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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 10, Cumulated No. 68, October 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0910

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Optimization of Er3+ doped glass used as optical fiber amplifier (EDFA) for telecommunication applications

 

Badr Y. A., Mahmoud F. M., and Ibrahim. S. M.

 

Laser Science and Interaction Department, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

ibrahim_maged83@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Er3+:Yb3+ co-doped potassium-lead-germanate glass with optimum ratio 0.5 mol. % of Er3+ and 2.5 mol. % of Yb3+ (1:5) was prepared by using the conventional melting and quenching method. Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR were used to study the structure and the vibrational modes of this glass. Measurement of Raman spectroscopy showed that the maximum phonon energy of this glass was approximately 811 cm-1. Optical absorption was measured to make it easy to choose the pump wavelength. X-ray diffraction confirmed that there were no periodic arrangements in the glass; i.e. it was amorphous. Differential thermal confirmed the thermal stability of this glass. The two probe method was used to investigate the electrical behavior and to measure the DC-conductivity and its temperature dependence. The introduced here system was designed using a longitudinal pumping source of 808 nm diode laser at different powers and the diagnoses of the system output was measured by double monochromator (SpectraPro 500i of ACTON) in the range of 790-1800 nm. The system output was found to increase with increasing the pumping power. The emission of the rod showed strong line at about 1600 nm. This might confirm that the proposed here design of Er-glass laser can be used in telecommunication applications.

[Badr Y. A., Mahmoud F. M., and Ibrahim. S. M. Optimization of Er3+ doped glass used as optical fiber amplifier (EDFA) for telecommunication applications. J Am Sci 2013; 9(10):1-12] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.01

 

Keywords: Er3+:Yb3+co-doped potassium-lead-germanate glass, Er-glass laser

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Hypoglycemic and HypolipidemicActivities of Red Cabbage and Manganese in Diabetic Rats

 

Amnah, M. A. Alsuhaibani

 

Nutrition and Food Sciences Dept, Home Economic Collage, Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman -University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

amalsuhaibani@pnu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: This research occurred to study the effect of red cabbage leaves and manganese consumption on diabetic rats. Forty two Sprague Dawley adult male rats were injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of 60mg/kg of streptozotocin to induce diabetes then classified into control (+ve) and five treated groups which were red cabbage powder, red cabbage extract, manganese, red cabbage powder with manganese and red cabbage extract with manganese rat groups. Our results revealed that red cabbage powder, red cabbage extract, red cabbage powder with manganese and red cabbage extract with manganese rat groups showed a significant increased in weight gain, food efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio but significant decreased in serum creatinine and urea compared with control (+ve) rat group. Also, values of glucose, hemoglobin and liver function enzymes were significantly decreased while insulin was significantly increased in all treated groups. Lipid parameters were significantly decreased in serum and liver while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver glycogen, triglyceride, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase values were significantly increased in all treated groups compared with control (+ve) rat group. In conclusion, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of red cabbage and manganese could offer a potential therapeutic effect for the treatment of diabetes in rats.

[Amnah, M. A. Alsuhaibani. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Red Cabbage and Manganese in Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):13-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.02

 

Key words: Red cabbage, Manganese, Diabetes mellitus, Rats.

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The Ameliorating Effects of Fennel Powder, Extract and Oil on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

 

1Soheir Ahamed Al-Masri and 2Waffa, Sh. Ali

 

1Food Sciences and Nutrition Dept, Faculty of Food Sciences and Agriculture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saud Arabia

2Nutrition and Food Sciences Dept, Faculty of Home Economics, Helwan University, Egypt.

almasrisoheir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of fennel powder, extract and oil on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. 35 adult female sprague Dawley rats were classified into five groups. The first group was kept on standard diet all over the period of the experiment. The other groups administered gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day for 7 days i.p.). These animals were assigned as control (+ve) group and treated groups which were fennel powder, extract and oil. The treatment period was 45 days. The obtained results showed that gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity was manifested by increase levels of kidney function indicator, serum nitric oxide (NO) and kidney malondialdyde (MDA) but showed a significant decrease in weight gain, food efficiency ratio(FER), and also antioxidants enzymes in serum and kidney and that appeared obviously in control(+ve) rat group. Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity rat groups which treated with fennel powder, extract and oil could improve the levels of urea and uric acid in comparing to control (+ve). Also they showed improvement of antioxidant enzymes as increase of serum superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase, and glutathione transferase (GST) and decrease of serum NO compared with control (+ve) group. Fennel oil group showed normal values of kidney antioxidant enzymes compared with normal group. The results of this study clearly indicate that fennel powder, extract and oil have a potent antioxidant and ameliorate in rats gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

[Soheir Ahamed Al-Masri and Waffa, Sh. Ali. The Ameliorating Effects of Fennel Powder, Extract and Oil on Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):20 25]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.03

 

Keywords: fennel powder –fennel extract-fenel oil -gentamicin-rats.

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Analysis the Effect of Governmental Enterprises Privatization Policy on their Performance Evaluation by Economical Value Added

 

Mojtaba Motealebian1, Mohsen Seighali2, Mozhgan Moharrami3*, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Beheshti4

 

1M.A in Accounting

2Ph.D. Student in Financial Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

*3Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University & Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

4Ph.D. Student in Accounting, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

*Corresponding Author: Marzi_04@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Privatization is a process that rehabilitate the market mechanism efficiency and lead to constraint of management and ownership in some firms controlled by government and discard it to market mechanism. The aim of privatization is to enhance efficiency and improve the financial performance and return of firms. In other side, one of the purposes of financial reporting is to presentation of information about firms operation to assess their performance by users. Various methods such as Economic value added, stock return, Price to earnings ratio, earning per share and so on exist to assess the performance. So the aim of this research paper is to analysis the effect of privatization policy of government from financial point of view by utilizing the concept of EVA. Therefore, we considered one main hypothesis and two sub-hypotheses and utilized rank test statistic to test the data. Also we gathered the financial information of 40 firms that transfer to the private sector by government from time period of 1381-1389. Findings indicate that privatization has no impact on EVA and in other word, it has no significant effect on ROI of the firms. In general findings indicate that the average of EVA before and after the privatization has no significance difference.

[Motealebian M, Seighali M, Moharrami M and Beheshti SMS. Analysis the Effect of Governmental Enterprises Privatization Policy on their Performance Evaluation by Economical Value Added. J Am Sci 2013; 9(10):26-32]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.04

 

Keywords: Privatization, EVA, Performance Evaluation, Market Mechanism, Governmental Firms

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5

Status of Women in Contemporary Historiography Case study: the historical position of women in the study of Homa Nategh

 

Zahra Qanbari Maleh1, Dariush Rahmanian2

 

1. Department of Women's Studies, payam e noor University, Mazandaran, Iran

2.Department of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

z.ghanbari@gmail.com

 

Abstract: When talking about men and their history, most of the times we talk about their position, performances and their social activities, but the question is that what can be written pertaining to the women and their position, thus this paper seeks to explain the status of the woman in the contemporary historiography, and evaluate the women position in the historical research of Nategh, and answer to this question that how is the attention to the position and role of women among contemporary historians in particular female historians, and achieve Homa Nategh's attitude toward women issues and their historic role. in order to answer this question, this paper develops an explanation about the approach of the Qajar historians to the history of women, and then in the other part, the attitude of the contemporary historians in particular female historians will be assessed and at the last part, it studies about the women position in the works and historic research of Homa Nategh in detail. The general answer to the major questions of this paper is that historians noticed to the women issues in the recent years, and assessed their roles in the historic developments; however, Nategh's attitude toward women issue is derived from their roles and environmental conditions.

[Zahra Qanbari Maleh, Dariush Rahmanian. Status of Women in Contemporary Historiography Case study: the historical position of women in the study of Homa Nategh. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):33-41]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.05

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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Synthesis, molecular modeling study, preliminary antitumor and antimicrobial evaluation of new benzimidazole derivatives

 

Said M. Bayomi, Azza R. Maarouf, Naglaa I. Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed A. B. Mohamed*

 

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

*Ahmed_smt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: New benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized and tested for their antineoplastic activity employing three cancer panels; HepG2, MCF-7 and Vero B by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. In addition, antimicrobial activity was evaluated using disk diffusion assay and two-fold serial broth dilution method. Only compound (3), 2-(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-1H-benzimidazole, showed antitumor activity against MCF-7 with IC50 of 30 g/ml. However, 5-(2-(2-(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (6) and 4-phenyl-5-(2-(2-(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (7) exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, vitamin D3 receptor and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme were chosen as targets for molecular modeling study concerning antitumor and antimicrobial activity, respectively. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic, molecular modeling and biological data are reported.

[M. Bayomi, Azza R. Maarouf, Naglaa I. Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed A. B. Mohamed. Synthesis, molecular modeling study, preliminary antitumor and antimicrobial evaluation of new benzimidazole derivatives. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):42-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.06

 

Keywords: Benzimidazoles, Antitumor evaluation, Antimicrobial activity, Molecular modeling.

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7

Relationship Between Self-Management and Depression Among Elderly Diabetic Patients (Type 2)

 

Fatma Abdu1 and Galila Shawky El-Ganzory2

 

1 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, 2 Department of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

sad.moon99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study used a descriptive correlational design aiming to identify the relationship between self-management (self-care, self-efficacy, patient knowledge & depression among elderly diabetic patients type 2. The study was conducted at the Diabetic Outpatient Clinic in Ain Shams University Hospitals. Sample of 120 elderly patients (males & females), with type 2 diabetes mellitus was recruited during their follow up at the outpatient clinic. They were chosen according to stratified random sample over a period of 11 weeks. Two tools were used to collect data:-1) A questionnaire to assess participants’ demographic data and medical history (which included age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, duration of diabetes, BMI, and the last HBA1C level. 2)Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (1998). 3) The HANDS depression screening tool was developed by Screening for Mental Health, Inc. and the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School (2002). (It consists of 10 items ranged from (0-3) in which (0) reflects none or little of the time (1) Some of the time, (2) Most of the time, while (3) All of the time. 4) Chinese Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale. It is a checklist with 26 items divided into 6 items for diet, 4 items about exercises, 3 items about medication taking, 4 items about blood glucose testing- 5 items about foot care- 4 items about prevention of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and how to treat. 5) Summary of Diabetes Self –Care Activities Scale. This study recommended that the education, counseling, skill building, and support through behavioral interventions to offered by health care providers to enable diabetic patients to manage their diabetes and recognize deal with depressive illness. Diabetic management intervention has emerged as a resource to assist patients in managing daily diabetic care through dissemination of information and facilitation of diabetic management behaviors that has effect on diabetes related self-efficacy. Research shows that psychosocial factors such as family support play a central role in the success or failure of diabetes management regimen. A combination of medication and psychotherapy is recommended by this research for people with diabetes experiencing moderate to severe depression to alleviate suffering more quickly than either alone and may help reduce relapse and patients with depression should always be asked about suicidal ideation,when risk is high. Cognitive behavioral therapy is frequently cited as effective in treating depression in people with diabetes. Further research is needed to determine and evaluate integrating depression screening and treatment into comprehensive care of diabetes, including specific support for diabetes medication adherence and self-care activities, as well as systematic depression care, can help patients achieve better psychological and diabetes outcomes.

[Fatma Abdu and Galila Shawky El-Ganzory. Relationship Between Self-Management and Depression Among Elderly Diabetic Patients (Type 2). J Am Sci 2013;9(10):49-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.07

 

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus- self-management - depression - self-care - self-efficacy-Patient's knowledge.

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Effect of Melatonin ON Obesity and Lipid Profile in High Fat–Fed Rats

 

Ghada M. Abou Fard, Nermin M. Madi and Mervat H. El-Saka

 

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

tantaphysiology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: A worldwide increase in the incidence of obesity indicates the unsucceful battle against this disorder. Obesity and the associated health problems urgently require effective strategies of treatment. Thus, melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, and naturally occurring substance with no reported toxicity may serve as a novel approach for treatment of obesity. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of melatonin on obesity and lipid profile in male Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 animals for each, control group fed standard normal chow diet, obese control group fed high fat diet (HFD), normal group fed standard normal chow diet and treated with melatonin in a dose of 10mg/kg/day orally for 6 weeks and obese group fed HFD and treated with melatonin in a dose of 10mg/kg/day orally for 6 weeks with continuous HFD. At the end of experiment, body weight and food intake were determined. Then, the animals were scarificed and blood samples were collected for determination of triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), blood glucose and insulin levels. Results: In HFD–fed rats, melatonin significantly decreased body weight, but did not affect food intake. Melatonin significantly decreased plasma TG, LDL-cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels but it significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. While, TC levels were not changed. However, in normal chow diet–fed rats, melatonin only significantly increased HDL–cholesterol levels, but it had no effect on body weight, food intake and all other measured metabolic parameters. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that melatonin may act as a regulator of body weight in a model of obesity and may prevent some of the side effects on glucose homeostasis such as decreased insulin sensitivity.

[Ghada M. Abou Fard, Nermin M. Madi, and Mervat H. El-Saka. Effect of Melatonin ON Obesity and Lipid Profile in High Fat–Fed Rats, Am Sci 2013;9(10):61-67 ]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.08

 

Keywords: Obesity, melatonin, Wister rats, high fat diet, triglycerides.

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Age-Related Changes in Rabbit Optic Nerve: A Morphological Study

 

Fathy Ahmed Fetouh and Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy*

 

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

*dr.abdelmonemhegazy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aging is associated with neurological symptoms and signs that are suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The impact of aging on the optic nerve is of general interest. Objective: The present work aimed to study the effect of aging on the morphological changes in the optic nerve of rabbit. Material and methods: 4 groups of Egyptian (Gabali) rabbits (5 rabbits per group) at different postnatal ages; one month old (young), 6 months old (early adult), 18 months old (late adult) and 30 months old (senile) were used in this study. The animals were anaesthetized and rapidly dissected. Optic nerve specimens were obtained and processed for light and electron microscopic (EM) examinations. Results: In young animals, the optic nerve fibres appeared as closely packed myelinated axons of small diameters which were separated by processes of astrocytes. In early adult animals, the optic nerve fibres had the same structure to that of the young ones except that the axons were of larger diameters. The astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were observed with no differences in the structure in both young and early adult animals. In late adult animals, the optic nerve fibres were still closely packed but arranged into fascicles by thick processes. There were some depleted areas filled by degenerating axons and neuroglial cells. The degenerating axons showed electron dense axoplasm and redundant sheaths were frequent. The neuroglial cells occupied the depleted areas, were astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In senile animals, there was an obvious loss of the optic nerve fibres. Extensive degeneration of the nerve axons and their myelin sheath were observed. The astrocytes appeared with pyknotic nucleus and abundant cytoplasmic filaments. The oligodendrocytes had irregular nucleus and the cytoplasm contained vacuoles and inclusion bodies. Conclusion: With progress of age, starting from the late adulthood, the optic nerve fibres show degenerative changes in the optic nerve axons, myelin sheath and the neuroglial cells which were to be extensive in senile age.

[Fathy Ahmed Fetouh and Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy. Age-Related Changes in Rabbit Optic Nerve: A Morphological Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):68-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.09

 

Key words: Optic nerve, Histology, Ultrastructure, Aging

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Changes in the business environment and the level of management accounting practices in Egypt: a case study

 

Fahim Abo-Alazm Mohamed

 

Department of Accounting, Suez Institute for Management Information Systems, Egypt

Fahim_721@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate whether changes in the business environment lead to changes in the level of management accounting practices (MAPs), and whether the level of MAPs affects the company's ability to achieve competitive advantages. The research follows a case study method to achieve its goal. El Araby Company, a leading company in manufacturing and marketing of electronic devices and appliances located in north of Cairo, Egypt, is selected to validate hypotheses of the study. Findings indicate that the company applies modern technology in all its activities, especially production systems, and faces fierce price competition. Findings also reveal that the company applies traditional and modern MAPs alike. Results indicate that the level of MAPs in El Araby Company keeps pace with technological developments and intensity of competition, and MAPs play a basic role in developing the company's ability to achieve competitive advantages.

 [Fahim Abo-Alazm Mohamed. Changes in the business environment and the level of management accounting practices in Egypt: a case study. Am Sci 2013;9(10):78-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.10

 

Keywords: management accounting practices, El Araby Company, Egypt

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Changes in the business environment and the level of management accounting practices in Egypt: a case study

 

Fahim Abo-Alazm Mohamed

 

Department of Accounting, Suez Institute for Management Information Systems, Egypt

Fahim_721@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate whether changes in the business environment lead to changes in the level of management accounting practices (MAPs), and whether the level of MAPs affects the company's ability to achieve competitive advantages. The research follows a case study method to achieve its goal. El Araby Company, a leading company in manufacturing and marketing of electronic devices and appliances located in north of Cairo, Egypt, is selected to validate hypotheses of the study. Findings indicate that the company applies modern technology in all its activities, especially production systems, and faces fierce price competition. Findings also reveal that the company applies traditional and modern MAPs alike. Results indicate that the level of MAPs in El Araby Company keeps pace with technological developments and intensity of competition, and MAPs play a basic role in developing the company's ability to achieve competitive advantages.

 [Fahim Abo-Alazm Mohamed. Changes in the business environment and the level of management accounting practices in Egypt: a case study Am Sci 2013;9(10):78-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.11

 

Keywords: management accounting practices, El Araby Company, Egypt

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Factors Affecting Sorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Sawdust Based Activated Carbon

 

H.M.H. Gad1, H.A. Omar2, M. H. Khalil3, M.R. Hassan2

 

1.Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo, Egypt.

2.Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas, Cairo, Egypt.

 3.Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Hodaatom@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pine Sawdust (PSD), agricultural by-product, was used as precursor for preparation of activated carbon by physical activation method using CO2 at 800oC for 90 min. The obtained activated carbon (PSDC8) was characterized and utilized for sorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The effect of pH, initial concentration of lead (II) ions, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption was studied in a batch process mode. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities of PSDC8 obtained from Langmuir were 91.6, 141.0 and 181.0 mg/g at 25oC, 45oC and 65oC, respectively. The kinetic data were found to follow the pseudo-second-order model and that the rate-controlling step was chemical adsorption. Textural analysis was employed in order to determine specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared activated carbon. Surface structure was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after adsorption of Pb (II). Variations in the ΔHo and ΔSo values showed that the sorption process was spontaneous (ΔGo< 0), endothermic (ΔHo > 0), and had increased entropy (ΔSo > 0).

[H.M.H. Gad, H.A. Omar, M. H. Khalil, M.R. Hassan. Factors Affecting Sorption of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Sawdust Based Activated Carbon. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):95-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.12

 

Keyword: Sawdust / physical activation / CO2 / sorption / Pb (II).

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Effect Of Sodium Fluoride On The Thyroid Follicular Cells And The Amelioration By Calcium Supplementation In Albino Rats: A Light And An Electron Microscopic Study.

 

Maha M. Abdul Rahman, Fathy Ahmed Fetouh

 

Department of Anatomy & Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

alkholy1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sodium fluoride was the first fluoride compound used in the fluoridation of drinking water and it is still commonly used for that purpose to prevent dental caries. It exerts toxic effects on many soft tissues and organs. The thyroid gland has a strong capacity for absorbing and accumulating fluoride. Objective: The present work aimed to study the histological and ultrastructural effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the thyroid follicular cells and the amelioration by calcium supplementation in albino rats. Materials and methods: Four groups of adult albino rats were used for this study. The 1st and 2nd groups were used as control. The 3rd group was treated with NaF in a dose of 10mg/kg bw/day orally by gavage once daily for 35 days. The 4th group was treated with NaF in the same dose for the same period followed by calcium chloride in a dose of 20mg/kg bw/day once daily for 35 days. The animals were anaesthetized and specimens from the thyroid gland were obtained and processed for light and electron microscopic examination. Results: The NaF had adverse effects on the follicular cells of the thyroid gland in NaF-treated group in comparison with that of the control groups where the follicular epithelium appeared with reduced cell height and the follicles had low colloid content. The basal membrane was ill defined. Colloid droplets appeared in the apical and basal parts of the cytoplasm. Overall cytoplasmic disorganization was observed with scattered stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum and loss of mitochondria. The apical border showed pseudopods directed into the colloidal lumen. The nucleus appeared irregular, heterochromatic with deformed nuclear membrane. Co-administration of calcium to NaF-treated rats ameliorated the adverse effect of NaF. The follicular epithelium increased in height and most of the follicles contained colloid. The follicular cell regained some of its normal characteristic features with intact basal lamina. The cytoplasm showed rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and small apical vesicles. The nucleus appeared regular in shape and euchromatic with well-formed nuclear membrane and prominent nucleoli. Conclusion: Calcium supplementation can ameliorate the adverse effects of NaF on thyroid follicular cells in people at risk of high exposure.

[Maha M. Abdul Rahman, Fathy Ahmed Fetouh. Effect Of Sodium Fluoride On The Thyroid Follicular Cells And The Amelioration By Calcium Supplementation In Albino Rats: A Light And An Electron Microscopic Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):107-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.13

 

Key Words: Sodium fluoride, Calcium supplement, Thyroid follicular cells, Ultra structure

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A Deeper View in the Pathogenesis of Vasomotor Rhinitis

 

Hany Amin1, Elham Ibrahiem Sief 2, Samer Badee, Taha Mohammed and Sayed Kadah3.

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology Benha University, Egypt.

2Department of Clinical Pathology Ain Shams University, Egypt.

3Department of Otorhinolaryngology Alazhar University, Egypt.

modytaha10@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Vasomotor rhinitis cause nasal symptoms that occur in response to environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature or relative humidity, odours (e.g., perfumes or cleaning materials), passive tobacco smoke, alcohol, sexual arousal, and emotional factors. Such hyper-reactivity to nonallergic triggers is not mediated by increased neural efferent traffic to the blood vessels supplying the nasal mucosa. It can also occur in allergic rhinitis, when the term mixed rhinitis is applied. Objectives: The present study aimed to study the pathogenesis of VMR by electron microscopy to see if there is another cause for this disease. Material and Methods: It was a prospective randomised study which was held at Benha Faculty of Medicine, in the period from January 2009 to November 2011. It was conducted on 45 patients divided into two groups. The study was carried out in a group of 39 patients (21 males, 18 females; age range 25- 38 years) with VMR and 6 control patients (4 males, 2 females; age range 22- 34 years). Study Group The patients were affected by typical symptoms of VMR, consisting of nasal obstruction and profuse watery rhinorrhoea. Based on the personal history of the patients, these symptoms had been present for a period of at least 2 years (range 2-6 years). At anterior rhinoscopy, the turbinate were hypertrophied causing significant obstruction of the nasal cavities. Control Group Six patients who were doing other ENT operations with no nasal complaints nor diseases. Methodology: Electron microscopy was done for them. Specimens were fixed in cacodylate buffered formaldehyde glutraraldehyde-R. Post fixed in buffered 1%osomium tetraoxide, dehydrated and embedded in spurris resin. Ultrathin section were double stained by 10 % Reynolds lead citrate. Examination was done by TEM (philipo400). Results: The electron microscopic sections of patients with VMR showed loss of intercellular junction with separated cells, cilia are shorter, sparce and deformed, apoptic cells in the epithelial layer, the epithelial cells are full of vesicles and goblet cells. Another type of secretory glands are also seen, loss of the smooth surface of endothelial cells and the basal lamina is thickened. Conclusion: The pathology of the vasomotor rhinitis starts first in the submucosal vessels with angiopathy similar to the diabetic angiopathy then the epithelial changes take place. Surgical or Medical treatment directed to the sympathetic system may or may not improve the case depending mainly on how much the submucosal blood vessels are affected.Presence of another type of secretory granules in the submucosal glands need more histochemical studies.

[Hany Amin, Elham Ibrahiem Sief, Samer Badee, Taha Mohammed and Sayed Kadah. A Deeper View in the Pathogenesis of Vasomotor Rhinitis. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):115-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.14

 

Key words; VMR, electron microscopy & pathogenesis.

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Control of the Activity of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa by Positive Electric Impulses at Resonance Frequency

 

Fadel M. Ali1, A. M. Elkhatib2, W. M. Aboutalib3, A. M. Abdelbacki4, A. M. Khalil5, and N. Serag6

 

1Biophysics Dept, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Physics Dept, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

3Physics& Chemistry Dept, Faculty of Education, Alexandria University, Egypt.

4Plant Pathology Dept, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt.

5Basic Sciences Dept. Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University in Alex. (PUA), Egypt.

6Physics Dept. Faculty of Engineering German University in Cairo (GUC), Egypt.

Alaa.khalil@pua.edu.eg

 

Abstract: P. aeruginosa considered as a notoriously difficult organism to be controlled by antibiotics or disinfectants. The potential use of alternative means as an aid to avoid the wide use of antibiotics against bacteria pathogen has been recently arisen remarkably. The surge of interest has been marked by increasing efforts in research to explore the possibility of controlling the activity of bacteria and its sensitivity toward antibiotics by using extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study the effect of positive square pulsed electric fields at different frequencies in the range 0.1-50 Hz, exposure periods on the growth characteristics of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, to study the effect of exposure on bacterial antibiotic susceptibility and molecular and morphological cellular structure. Results indicated that exposure to PEF can inhibit bacterial growth at particular resonance frequencies 0.7 Hz and 0.5 Hz and significant increase in antibiotic susceptibility to protein and cell wall inhibitors. Also, results of DNA, dielectric relaxation and TEM indicated molecular and morphological changes. Therefore, it concluded that treatment of P. aeruginosa cells by pulsed electric fields at for mentioned frequencies acts on its cellular activity and structure and it is a promising methodology for further in vivo applications.

[Fadel M. Ali, A. M. Elkhatib, W. M. Aboutalib, A. M. Abdelbacki, A. M. Khalil, and N. Serag. Control of the Activity of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa by Positive Electric Impulses at Resonance Frequency. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):120-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.15

 

Key Words: Pulsed Electric Fields, Resonance Frequency, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, DNA and TEM

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Interpretation of Remote Sensing, Electromagnetic and Geo-electric Sounding Data for Groundwater Resources Exploration: A case study of the El Obeid area, Western Sudan

 

Ahmed Babeker Elhag1 Siddig Mohamoud Elzien Ali2

 

1 Department of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Kordofan, Sudan ahmedhydro@gmail.com

2 Faculty of minerals and Petroleum, Alneelain University, Sudan siddigzien@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Scarcity of groundwater is a major problem in Basement terrain of El Obeid area. The proposed model is essentially based on integration of lineament and drainage data to delineate potential target zones for groundwater resources in the study area. Using land Sat Images, lineaments have been described as linear structural elements and thought to be developed over fracture zones. Target zones are indicated by overlap of the high-intensity lineament contours and low-intensity drainage contours. The results of analyses in the study area indicate that the locations of lineaments mapped on the basis of remote sensing data. The lineaments can be very helpful in sitting successful wells at zones (C and D) which exhibited a higher lineament density and frequency compared to the other zones. The subsurface column consists of three resistivity layers. The first layer is a surface layer composed of very dry superficial deposits, followed by an intercalation layer of weathered and fractured basement, then an impermeable hard basement complex.

[Ahmed Babeker Elhag, Siddig Mohamoud Elzien Ali. Interpretation of Remote Sensing, Electromagnetic and Geo-electric Sounding Data for Groundwater Resources Exploration: A case study of the El Obeid area, Western Sudan. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):131-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.16

 

Keywords: Basement, lineament, drainage, remote sensing, groundwater, geophysics, El Obeid

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Modified Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias without chordate

 

Ibrahim Ali Ibrahim

 

Pediatric surgery unit, General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut university, Assiut, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background/Purpose: Hypospadias is a congenital deformity characterised by an abnormally located urethral opening that can occur anywhere proximal to its normal location on the ventral surface of penis or into the perineum Postoperative oedema was noticed in 3 patients which improved in few days. Superficial wound infection occurred in 3 patients, 2 healed and one developed urethercutaneous fistula. No dehiscence or voiding difficulty occurred in any case. One patient had leakage around the stent. No urinary retention occurred. no meatal stenosis developed in any patient. All children had good results that were described as a cosmetically acceptable penile shaft with normal meatal location. The objective 0f this study was to present our modified TIP repair technique for distal hypospadius without chordate. Patients and Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 16 children with distal hypospadias underwent primary repair. Their ages ranged from 2 years up to 11 years. The location of the meatus was distal penile in 11 cases, coronal in 2 cases and subcoronal in 3 cases. Results: 16 patients were operated upon. 3 patients had associated anomalies, one patient had polydactyl and a repaired omphalocele minor, one patient had a unilateral palpable undescended testis and one patient had an operate upon inguinal hernia,. The mean operative time was 35 minutes. Postoperative oedema was noticed in 3 patients which improved in few days.Superficial wound infection occurred in 3 patients,2 healed and one developed urethercutaneous fistula. No dehiscence or voiding difficulty or meatal stenosis developed in any patient. 3 patients had urethercutaneous, one of them occurred because of wound infection.One of them closed spontaneously, while the others were successfully repaired. All children had good results that were described as a cosmetically acceptable penile shaft with normal meatal location. Conclusion: Hypospadias is one of the most common anomalies worldwide. -Most of the hypospadias can be corrected with a single stage surgery, most common post-operative problems are infection and formation of a fistula requiring a second surgery. Modified TIP repair is a reliable method and can be applied safely to repair distal hyospadias without the need for repeated dilatation, meatal stenosis or stricture. This procedure is rapid, simple and safe and successful in the majority of patients.

[Ibrahim Ali Ibrahim. Modified Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal hypospadias without chordate. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):140-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.17

 

Keywords: Hypospadius, Modified TIP, Uretheroplasty.

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Sex Assessment of the First Sacral Vertebra, MRI Study

 

Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy1&2

 

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

2 Basic Medical Sciences' Department, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, KSA

dr.abdelmonemhegazy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Determination of sex from the skeletal remains is of vital medico-legal importance for establishing the identity of an individual. Aims: To study the sexual differences in the first sacral vertebra (S1) in middle-aged adults through devising new parameters and indices. Material and Methods: 100 mid-sagittal MR images of lumbosacral region (50 males and 50 females) were investigated. The dimensions of S1 as well as inclination angles of sacrum were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: Male S1 showed higher values than that of female S1 in all of the investigated parameters, except for LSA. The parameters showed sex differences of variable levels. Also, Index 1(ID/SD100) and Index 2 (PH/AH100) showed significant sex differences. Application of univariate ANOVA revealed an accuracy in assigning sex of S1 for 95% of the cases, with accurate predictions being made for 97.5% of females and 92.5% of males. Conclusion: The body of the first sacral vertebra (S1) is a good bone for sex determination. The newly devised MRI parameters of S1 might be used to aid in identification of human skeletal and fleshed remains.

[Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy. Sex Assessment of the First Sacral Vertebra, MRI Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):146-150]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.18

 

Key Words: Sacrum, Anatomy, Sex assessment, MRI.

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Metacarpal and phalangeal lengthening in traumatic finger amputations

 

Ahmad Altonesy Abdelsamie

 

Ortopaedic Department,Faculty of Medicine Zagazig university

ahmad.altonesy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To present our experience of distraction osteogenesis in Metacarpal and Phalangeal lengthening of the hand andanalyze the factors which influence the period of healing. In Zagazig university hospitals in the period fromNovember 2009 to may 2012.Distractionhas been performed in four metacarpal bones and five phalangeal bones in seven patients. The age ranged from 13 to 49 years. All the digits hadtraumatic amputations. The injury was in the right hand (dominant) in 5 patients and in the left hand in 2 patients. An isolated injury to the thumbwas seen in 4 patients, while in the remaining patients other fingers had been injured. All patients were operated by the same surgeon usingsimilar lengthening technique. Patients were followed regularly and assessed for bone lengthening by clinical and radiological methods. Results: The achieved elongation of the metacarpal bones varied from 26 mm to 39 mm (average 34.5 mm), and of the digital phalanges from11 mm to 15 mm (average 13 mm). Average healing time was 2.01 months (range from 0.8 – 3.7). Average healing index was 0.89 month/cm(range from 0.73 – 1.00). Complications observed were pin tract infection (5 cases), delayedspontaneous bone union (2 cases), volar angulation (1 case) and refracture (1case). Webplasty was performed in 3 cases. Strength of pinch improved by anaverage of 37% and that of grasp by 48% compared to the preoperative values. All patients were able to pick up a paper and a cup of water. Conclusions: Distraction osteogenesis is a successful and reliable method for the lengthening of short metacarpals and phalanges. However, some complications such as stiffness, angulation, subluxation of the MCP joint and delayed union associated with thisprocedure. To avoid these complications, we suggest protection of the periosteum, refraining from distraction rates of more than 40.25 mm/dayand, if possible, avoid lengthening a bone by more than 40%.

[Ahmad AltonesyAbdelsamie. Metacarpal and phalangeal lengthening in traumatic finger amputations. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):151-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.19

 

Keywords: hand, phalanges, lenthening

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Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Distal Tibial Fractures

 

Abdulla S. Abu Senna

 

Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Distal tibia fractures that require operative treatment is difficult to manage. Conventional osteosynthesis is not suitable because distal tibia is subcutaneous bone with poor vascularity. Closed reduction and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has emerged as an alternative treatment option because it respects biology of distal tibia and fracture hematoma and also provides biomechanically stable construct. Objectives: To find out suitability of MIPO for distal tibial fracture including union time and complications and compare with other available management options in literatures. Methods: Twenty patients with closed distal tibial fracture with or without intra articular extensions treated with MIPO were prospectively followed for average duration of 12.5 months (range 6-19 months). Results: Average duration of injury-hospital and injury-surgery interval was 12.9 hrs (range 2-24 hrs) and 4.5 days (range 1- 9 days) respectively. All fractures got united with an average duration of 17.5 weeks (range 14-21 weeks) except one case of delayed union which was managed by percutaneous bone marrow injection.There were one superficial and one deep post-operative wound infection. The infections cured with extended period of intravenous antibiotics besides debridement for deep infection. Conclusion: The present study shows that MIPO is an effective treatment method in terms of union time and complications rate for distal tibial fracture.

[Abdulla S. Abu Senna. Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis for Distal Tibial Fractures. J Am Sci 2013;9(10): 158-164]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.20

 

Key Words: Distal tibial fractures- minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis

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Rehabilitation Guidelines for Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Knee Surgery for Meniscal Trimming

 

Sahar Ali Abd-Elmohsen 1, Zienab Abd El-Lateef Mohamad 2 and Hesham Abdel Rhim Elkady 3

 

1 Adult Nursing department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

2 Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

3 Orthopedic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

karambakheet@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Meniscal injuries affects 60 to 70 cases per 100,000 people, In the USA, surgical procedures for the meniscus are performed on approximately 850,000 patients each year. The aims of the present study were to; assess knowledge and practice of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal trimming, evaluate the effect of applying a rehabilitation guidelines on knowledge and practice of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal trimming, and to examine the effect of the rehabilitation guidelines on the outcomes of patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery for meniscal trimming. Subjects and methods: A convenient sample of sixty adult patients (male and female) undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery for meniscal trimming were included in this study. The study was conducted at the orthopedic department and arthroscopic out-patient clinic at Assiut University Hospital. Two tools were utilized to fulfill the aims of this study; tool one patient's health needs assessment sheet and it was divided into three parts concerning; patient's sociodemographic characteristics, assessment of patient's physical status using the (modified Cincinnati knee rating scale), and part three was concerned with assessment of patient's knowledge and practices and mid thigh circumference along the four follow up appointments (pre, two weeks, one month and two months post arthroscopic surgery). Tool two represents the rehabilitation guidelines. Results showed that a high statistical significant difference was observed between the study and control groups collectively in all the study periods on the modified Cincinnati knee rating scale, knowledge and practice scores while there was no statistical significant difference in mid thigh circumference. Conclusion: providing written guidelines for patients was much more effective on the outcome of patients who have undergone arthroscopic knee surgery for meniscal trimming than those patients in the control group who received resident's oral instructions. Recommendations: a nurse rehabilitator is of great value in both the orthopedic department and the out-patient arthroscopy clinic and a rehabilitation instructions booklet is of great importance for the patients.

[Sahar Ali Abd-Elmohsen, Zienab Abd El-Lateef Mohamad and Hesham Abdel Rhim Elkady. Rehabilitation Guidelines for Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Knee Surgery for Meniscal Trimming. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):165-171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.21

 

Keywords: rehabilitation, knee arthroscopy, meniscal trimming.

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Antifungal activity OF ethyl acetate extract of four species Bacillus isolated from soil

 

Najwa Mohammed Jameel Ali Abu-Mejdad 1, Farhan Laythe Aaiz 2, Outoor Talib Jassim 3.

 

Biology Department-College of Science-University of Basra 1

Basic Medical Department – College of Nursing – University of Basrah 2,3

 

ABSTRACT: During study isolated and identificated four species backed to genus of Bacillus from 30 soil samples,in Basrah province (Al-Hartha, Abu-Alkaseeb, Al-Jibasi and Safwan) by using dilution method. crude metabolites extract from bacterial isolates prepared by ethyle acetate extract for bacterial isolates. The crude metabolite extracted from Bacillus stearothermophils showed antifungal activity against both filamentous fungi and yeasts while extract from B.licheniformis Don’t exhibited any antifungal activity against all tested.

[Najwa Mohammed Jameel Ali Abu-Mejdad, Farhan Laythe Aaiz, Outoor Talib Jassim. Antifungal activity OF ethyl acetate extract of four species Bacillus isolated from soil. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):172-176]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.22

 

Keywords: Bacillus,antifungal activity

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The Efficacy of A New Modified Aperture for Collecting Bee Venom in Relation to Some Biological Aspects of Honeybee Colonies

 

Sanad, Reda E. 1, and Mohanny, Karem M. 2

 

1 Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Plant Protect. Dept. Fac. of Agric., Qena, South Valley Univ. Egypt.

reda_eliwa@yahoo.com; karem_univ@yahoo.com; mesweelam20002000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The experiments were conducted at the experimental apiary of the plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture, South Valley University, Qenna, Egypt during the period of March 2012 to November 2012 to study the effect of gathering bee venom with the aid of a modified collecting device on the average of dead workers, and the scale of sealed brood, with references to the effect of the period of the day, months and seasons on the weights of collected bee venom. Results indicated that the modified device of gathering bee venom from hives was successfully gave adequate quantities of bee venom along the period of the experiment, March 2012 to November 2012. It could be concluded that the best period for collecting bee venom was between 4 pm to 6 pm at August month, as Summer season giving the highest weights of bee venom (0.0185 g / day). Furthermore, it could be concluded that the safety period for bee venom collecting process was 1-3 pm which gave the lowest numbers of dead workers as a side effect of gathering process (26.74 worker / day). Moreover, the least side effect of gathering process on the decreasing area of sealed brood was recorded at November month (11.3 %).

[Sanad, Reda E., and Mohanny, Karem M.. The Efficacy of A New Modified Aperture for Collecting Bee Venom in Relation to Some Biological Aspects of Honeybee Colonies. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):177-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.23

 

Keywords: Honeybee, bee venom, Aperture, Electrical device, sealed brood.

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Factors Affecting Nutritional Status among Elders Attending Geriatric Clubs in Alexandria, Egypt

 

Hala K. Ibrahim1, Heba M. El Kady2 and Doaa A. Elsayed1

 

1Family Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria,Alexandria, Egypt.

2Family Health Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria, UniversityAlexandria, Egypt.

halakadry69@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Good nutritional status throughout life helps prevent the development and progression of diseases and disabilities in later life, thereby significantly contributing to the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present work was to determine factors affecting nutritional status among elders attending elderly clubs in Alexandria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in all elderly clubs in Alexandria. The sample size was determined to be 380 elders. A structured interview questionnaire was used to collect data about socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, physical activity pattern, smoking pattern, food purchase and preparation, knowledge of the elders regarding sound nutrition and balanced diet, patterns of eating practices and anthropometric measurements. The dietary intake was determined using 24 hour recall method. Results: The study revealed that the problem of overweight and obesity was prevalent especially among the females. The highest percentage of elders who attained 100% intake satisfaction and more of RDAs for energy had no chronic diseases (51.3%), were not using medications (51.2%), had dental problems (44.8%), did not practice exercise (48.9%), used to watch TV for 4 > 8 hours (50.6%), were non smokers (44.7%) and had good or very good dietary knowledge (79.3%). Conclusion: Almost half of the elderly have poor dietary knowledge. The dietary pattern of the elders is far from being satisfactory. The problem of overweight and obesity is highly prevalent among the elders in Alexandria. Recommendations: It is recommended to establish comprehensive nutrition educational programs in the elderly clubs. Mass media should include information about healthy balanced diets and hazards of obesity among the elders.

[Hala K. Ibrahim, Heba M. El Kady and Doaa A. Elsayed. Factors Affecting Nutritional Status among Elders Attending Geriatric Clubs in Alexandria, Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):183-192]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.24

 

Key words: Elderly, Food consumption patterns, Nutritional status, elderly clubs

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The Influence Of Ozonized olive oil gel on the dorsal surface of the tongue ofstreptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats.

 

Heba Mohamed Eltokhey

 

Assistant Professor of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University

eltokheyheba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: It has been a growing interest recently in use of non-medication methods in management of medical diseases as diabetes. Nevertheless, most studies have focused only on their ability to maintain blood glucose levels, and have not been investigated for their beneficial effects on secondary complications of diabetes such as oral lesions. Therefore, the current study aimed. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the possible effect of ozone in ameliorating the histological changes in the lingual papillae of diabetic rats experimentally induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into 3 equal groups: group I; (control group), group II; (diabetic group): diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in a dose of 65 mg/kg and group III; (Ozone group) rats were treated as in diabetic group for 4 weeks then ozone gel was applied on the tongue mucosa daily for 2 weeks. By the end of the experimental periods all animals were sacrificed and the tongue of all rats were dissected and processed for light and scanning electron microscopic examinations. Results: Examination of dorsal surface of diabetic rats' tongues revealed numerous filiform papillae with evidently disturbed orientation and inclination. Some of them depicted notched or bifurcated ends; others were severely destructed with desquamation of its epithelial covering. There were hyperkeratosis and markedly reduced CT papillae. Disfigured fungi form papillae with vacuolated taste buds depicting peripheral arrangement of the cells and empty center were also seen. Dorsal surface of rats' tongues of the ozone group revealed almost normal direction, distribution and structure of the papillae and taste buds. Conclusion: From the present study we concluded that diabetes has a deleterious effect on tongue papillae and taste buds. Fortunately ozone gel provided considerable treatment of these effects.

[Heba Mohamed Eltokhey. The Influence of Ozonized olive oil gel on the dorsal surface of the tongue ofstreptozoptocininduced diabetic albino rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):193-201]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.25

 

Keywords: Ozone, Diabetes, Dorsal surface of the tongue, Tongue papillae, and Taste buds

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Multiparametric Flow Cytometric Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirate of Enlarged Lymph Nodes: Validation with Histopathology

 

Heba N. Raslan1 and Arwa M. Al-Saber2

 

1Consultant Hematopathology, King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam.

1National Cancer Institute, Cairo University,

2MLT, C.Cy, King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam

hebaraslan2013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The section of Hematopathology at King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam (KFSHD) has expertise in diagnostic evaluation of patients with hematologic malignancy, interpretation of morphology of blood, bone marrow, and lymph node and other hematologic specimens as well as the application of ancillary techniques, especially flow cytometry (FCM). Using the four-color multiparameteric analysis, we are able to detect and immunophenotype malignant hematopoietic cells in lymph node aspirates allowing appropriate classification. We designed the current study to evaluate the validity of multiparameteric FCM as a diagnostic test for hematologic diseases in fine needle aspirated samples from patients with lymphadenopathies. Methods: We evaluated the validity of multiparametric FCM in diagnosing oncohematologic disease in89 consecutive lymph node fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens from patients with lymphadenopathy. All cases had excisional lymph node biopsy where histopathological evaluation and FCM when possible was performed for confirmation. Results: Flow cytometric diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas on FNA specimens showed 100% correlation with the final histopathological interpretation. In addition, FCM enabled NHL sub-classification in all cases. The FCM interpretation was faster than histopathological examination, allowing quicker therapeutic decisions. FCM could not establish the diagnosis of our Hodgkin lymphoma cases since all these cases revealed unremarkable FCM features. Conclusion: Utilizing FCM is reliable and an accurate in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy in FNA material. We were able to validate our FCM technique in our laboratory for the evaluation of lymphoid malignancies.

[Heba N. Raslan and Arwa Al-Saber. Multiparametric Flow Cytometric Analysis of Fine Needle Aspirate of Enlarged Lymph Nodes: Validation with Histopathology. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):202-213]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.26

 

Key words: multiparametric flow cytometry, fine needle aspiration, lymphoma, lymphadenopathy

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The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city

 

Ali Moghadam 1, Mohamadreza Hassandokht 2, Vahid abdose 3, Masoomeh Amoozadeh 4

 

1Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN

2Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

3Department of Agriculture, Islamic Azad Tehran University. IR. Of IRAN

4Department of Geography, Payame Noor University. IR. Of IRAN

 

Abstract: The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber (Super Daminus and Maxim) in Darrehshahr city in complete accidental blocks design with four kinds (including direct seed cultivation, seedling in two foliar steps, seedling in three foliar step, and seedling in four foliar step) in three duplication (frequencies). The obtained results revealed that the accessory stock attributes, bushy length, fruit weight, precocious operation, the first fruit formation date, total function, fruits number, the first grade fruits percent, the second-rate fruit percent, one percent level and leaf width features, the main stock thickness, the accessory stock thickness, fruit thickness, the first flower formation date, leaf numbers, and the bushy wet weight were meaningful in 5 percent level. As well, the comparison of seedling age average and brand showed that the trifoliate seedling of Superdaminus from precocious function (606/26 gram in bushy) and the total function (2813/749 gram in bushy) views was better than other kinds. Meanwhile, the average direct seed cultivation of Superdaminus from precocious function (334/12 gram in bushy and the four foliate seedling of Maxim with the total function of 1504/36 gram in bushy are smaller in comparison to other experimented kinds. The results clarified that seedling use in comparison to direct seed cultivation from precocious and total function. Aspects were excessively better and are recommended to be used in Darrehshahr aired for cucumber cultivation.

[Ali Moghadam, Mohamadreza Hassandokht, Vahid abdose, Masoomeh Amoozadeh. The comparison of direct seed cultivation and atmospheric and barrowing seedling on some quantity and quality of two kinds of champ cucumber in darrehshahr city. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):214-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.27

 

Key words: cucumber, Seed, seedling, quantity and quality of the two kinds, atmospheric and barrowing method

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Organic Fertilization for Improving Potato Production with Application of 15N- Isotope Dilution Technique

 

Ahmed. A. Moursy

 

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Soil & Water Research Department Abou-Zaabl, 13759, Egypt,

ahmad1a2m3@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Compost and compost tea used in this study have revealed to increase the production of tuber potato. Tuber yield significantly increased by application 50%compost treatment with 50% chemical fertilizer as compared all treatment. Application of compost soiled under all treatment compost with combination chemical fertilizer none significantly increased compared other application to method, compost tea foliar or compost tea soil application alone or combination chemical fertilizer, this true with all rate N chemical alone or combination with organic. In most of compost tea application soil, the addition 50% compost + 50%chemical fertilizer had increased N uptake by tuber over those recorded with 100% compost tea,treatment 50% compost combination 50%chemical fertilizer accumulated 1215 g N plot -1 seems to be the best ones. The Nitrogen derived from fertilizer %Ndff values were higher in the tuber potato than shoots for all treatments, it was decreased rate 75% compost with combination 25%chemical fertilizer and 25% compost + 75%chemical fertilizer under compost soiled application or compost tea foliar as compared to application compost tea soil. Nitrogen derived from compost as affected by application method was highest for compost tea soil application as compared to both tow methods application. The percentage fertilizer use efficiency (%FUE) with tuber of potato was higher than those recorded with shoots under all rate and methods. Compost tea can also improve nutrient utilization and lower the environmental pollution through reducing the amounts of fertilizers added to the soil.

[Ahmed. A. Moursy. Organic Fertilization for Improving Potato Production with Application of 15N- Isotope Dilution Technique. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):221-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.28

 

Key words: Compost/ Compost tea/ Drip irrigation/ 15N technique / Potato

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An Innovative Approach for Generating 1 MW of Electricity through Setting up of Micro Hydel Power Plants at Hub Dam, Karachi, Pakistan

 

Zaib Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Suleman Askari2, Akmal Hassan Khan3, Imran Amin4, Nasim A. Khan5

 

1, 2, 3 Ph. D Scholars in Energy Engineering at Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology (FEST), Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan

4Associate Professor & Head Computing Department / Centre for Renewable Energy Research, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

5 Professor in Energy Engineering, Vice Chancellor Nazir Hussain University, Karachi, Pakistan. Senior Executive Director Osmani & Company Consulting Engineers-Architects-Planner, Karachi, Pakistan. Ex Vice Chancellor Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan

Corresponding author: Zaib Ullah Khan, e-mail: rajazaibkhan@yahoo.com, rajazaibkhan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Energy crisis in Pakistan is getting worst and worst with the passage of time due to the increasing gap between the supply and demand of electricity. One of the main reasons of this crisis is that in Pakistan maximum power plants are either hydel or thermal based. The recent increase in oil prices globally makes it difficult to provide cheaper electricity through thermal or furnace based power plants. Similarly setting up of new hydel power plants or maintaining the existing ones is an expensive affair. Keeping these factors in front it is the right time to find out viable alternate solution of power generation so that power crises in the country can be tackled. Pakistan is blessed with ample water resources throughout the year but unfortunately more than 50% of this water is being wasted because of non-availability of proper storage facilities. In order to seek low cost solution to power generation these water resources can be utilized easily through the setting up of micro hydel power plants in the flow of water at appropriate location with reasonable water head. These micro hydel power plants are comparatively cheaper and easy to establish without disturbing the actual flow of water. Presently many types of Micro Hydel Power Plants are available in the world which are very efficient and can be set up easily without disturbing the flow of water if reasonable water heads are available. In order to combat ongoing energy crises a detail survey / analysis of hub dam and its canals were carried out. The dam is situated 45 KM from Karachi city with a water storage capacity of 857000 Acre ft and supply water to Karachi, Lasbella and Hub cities on daily basis. The analysis suggest that different MHPPs can be set up at suitable locations of Hub Dam and in the way of canal flowing from the dam where ever a head of 3 to 7 m and a flow of 200 to 300 CUSEC is available. The expected power generation through this work is approximately 1 MW which can be directly delivered to the national grid without affecting the basic flow of water.

[Zaib Ullah Khan, Muhammad Suleman Askari, Akmal Hassan Khan, Imran Amin, Nasim. An Innovative Approach for Generating 1 MW of Electricity through Setting up of Micro Hydel Power Plants at Hub Dam, Karachi, Pakistan. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):227-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.29

 

Keywords: CUSEC (Cubic feet per second), CUMEC (Cubic meter per second), Electricity, Mega Watts (MW), Micro Hydel Power Plants (MHPPs), Million Gallon per Day (MGD)

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Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Program on depression among Suicidal Patients at EL Minia Poisoning Control Center

 

Fatma Nagy Kotb1, Nefissa Mohamed Abd El- Kader2, Mohammed A. Eissa3, Ikram I. Mohammed4, and Essam M. Hafez5

 

1 Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing – El Minia university,

2Psychiatric -Mental Health Nursing, Faculty Nursing, Cairo University,

3Psychiatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University,

4Psychiatric –Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assuit University,

5Clinical toxicology, Faculty of medicine, EL Minia University,

fatmazezo40@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at assessing, planning, and implementing a psycho-educational program and to evaluate its effectiveness on depression of suicidal patients. A pre-post test research design was utilized in this study. A sample of convenience of 50 suicidal patients was recruited from EL Minia Poisoning Control Center. A personal and medical assessment data sheet, Hamilton depression scale, and Pierce suicide intent scale were used to achieve the purpose of the study. A structured interview method was used to collect data from patients. Psychoeducational program was developed and implemented in about eight sessions for each group of the patients, and follow up was done after one month. Results revealed that, almost two thirds of the sample was females, unemployed, residing rural areas, and most of them were in the age group ranged from 20˂30 years old. The majority of the sample had a high intent for suicide. Statistically significant differences were found between pre, post, and follow up test regarding depression. Statistically significant positive correlations were detected between depression and suicide intent. In conclusion suicidal patients had a high level of depression so, this group of patients were in a great need for continuous psychological treatment and educational program for them and their families. It was recommended that, structured group activity sessions are needed for suicidal patients, and creative non competitive activity for teaching them the social skills for interaction with others, and how to cope with depression and suicidal ideation.

[Fatma Nagy Kotb, Nefissa Mohamed Abd El- Kader, Mohammed A. Eissa, Ikram I. Mohammed, and Essam M. Hafez. Effectiveness of Psychoeducational Program on depression among Suicidal Patients at EL Minia Poisoning Control Center. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):234-241]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.30

 

Key words: Depression, and Psychoeducational

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Acute Phase Inflammatory Markers and Clinical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease Egyptian Patients

 

K. M. Attallah1,2,H. E. Zaghla2, M. A. Obada3, M. A. Mostafa2, E. M. Ghoneim4, T. A. Salman 1,2

 

1Tropical Medicine, 2Liver Transplant, Hepatology and Gastroenterology, 3Clinical Biochemistry, 4Virology and Microbiology, - National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Shebeen EL-Koam, Egypt.

kmatalah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Significant proportion of cirrhotic patients even without infection show elevated levels of several acute phase proteins (APPs). Bacterial infections especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common cause for hospitalization in patients with liver cirrhosis. A hypothetic relationship between APPs and infection in liver cirrhosis needs further validation. Aims/Methods: To evaluate inflammatory response markers (APPs) in chronic liver diseases with emphasis on their correlation with bacterial infections such as SBP. This study was conducted on 100 subjects at National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Egypt. Subjects were recruited in the study according to pre-defined selection criteria and were divided into 4 groups: A (25 normal subjects or Controls), B (25 patients with chronic liver diseases liver cirrhosis), C (25 patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites), D (25 patients with liver cirrhosis, ascites and SBP). Subjects were subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination and to laboratory tests: complete blood count, urine analysis, stool analysis, bilirubin (total and direct), total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), prothrombin time, prothrombin concentration, international normalized ratio (INR), urea, creatinine, random blood glucose, viral markers: Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBs-Ag), Hepatitis C Virus Anti-body (HCV-Ab), sodium, potassium, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein level (CRP), fibrinogen, ferritin, haptoglobin, ascetic fluid analyses. Abdominal ultrasound and chest x-ray. Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), APACHE II (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation), MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were calculated. Results: CRP among the examined APPs seems to be the best test to discriminate bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients. However, a new threshold of >1.3 mg/dl should be applied (AUC 0.86). Ferritin is increased in cirrhotic patients even without infection but significantly rise with infection (AUC 0.85). Haptoglobin and fibrinogen levels declined according to the progression of cirrhosis. There is high significant difference of plasma APPs during infection and after resolution of SBP. Ascetic fluid culture and sensitivity in group D showed 13 (52%) culture negative and 12 (48%) culture positive cases. Escherichia coli were the most common isolated organism (24%) in culture positive group. MELD, APACHE II, CTP scores were more severe in ascetic fluid culture positive than negative group. Conclusions: Culture positive ascetic fluid is a more severe variant than culture negative ascetic fluid as higher levels of APPs, and severe MELD, APACHE II, CTP scores were found. APPs; especially CRP are effective and reproducible markers of infection which can be used safely and repeatedly for diagnosis and follow-up of infection in cirrhotic patients.

[K. M. Attallah,H. E. Zaghla, M. A. Mostafa, E. M. Ghoneim, M. A. Obada,T. A. Salman. Acute Phase Inflammatory Markers and Clinical Parameters in Chronic Liver Disease Egyptian Patients. J Am Sci 2013; 9(10):242-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.31

 

Key Words: liver cirrhosis, acute phase, inflammatory response, C-reactive protein.

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Effects of Peer Education on the Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Mansoura University Female Students

 

Heba Salama *1, Nahed Elsebai 2, Fardos Abdelfatah 3, Ashraf Shoma 4, Karima Elshamy1

 

1Medical - surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Medical - surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

3Internal Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

4Surgical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

*hanin1910@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of peer education on the Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Mansoura University Female Students. Subjects and Method: This study was conducted between December 2009 and may 2010 in the adult skill lab of Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt. Two categories of subjects were included in the study; A- 10 nursing students enrolled in the fourth year Bachelor of Nursing as trainees). B- 150 female university students. Two research tools were used in the study: 1- Knowledge of breast cancer and BSE form 2- Breast Self Examination Performance Checklist. Results: There was an improvement in total knowledge post education I (t= 43.020, p= 0.000). And the improvement (p= 0.000) was maintained post education II (t= 38.566). There was an improvement in practice score post education I (t= 58.083, p= 0.000), as well as post education II (t= 10.415, p= 0.000). BSE performance increased significantly following education (p= 0.000) from 8.0% to 52.7 %. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, there was inadequate knowledge about breast cancer and BSE among Mansoura university female students before peer education approaches. There was significant improvements in students' knowledge about breast cancer and BSE in post education I and improvement in post education I. Practicing BSE was lacking before peer education, it improved significantly after peer education. Data from this study re-enforce the continuing need for more BC education programs that are intended to attract the attention of young women. More education-based programming targeting female university students should be a primary consideration among health education/health promotion practitioners.

[Heba AB Salama, Nahed Elsebai, Fardos Abdelfatah, Ashraf Shoma and Karima Elshamy. Effects of Peer Education on the Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self-Examination among Mansoura University Female Students J Am Sci 2013;9(10):253-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.32

 

Keywords: breast cancer - breast self examination -peer education

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A Fracture Mechanics Approach to the Water Jet Drilling of Composite Materials

 

Y. A-H Mashal* and M. W. Algrafi

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Taibah University, KSA

prof.yosry@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Water jet machining of composite materials surpasses the conventional solid tool machining with respect to tool wear, thermal damage and environmental protection. Nevertheless, delamination during water jet drilling is a primary concern in applying this advanced technique. In the present work, mechanisms of delamination are recognized, and the phenomenon is modelled by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and circular plate bending theory. In this work a theoretical model is developed in which water jet force is identified as the main cause of delamination damage. By using this model, the critical water pressure leading to the onset of delamination is predicted. The approach is justified by existing experimental data from independent researchers with good agreement. The model contains the composite material parameters such as the fracture toughness of the fibre and matrix as well as the fibre volume fraction. The model also includes an analysis to assess the critical length of the fibre below which fibres tend to be pulled out of the matrix rather than to be fractured.

 [Y. A-H Mashal and M. W. Algrafi. A Fracture Mechanics Approach to the Water Jet Drilling of Composite Materials. J Am Sci 2013; 9(10): 262-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.33

 

Key words: Fracture damage, Delamination, Water jet machining, Composite materials, Fracture toughness.

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The Possible ameliorative effect of Cynara cardunculus extract against liver injury and oxidative stress induced by acetaminophen in male albino rat Rattus norvegicus.

 

Abd El-Aziz A. Diab1; Samih I. El-Dahamy2; Seliman S. A. Ibrahim 1 and Walaa S. Abdel-Halim1

 

1 Physiology Zoology department Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt.

dr_walaa_said@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of Cynara cardunculus extract treatment against Paracetamol induced acute liver damage on albino rats. One hundred and twenty adult male rats were used in this study and distributed into fourteen groups (n=8). Animals of group 1 were treated with 1 ml of distilled water and served as control. 2nd group: Animals were received Cynara cardunculus extract (0.25gm/kg b. wt). 3rd group: Animals were received Fraction 1 of Cynara. 4th group: Animals were received orally Fraction 2 of Cynara. 5th group: Animals were received Fraction 3 of Cynara. 6th group: Animals were received Fraction 4 of Cynara. 7th group: Animals were received Fraction 5 of Cynara.8th group: Animals were received a single oral dose of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol)APAP (2g/kg. b. wt.) suspended in gum tragacanth (4%).Then animals were sacrificed 48 h after APAP administration. Groups from 9 to 14 were received a single oral dose of APAP(2gm/kg.b.wt) and after 48 h the animal co_adminstrated for 4 weeks daily as the following: 9th group: (APAP + Cynara treated group). 10th group (APAP +Fraction 1 of Cynara treated group). 11th group (APAP +Fraction 2 of Cynara treated group). 12th group (APAP +Fraction 3 of Cynara treated group). 13th group (APAP +Fraction 4 of Cynara cardunculus extract treated group). 14th group (APAP +Fraction 5 of Cynara treated group).The groups treated with Paracetamol showed elevation in ALP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and depleted tissue GSH and increased the lipid peroxidation. upon administration of paracetamol (2g/kg b.wt.) to albino rats. The result indicated that the extract of leaves of cynara cardunculus at 0.25g/ kg doses significantly reduced the elevated levels of biochemical markers mentioned above. Test extract treatment also increased the level of tissue GSH and significantly decreased tissue lipid preoxidation. In conclusion, this study suggest that Cynara cardunculus may have the potential therapeutic value in the treatment of paracetamol induced hepatic damage and some liver diseases. Hepatoprotective activity of the study plant may be attributed to the anti-oxidant principles in it.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab; Samih I. El-Dahamy; Seliman S. A. Ibrahim and Walaa S. Abdel-Halim. The possible ameliorative effect of Cynara cardunculus extract against liver injury and oxidative stress induced by acetaminophen in male albino rat Rattus norvegicus. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):267-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.34

 

Key Words: Cynara cardunculus, Hepatoprotective, GSH, Lipid peroxidation, Biochemical markers, Antioxidant, Paracetamol.

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Evaluation of Protective and Antioxidant Activity of MilkThistle on Paracetamol-Induced Toxicity in Rats

 

Lobna Ahmed Shelbaya

 

Home Economics Dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

lobnashelbaya1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Paracetamol is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug which is safe in therapeutic doses but can produce life-threatening hepatic and renal damages with toxic doses. The current study was designed to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of milk thistle against paracetamol-induced toxicity in female rats. A total of 24 rats were used for the study. The rats were grouped into four with sex rats in each group. Group I was the control, group II received milk thistle at a dose of 500 mg / kg body weight for 60 days. Group III received paracetamol at a dose of 200 mg / kg body weight / ml for 60 days, and group IV received paracetamol plus milk thistle for 60 days. The results revealed that administration of paracetamol to rats induced marked disturbance of lipid profile, hepatic and renal functions, characterized by increasing in the levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDLc, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, uric acid, blood urea, serum creatinineand decreasing super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Histopathological changes showed that paracetamol caused damages to liver. Oral co-administration of milk thistle with paracetamol significantly decreased the level of liver enzymes (ALT, AST), total bilirubin,uric acid, blood urea and creatinine. Milk thistle treatment also resulted in a significant increase in CAT, SOD and GSH. These results clearly show the antioxidant and protective property of milk thistle.

[Lobna Ahmed Shelbaya. Evaluation of Protective and Antioxidant Activity of MilkThistleon Paracetamol-Induced Toxicity in Rats. J Am Sci2013;9(10):272-278]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.35

 

Key words: Paracetamol, milk thistle, antioxidants, hepatotoxicity, rats.

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Main Electrolytes Derangement in Re-feeding Syndrome in Malnourished Children Admitted to Nutritional Rehabilitation Center (NRC) in Basra

 

Hussein Ali Taha1 and SawsanIssa Habeeb2

 

1Basra General Hospitaland 2Departmentof Pediatrics,CollegeofMedicine,Basra University.

sawsan19612000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Re-feeding syndrome is potentially lethal condition. It can be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Fluid-balance abnormalities, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and thiamin deficiency occur in the first 3-4 days of initiating nutritional support. (1) Methods: This is a prospective study; carried out to evaluate malnourished children underwent re-feeding with serious complications of fluid and electrolytes derangement assessed clinically and by laboratory investigations. The study was conducted on 71 infants and children aged 2-36 months (34 males and 37 females) attending Nutritional Rehabilitation Center in Basra General Hospital from (1st of February till the end of August) 2010.Measurement of weight and length by standard procedures was done and applied to appropriate charts for all patients recruited in the study. Serum electrolytes (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) and glucose were determined on first and fourth day of admission. Results: All studied children were underweight; 65(91.5%) werewasted. Young infants aged 2-6 months were significantly underweight and wasted (56.3%, 55.5%) respectively. Forty six (64.7%) of malnourished children were admitted with acute gastroenteritis and only 2(2.8%) with compliant of poor weight gain. Forty two(59%) of malnourished patients were considered as high risk group to develop re-feeding syndrome with decreased oral intake for 5-10 days being the most common risk factors in 38(90.4%) of patients. Only 12(16.9%) of patients developed clinical signs of re-feeding syndrome with abdominal distention being the most common sign. Serum Phosphorus and Potassium were significantly decreased with re-feeding in frequency of 31(43%), 28(39.4%) respectively. Hypophosphatemia was statistically significant in young infants 2-6 months (55%) followed by toddlers less than 18 months of age(54.6%),male patients(58.9%), those with acute gastroenteritis (60.9%) and with prolonged duration of hospitalization more than seven days (76.5%). Reduction in serum potassium was statistically significant in male patiens and those with acute gastroenteritis (55.9%, 54.4%) respectively. Conclusion: Severe wasting, underweight and high risk group were significantly associated with decreased serum Phosphorus with re-feeding on day four. While significant reduction of serum potassium was associated with severe wasting and high risk group. Serum glucose and magnesium level had no significant association to child related variables. There was a significant correlation of hypophosphatemia with age and initial diagnosis. While hypokalemia significantly associated with age, initial diagnosis and duration of hospitalization.

[Hussein Ali Taha and SawsanIssa Habeeb. Main Electrolytes Derangement in Re-feeding Syndrome in Malnourished Children Admitted to Nutritional Rehabilitation Center (NRC) in Basra J Am Sci 2013;9(10):279-285]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.36

 

Keywords: Electrolytes; Derangement; Syndrome; Children; Rehabilitation

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Developing educational program for Nurses' Related to Infection Control of Invasive Procedures in Neonatal Units at EL-Minia University and General Hospitals

 

Nagat Farouk Abolwafa1, Wafaa Elsayed Ouda2, Fathia Zaky Mohammed3 and Eman Sayed Masoed1

 

1 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt

2 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University Egypt

3 Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt

magy5871@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: All neonates at the neonatal units need invasive procedure where nearly, all of them are attached to various types of invasive procedure so infection control within a health care facility reduces the risk of nosocomial infectious thus decreases morbidity and mortality. It is associated, as well, with a decreased need to stay in the hospital for an extra-day to many weeks so the cost decreased. Aiming to develop and apply educational and training program for nurses' about infection control of invasive procedure in neonatal units. This study is a quasi- experimental study. It was conducted in the neonatal units at El-Minia University and General Hospitals. The study group was a convenient sample of 40 nurses, 22 nurses from El-Minia University and 18 nurses from El-Minia General Hospitals. Educational program for nurses' were done through using the following data collection tool: 1) Pre-designed questionnaire sheet, 2) Observation checklists sheet and 3) Educational and training program. Results of this study showed significant progress in nurses' knowledge and practices in post/test. Concluded that, by the implementation of the program there was remarkable improvement of nurses' knowledge and practices, it was clear in post-test results. Recommended a developed program should be applied and repeat again every 6 months in the same study setting and adopted in other similar settings with required modifications, provision of continuing education programs.

[Nagat Farouk Abolwafa, Wafaa Elsayed Ouda, Fathia Zaky Mohammed and Eman Sayed Masoed. Developing educational program for Nurses' Related to Infection Control of Invasive Procedures in Neonatal Units at EL-Minia University and General Hospitals. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):286-293]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.37

 

Keywords: Educational Program, Infection Control, Invasive Procedures

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Effect of feeding olive oil combined with thyme leaves on the health status of male rats

 

Ghada M. Youssef

 

Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

y-mridyad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of olive oil combined with thyme leaves on the health status of male rats. Seventy five adult rats were divided into 15 groups (n=5) which fed basal diet contained extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), virgin olive oil (VOO), thyme leaves or their combination EVOO or VOO characterized with peroxide value of zero and < 0.01acidity. Body weight gain and organs relatively to body weight were determined and the data revealed an increment in weight gain due to feeding either EVOO or VOO combined with thyme. A slight increment in the organs relative ratio to body weight was noticed. Calcium and phosphorus were also determined in either blood or bone and the data revealed an improvement due to feeding either EVOO or VOO combined with thyme leaves. Bone mineral density (BMD) of femurs, body mineral concentration (BMC), bone length (L) and bone fold (W) were determined and improved in parallel with Ca and p content. Serum lipid profile decreased significantly except that of HDL-C which increased significantly at the end of the experiment (3 months). Kidney and liver functions should a slight effect concerning kidney function which showed an increase in urea, creatinine and bilirubin. Regarding liver function, there are an improvement in ALT, AST and ALK. It could be concluded that olive oil either EVOO or VOO combined with thyme leaves (2.5 or 5% w/v) improved the health status.

[Ghada M. Youssef. Effect of feeding olive oil combined with thyme leaves on the health status of male rats. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):294-301]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.38

 

Keywords: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), virgin olive oil (VOO), thyme, Bone mineral density (BMD), body mineral concentration (BMC), lipid profile, Kidney and liver functions.

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Estimation of Growing Degree Days and Actual Evapotranspiration for Squash Crop Using Heat Units and Neutron Scattering Method

 

Yousef. Kh. M., Salama M.A. and Mostafa A.Z.

 

Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Abou Zaabl, Egypt

 mostafa_zhran@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) is the actual amount of water uptake by plant, which is determined by measuring changes in soil water content, using neutron scattering method at depths of 30, 50 and 70 cm. The values of ETa were estimated through the plant growth stages initial, crop development, mid-season and late-season. the actual amount of water evaporate and uptake by squash was lower (457.4 mm) than that estimated with the seasonal crop water requirement for the squash crop CAVILLI variety (516.1 mm), The maximum actual water use is 173.5 mm (1735 m3 ha-1) was occurred with the critical 21 days (mid-season) of the squash growth stage. Cumulative growing degree days (AGDD) for squash were calculated during the experiments using daily minimum and maximum temperature and squash crop required 186 GDD to complete 100% of its initial stage. In the mid-season the GDD for squash crop recorded high value (425.5 mm) when compared to the all growth stages. Generally, the squash plant requires 1381 GDD to complete all its growth stage.

[Yousef. Kh. M., Salama M.A. and Mustafa A. Z. Estimation of Growing Degree Days and Actual Evapotranspiration for Squash Crop Using Heat Units and Neutron Scattering Method. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):302-307]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.39

 

Key words: Growing degree days, Actual evapotranspiration, Squash, Neutron probe.

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Diagnostic Efficacy of Mandibular Cortical Thickness on Panoramic Radiographs to Identify Postmenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Densities (Iraqi Population)

 

Amal R.S. Mohammed, Fatin Kh. Abbas and Nuhad Al. Hassan

 

Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Al- Mustansiria University. Iraq

dr.amal_raouf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The use of mandibular anatomic indicators on panoramic radiographs such as mandibular cortical thickness at mental region can be useful in the evaluation of bone resorption in different age of postmenopausal women to determine the presence of osteoporosis. The aims of the study were to assess the accuracy of mandibular cortical thickness in the panoramic radiographs of postmenopausal women with normal and low skeletal bone mineral densities diagnosed by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to correlate the effect of age in both two groups. Materials and methods: Forty digital panoramic radiographs obtained from postmenopausal women (20 normal and 20 osteoporotic) aged between (52.7-80.1 years). Bone mineral density has been assessed by a dual energy x- ray absorptiometry, at the lumbar spine and right femur at radiation center in medical city. The mean was calculated for mandibular cortical thickness values measured in the right and left mandibles. The measurements were analysed using the t- test and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: Difference was shown between the mandibular cortical thickness, measurements in the osteoporotic group and normal group which showed that mandibular cortical thickness was more thinner in osteoporotic group than normal group (t = 23.25, p value 0.01). Pearson's correlation coefficients of normal and osteoporotic by age and mandibular cortical thickness, were 0.976 and 0.973 respectively with (p value < 0.01). Conclusion: The pattern of decrease in mandibular cortical thickness with age was similar to that pattern of bone loss from the spine and femur, so panoramic radiography was a simple technique in osteoporosis screening of dental patients, giving the maximum benefit of being radiographed. 

[Amal R.S. Mohammed, Fatin Kh. Abbas and Nuhad Al. Hassan. Diagnostic Efficacy of Mandibular Cortical Thickness on Panoramic Radiographs to Identify Postmenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Densities (Iraqi Population). J Am Sci 2013;9(10):308-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.40

 

Key words: menopause, osteoporosis, panoramic mandibular cortical thickness.

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The relationship between epistemological beliefs and metacognitive thinking of gifted and non-gifted students

 

Wail Muil, Zaharah Hussin, Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat, Mohd Faisal Mohamed, Muhammad Azhar Zailani.

 

Faculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Wail77@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between epistemological beliefs and metacognitive thinking of gifted and non-gifted students. The research sample consists of two groups. The first group represents the gifted students, who were selected from the King Abdullah the Second Schools for Excellence in Irbid, Jordan; the other group represents non-gifted students selected from various ordinary schools in Irbid. The sample size of the first group was 166 students (91 students from level 10 and 75 students from level 11); the control group consisted of 110 students (54 students from level 10 and 56 students from level 11). In order to achieve the aim of this study, the researcher used the Schommer epistemological questionnaires adapted to the Jordanian environment as well as the Kawaldah Metacognitive Questionnaire scale (M.Q.S.) which was developed for the Jordanian environment. The researcher also used correlation coefficient and Z Fisheir test. The results of the study show that gifted and non-gifted students’ responses on the epistemological beliefs scores and Metacognitive Questionnaire scale fall within the degree of frequency and there was a significant correlation in the two domains (omniscient authority and palpable serial) in favor of the non-gifted students.

[Wail Muil, Zaharah Hussin, Wan Hasmah Wan Mamat, Mohd Faisal Mohamed, Muhammad Azhar Zailani. The relationship between epistemological beliefs and metacognitive thinking of gifted and non-gifted students. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):313-319]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.41

 

Keywords: epistemological beliefs, Metacognition, gifted and non-gifted.

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Bipolar or unipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients

 

Alireza Hootkani1, Mohammad Hosein Taraz Jamshidi1, Seid Reza Sharifi2, Masood Mirkazemi3, Mehran Azami3, Hamid Reza Norozi3, Mohsen Darban Astan3, Sara Amel Farzad4, Mohammad Taghi Peivandi2

 

1. Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2. Associated Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3. Orthopedic Resident, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mashhad Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Ph.D. of Pharmacology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

peivandimt@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Treatment of femoral neck fractures with displacement remains controversial and confusing yet. Among different therapeutic methods, Hemiarthroplasty is associated with good pain control and satisfactory results with low rate of revision. Morbidity and mortality of this method is also lower than total hip replacement. In this study we have compared the surgical outcome of Thompson unipolar hemiarthroplasty, Moore unipolar hemiarthroplasty and bipolar hemiarthroplasty among patients with femoral neck fracture. 109 older than 65 years patients with femoral neck fracture were treated by unipolar or bipolar Hemiarthroplasty from 2005 to 2008 in Emam Reza hospital- Mashhad Iran. Functional results and complications were assessed 3 months and one year after treatment. During one year follow up, 7 patients died and 6 cases were missed, so 96 cases completed the study. 37 patients were treated by bipolar prosthesis, 42 cases were treated by Thompson unipolar and 17 by Moore unipolar prosthesis. All groups were sex matched but mean age in bipolar group was significantly lower than others. Although complications were less common in bipolar group especially compared to Moore group, the difference was not significant statistically. There was no significant difference in functional results between 3 groups after 3 months follow up but after one year follow-up, all functional indices indicated significantly better results in bipolar group. We suggest bipolar prosthesis for treatment of femoral neck fractures especially in younger adults because of better functional results and less complications.

[Hootkani A, Taraz JMH, Sharifi SR, Mirkazemi M, Azami M, Norozi HR, Darban AM, Amel FS, Peivandi MT. Bipolar or unipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):320-323]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.42

 

Keywords: Femoral neck fractures; Hemiarthroplasty; Bipolar; Unipolar

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Role of Retinol Binding Protein-4 in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

 

Mostafa M. El-Shafie1, Ahmed Mohammed M. El-Sisy1,*, Ahmed A. Ali1, Shawkey S. Ali1, Mohammed M. El-Zahabi1 and Ashraf I. Amin2

 

1 Faculty of Pharmacy, Biochemistry Department, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, 11566 Cairo, Egypt

2Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Department, National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology (NIDE), Cairo, Egypt

ahmedelsisy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Currently retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) has been identified as interesting novel adipokine that suggested to link obesity with its complication, especially insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and certain components of the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the relationship between them has not been elucidated; and their circulating levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been adequately studied. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate whether its level was altered in Egyptian obese and T2DM patients and to study the correlation of this novel adipokine with insulin resistance, and other biochemical parameters. The levels of RBP-4, insulin, leptin, CRP and TNF-α were measured in healthy obese, non-obese T2DM and obese T2DM patients together with matched healthy nondiabetic control subjects. RBP-4, insulin, leptin, CRP and TNF-α levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RBP-4 level was found to be significantly elevated in obese (13.9 0.99), obese T2DM patients (25.1 2.05) and non obese T2DM (13.9 1.10) compared with control subjects (4.84 0.51) at P < 0.05. As well as, it was significantly higher in obese T2DM (25.1 2.05) when compared to obese (13.9 0.99) and Non-obese T2DM (13.9 1.10) groups. In addition, RBP-4 level was found to be significantly positively correlated with other biochemical parameters. In conclusion, RBP-4 might play an important role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. In addition, the RBP-4, leptin, TNF-α and CRP are significantly interrelated with each other.

[Mostafa M. El-Shafie, Ahmed Mohammed M. El-Sisy, Ahmed A. Ali, Shawkey S. Ali, Mohammed M. El-Zahabi and Ashraf I. Amin. Role of Retinol Binding Protein-4 in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):324-333]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.43

 

Key words: Obesity, T2DM, RBP-4, leptin, and TNF- α

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44

Bioactive compounds from Tipuana tipu growing in Egypt

 

Yhiya M. Amen*, Amani M. Marzouk, Mona G. Zaghloul, Mohamed S. Afifi

 

Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, 35516, Egypt

*yhiyaamen@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Six compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of the leaf and the bark of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Lillo growing in Egypt. The isolated compounds were identified as 1-Nonadecanol (1), β-sitosterol (2), Alpinumisoflavone (3), β-sitosterol glucoside (4), Protocatechualdehyde (5) and Protocatechuic acid (6), based on different spectroscopic data (NMR, UV, MS and IR spectra). This is the first report to indicate the isolation of compounds 1 & 3-6 from Tipuana tipu. Compound 1 is isolated for the first time from Family Fabaceae. Compounds 2 and 3 showed a promising anticancer activity, while compound 5 displayed a remarkable in vivo anti-inflammatory activity compared to indomethacin.

 [Amen YM, Marzouk AM, Zaghloul MG, Afifi MS. Bioactive compounds from Tipuana tipu growing in Egypt. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):334-339]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.44

 

 Keywords: Tipuana tipu, 1-Nonadecanol, Alpinumisoflavone, Protocatechualdehyde, Protocatechuic acid, anticancer, anti-inflammatory.

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45

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infantile Colic in Egyptian Infants

 

Adel S.A Ali and Mohamed A Abd Elhady

 

Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

Adel_sherif@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Infantile colic is a syndrome characterized by paroxysms of irritability, inconsolable crying, and screaming accompanied by clenched fists, drawn-up legs, and a red face. The most commonly accepted, but not necessarily most commonly used, diagnostic criteria are based on the “rule of threes” proposed by Wessel, which requires the syndrome to persist for ≥3 hours per day, ≥3 days per week, and ≥3 weeks. Aim of this work: is to assess the incidence of infantile colic and its risk factors in Egyptian infants. Methods: In this prospective study, 540 infants, aged 3-16 weeks attending a primary health care office in Sharkia, were included and reviewed for the presence and risk factors for infantile colic. Cases of colic were identified by applying Wessel criteria to recorded data. Results: From total 540 infants, 200 infants were found to fulfill Wessel criteria (37%). No statistical significance was found between colicky and non-colicky infants according to sex, type of delivery, infant’s feeding pattern, household smoking and parental and or maternal headache. Conclusion: Prevalence of colic was 37% in this infant population of Sharkia government.No risk factors found significant for infantile colic in the studied group.

[Adel S.A Ali and Mohamed A Abd Elhady. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Infantile Colic in Egyptian Infants. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):340-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.45

 

Keywords: Infantile colic, Prevalence, Risk factors, Egyptian.

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Comparing knee clinical examination and MRI findings with arthroscopy results in meniscus ruptures among 100 patients admitted at Qaem hospital from 2010 to 2012

 

Hadi Makhmalbaf1, Ali Moradi1, Mohamad H Ebrahimzadeh2, Seyed Mahdi Mazloumi2, Hengameh Ebrahimi3 Parham Seyf4

 

1. Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

2. Associate Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

3. Assistant Professor of Educational Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4.Orthopedic Resident, Orthopedic and Trauma Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

Moradial@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: To compare knee clinical examination and MRI findings with arthroscopy observations to show the compatibility of these two methods about meniscus ruptures. Between the years 2010 and 2012, 100 patients among 207 with knee injury who were suspected to have meniscus rapture became candidates for knee arthroscopy. Grades III and IV meniscal tears were considered as the true meniscal rupture. True meniscal raptures were classified as meniscal rapture for medial or lateral meniscus or both. The arthroscopic findings were expressed as bucket handle tear of medial meniscus, other types of medial meniscus tearing (flap, radial or complete tear), lateral meniscus tearing and both medial and lateral meniscus tearing. Our patients were 89% male and 11% female and the mean age was 29.1 years old. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for medial meniscus rupture is 79.7% and 58.5% respectively and it’s PPV and NPV is 73.4% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for Bucket handle tear of medial meniscus is 83%, 58.5% respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of this test for lateral meniscus tear is 48%, 93%. McMurray test was more sensitive in medial meniscus tearing than bucket handle and lateral one. It was the most sensitive test for lateral and medial meniscus tearing except bucket handle type. Giving way symptom was less sensitive than Mc Murray test. Clicking was the most specific symptom for all types of medial meniscus tearing. Joint line tenderness was more specific in lateral meniscus than medial one. MRI imaging cannot give enough diagnostic information for meniscus rupture alone and for an accurate clinical decision, not only MRI imaging but also comprehensive physical examination is quite necessary.

[Makhmalbaf H, Moradi A, Ebrahimzadeh HM, Mazloumi SM, Seyf P. Comparing knee clinical examination and MRI findings with arthroscopy results in meniscus ruptures among 100 patients admitted at Qaem hospital from 2010 to 2012. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):344-349]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.46

 

Keywords: meniscus tearing, knee examination; MRI; arthroscopy

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47

Computing stiffness of co-central restrains with a circular yielding element

 

Mohammad Reza Mahmoud Kelaye 1, Mohammad Bahrami 2

 

1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

2 Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

E-mail: mrmkelayeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Restrained frames with yielding damper is one of useful usable systems in earthquake regions and areas in order to decrease the structure’s respond in efforts resulted by an earthquake. We have studied steel frames with circular yielding element behavior in this paper and examined dimension, size and bending stiffness at rate of absorbing energy rate under cycle loading in them. We also studied circular element stiffness inside the frame and the amount of side stiffness was computed considering radius and inetria moment and it is shown that how we can increase this stiffness three times more by adding two members inside the circular yielding element. Finally we studied these systems’ behavior by push over analysis and determined the effect of using circular damper at increasing structures behavioral coefficient.

[Mohammad Reza Mahmoud Kelaye, Mohammad Bahrami. Computing stiffness of co-central restrains with a circular yielding element. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):350-358]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.47

 

Keywords: stiffness, restrain, element, circular yielding, earthquake

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The Prevalence of Ectoparasites on Sheep and Goats at EL Khoms Region Libya

 

Mohamed M. A. Elsaid1, Emhemed Omer El-Arifi1, and Abdunnaser A. El-Buni3

 

1Faculty of Medical Technology University of Tripoli - Tripoli, Libya

2Faculty of Medicine University of Tripoli - Tripoli, Libya

dr.elsaid@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A study on ectoparasites of small ruminants was carried out in four districts of EL-Khoms Region (Jahawat, Gogas, Keaam and Celline), Libya, from November 2007 to September 2008, with the objectives of determining the prevalence and identification of ectoparasites. The results showed that the sheep were infested by only two parasites (ticks and mites) while goats infested by four different parasites (ticks, mites, fleas and lice). Out of 1600 sheep and 520 goats examined, 322 (20.1%) of sheep and 182 (35%) of goats were infested by one or more ectoparasites. The high prevalence of sheep infested by ticks was (40.9%) during the summer season in Celline area, while in mites was (10.9%) during the summer season in Gahawat. While in goats was (9.3%) in Celline during the winter and spring season. Ticks were the most frequent ectoparasites on sheep (18.7%), while fleas were the highest prevalence ectoparasetes on goats (17.9%). The identification showed two different species of tick (Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus), one species of mites (Sarcoptes scabiei), one species of lice (Linognathus africanus) and two species of fleas (Pulex irritans andCctenocephalides canis). The relationships among these ectoparasites are discussed in terms of flock size, seasonality and the ectoparasitic combinations on the host.

[Mohamed M. A. Elsaid, Emhemed Omer El-Arifi, and Abdunnaser A. El-Buni. The Prevalence of Ectoparasites on Sheep and Goats at EL Khoms Region Libya. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):359-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.48

 

Key Words: Ectoparasite, Prevalence, El-Koms, Libya

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49

ITS sequence Analysis and Genome Shuffling of Trichoderma Sp. for Improving Cellulase Activities

 

Medhat E. Eldenary1, Ahmed M. El-Bondkly2, Alsayed E. G. Alfiky1 and Said A. Dora3

 

1Genetics Dept., Fac. Agric., Tanta Univ., Tanta, Egypt.

2Genetics and Cytology Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3Genetics Dept., Fac. Agric., Kaferelsheikh Univ., Kaferelsheikh, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Five isolates of Trichoderma Sp. were obtained and screened for cellulases activities and the highest isolate was selected and identified by amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the rDNA, the selected isolate was identified as Trichoderma virens AG2. The conidia of this selected strain were treated with different mutagenics, 604 isolates were obtained and screened for cellulases productivity using plate assaying technique and the promising isolates were selected for assaying in fermentation medium. The highest five cellulases producer mutants (D5, D6, D13, E3 and CC20) were selected as starting population for the first round of genome shuffling, which yielded a library of 86 colonies. The top five recombinants (R1/1, R1/3, R1/28, R1/50 and R1/55) were pooled and used as parental populations for the second round of genome shuffling which also yielded 86 colonies. After the second round of genome shuffling, nine superior isolates for cellulases activities were obtained and the highest increase was recorded by the recombinant R2/11, which reached 10.5, 7.6 and 10.8 U/ml for CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase, respectively. These values showed increase by 308.8, 633.3 and 720% for CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase, respectively in comparison with the original strain, T. virens AG2. To investigate if a change in the genetic content was evident after the mutagenesis and shuffling treatments, results of RAPD analysis revealed obvious genetic differences among mutants and shuffled strains compared with the original T. virens AG2.

[Medhat E. Eldenary, Ahmed M. El-Bondkly, Alsayed E. G. Alfiky and Said A. Dora. ITS sequence Analysis and Genome Shuffling of Trichoderma Sp. for Improving Cellulase Activities. J Am Sci 2013;9(10):364-375]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas091013.49

 

Keywords: Cellulases, Trichoderma, mutation, genome shuffling, RAPD

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 1, 2013. 
 
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