmoud 3, 4

 

1. Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt

2. Physical Therapy Department, New Kasr El-Aini Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3. College of Applied Medical Science, Salman bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

4. Basic Science Department, College of Medical Radiological Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology. Khartoum-Sudan

waleeds306@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:  Background:  Precise matching of blood flow and metabolism is required for virtually all living tissues, this is especially important for skeletal muscle. Static stretch was thought to restore blood flow to the muscle and interrupt the pain spasm cycle. Purpose:  To determine the effect of optimal time duration of passive static stretch of calf muscle on blood flow volume and cross sectional area of popliteal artery. Method:  The study was done on Sixty healthy male volunteer subjects aged from 20 to 25 years old were randomized to three groups (A, B, and C). Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the blood flow volume and cross sectional area of popliteal artery. 15, 30, and 60 seconds of static stretching of calf muscle were done to group A, B, A and C respectively. Results: There was significant increase of blood flow volume and cross sectional area of popliteal artery were p=.004 and .011 respectively among three groups. Group B that holding stretch for 30 seconds was significantly increased blood flow volume (FV) in L/min and cross sectional area (CSA) in cm2 of popliteal artery compared to other two groups (P<0 .05).  Conclusion:  The findings of this study suggested that using thirty seconds of static stretching for calf muscle was the most effective time duration to increase blood flow volume and cross sectional area of popliteal artery.

[Mahmoud WS, Samhan AF, Abd-Elhalim NM, Mahmoud MZ. Effect of Different Time Durations of Static Stretching of the Calf Muscle on Vascular Response in Popliteal Artery. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):369-374]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  46

 

Key words: Static stretch; cardiovascular response to stretch; mechanoreceptors of muscle

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Cervical Cancer Prevalence at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

 

Fadwa J. Altaf1 Ghadeer A. Mokhtar2 and Faris M. Altaf3

 

1Professor of Pathology and Consultant Pathologist, Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University. Principle investigator of "Cervical cancer research", fjaltaf@yahoo.com

2 Ghadeer A. Mokhtar Associate Professor and Consultant Pathologist, Department of Pathology King Abdulaziz University.

3 Faris MS. Altaf. PhD. Medical School, Umm Al-Qura University

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cervical cancer (CC) is the tenth most frequent cancer in females in Saudi Arabia. Squamous intra epithelial changes are increasing in the recent years in many reports from different regions of the Kingdom. However, no information on the frequent histopathological types of CC. Objective: The objective of this study is to identify the most frequent histopathological types of CC diagnosed at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) and to compare it with literature. Methods: A retrospective study was designed to reclassify all cases that were diagnosed as CC by using the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system at the Department of Pathology of KAUH from January 1990- September 2012. We identified and reclassified 167 cases. Results: The most frequent type was Squamous cell carcinoma (83%) followed by adenocarcinoma (7.7%) and then adenosquamous (3.6%). The Non keratinizing and keratinizing squamous cells are of nearly equal distribution in frequency and age (32%) versus (30%) with mean age of 50 years versus 54 years. Adenocarcinoma tends to be presented at slightly earlier age. Conclusion:   Cervical carcinoma occurs in matching frequency with major histological type and age group in literature although the keratinizing and non keratinizing are almost similar in prevalence which is different than other reports. Lack of CC screening program and research in this area obscure a lot of information of the natural history of this health problem in this part of the world.

[Fadwa J. Altaf Ghadeer A. Mokhtarand  Faris M. Altaf. Cervical Cancer Prevalence at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):375-379]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

 

Key words: Cervical cancer, Saudi Arabia, Human Papilloma virus. Squamous intraepithelial lesions.

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Theoretical and computational study of quantum Systems Optimization for Ground State Energies

 

GhazalehShirdel1 , EbrahimRahimi l2 , Aziz Behkami3

 

1 Department of Physics -science and research branch-Islamic Azad University-shiraz-Iran

E-mail: ghazale.shirdel@yahoo.com Tel: +98-939-8032360; Fax: +98-711-6246588

2 Department of Physics -science and research branch-Islamic Azad University-shiraz-Iran

E-mail: Ebrahim_rahimi40@yahoo.com, Tel: +98-917-9274276; Fax: +98-729-7623469

3Department of Physics -science and research branch-Islamic Azad University-shiraz-Iran

Tel: +98-917-1135323; Fax: +98-7112270454

 

Abstract: In this article tried to study about the novel optimization method to calculate the Ground State Energies in spherical quantum centre. In this regard, various functions are considered for ground state and then ground state energies will be calculated. Finally, optimization method is used for energies optimization to achieve final result. Optimization method in this research has been used to provide ground state energy of a quantum system in spherical coordinates. Optimization method is based on applying evolutionary operators such as crossover, mutation and reproduction (copy) on primary population and used for quantum problems as well as for engineering issues. Both methods; parameter optimization and wave function are compared here for optimization problems to calculate eigenvalues of energy. The results of this method are in agreement with trial values. It must be noted that Matlab software has been applied for all physics and quantum computations. Therefore, the comparison between the results and exact values of theory in this method indicated that this method in comparison with other methods is significantly accurate.

[GhazalehShirdel, EbrahimRahimi l, Aziz Behkami. Theoretical and computational study of quantum Systems Optimization for Ground State Energies. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):380-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

 

Key words: optimality method, quantum dot, impurities.

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Some reproductive traits of female Nubian goats

 

Mohamed Salih Yagoub 1, Abdulrahman Mohamed Alqurashi 2 and A.S. Elsheikh *1, 2

 

1Department of Reproduction and Obstetrics, Faculty of Veterinary

Medicine, Khartoum University, Shambat Sudan.

       2Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community college, Najran,  University, Saudi Arabia

adilelgarrai@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two experiments were designed to explore some of the reproductive traits of Nubian goats bred in Khartoum. Experiment I was designed to assess the pubertal age, body weight and progesterone concentration (P4 conc.) of the luteal phase of the first pubertal oestrus. Fourteen Nubian doelings at the age of 3 months and weighing 8-10 kg were used. The results showed that Nubian dolelings attain puberty at the age of 264.93 16.47 days and mean body weight of 16.79 0.59 kg and their mean serum P4 conc. during the luteal phase of the first pubertal oestrus is 3.07 0.62 ng/ml. Experiment II assessed the length of the postpartum period (p.p), open period, gestation period, kidding interval and the P4 conc. during the luteal phase of the first postpartum oestrus. Fifty-two Nubian does, aging between 2 to 5 years were used to asses these parameters. The assessment showed that the mean length of p.p is 51.0 4.5 days, the mean milk P4 conc. during the luteal phase of the first postpartum oestrus is 3.20 0.5 ng/ml and  the mean lengths of the open period, gestation period, and  kidding interval are 93.2 4.6, 147.1 0.8 and  240.3  7.8 days respectively.  The results of this study make a good base for the reproductive traits of Nubian goats in the Sudan to improve their reproductive efficiency.

[Mohamed Salih Yagoub, Abdulrahman Mohamed Alqurashi and A.S. Elsheikh. Some reproductive traits of female Nubian goats. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):385-389]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

 

Key words: Nubian goats; Puberty; Postpartum period; Open period; Gestation; Reproduction.

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The Comparison between Torsional and Conventional Mode Phacoemulsification in Different Cataracts Densities

 

Mahmoud Rabea

 

Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine Al Azhar University

 

Abstract: Purpose: To compare various outcome measures using torsional mode and longitudinal mode in the phacoemulsification of cataract with different nuclear densities. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were assigned for phacoemusification by combined torsional and longitudinal mode using the Infiniti Vision System (Alcon Laboratories). Cataracts were subdivided into moderate and hard, according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading of nucleus opalescence (NO). All eyes received AcrySof single piece intraocular lens (Alcon Surgical, Fort Worth, TX). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), and surgical complications. Postoperative outcome measures were the degree of corneal edema on the first postoperative day and final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and CCT (central corneal thickness). Results: 20 eyes of 20 patients divided randomly into two groups were evaluated. Preoperative BCVA and mean grading of NO showed no difference in both groups. Preoperative endothelial cell count and central corneal thickness also showed no significant difference in both groups. In the moderate cataract group, the CDE, UST, were significantly lower in the torsional mode than the longitudinal mode, but they did not show any difference in the hard cataract group. Torsional group showed less endothelial cell loss and central corneal thickening at postoperative day seven in moderate cataracts but showed no significant differences, as compared with the longitudinal group, by postoperative day 30. No complications were recorded among both groups. Conclusions: The torsional mode provides an effective and safe method for cataract removal with lower energy usage as compared to longitudinal traditional phacoemulsification. However, the final visual outcome was similar for both study groups.

[Mahmoud Rabea. The Comparison between Torsional and Conventional Mode Phacoemulsification in Different Cataracts Densities. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):390-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

 

Keywords: Comparison; Torsional; Phacoemulsification; Cataracts Densities.

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Effects of herbal and chemical detergents on Dermatophagoides farina, Dermatophagoides pteronyssins and Blomia trobicalis

 

Nada Othman Edrees

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science for Girls, king Abdulaziz University. Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

nada.algalb@hotmail.com; nedrees@kau.edu.sa ; dr_nada_edrees2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: House dust mites in clothing and bedding are the source of major allergen. Based on studies of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus only, weekly washing in hot water is recommended to kill dust mites and remove allergen from clothing and bedding (DiAnn et al., 2002). However, in the Saudi Arabia, washing is most often done in warm or cold water, and other mite species are involved. Most stages of D. pteronyssinus, Blomia trobicalis and Dermatophagoide farinae cannot survive when exposed to 45C- 55C for at least 48hrs. Survival of the house dust mite D. farinae and D.pteronyssinus at specific ambient conditions, was undertaken to determine the possibility of chemical and herbal detergent and temperature manipulation as a control method.Three studies were performed. The first compared combinations of 2 laundry agents and 2herbal agents (Nabk leaf, Bay Laurel solutions, detergents with enzymes, and detergent without enzymes) and water alone, constant temperature (50C), same extraction time.The second study examined two types of laundry agent (waters, Chlorine bleach and sodium hypochlorite 45C) at 25C and 45c for 4 hours. The third study compared 2detergents (water alone, soap with sodium hypochlorite, soap with chlorine bleach) in all experiments water are used as control. Each experiments has been applied several times in several different days. Washing by using regular chemical commercial detergents at ≥55c is recommended to kill dust mite. However, this recommendation is made based on a study of D.pteronyssinus, D.farinae and B. trobicalis survival in hot, warm, or cold water with and without chemical commercial detergents and in the other hand using of Nabk leaf and Bay Laurel showed significant effect in dust mite mortality. If washing is to be a recommendation to kill dust mite, it is important to determine the survival of all species of dust mite in hot, warm, and cold wash water with and without chemical and herbal detergent.

[Nada Othman Edrees. Effects of herbal and chemical detergents on Dermatophagoides farina, Dermatophagoides pteronyssins and Blomia trobicalis. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):394-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

 

Keywords: herbal; detergent; Dermatophagoides farina; Dermatophagoides pteronyssins; Blomia trobicalis.

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Implementation of GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques for Air Quality Assessment

 

Tarek A. E. El-Damaty  and Essam Ghanem

 

 Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Banha University, Egypt.

tdamaty@hotmail.com, essambhit@yahoo.com

                                                                                                                               

Abstract: This paper aims to develop GIS analysis approach for air quality assessment. It is carried out z0078based on the integration of Geo-spatial data sets, such as different types of maps, remotely sensed data, field observations data using GPS and some other information. The Arc/GIS and ERDAS Imagine S/W packages are used to manage analysis and produce the different thematic layers, and integrate all the Geo-spatial and attribute data sets inside a comprehensive Geo-environmental database. The port of Damietta is situated near the eastern branch of the River Nile estuary, approx 70km west of Port Said, 250km east of Alexandria. The Port of Damietta is strategically located on the international transport lane as well as for domestic supply to Egypt. Field measurements were conducted using direct reading instruments for measuring major air pollutants. The instruments were taken to different stations inside and outside the project site. Measurements were analyzing and monitoring using GIS technique to obtain the concentration levels for major pollutants in the study area. It is concluded that the GIS and related technologies are very effective and powerful tools to illustrate the spatial distribution of major pollutants and compare their values with the allowable standards to support the decision making process.

[Tarek A. E. El-Damaty and Essam Ghanem. Implementation of GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques for Air Quality Assessment. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):402-407]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

 

Key words: GIS, Remote Sensing, EIA, Air Quality.

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The Relation between Environmental Factors and Health Related Mobility Disability of Elderly Women with Osteoarthritis in Southern Egypt

 

Nadia Abdalla Mohamed

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, South Valley University

drnadia37@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mobility disability in women with Osteoarthritis is due to the inactivity associated with the disease and to the effects of aging. The surrounding environment may play a key role in shaping patterns of independence and dependence among older women with mobility disability. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of community mobility barriers and transportation facilitators and examine whether barriers and facilitators were associated with mobility disability among elderly women with Osteoarthritis. A cross-sectional analytic design was used in carrying the study which conducting targeted women attending the orthopedic outpatient clinic at Qena, Luxor and Aswan General Hospital. Data collection started in October 2009until the end of January 2011 from a convenient sample of 600 elderly women aged 60 years and above, diagnosed with osteoarthritis for at least one year. Three tools were used: tool I is a structured interview sheet which was developed by the researcher including sociodemographic data. Tool II is the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument which composed of two domains of disability which were daily activity limitation and daily activity frequency. Tool III is a structured interview sheet to assess the environmental factors. The results showed a weak relationship between the age of the osteoarthritic women and the number of affected joints. There is a positive relationship between the severity of disability and numbers of affected joints, the presence of uneven sidewalks and lack of near public transportation in cities more than rural. So it is recommended to modify the environment at the street level by providing safe and straight sidewalks and providing transportation suitable for osteoarthritic women with suitable seats for elderly.

[Nadia Abdalla Mohamed. The Relation between Environmental Factors and Health Related Mobility Disability of Elderly Women with Osteoarthritis in Southern Egypt. J Am Sci 2013; 9(5):408-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

 

Key words: Osteoarthritis, Mobility disability, Environment.Disability and  elderly women.

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Application of a New Water-Structure Interaction Support System for Existing Bridges

 

Medhat K. Abdullah

 

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

infra@infraconsultants.org

 

Abstract: A new temporary supporting system, which has been developed by the author, is applied to temporarily support Al-Tabia existing bridge over a canal located at the route required for the transportation of the abnormal heavy packages to Abu Quir power station, Egypt. This new system depends mainly on water-structure interaction and it is approved by the Egyptian general authority of roads, bridges and land transportation (GARBLT) to be used for the transportation of heavy loads over existing bridges after it was developed and proven to be very successful- both analytically and experimentally by the author. The assessment, strengthening and health monitoring of the bridge is presented. The dynamic test results have been used as a monitoring tool to prove that the bridge have not been damaged by the additional imposed abnormal loads.

[Medhat K. Abdullah. Application of a New Water-Structure Interaction Support System for Existing Bridges. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):417-424]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54

 

Keywords: Bridges, Heavy loads, Temporary support, Water-Structure interaction, Monitoring, Dynamic load test.

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Patient Satisfaction andRadiographyical Evaluation of Acetal Resin Retentive Clasp Arm   versus Conventional Clasp on Abutment Teeth in Upper Unilateral Removable Partial Dentures

 

Faten A. Abu Talep1, Ibrahim R. Eltorky1, Mohamed M. El-Sheikh1, Shrin Abd El-Mawla2

 

1 Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of Oral medicine, Periodontology, Oral Diagnosis & Radiology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

drafaten@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Restoration of esthetics is an important function of RPD and it determines the success of the treatment. The goal of achieving optimal esthetics - while maintaining retentive integrity, stability, and protecting the health of the tooth is the most difficult task. The aim of this study to evaluate and compare between cobalt chromium clasp and acetal resin retentive arm clasp on the abutment teeth. Fourteen female patients aged thirty to forty five years old have unilateral upper free end saddle& the first premolar is the Last standing tooth with almost intact opposing natural teeth were divided randomly into two groups, seven patients in each. The first group received chrome cobalt  removable partial dentures  with fully metal  R P I clasp on the first  premolar  of the free end side with double Aker clasp on the first & second molar & cingulum rest at canine on the sound side connected together by palatal plate  major connector . While the second group , the R P I retentive arm was made from acetal resin  Appraisal of questionnaire ranks showing the patient's appreciation towards both treatment modalities and  radiographic evaluation of bone density around abutments were  evaluated at insertion ,six and twelve months . All patients responded to most of the statements of satisfaction questionnaire with high satisfaction for the treatment. Patients of group II strongly agreed the treatment more than  Group I patients .The bone density around abutment teeth was decreased at follow up period of both groups ,but the first group was highly significant than the second group , In comparing the mean difference of the two groups , there was significant difference during follow up period.

[Faten A. Abu Talep. Patient Satisfaction and Radiographyical Evaluation of Acetal Resin Retentive Clasp Arm versus Conventional Clasp on Abutment Teeth in Upper Unilateral Removable Partial Dentures. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):425-431]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

 

Key wards: Cobalt chromium – acetalresins - direct retainer- Retentive arm -bone density.

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Effects of Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Albino Rat Visual Cortex

"Electron Microscopic Study"

 

Yasser M. Elbastawisy1,2* and Hazem A. Saied 2,3

 

1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Mansoura University, Egypt

2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

3 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

*yasserbast@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near atomic scale to produce new structures, materials, and devises. It has become an important industry in the 21st century. Nanoparticles (NPs) are extremely small particle with large surface area. This property gives them different properties than its original forms. The extremely small size property of the NPs renders them more potentially dangerous with unexpected adverse health effects than their fine-sized counterpart. Our study aims to study the effect of exposure to TiO2 NPs on the albino rat brain visual cortex. Thirty adult male albino rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into two main groups; control group, fifteen adult male rats, received 1 ml of 0.9% NaCl solution daily orally for seven days and experimental group, fifteen adult male rats, received 1 ml of TiO2 NPs solution for seven days. Transmission electron microscope of the titanium treated rat visual cortex showed pyramidal cells with shrunken irregular nucleus and duplication of the nuclear membrane and their cytoplasm showed some inclusion bodies, swollen mitochondria, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and swollen Golgi apparatus. The dendrites and axonal bundles showed thinning and disintegration of myelin sheath. The Oligodendroglial cell showed small shrunken nucleus with peripherally clumping chromatin and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. In conclusion the exposure to TiO2 NPs induced major degenerative changes in the albino rat visual cortex. So, we have to avoid exposure to these NPs as possible.

 [Yasser M. Elbastawisy and Hazem A. Saied. Effects of Exposure to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Albino Rat Visual Cortex "Electron Microscopic Study". J Am Sci 2013;9(5):432-439]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

 

Key words: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, albino rat brain and visual cortex.

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Operation Plan of a Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine Combined System with the Power Prediction Method

 

Abeer Galal El-Sayed

 

Department of Electric Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

ags02@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: A prediction algorithm based on neural network is proposed in this paper to predict the output power from a Photovoltaic system. This research discusses the operation plan of a combined photovoltaic system and a diesel engine generator using the prediction algorithm. The prediction error of the prediction algorithm is determined with the numerical simulation exerting a significant influence on the system’s operation. Additionally, the extended length of the engine generator operation time caused by this error is clarified. This is paper illustrates, that when the neural network prediction algorithm is introduced, the engine generator operating time is reduced.

[Abeer Galal El-Sayed. Operation Plan of a Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine Combined System with the Power Prediction Method. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):440-445]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

 

Key words: Photovoltaic system, Diesel engine generators, Neural network, Numerical weather information.

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Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Foot Pressure Distribution in Congenital Clubfoot

 

Shamekh Mohamed El-Shamy1, Ehab Mohamed  Abd El-Kafy2, Mohamed Mohamed Ibrahim3

 

1 , 2 Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbance of Growth and Development in Children and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 , 3Associate professor , Physical Therapy Department , Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Um Al Qura University, KSA.

3 Department of Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Disorders and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

Shamekhmohammed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Conservative treatment of clubfoot is well accepted and has been reported to result in better correction ranging from as low as 50 % to as high as 90%. This study was an attempt to evaluate the effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on foot pressure distribution in congenital clubfoot. Methods: Thirty children with congenital clubfoot were participated in this study, their age ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 years matched with 20 healthy pediatric subjects. They were randomized divided into two equal groups; Study group received electrical stimulation for 12 weeks (frequency of 40 Hz, pulse width 330 ms and intensity was set where a visible movement of the foot was achieved and the sensation did not cause any distress to the infant), and control group didn’t receive any stimulation. Foot pressure distribution was measured using foot scan for all children pre and post treatment. Results: There was  a statistically significant difference in maximum foot pressure between study and control group after electrical stimulation application (p< 0.001). By contrast maximum foot pressures were not completely recovered in the study group compared with their matched healthy controls after 12 weeks. Conclusion: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation may have the potential to maintain or improve evert or muscle activity and foot pressure distribution in children with clubfoot.

[El-Shamy SM, Abd El-Kafy EM, Ibrahim MM. Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Foot Pressure Distribution in Congenital Clubfoot. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):446-451]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 58

 

Key Words: Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation, Congenital Cubfoot, Foot Pressure Distribution.

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Viscocanalostomy versus Trabeculotomy in Primary Congenital Glaucoma

 

Faried.M. Wagdy, Osama. A. Elmorsy, Abd El Khalek. I. Elsadny and Mohammed.I. Anwar

 

Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University

faried.wagdy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Is to compare the effect of viscocanalostomy to that of trabeculotomy in patients with primary congenital glaucoma. Methods: This study was done and included 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females. All patients were subdivided into 2 groups and underwent full ocular examination (under general anesthesia) as follows: Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements using Perkins applanation tonometry; the first group (group A) include 10 patients with bilateral primary congenital glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy operation. The second group (group B) include 10 patients with bilateral primary congenital glaucoma underwent viscocanalostomy operation. Postoperative follow up after 1 and 6 months: (IOP) measurements corneal examination to determine the vertical and horizontal diameters. Results: There was highly significant reduction in IOP in group A and group B pre operative and post operative at 1 month and 6 months. There was significant reduction in the mean horizontal and vertical corneal diameters after 1 month and 6 months as compared to the mean pre operative values, however this difference was not statistically significant in both groups. As regarding post-operative complications, there were less complications in group B more than group A. Conclusion: Canalostomy proved to be as effective as trabeculotomy in lowering IOP. Moreover, it is likely to be a good surgical alternative with a higher long-term success rate in eyes with more aggressive disease.

[Faried.M. Wagdy, Osama. A. Elmorsy, Abd El Khalek. I. Elsadny and Mohammed.I. Anwar. Viscocanalostomy versus Trabeculotomy in Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):452-455]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

 

Keywords: Viscocanalostomy, Trabeculotomy, Congenital Glaucoma.

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An Investigation on the Impacts of Good/Bad News on Investors' Understandings of Persistence of Accruals in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)

 Parivash Kazemi1, Sead Ali Vaez2, Mohammad Ramazan Ahmadi3

1Master of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran
2
Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
3
Assistant Professor of Accounting, Persian Gulf International Educational Branch, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

 Corresponding Author: Parivash Kazemi, E-mail: privashkazemi1@gmail.com

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of publishing positive and negative information and news about the stock return of the companies listed in TSE on the investors' understanding of the persistence of accruals. To this end, among the companies listed in TSE during 2003-2010, a total of 283 companies were selected for study. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, linear regression with combined data, simultaneous equations system with combined data and Mishkin likelihood test (1983) were used for to data analysis. The results revealed that there is an indirect/direct relationship between good/bad news and the persistence of accruals. Also, under the influence of published information about stock return, investors do not have a right understanding of the accruals persistence which will result in accrual anomaly in market.
[Parivash Kazemi, Sead Ali Vaez, Mohammad Ramazan Ahmadi. An Investigation on the Impacts of Good/Bad News on Investors' Understandings of Persistence of Accruals in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 456-465]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

Keywords: accrual false pricing, persistence of profit, Mishkin likelihood test

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Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among Nursing and Dental Students at Internship Year in Assiut City 

Amira A. El- Houfey, Soad A. Sharkawey and Asmaa K. Hassan

 Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University
amiraelhoufey@yahoo.com

Abstract: Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious occupational threat to health care workers including nursing and dental students; it causes substantial illness and it is unavoidable part of daily patient care. This study aims to assess the occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) among undergraduate nursing and dental students at internship year in Assiut city. A cross sectional research design was used on 140 nursing students and 150 dental students using a convenient sample technique. The study was conducted at Assiut University Hospitals and Al Azhar University Hospital in Assiut city. A questionnaire sheet for collection of data contains the following main parts: socio-demographic data, history and frequency of occupational exposure to (BBF), information about the occupational exposure to BBF and infection control measures. The main findings of this study were: the mean age was 21.8 years for nursing and 22.9 for dental students. 88.6%, 51.3% respectively of nursing and dental students were exposed to needle stick injuries (NSI) and BBF. All dental and nursing students did not report the exposure incidents and the main causes of not reporting: they don not think anything could be done by (72.1%, 55.3% respectively) among nursing and dental students. A high percentage of the dental and nursing students reported use of gloves during the exposure. 93.3% among dental and 65.7% of nursing students were not vaccinated against hepatitis B. About one third (30.0%, 32.0% respectively) of nursing and dental student had good score of knowledge about and only (2.9%, 15.3% respectively) had poor score of knowledge about occupational diseases and infection control measures. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that the majority of studied students were exposed to NSI and BBF. The majority of studied students did not report the exposure to BBF. The majority of them were not vaccinated against hepatitis B. One third of nursing and dental student had good score of knowledge. This study recommend that mandatory continuing education and supervision involves all undergraduate dental and nursing students at internship year must contain a specific component on the occupational exposure to BBF. Hepatitis B vaccine must be given obligatory to all studied sample.
[Amira A. El- Houfey, Soad A. Sharkawey and Asmaa K. Hassan. Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among Nursing and Dental Students at Internship Year in Assiut City. J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 466-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

Key Words: Occupational exposure; Blood and body fluids (BBF); Needle stick injuries (NSI); Infection Control, Undergraduate Nursing and Dental Students

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Perception of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Hand Hygiene among Nurses in the Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al Mukaramah

 

Prof. Youssreya Ibrahim*, Dr. Hanan Said Ali**, and Dr. Esraa Esam Eldin Mohamed**

 

*, **Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah Al-Mukaramah, KSA.

* Faculty of Nursing, Al Masoura University, ** Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

 

Abstract: Background: Hand washing is the single most important preventive measure for reducing nosocomial infections, however, nurses frequently do not wash their hands in emergency departments. Aim: This study was carried out to assess nurses’ knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding hand washing between patient contact in the emergency department of the above hospital. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted including a convenience sample of 60 staff nurses in the emergency department at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al-Mukaramah. Data were collected through a predesigned questionnaire to assess nurses’ knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding hand washing. Results: The results of the present study revealed that more than half of the subjects have a satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards hand hygiene. There is a statistically significant relationship between the nurses’ gender and their knowledge, and there is also a statistically significant relationship between the nurses’ formal training in hand hygiene in the last three years and their knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Conclusion and recommendations: The nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and behavior towards hand hygiene in the emergency department (ED) need to be improved by the educational and program approach. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers recommend providing written guidelines about hand hygiene for all healthcare providers and introducing and demonstrating hand hygiene protocols to all caregivers.

[Youssreya Ibrahim, Hanan Said Ali, and Esraa Esam Eldin Mohamed. Perception of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Hand Hygiene among Nurses in the Emergency Department at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital in Makkah Al Mukaramah. Am Sci 2013;9(5):476-485]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

 

Keywords: Nursing, Hand hygiene, knowledge, Behavior, Attitudes, Emergency Department.

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Using a proposed form for the technical observation to evaluate the performance of football referees during matches

 

Hassan Ibrahim Ali Hassan

 

Department of theories and applications of team sports, Faculty of Physical Education for male,

Zagazig University., Egypt. Hsn_egy@Yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study sheds the light on the evaluation of the technical performance of football referees during the matches. It aims at designing a proposed form for technical observation in order to evaluate the performance of football referees during matches based on different criteria for the objective estimating, and identifying differences between the performances of various referees' degrees according to this form. The descriptive survey method is used. The sample consisted of 11 experts of football professors and expert referees at Egyptian Football Association; in addition, 18 technical observers from various subcommittees at Egyptian Football Association to evaluate the performance of 41 referees during Egyptian football league matches in various divisions, and youth competitions of 2012/2013 season. The average age of the third, second and first degree referees is (26.24 + 2.18 years, 29.35 + 2.43 years, and 36.81 + 4.60 years), respectively. The proposed form was distributed for observers, after personal interviews with the members of the sub-committees assigned to select referees at Egyptian Football Association to evaluate the performance of football referees during matches. The results of the study indicated that a proposed form used by technical observers was extracted, depending on four criteria to objectively evaluate the technical performance of referees (enforcement the laws by referees, physical fitness, positioning and movement of the referees, contacts among referees, and their control on the game). They also indicated that there were significant differences between the level of performance of football referees in different degrees, (third, second, first), of these criteria. The evaluation of referees performance reached (48.69%, 66.59 %, and 77.80 %), respectively.

[Hassan Ibrahim Ali Hassan. Using a proposed form for the technical observation to evaluate the performance of football referees during matches. J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 486-495]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

 

Key words: Technical Observation, Evaluate the Performance, Football Referees, Matches

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Adnexal Mass: Diagnostic Validity of MRI versus Calculated Risk of Malignancy Index

 

Amal Abd Elhafez1, Mahmoud Aboul Makarem2 and Amir Monir3

 

1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

2 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University (Damietta)

3 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate diagnostic validity of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of women had adnexal masses in comparison to postoperative histopathological diagnosis of excised specimens. Patients & Methods: The study included 155 females; 104 premenopausal and 51 postmenopausal women and 37 women had cancer breast. All patients had full history taking, clinical examination, abdomino-pelvic ultrasonography and gave a venous blood sample for estimation of serum CA-125. Age, CA-125 serum levels, ultrasounds findings, and menopausal status of all the cases were recorded preoperatively for calculation of the modified risk of malignancy index (RMI) and RMI at 230 was considered as cutoff point for differentiation between benign and malignant adnexal mass. All patients underwent MR imaging for preoperative assessment and then underwent surgical exploration. Obtained specimens were sent for histopathological examination. Results: Histopathological examination of excised specimens defined malignancy in 20 specimens (12.9%), while the other 135 specimen were benign. Patients had malignancy showed significantly higher serum CA125 levels compared to those had benign lesions. Preoperative pelvic US was positive for malignancy in 54 patients (34.8%) and RMI defined 64 patients as having malignancy with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy rates of diagnosis of malignancy of 88.2%, 64.5%, 97.8% and 67%, respectively. Preoperative MRI defined 35 patients as having malignancy with a sensitivity, specificity, NPV and accuracy rate of diagnosis of malignancy of 95%, 88.1%, 99.2% and 89%, respectively. Reliance on MRI for prediction of malignancy showed significantly higher difference compared to RMI. The ROC curve defined preoperative MRI as the more significantly specific predictor with AUC=0.916, followed by previous history of mastectomy (AUC=0.700) and lastly RMI (AUC=0.694). Conclusion: Preliminary evaluation of patients with adnexal mass could be assessed using the risk of malignancy index and the surgical decision should be assured using preoperative MRI and confirmed with histopathological examination of excised specimen. Malignant adnexal mass in women had mastectomy for cancer breast is not uncommon and must be searched for during follow-up.
[Amal Abd Elhafez, Mahmoud Aboul Makarem, Amir Monir. Adnexal Mass: Diagnostic Validity of MRI versus Calculated Risk of Malignancy Index. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):496-503]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  64
 

Keywords: Adnexal mass, Magnetic resonance imaging, Risk of malignancy index, Cancer breast

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Anatomical Studies on the Alimentary Tract of the Egyptian Typhlopid SnakeRhamphotyphlops Braminus

 

Ahmed M. Abdeen1, Nadia A. Mostafa2, Rasha E. Abo-Eleneen2and DenaA.Elsadany2

 

1Department of Zoology- Faculty of Science- Mansoura University

2Department of Zoology- Faculty of Science- Beni-Suef University

drdndnscience@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The alimentary tract of the typhlopid snake, Ramphotyphlops braminus was anatomically, histologically and scanning electron microscopically investigated. The gut is differentiated anatomically into the basic ophidian pattern. The absence of constrictions between the oesophagus and stomach, as well as duodenum and ileum was noticed. The large intestine lacks caecum. The mucosal surface of the oesophagus is thrown into numerous prominent longitudinal folds leaving long furrows in between. These folds showed irregular patterns. The gastric mucosa forms large number of primary longitudinal folds. Small furrows were detected in between.  The luminal surface of the columnar cells appeared pentagonal. Simple tubular gastric glands open into the gastric pits. The luminal surface of the small intestine appeared as irregular wavy mucosal folds in the fashion of Zig-Zag pattern. The mucosal folds of the small intestine contained short and blunt projections representing the villi. Pentagonal absorptive columnar cells and goblet cells were detected in between these columnar epithelial cells. The internal surface of the large intestine is provided with many irregular wavy folds which anastomose with each other to form complex reticulated pattern leaving shallow cup-shaped depressions. The mucosal surface of the large intestine consisted of simple columnar cells which have pentagonal shape. Many goblet cells were detected between these columnar cells. The wall of the oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine is built up of serosa, muscularis, submucosa and mucosa. The oesophageal mucosa is consisted of simple columnar epithelium. The oesophageal glands were compeletely absent. The gastric mucosa is consisted of simple columnar epithelial cells. The mucosa of small intestine is composed of two types of cells including absorptive and goblet cells. The mucosal epithelium of the large intestine  is represented by simple columnar epithelial cells and scattered goblet cells. Mucosa of both small and large intestine lacks intestinal glands as well as crypts of lieberkhn. The PAS-Positive materials, mucopolysaccharides (acid and neutral), and total proteins were histochemically investigated in the different regions of the alimentary tract.  PAS-Positive materials are evident in the mucosa of oesophagus, gastric glands of stomach and goblet cells of small and large intestine. High content of both acidic and neutral mucins is displayed in the mucosal epithelium of oesophagus and stomach, gastric glands and goblet cells of small and large intestine. High protein content was detected in the muscularis and mucosa of oesophagus , stomach , small and large intestine.                                                                                      

[Ahmed M. Abdeen, Nadia A. Mostafa, Rasha E. Abo-Eleneen and Dena A. Elsadany. Anatomical Studies on the Alimentary Tract of the Egyptian Typhlopid Snake Rhamphotyphlops braminus. J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 504-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

 

Key words: Blind Snake – Rhamphotyphlops braminus – Histology – Histochemistry – SEM – Digestive tract.

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The potential role of RBCs and activated platelets in the Thalassemic hypercoagulable state

 

Zein S. Ibrahim1,6, Mahmoud M Kamel7, Amal Abedel Aziz2,8, Afaf S. osman3,9 , Marrowa  Salah5,10 and Dalal M Nemenqani4

 

Departments of Physiology1, Internal Medicine2, Pharmacology3, and Pathology4, Faculty of Medicine,

Department of Physiotherapy5, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, kingdom Saudi Arabia.,

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafr El-Sheikh University6, Department of Clinical Pathology, NCI, Cairo University7, Department of, Clinical Pathology, Assuit University8,

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo university9, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University10,   Egypt.

zainibrahim2012@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Back ground: The presence of a high incidence of thromboembolic events has led to the identification of a hypercoagulable state in thalassemia. Several etiologic factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the hypercoagulable state in thalassemia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the existence of a chronic hypercoagulable state in  thalassemic patients and study the potential role of thalassemic RBCs and activated platelets in the hypercoagulable state.  Patients and Methods: Fifty- nine patients with thalassemia (30 with Thalassemia major (TM) and 29 with Thalassemia intermediate (TI) were used as the study group and 20 healthy volunteers were used as control group.  Flowcytemerty was used to study the expression of anionic phospholipids (Annexin V) on the RBCs and CD62p (P-selectin) on the activated platelets. Results: Annexin V labelled RBC in TM and TI patients were significantly over expressed compared to control group (p < 0.001) with no significant difference between patients with and without spleenectomy. The expression of activation- dependent platelets neoantigen, P-selectin, was significantly higher (p ˂0.001) in Thalassemic patients compared to the control. There was a strong association between the expression of Annexin V on the RBCs and P-selectin on the activated platelets. Conclusion: There is a strong association between chronic hypercoagulable state and levels of both RBCs expressing Annexin V and platelets expressing P-selectin in Thalassemia patients. Also there is a strong association between levels of RBCs expressing Annexin V and levels of platelets expressing P-selectin. The strong association between the expression of these two cellular markers and the tendency of the hypercoagulable state observed in patients with Thalassemia may help to predict and to avoid the development of this state in those patients.

[Zein S. Ibrahim, Mahmoud M Kamel, Amal Abedel Aziz, Afaf S. Osman , Marrowa  Salah, Dalal M. Nemenqani. The potential role of RBCs and activated platelets in the Thalassemic hypercoagulable state. J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 518-524]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

 

Key words: Hypercoagulable state, Thalassemia major, Thalassemia intermediate, Annexin V, P-selectin

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Study of the causes associated with variceal rebleeding in hepatic cirrhosis

 Gamal F. El Naggar, Mahmoud F. Selim, Khaled Zaghloul and Loai El Ahwal.

 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University
Gamalelnagar_77@yahoo.com

Abstract: Background: Esophageal variceal (EV) bleeding is a frequent and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Cirrhotic patients with acute EV bleeding are characterized by a high mortality and considerable rebleeding rate. Although therapeutic approaches such as pharmacological treatment and band ligation or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) have been developed to prevent rebleeding, mortality in these patients remains as high as 30%–50% . Aims: Is to explore factors associated with variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patient. Methods: This study was conducted on 200 cirrhotic patients who were admitted to Tanta University Hospital between April 2012 and October 2012 because of variceal bleeding. These patients were divided into 2 groups: Group I: Cirrhotic patients presented with rebleeding after previous endoscopic treatment of known varices within 6 weeks of acute bleeding. Group II: Cirrhotic patients who admitted with variceal bleeding and didn't develop early or late rebleeding in regular follow up session. all patients were subjected to history taking, liver and renal function tests, CBC , urine and ascitic fluid analysis, chest X-ray and abdominopelvic US. Results: analysis of the clinical results of the present work revealed that rebleeding was significantly higher with advanced liver disease as 67% (Child C), 11% Child A in group I, the volume of ascites as in group I (72%) with moderate and massive ascites versus (28%) with mild and no ascites, presence of infection included chest infection by 38% in group I, 11% in group II.S.B.P by 15% in group I, 6% in group II. U.T.I by 9% in groups I, 8% in group II and lastly other infection by 6% & 5% in group I and II respectively. Higher total bilirubin, serum creatinine and blood urea, severity and size of varices as (42%, 29%) of group I have Large V, FV respectively versus (27%, 7%) in group II ,postsclerotherapy ulcer, higher portal vein pressure and PVT as (10%) of group I have PVT versus (3%) of group II , massive blood transfusion (more than 4 units). Mortality rate was higher in group I as (8%) of patients died versus (1%) in group II. Conclusions: Variceal rebleeding is mainly associated with:, advanced liver disease (Child C), the volume of ascites, higher total bilirubin, serum creatinine and blood urea, severity and size of varices. postsclerotherapy ulcer ,higher portal vein pressure and PVTH , presence of infection and massive blood transfusion.
[Gamal F. El Naggar, Mahmoud F. Selim, Khaled Zaghloul and Loai El Ahwal. Study of the causes associated with variceal rebleeding in hepatic cirrhosis. J Am Sci 2013;9(5): 525-534]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

Key Words: variceal rebleeding, hepatic cirrhosis

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The relationship between the postmortem interval and the DNA degradation in brain and liver of adult albino rats

 Mie Sameer Gomaa 1; Amal Mohamad Abd El-Khalek 2 and Maha Mohamad Sameer3

Department of 1Forensic Medicine and 2Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University and 3Animal Health Research Institute, Zagazig, Egypt
drmiegomaa@gmail.com

Abstract: Accurate estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is one of the most important and difficult issues in forensic medicine. After death, the tissues undergo autolysis and biomacromolecules degrade. With the development of molecular biological techniques, DNA quantification methods were applied in estimating PMI. This study aimed to evaluate the time dependant changes of DNA content in rat's brain and liver cells by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) in order to find out an objective and quantitative standard for the estimation of postmortem interval. Thirty six adult male albino rats were used. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, then divided into 6 groups; first group rats were dissected to obtain organs (brain and liver) immediately after death while the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th groups were dissected to get liver and brain at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 hours postmortem respectively. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay, was carried out on brain and liver tissue samples to detect the nuclear DNA degradation. The results revealed that, frequency of comet-like cells, the percentage of tail DNA, tail length, tail moment and olive tail moment increased in brain and liver tissues with increasing postmortem interval. In contrast, the head radius, the percentage of head DNA showed a decreasing trend. A high correlation between these parameters and the postmortem interval were statistically detected. These findings suggest that the single cell gel electrophoresis assay is a quick and sensitive method to detect DNA degradation in brain and liver cells, providing an objective and accurate new way to estimate postmortem interval.
[Mie Sameer Gomaa; Amal Mohamad Abd El-Khalek and Maha Mohamad Sameer. The relationship between the postmortem interval and the DNA degradation in brain and liver of adult albino rats. J Am Sci 2013; 9(5): 535-540]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

Keywords: Postmortem interval, DNA degradation, Single cell gel electrophoresis

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Kinetic Analysis of Some Mechanical Variables for a World Champion Long Jump for a Women

 Ayad Abd Rahmanal Shammari

 Iraq-Muthanna University/ College of Physical Education Definition of research

ayadabd96@yahoo.com

Abstract: Of the most important duties of Athletic Training Specialist to achieve a complete athlete requires knowledge of a lot of factors, mechanical and influencing it is due not achieving to the neglect of some of the factors and this is the achievement of the most difficult issues facing the sports training and those in his field. Either for the women entered the contest the long jump starting cycle year (1928) and follower of the achievements of international sports see if the sport in the development of a permanent and continuous it has won the effectiveness of the long jump attention to these experiences that helped us find the most important factors that must be taken care of and focus on to improve the level of achievement better. motor  analysis is used in determining the level of performance movements and mathematical skills when players accurately, and in which you can extract the values ​​of variables kinematical and compared with variables kinematical model to know the strengths and weaknesses of the performance of the players and contribute to modify this performance for the better. Hence the problem of searching through my work in academic research have noted the low level of achievement to the players the long jump even at the global level because of absence of the link between these variables under study during the performance. Research objectives: Identify some of the variables kinematical between world champions and their relationship to achievement jump term (2012). Hypotheses: There are significant differences in some of the variables under study of the effectiveness of the long jump between the champions of the world and their relationship to achievement.
[Ayad Abd Rahmanal Shammari. Kinetic Analysis of Some Mechanical Variables for a World Champion Long Jump for a Women. Journal of American Science 2013; 9(5): 541-546]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

Keywords: kinetic analysis, long jump, biomechanics of long jump, women’s long jump

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Review of Conventional punishments Shiite jurisprudence and republic of Islamic Iran law

 

Marjan Azarm(M.A)1, Mahdi Khodaei(PHD) 2, Asghar Arabian(PHD) 3

 

1. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

3. Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

  

Abstract: Child abuse resulting from the omission of not doing things for the child’s physical and mental health and physical or mental injury to the child including both children and adults are respected, and any violation of this law is that a prosecution is taken from Islamic jurisprudence there are still ambiguities in the law, such as article 1179of the civil code which provides that: Parents have the right to punish their children, but they cannot invoke the right of the child outside the scope of conventional discipline, to punish. It is clear that the normal punishment for child abuse, this has given rise to the discipline but with a transparent pretext to such legal ambiguities, in front of it is child abuse in this study of canonical discipline is discussed; this study can help scholars and practitioners in the formulation of appropriate laws do.

[Marjan Azarm; Mahdi Khodaei; Asghar Arabian. Review of Conventional punishments Shiite jurisprudence and republic of Islamic Iran law. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):547-550]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  70

 

Keywords: punish; Conventional; Shiite; jurisprudence; Iran

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Strategy of curriculum based on emotional intelligence and its denotations in education and training

Dr. Maryam seyf Naraghi, Badrolsadat Daneshmand

Dr. Ali Shariatmadari, Dr. Ezatollah Naderi

Abstract: Of important elements for education is curriculum that has to suitable elements for its aims and its variations and play a vital role. As reasonably, in every programming, they have to consider in every manner and as required to respond in needs. Considering in curriculum especially programs don’t be exceptional. Curriculum is considered by scientists as important factor for growth and dynamism of society with different strategy and thinkers are aims for it. The aim of this research is to respond to this question that curriculum based on what aim is considered? And what are those bases? In fact we can say that for compiling it, its place is missed in academic places.
[Maryam seyf Naraghi, Badrolsadat Daneshmand, Ali Shariatmadari, Ezatollah Naderi. Strategy of curriculum based on emotional intelligence and its denotations in education and training. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):551-556]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).
http://www.jofamericanscience.org  71

Keywords: emotional intelligence, curriculum, education and training  

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The role of mass media spending leisure time of parents and their children

 

1Mohammad reza Haghighi and 2Leila Niroomand

 

1Master student, Department of Social Communication Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch (Ghiyamdasht), Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Social Communication Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch (Ghiyamdasht), Iran

m.haghighi53@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, in all societies, most people, whether male or female, child or adult, after returning from their daily work or business get involved in recreational activities. Leisure time is the time in which people choose their desired activities with fun and relax mode and they get pleasure of them. Also, in this situation, people achieve spiritual peace, alimentation of fatigue from their work and likely grow up their personalities. These activities are different in various countries and therefore in their people, as people perform activities regarding to the culture of their society, the opportunities provided by that society and their culture allowance. For example, in terms of facilities, all societies are not able to afford the high cost of playing golf, or in terms of culture, having casinos and gambling are not allowed in all communities. The aim of this study was firstly the understanding of cultural and recreational activities for youth and their parents when they are free from daily work and secondly, the impact of mass media on the shape and type of such activities between parents and their children. The results of this study indicate that parents and young people do not spend their leisure in similar way, due to their different avocations, interests or hobbies. In addition it might be resulted by not believing in the same values, having different worlds, different ideology. In fact, parents have different economical, social and cultural resources. On the other hand, children have been grown up in different family environments and are impacted by the communication era. Hence, both parents and young people are involved in different avocations which are resulted in having dissimilar leisure and cultural areas around them.

[Haghighi MR, Niroomand L. The role of mass media spending leisure time of parents and their children. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):557-562]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  72

 

Keywords: Mass media, Leisure time, Sport program, Religious lessons, Entertainment programs, Clear information, Skill training, Propagation program, Educational program

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Identification and tracking of Bemisia tabaci in Saudi Arabia by RAPD PCR and principal component and two-way cluster analyses

 

Hayam S. Abdelkader1,2 and Mahmoud M. Rifaat1,3

 

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif21974, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.2Virus and Phytoplasma Research Department, Plant Pathology Research Institute, ARC, Giza12511, Egypt.3Genetic Division, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41512, Egypt.

hayamabdelkader68@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) plays an important role in the transmission of plant viruses. The present study aims at evaluating the genetic diversity of Bemisia tabaci in Saudi Arabia by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Ten populations of insects were collected on tomato and zucchini from six geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, i.e. Qatif, Ha'il, Al-Hasa, Jizan, Najran, and Riyadh. RAPD-PCR employing 4 primers (OPB-20, OPA-03, OPA-10, and OPA-13) produced a total of 184 population-specific amplicons, suitable for distinguishing the ten populations of Bemisia tabaci. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way clustering were used to cluster RAPD markers (amplicons) and/or RAPD profiles (genomes). Nine components with Eigenvalues more than one were resolved by PCA with the first three components accounting for about 45% of the total variance. PCA and cluster analysis could differentiate the ten populations of Bemisia tabaci into two subgroups that largely corresponded to the two host plants.The insects, therefore, could be essentially clustered according to the host plant instead of the geographical region. However, the insects collected on tomato from Najran and Ha'il did not conform to this basic clustering.Within the zucchini cluster, the insects collected from Ha'il showed considerable divergence. Two-way clustering of RAPD amplicons (markers) and RAPD profiles (genomes) improved the display of groups of RAPD amplicons that cluster similarly across the profiles and showed that certain amplicons were uniquely present in certain insect populations. In conclusion, RAPD-PCR might be a useful approach for investigating the genetic variation and interpretation of the ecological distribution of Bemisia tabaci in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

[Hayam S. Abdelkader and Mahmoud M. Rifaat. Identification and tracking of Bemisia tabaci in Saudi Arabia by RAPD PCR and principal component and two-way cluster analyses. Am Sci 2013;9(5):563-569]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

 

Keywords: RAPD-PCR, Principal component analysis, Two-way cluster analysis.

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Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

 

Awwad Alenezy (1), Sheref M. El-taher (2), Basem M. M. Salama (3), and Taha M. M. Hassan (4)

 

(1) Family Medicine Consultant, Family and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Northern Border University (KSA).

(2) Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University (Egypt).

(3) Community Medicine Department, Damietta Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Egypt).

(4) Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Bani-Seuif University (Egypt).

awwad4321@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the commonest malignant tumors worldwide, Life style factors may contribute to the etiology of colorectal cancer as they are modifiable, a better understanding of the associations between lifestyle related factors and colorectal cancer risk may be of importance in order to develop novel strategies for prevention of the disease. This study aimed at studying some risk factors of developing colorectal cancer and also the validity of carcinoembryonic antigen as screening test for colorectal cancer. Subject and methods: Nested case-control study, hospital-based study, 25 cases and 100 controls investigated by colonoscopy and confirmed histologically between October 2011 and March 2013. Results: The study revealed, All cases were adenocarcinoma among them 18 (72%) cases were well to moderately differentiated carcinoma. The majority of the cases were diagnosed as pT1 (80%); whereas the minority were pT3 (12%). There was a significant association between history of diabetes mellitus, high BMI (>30), smoking  and dietary habits (p < 0.05),while age, sex of participant and family history of colorectal cancer, physical activity and NSAID intake were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer (p > 0.05). The best combined sensitivity and specificity of CEA was at cutoff 5.5 mcg/dl.Conclusion: From this study, the exposure to personal and environmental risk factors were thought to play an important role in the development of colorectal cancer.

[Awwad Alenezy, Sheref M. El-taher, Basem M. M. Salama, and Taha M. M. Hassan. Risk Factors of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(5):570-578] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

 

Keywords: colorectal cancer, physical activity, smoking and dietary habits

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