Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 76, June 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1006


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Titles / Authors





Effect of Fansidar Drug on the Chromosomal Aberrations of Albino Rats


Fawzeya A. Zayed, Mahmoud R. Mahmoud and Sabha E. Metwally


Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt



Abstract: Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease is a serious health challenge to mankind. Human malaria results from infection with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium malariae, but a large majority of the clinical cases and mortalities is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Fansidar is a fixed combination of two antimalarial agents pyrimethamine (25 mg/tablet) and sulfadoxine (500 mg/tablet) that have been used extensively worldwide for the treatment of chloroquine resistant. Folic acid used to avoid or at least to reduce toxic effects of fansidar drug. The present work searched for the cytogenetic effect of fansidar and /or protective effect of the folic acid in vivo using albino rats. This was achieved by using cytogenetic studies. The results of the present investigation illustrated that aberrations in chromosomes due to single fansidar dose administration may reduced by folic acid administration.

[Fawzeya A. Zayed, Mahmoud R. Mahmoud and Sabha E. Metwally. Effect of Fansidar Drug on the Chromosomal Aberrations of Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.01


Keywords: Antimalarial drugs. Fansidar ( Pyrimethamine - sulfadoxine ), Chromosomal aberrations and Albino Rats.

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Effect of Moringa Peregrine Seeds on Productive Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits


Ibrahim, N.H.; Morsy, A.S. and Ashgan, M.E.


Animal and Poultry Physiology Department, Desert Research Center



Abstract: The present study was carried out in South Sinai Research Station, located at Ras Suder that belongs to the Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of addition graded levels of Moringa peregrine seeds meal (MPS) on the productive performance, haematology and plasma biochemical parameters of growing California rabbits. A total number of 36 weaned rabbits (35 days old and body weight of 609.86 14.96 g) were used in this study and randomly divided into three equal treatments (12 rabbits of each) and gavage with 0 (Tr1, control), 2 (Tr2) and 4 (Tr3) g Moringa peregrine seeds /kg diet. Productive performance and hemato-biochemical parameters were measured. Results showed that rabbits fed diets supplemented with 4 g MPS /kg diet recorded 10.1 % higher (P<0.05) in final live body weight than that of the control group. Live body weight change and daily weight gain were significantly increased in the rabbits of Tr2 (2 g MPS/kg diet) by 11.7 % and in Tr3 (4 g MPS/kg diet) by 14.3 % as compared to control group (Tr1). Daily feed intake was increased (P<0.05) in the rabbits of Tr2 by 6 g and insignificantly increased in Tr3 by about 3 g as compared to control group. However, rabbits of Tr3 were improved feed conversion and decreased cost of feeding by 8.7 % and 0.72 L.E., respectively as compared to control group. Growth performance index was increased (P<0.05) in the Tr3 by 20.6 % and insignificantly increased in the rabbits of Tr2 by 11.6 % as compared to control group. The results showed that red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration increased (P < 0.05) in the rabbits of Tr2 and Tr3 than that of control group. However, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume were decreased (P<0.05) in the rabbits of Tr2 and Tr3 than that of control group. White blood cells were significantly higher in the rabbits of Tr3 by 42.37 % as compared to control group. Results showed that albumin, glucose, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, total lipids, urea, aspartic transaminase and GGT concentrations were decreased (P < 0.05) in the rabbits of Tr3 (4 g MPS/kg diet) as compared to rabbits of control group. Meanwhile, globulin level was significantly increased in rabbits Tr3 by 20.50 % as compared to control group. No significant differences in total protein, creatinine and alanine transaminase levels were observed between treatments. It can be concluded that, Moringa peregrine seeds (MPS) can be used at level 2 or 4 g/ kg diet to enhance productive performance and hemato-biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

[Ibrahim, N.H.; Morsy, A.S. and Ashgan, M.E. Effect of Moringa Peregrine Seeds on Productive Performance and Hemato-Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.02


Key words: Growing California rabbits, Moringa perggrine seeds, productive performance,  blood parameters

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A Comparative Study for Comparing Two Feature Extraction Methods and Two Classifiers in Classification of Early-stage Lung Cancer Diagnosis of chest x-ray images


Amal M. Al Gindi 1,*, Tawfik A. Attiatalla 1 and Moustafa M. Sami 2


1 Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt

2 Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract:  Background: Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer-related deaths. Although attention has been paid to early stage predictions and diagnoses, prognosis remains very poor. This problem can be approached by developing more discriminative diagnosis methods. Purpose: In this paper a computer-aided diagnosis is proposed to solve the problem of classification of solitary pulmonary nodules in chest x-ray images for diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer in x-ray lung images. Methods: A set of 247 chest x-ray images from Standard Public Database by Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) database used with 93 non-nodule images, 100 malignant and 54 benign images. Curvelet transform has been used in the process of feature generation and extraction and compared with that of Wavelet transform used for the same purpose in a previous research of our group in case of Euclidean distance classifier. A Support Vector Machine-based classifier prediction model is established and compared with Euclidean distance classifier that used for the same purpose based on Curvelet features. Validation of the classification is performed using a HoldOut method, while evaluation of the classification performance is computed and compared with other research's results in this area. Results: Using Curvelet transform for the process of feature generation and extraction, support vector machine prediction model is more effective for lung cancer detection since it increases the rate of diagnosis for early-stage lung cancer in x-ray lung images. Conclusions: Using Support vector machine in the process of diagnosis of solitary pulmonary lung nodules is more sensitive for diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer in chest x-ray images than Euclidean distance classifier when the feature extraction is based on Curvelet than that wavelet-based  models.

[Amal M. Al Gindi, Tawfik A. Attiatalla and Moustafa M. Sami. A Comparative Study for Comparing Two Feature Extraction Methods and Two Classifiers in Classification of Early-stage Lung Cancer Diagnosis of chest x-ray images. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):13-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.03


Keywords: x-ray images, lung nodules, feature extraction, Wavelet transform, Curvelet transform, Euclidean distance, Support Vector Machine.

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[J Am Sci 2014;10(6):23-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.04


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The Role of Organizational Psychology in Management, Through the Application of Mental Models


Mostafa Azghandi 1, Mehdi Arasteh 2


1. Department of Management, Payam Noor University, Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of Management, Payam Noor University, Gonabad, Iran

Email: mostafa_azghandi@aol.com


Abstract: In regard to the application of psychology to management, especially in the organizational environment, the present paper reviews and focuses on the role of a psychology concept, the 'Mental Model.' In this paper, the importance of the mental model in organizational theory terms will be discussed, namely strategic thinking, organizational learning, and organizational culture. It is worth mentioning that the mental model is well-defined in the field of cognitive psychology, a field which will be elaborated on in the strategic thinking and organizational learning sections of this paper. Furthermore, the concept of humanistic psychology will be discussed as it relates to organizational culture. In general, this paper identifies the role of organizational psychology through two concepts, i.e. cognitive and humanistic psychology; these hold a special view of human nature and, therefore, are extremely beneficial in the world of management, especially in an organizational environment.

[Mostafa Azghandi, Mehdi Arasteh. The Role of Organizational Psychology in Management, Through the Application of Mental Models. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):29-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.05


Keywords: Organizational Psychology; Mental Models; Cognitive Psychology; Humanistic Psychology; Human Nature

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Clothing Designs for Early Childhood Using Eco-Friendly Dyes


Houraia Bent Abdullah Braat Turkistani and Munira bent Saad bin Abdul Rahman Elshahry


Department of fashion Design - Faculty of Designs - Mecca

Department of Home Economics - Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food- King Faisal University



Abstract: Childhood is the ground of humanity and its mainstay and it is the beginning point in the life of every human. Because the use of dyeing in children's clothes gives unexpected wonderful results, the idea of research came in the importance of orientation to the use eco- friendly dyes in children's clothes, especially for early childhood stage to reduce the harmful effects of synthetic dyes and maintain the safety and health of children. The problem of research: The problem of research summarized in the following questions: 1 - Is it possible to extraction dyes derived from natural compounds by using different methods. 2 - What is the extent of possibility of mixing natural dyes to get the new colors? 3 - Is it possible to get aesthetic effects in children's clothes by choice the appropriate dyes for the type of fabric and method of dyeing? 4 - Is it possible to enrich children's clothes designs by using eco-friendly natural dyes? The importance of research: This research cares about protecting the environment and human in general and children in particular from resulted problems from synthetic dyes, and attempt to reduce the resulted wastes from synthetic dyes and its mordants to maintain on healthy environment free from pollution, and to maintain on the health of children and not expose them to the risk of synthetic dyes. And the research attempt to direct the attention of officials in the form of specifications and standards to find standard specifications care about ECHO sign when importing children's clothes. The importance of research is presented in the following points: 1 - Direct the attention of officials in the specifications and special standards for children's clothes and fabrics that import from abroad. 2 - The protection of children in particular and the human in general from problems of industrial pollution caused by synthetic dyes and its mordants. 3 - Shareholding in the work of small projects by using the dyeing for children's clothes. The objectives of research: 1 –study the various possibilities for the natural plant dyes and use it in the dyeing of fabrics. 2 - Use the dyeing aesthetics by "Tie Dyeing" manner and integrate it with the basis of fashion design to design early childhood clothes. 3 - Implementation varied designs for children's clothes in the early childhood stage by using dyed fabrics, dyed with eco- friendly dyes by "Tie Dyeing" manner- researcher has noted by the results of the laboratory and applied study that it can integrate color groups of the natural dyes such as Roselle dye with pomegranate peel dye in the laboratory method, and merging indigo with pomegranate peel and Roselle in the traditional home method with a difference of color graduation and a difference in the "Tie Dyeing" method between the two methods, and this manner gave different results with overlaps and decorative effects very beautiful. Thereby, the first hypothesis has been achieved, which states: the possibility of merging groups of color from natural dyes to get the new color effects. - Use different methods for "Tie Dyeing" when implement of the dyeing process with Indigo, Roselle and pomegranate peel. Whether using the home method or the laboratory method. -results of the proposed and implemented designs showed the possibility of designing varied clothes and innovative for children of the early childhood stage, perform the functions and aesthetic aspects.

[Houraia Bent Abdullah Braat Turkistani and Munira bent Saad bin Abdul Rahman Elshahry. Clothing Designs for the Early Childhood Stage by Using Eco-Friendly Dyes. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):35-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.06


Keywords: Eco-Friendly Dyes - Childhood - functional creations, tie dyeing, The natural dyes.

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Tirmania (Zubaidi) and Terfezia (Khallasi) Fungi Preparation Method Modulates Body and Testicular Weights and Blood and Testicular TestosteroneConcentration in Albino Rats


Mona A. AL-Damegh


College of Sciences and Arts, Unizah P.O. Box  5380, Qassim University, 51911, Saudi Arabia



Abstract:The current study aimed at investigating the effects of administering various recipes of a mixture of TirmanianiveaandTerfeziaclavervi on the body weight, testes weight and serum and testicular testosterone in albino male rats.Tirmania and Terfezia fungi were purchased from Saudi local markets during their  harvesting season. Mimicking the natural human consumption for these fungi in the Gulf communities, recipes were prepared by boiling (B), dryness (D), aqueous extraction (A) and extract residues (R). Seventy fiveprepuberal male albino rats were randomly allocated into five treatments (n = 15 rats/group). Group 1 animals served as control (C) given the normal pellets diet (18% CP) and drinking water, group2 animals (A) were given the normal diet in addition to fungal aqueous solution as a replacer for drinking water, group 3 animals (D) were given dried fungi and drinking water, group 4 animals (R) were given the solid residues of fungal aqueous extraction (Tefl) and drinking water and group 5 animals (B) were given boiled fungi and drinking water. The experiment lasted 28 days. Animals were acclimatized for one week before the commencement of the experiment during which a blood sample was taken out of 3 animals within a treatment (i.e. 12 animals were tested for treatments) for the determination of pretreatment testosterone. Each group of animals were housed in a wire cage in a well ventilated room. Results exhibited significant (P<0.05) decreases in testes weight of rats given the solid extract residues (3.020.11 g) and those given the boiled fungi (2.690.24 g) as compared to control (3.140.13 g). Meanwhile, there were no obvious differences (P>0.05) in testes weights due to either aqueous extract (3.350.09 g) or dried fungi (3.140.11 g). On the other hand, feeding rats with either boiled fungi or solid residues decreased (P<0.05) body weight than control and other treatments. Testosterone levels in both blood serum and testicular tissue extract were highest (P<0.01) only in rats given the aqueous extract (A) and lowest in rats given boiled fungi (B). Dry fungi (D) and extract residues (R) resulted in lower levels of testosterone in serum and testes than in control rats.In conclusion, ingesting Tirmania and Terfezia fungi must be cautioned by the recipe or cooking method by which these plants are prepared for human consumption.

[Mona A. AL-Damegh. Tirmania(Zubaidi) and Terfezia(Khallasi) Fungi Preparation Method Modulates Body and Testicular Weights and Blood and Testicular Testosterone Concentration in Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):60-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.07


Key words:Tirmania, Terfezia, rats, body weight, testicular weight, testosterone.

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Central Venous Oxygen Saturation as a predictor of extubation failure  in mechanically ventilated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients


Tamer Abdullah Helmy (MD, PhD)1, Ayman Ibrahim Baess (MD, PhD)2, Khalid  Mohamed Isamil Abdelazez (MBBCh, MSc)1


1. Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine University of Alexandria, Egypt.

2. Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt.



Abstract: Objective: To investigate the utility of the central venous saturation (ScvO2) as a predictor of extubation failure in mechanically ventilated Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Methods: In this prospective cohort clinical study, 35 mechanically ventilated COPD adult patients were enrolled over a 9 months period. After successful completion of SBT (pressure support 7 cmH2O) and extubation, the patients were followed for extubation failure (EF) during post-extubation 48 hours period. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected in the 1st minute and 30th minute of the SBT. Haemodynamic parameters, ventilatory parameters, ScvO2 and Oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) were also assessed. Results: Twenty seven patients (77.2%) attained successful extubation (ES) while eight patients (22.8%) had failed extubation (EF). Univariate logistic regression analysis identified f/VT and PCO2 at the 30th minute of the SBT and the difference between ScvO2 at the 1st and 30th minute of the SBT (∆ ScvO2) as predictors of extubation failure. Multivariate regression identified ∆ ScvO2 as the only independent variable able to discriminate extubation outcome. The ∆ ScvO2 in the EF group was 5.88 1.89 as compared with 3.11 1.63 in ES group (p = 0.002). A reduction in ScvO2 by ≥ 4% during the SBT was an independent predictor of reintubation with OR of 2.96 (95% CI= 1.05 – 8.38) with a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 74%. Conclusions: Central venous saturation is a good independent predictor of extubation failure and that could be included in weaning protocols of mechanically ventilated COPD patients.

 [Helmy T. A., Baess A. I. , Abdelazez K. M. I. Central Venous Oxygen Saturation as a predictor of extubation failure in mechanically ventilated COPD patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):67-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.08


Keywords: COPD; ScvO2; Extubation Failure; Weaning

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Formulation, In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Nystatin Topical Gel


Ghada H. Elosaily1, Hoda A. Salem2, Azza M. Hassan3, Sara Maxwell3, Zeinab A Ibrahim4


1*Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Girl Branch

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Girl Branch

3Departments of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

4Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

* Corresponding author’s E-mail: gh_elosaily@hotmail.com


Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance solubility and dissolution of antifungal drug, nystatin, with two different techniques, nanoemulsion and solid dispersion systems and then incorporate them into gel base. Several nanoemulsion formulations were prepared and evaluated as mentioned in the previous study. One nanoemulsion formulation was optimized and incorporated into gel base (F1 NE). Several solid dispersion formulations at 1:1 and 1:2 drug: carrier ratios were prepared. These solid dispersion formulations were evaluated for solubility, drug content and in-vitro drug release. The solid dispersions were then incorporated into gel base and tested for pH, drug content, viscosity, in-vitro drug release, IR studies and DSC studies. A comparison between the nanoemulsion based gel formulation (F1 NE), solid dispersion based gel and a commercially available product, Nystatin cream, was carried out to judge their efficacy. (F1 NE) showed the highest drug release percent (49.13%) followed by F1 solid dispersion (F1 SD) (36.37%) in contrast, the marketed formulation released (22.88%) of the drug in 24 hrs. The in-vitro nystatin release data were fitted to Korsmeyer peppa's release model. The optimized F1 NE was chosen for further clinical trial. Background: Cutaneous candidiasis treatment usually requires topical application of an antifungal agent for 2 to 4 weeks. Methods: Patients (n = 40) were randomly selected to apply nystatin, F1 NE or Nystatin cream twice daily for 30 days and were periodically assessed until day 42. Results: F1 NE recipients had significantly higher rates of mycological cure beginning at day 14 (50% vs 35%) with continued improvements through day 30 (95% vs 50%). Conclusions and Relevance: With the outcome mycological cure at the end of treatment, there was significant difference between F1 NE and Nystatin cream. The F1 NE was found to be more efficient in cutaneous candidiasis management.

[Ghada H. Elosaily, Hoda A. Salem, Azza M. Hassan, Sara Maxwell and Zeinab A Ibrahim. Formulation, In-vitro and In-vivo Evaluation of Nystatin Topical Gel. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):75-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.09


Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Solid dispersion, Nystatin, Candida albicans, Nanoemulsion based gel, Topical delivery.

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Relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices commonly consumed in Egypt


Yousif Elhassaneen1 and Yahya Abd Elhady2


1Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Home Economics, 2Home Economics Division, Faculty of Specific Education (Ashmoun), Minoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

Corresponding Author: Yousif12@hotmail.com


Abstract: Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit or delay the oxidation of other molecules by inhibiting the initiation or propagation of oxidizing chain reaction. Several researchers have investigated the ability of some phenolic compounds to act as antioxidants and can play a major role in the antioxidant activity of plant materials. In this work the antioxidant activities and total phenolics of 31 plant products, including vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices in commonly consumed in Egypt were determined. The total phenolic content of selected products varied from 89 to 3701 mg.100 g-1. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract was determined and calculated in four different ways Antioxidant value (AOX, A/h), Antioxidant activity (AA,%), Oxidation rate ratio (ORR) and Antioxidant activity coefficient (AAC) ranged 0.48 to 0.349, 31.56 to 92.63, 0.039 to 0.646 and 87.12 to 1143.65, respectively. Statistically analysis, correlation and/or regression coefficient between total phenolics and antioxidative activities was significant in some plant products and others was non significant, which indicates that factors beside the total phenolics can play a principle role in the antioxidant activity of that plant materials. Therefore, further work is needed to elucidate the identity of compounds responsible for their antioxidant activities.

[Yousif Elhassaneen and Yahya Abd Elhady. Relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices commonly consumed in Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):86-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.10


Key words: antioxidant activity, phenolics, methanolic extracts, anthocyanins, medical plants, nutritional therapy.

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Endothelial Dysfunction and Plasminogen Activator Inhibiror-1 (PAI-1) alteration as Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Diseases


Gamil M. Abdallah1; Gamal A. Omran2; Hesham M. Gad1; Walid A. Mohamed1 and Ossama A. Mansour1


1 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt



Abstract: Background: Insulin resistance is known to be a common feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus and regarded as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of this disease. The key pathogenetic mechanisms of insulin resistance progression are free fatty acids metabolism impairment and enhanced activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Both oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and PAI-1 were recognized as risk factors for coronary heart disease. Objective: To analyze simultaneously the correlation between hyperglycemia and biochemical markers related to stress, endothelial dysfunction, blood coagulation disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Methods: This study was carried out on 82 male non smoker subjects classified into three groups: group 1 included 35 diabetic uncomplicated patients; group 2 enrolled 35 diabetic cardiovascular complicated patients and group3 consisted of 12 healthy subjects taken as control group. The following parameters were analyzed: fasting blood glucose; glucose metabolism factors [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); insulin; intact proinsullin; proinsullin and C-peptide]; coagulation factor (PAI-1) and oxidative stress marker (ox-LDL). Results: Homeostasis model assessment – insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting blood glucose, ox-LDL, insulin, PAI-1, intact proinsullin, proinsullin and C-peptide levels were significantly elevated in diabetic groups compared to control group values at p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, these values were significantly increased in cardiovascular complicated group when related to diabetic uncomplicated group at p ≤ 0.001. In addition HbA1c was significantly higher in diabetic groups 1 and 2 compared to control group at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Increased blood glucose level, insulinemia, and elevated levels of ox-LDL and PAI-1 are associated with insulin resistance progression of cardiovascular complications.

[Gamil M. Abdallah; Gamal A. Omran; Hesham M. Gad; Walid A. Mohamed and Ossama A. Mansour. Endothelial Dysfunction and Plasminogen Activator Inhibiror-1 (PAI-1) alteration as Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Diseases. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):95-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.11


Key Words: Endothelial dysfunction, ox-LDL, type 2 diabetes mellitus, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cardiovascular diseases.

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Expression of P21 Protein in Gastric Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Carcinoma and Its Correlation with the Disease Progression


Said Rozeik1, Olfat Hammam2, El Sayed Ammar1, Ahmed Abd alim1, El Sayed Mohii Aldein1 and Sabry Abd Alfatah1


1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University; 2Pathological Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute. nadia_nour27@yahoo.com


Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. It exists as two main histological types, diffuse and intestinal, and is thought to result from a combination of environmental factors and accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and consequently mainly affects older patients Esophagogastro- duodenoscopy (EGD) is the diagnostic imaging procedure of choice in the work-up of gastric carcinoma p21 negative regulator of the cell cycle are known as a marker of some malignant diseases. However the clinical importance of p21 has not been clarified also p53 has been studied by many investigators.This study aimed to evaluate expression of P21 proteins in patient with gastric carcinoma and its relation with the histopathological activity, laboratory and clinical parameters and to study its correlation with the disease progression. The present study was conducted on eighty (80) patients attending the out-patient clinics of El-Hussein and El- Sayed Galal University Hospitals during the period (from November 2010 to July 2013). According to the histopathological diagnosis, these cases were subdivided into 6 groups after doing the following (1-Medical history 2-Clinical evaluation 3-Laboratory investigations including (C.B.C, Liver function test, gastric biopsy, histological examination and immunohistochemical examination. The study revealed p21 was detected in normal cases and mean of p21 compared with different gastric lesions showed that gradually decreased from more pathological stage gastritis→metapalsia→dyplasia→adenoma→ and gastric carcinoma .There was a highly significant value of malignant group when compared to control group, gastritis group, metaplasia group and dysplasia group at p<0.01. Conclusion: The study revealed that Down-regulation of p21 from normal gastric mucosa to different gastric lesion suggests that p21 expression correlated with disease progression.

[Said Rozeik, Olfat Hammam, El Sayed Ammar, Ahmed Abd alim, El Sayed Mohii Aldein, and Sabry Abd Alfatah. Expression of P21 Protein in Gastric Mucosa of Patients with Gastric Carcinoma and Its Correlation with the Disease Progression. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):100-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.12


Keywords: Gastric Carcinoma, Gastric Mucosa and P21 Protein.

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Emergence of Vancomycin Resistant and Methcillin Resistant Staphylococus aureus in Patients with Different Clinical Manifestations in Khartoum State, Sudan


Maimona A. E. Elimam 1, Suhair Rehan 2, Miskelyemen A Elmekki 2,3 and Mogahid M Elhassan 2,3*


1Pathology and genetics Department, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, U. A.E.

2Department of Microbiology, College of Medical Laboratory Science, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

3Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al medenah Al monawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

E-mail: mogahidelhassan@yahoo.com


Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), a major cause of potentially life-threatening infections acquired in healthcare and community settings, has developed resistance to most classes of antimicrobial agents as determined by the dramatic increase The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA, and VRSA in patients with different clinical manifestations in Khartoum state. The study population (n, 426) were males and females with different age categories, suffering either from wound infections (105), ear infections (121), or UTI (101), in addition to nasal carriers of medical staff (100). Cultures, Gram staining and other biochemical tests were performed for conventional identification. Modified Kirbry-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied and DNA was extracted from MRSA and VRSA isolates and PCR was then performed for amplification of arc, mecA, VanA and VanB genes. The results confirmed the existence of Staph. aureus in 49/426 (11.5%) cases among which MRSA were isolated from 34/49 (69.4%) when modified Kirbry-Bauer disk diffusion method was applied. Ten out of these 34 MRSA were confirmed as VRSA by cultures on BHI agar containing 6g/ml vancomycin according to NCCLS criteria. PCR revealed that out of the 34 MRSA isolates, 26 were mecA positive (76.5%) while 8 (23.5%) were arcC positive. No vanA or VanB genes were detected. Molecular method confirmed the results for MRSA through the presence of either arcC or mecA genes while it failed to approve the occurrence of VRSA since neither VanA or VanB genes were detected. Thus, VRSA may be attributed to other factors.

[Maimona A. E. Elimam, Suhair Rehan, Miskelyemen A Elmekki and Mogahid M Elhassan. Emergence of Vancomycin Resistant and Methcillin Resistant Staphylococus aureus in Patients with Different Clinical Manifestations in Khartoum State, Sudan. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):106-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.13


Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Staph. aureus, VRSA, MRSA, Khartoum, Sudan.

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Prevention of cold cracking in ASTM A516 Gr. 70 steel weldment


M.A. Morsy1, A. Mahdy2, and M. A, Al-Hameed3


1.Researcher, CMRDI, Cairo. Egypt

2. Professor Assistant. Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar university, Egypt.

3. Engineer, Petroget Company.



Abstract: Cold cracking susceptibility was studied in welding of ASTM A516 Gr. 70 steel using AWS A5.1 E7018 electrode. Y- Tekken cracking test was applied to study the effect of preheating and heat input on cracking index. Application of preheating temperature of 1500C resulted in a disappearance of cracks. Also, increasing the heat input from 0.89 kJ/mm to 1.34 kJ/mm significantly decreasing the cracking index. Increasing the drying temperature of covered electrode has a significant effect on decreasing the diffusible hydrogen content. Cold crack started at the HAZ root (Martensitic structure) and propagated through the fusion line to the weld metal. Fracture surface observation by SEM indicating transgranular cleavage fracture at the fusion line (HAZ), quasi cleavage fracture at the transition zone ahead of fusion line and a ductile fracture at the weld metal.

[M.A. Morsy, A. Mahdy and M. A, Al-Hameed. Prevention of cold cracking in ASTM A516 Gr. 70 steel weldment. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):111-118]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.14


Key words: Cold cracking, ASTM A516 Gr. 70 steel, Diffusible hydrogen, Preheat temperature, Heat input, Hardness distribution, Microstructure, SEM observation.

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Role of MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta.


Mohammad A. Yousif El-Shazely MD.


Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University Egypt.



Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the MRI technique, features of placenta accreta in MRI and role of MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients were referred to MRI unit with suspected placenta accreta by transabdominal ultrasound or showed inconclusive findings. MRI was done and the MRI diagnosis was compared to post partum findings and histopathological assessment. Results: MRI diagnosed placenta accreta in 8 cases, from total 13 patients (confirmed after delivery by pathological examination). 4 cases were negative by MRI. In two of the negative cases placentas were easily manually removed during cesarean delivery without any bleeding or complications, while at the rest two cases placenta accreta was diagnosed after the manual removal of the placenta and hysterectomy was done at one case owing to uncontrollable bleed. One case was interpreted as placenta accreta on MRI and was negative during cesarean delivery. MRI shows sensitivity and specificity of 83.33 % & 66.67 % respectively. Conclusions: MRI as a complementary technique can help in diagnosis of placenta accreta by additional information in ultrasound doubtful cases.

[Mohammad A. Yousif El-Shazly. Role of MRI in diagnosis of placenta accreta. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):119-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.15


Key words: Magnetic resonance imaging, placenta,placenta accreta, prenatal diagnosis.

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Three-dimensional ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve in fertile and infertile females


Mohammed Abdulhadi Farag, Mahmoud Abdullah Abdul Fattah, Ahmed Alnezamy*


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt



Abstract: Objective: Evaluation of the differences between fertile and infertile females regarding the three-dimensional ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve and between the right and the left ovaries in women in each group. Participants and method: After inclusion, One hundred infertile and one hundred fertile women had a 3D power Doppler transvaginal scan in the early follicular phase (between the third and the fifth day of the menstrual cycle). The outcome measures included are: antral follicle count (AFC), small(2-6mm) AFC, larger (7-9mm) AFC, total ovarian volume (OV) and ovarian vascular indices; vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI). The data from the right and left ovaries were compared. Results: The mean AFC, small AFC (2-6mm), mean VI and mean VFI of fertile group was significantly higher than the infertile group. The mean OV of infertile group was significantly higher than the fertile group. The difference between the mean of larger (7-9 mm) AFC and mean FI were statistically insignificant. Regarding the RT and the LT ovaries in the infertile group AFC, FI and VFI show a statistical significant difference; OV and VI show a statistical non-significant difference. In the fertile group; AFC, OV, VI, FI and VFI show a statistical non-significant difference. Conclusion: AFC especially small (2-6 mm) follicles are the best ultrasound marker of the ovarian reserve.OV alone should not be considered as a predictor of ovarian reserve. Evaluation of the ovarian stromal vascularity needs further research as a marker of ovarian reserve. Evaluation of the right and the left ovaries separately is recommended but further studies are needed to confirm that.

[Mohammed Abdulhadi Farag, Mahmoud Abdullah Abdul Fattah, Ahmed Alnezamy. Three-dimensional ultrasound markers of ovarian reserve in fertile and infertile females. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):125-139]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.16


Keywords: Ovarian reserve test; Virtual Organ Computer-Aided Analysis (VOCAL™); Antral follicle count; Ovarian volume; 3D Power Doppler.

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Effect of Anastrozole Treatment on Predicted Adult Height in Prepubertal Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature


Thamar Mahmoud1, Ezz EL-Denshary2, Khaled Salem3, Shahira F. El-menshwe4,Hoda A. Salem5, Naglaa Assaf6.


1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, MISR University, Cairo, Egypt;

2 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Cairo, Egypt.

4Department of Pharmaceutics and industrial pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bani Seuf University Cairo, Egypt.

5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.

6Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, MISR University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Objective: To investigate the effect of blocking estrogen biosynthesis with anastrozole,a potent aromatase inhibitor on growth and consequently predicted adult height in boys and adolescents with high estrogen level. Secondarily, the effects of aromatase inhibition on gonadotropin secretion in boys during prepubertal phase. Study design: A retrospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo(Pl)-controlled study was done. Forty boys, aged 9.0–14.5 yr, diagnosed with idiopathic short stature were enrolled into the study. The children were classified into two groups (20 children each). The control group received starch tablet daily for one year. The second group received anastrozole tablet 1mg orally/day for one year .Laboratory investigations were estimated: serum estradiol, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor type 1 levels. Height estimation is also included. Results: Serum testosterone levels were significantly increased, while serum estrogen levels were significantly decreased after anastrozole treatment. However, the levels of serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and insulin-like growth factor type 1 did not change significantly in anastrozole group. On the other hand, the levels of height were significantly increased in anastrozole group whereas showed no changes occurred in the respective measures in control boys. Conclusion: Anastrozole delays bone maturation and improves PAH in boys with ISS.

[Thamar Mahmoud, Ezz EL-Denshary, Khaled Salem, Shahira F. El-menshwe,Hoda A. Salem, Naglaa Assaf.. Effect of Anastrozole Treatment on Predicted Adult Height in Prepubertal Boys with Idiopathic Short Stature. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):140-148]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.17


Key words: growth hormone, testosterone, estradiol, aromatase inhibitor. PAH, predicted adult height, ISS, idiopathic short stature, AIs, aromatase inhibitors.

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Comparative study on the chemical composition of Saudi Sukkari and Egyptian Swei date palm fruits


Ebtehal Abdulaziz A AlTamim


Nutrition & Food sciences Department, Home Economics College, Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.



Abstract: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is the major fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Due to the nutritional value of the fruits, Egypt as well as many other countries exited great offers for increasing the date plantations. Saudi Sukkari and Egyptian Swei date samples were collected from the local markets in Saudi Arabia and Egypt for determination of proximate chemical, minerals and vitamins. The study results showed that the Saudi Sukkari sample had the highest percentages of moisture (10.58%), protein (2.39%), fiber (4.23%), fat (3.15%) and ash (2.50%). The highest level of total sugars and T.S.S were in the Egyptian Swei sample (81.49%) and (91.20%) respectively. Acidity of Egyptian sample was (0.48%) and considered to be low in both samples. Also, pH level was high in Saudi Sukkari sample (7.11%). The contents of Cu, Na, Ca, Mg and K were higher in Swei Egyptian sample (94.9, 81.7, 79.62, 66.33 & 55.11mg/100g) then Sukkari Saudi sample (81, 74.6, 75.33, 61.15 & 54.18mg/100g), respectively. The lowest minerals contents were Zn (0.80mg/100g) and Fe (4.35mg/100g) in Saudi sample, comparing to Egyptian dates (0.86mg/100g) and (4.56mg/100g), respectively. In regards of the vitamins (B2, B6, B1 and nicotinic acid were high in Sewi dates (105.18, 59.71, 42.74 and 173.64 ppm) respectively. B12 was high in Saudi Sukkari date with 33.890 ppm. Vitamin C was 10.52 mg/100g in both samples. The differences among this study results could be referred to the samples sources and growth conditions. Dates are good sources of nutrients and advise to be consumed in regular diet system.

[Ebtehal Abdulaziz A AlTamim. Comparative study on the chemical composition of Saudi Sukkari and Egyptian Swei date palm fruits. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):149-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.18


Keywords: Nutrients, date palm fruit- chemical composition.

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Long term exercise preconditioning protects against renal dysfunction after ischemia reperfusion injury in rat kidneys


Ramadan A. Saad


Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been recognized as one of the most complex clinical complications, and renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury considered as a main reason of AKI. Aim of the work: This study was planned to identify the possible effect of regular swim exercise on kidney function parameters and oxidative stress in bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model in adult male rats. Material and Methods: Twenty four Male albino rats were randomly divided into three groups of sham control group, ischemia group (I/R), and pre-ischemia exercised group (exercise + I/R). The third group underwent regular swim exercise for 11 consecutive weeks. Ischemic group (I/R), and pre-ischemia exercised groups were subjected to bilateral renal I/R injury. Absolute and relative kidney weights as well as biochemical analysis including serum urea, creatinine & tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were determined in all groups. In addition, Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, catalase activity & nitrite level were assessed in the renal tissue. Results: The serum urea, creatinine and TNFα levels, as well as absolute kidney weight (KW) and kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW), all were significantly increased in I/R group as compared to the sham control group. Regular swim training decreased levels of serum urea, creatinine and TNFα significantly, in addition to the significant decrease in absolute KW as compared to control group. The renal tissue level of MDA was increased while the catalase activity was decreased in I/R group as compared to the sham control group and both of them nearly normalized in rats that undergo regular swim training before I/R. The renal tissue of nitrite were not significantly different between I/R and sham control groups; however, regular swim training significantly increased the renal level of nitrite. Conclusions: The findings of the current study illustrated that regular exercise seems to be a highly promising way in protecting renal tissue against oxidative damage and in preventing renal dysfunction due to ischemia/reperfusion.

[Ramadan A. Saad. Long term exercise preconditioning protects against renal dysfunction after ischemia reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):154-161]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.19


Keywords: Exercise, renal ischemia/reperfusion, oxidative stress, rat.

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Cystatin C as a marker of GFR in comparison with serum creatinine and formulas depending on serum creatinine in adult Egyptian patients with chronic kidney disease.


Emad Abdallah1*; Emam Waked1; Malak Nabil1 and Omnya El-Bendary2


1Nephrology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

2Clinical Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: Background and aim of the study: There is no literature available on the performance of cystatin C in adult Egyptian patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Our study was aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of serum Cystatin C, serum creatinine,cystatin C-based formula and creatinine-based formulas with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in adult Egyptian patients with CKD. Methods: The study was conducted on 80 patients were known as CKD[42 of them where males (52.3%) and 38 females (46.7%)] with mean age 56.58 13.06 years, attending the Nephrology Department,Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Cairo, Egypt. Serum cystatin C was measured with Human Cystatin C ELISA – Biovendor. TheeGFR was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and simple cystatin C formulas. GFR was measured using 99mTC - diethylenetriaminepenta acetic acid (DTPA) renal scan method. Results: There was significant correlation between serum Cystatin C and measured GFR (r=-0.8792; p<0.0001) than between serum creatinine and measured GFR (r=-0.5861). There was significant correlation between Cystatin C –based formula in the studied CKD patients and the measured GFR in the same patients(r= 0.899; p< 0.0001) better than the correlation between measured GFR in the studied CKD patients and GFR calculated from the MDRD formula (r = 0.788; P < 0.0001) and C&G formula (r = 0.683; P < 0.0001) in the same patients.The receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC) analysis showed that serum cystatin C had bigger AUC and higher sensitivity(AUC:0.902;sensitivity:97.6%) than serum creatinine (AUC: 0.711; sensitivity: 72.6%). Also the cystatin C-based formula and MDRD, had bigger AUC (0.875; 0.930 respectively) and higher sensitivity (97.5%; 90.5% respectively) than the C&G formula (0.872; 81.0%), but no statistically significant differences between the formulas was found. Conclusion: The present study suggest that serum Cystatin C is a good alternative marker to serum creatinine in CKD patients and that Cystatin C-based formula, which requires just one variable (serum cystatin C), achieved a diagnostic performance that was at least comparable if not better than the creatinine-based formulas using more variables.

[EmadAbdallah, Emam Waked; Malak Nabil and Omnya El-Bendary. Cystatin C as a marker of GFR in comparison with serum creatinine and formulas depending on serum creatinine in adult Egyptian patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):162-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.20


Keywords: GFR; eGFR; CKD; Cystatin C; 99mTC-DTPA.

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Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction


Ibrahim A. Boufaris and Ali A. Fadella


Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Omar Almukhtar University, Albaida Libya



Abstract: Background: Patients with Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD might be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those without NAFLD, This study was aimed to establish the relationships between NAFLD and coronary heart disease. Methods: Thirty eight (38) cases of acute myocardial infarction (ST-elevation myocardial infarction STEMI and non ST- elevation myocardial infarction NSTEMI) were recruited. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed, Two groups of participants (with and without NAFLD) were compared Logistic regression was used to analyze correlations between the incidence of NAFLD while controlling for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Showed that NAFLD was an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease after adjusting coronary risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, and gender by multiple analysis. Conclusion: Our study showed that NAFLD was associated the presence of CAD and not just one aspect of obesity or metabolic syndrome.

Ibrahim A. Boufaris, and Ali A. Fadella. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):170-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.21


Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Metabolic syndrome, myocardial infarction

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Using Drawings to Facilitate Communication of Non Arabic and Non English Speaking Patients in Al Madinah Health Care Sector


Thuraya Abduljalil Alabsi1 and Inass Muhammad Taha2


1Curriculum and Instruction Department, Education Collage, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

2Internal Medicine Department, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Madinah, Saudi Arabia



Abstract: Health care personnel are facing difficulty in communicating with non-Arabic and non-English (NANE) speaking patients, especially during the Hajj and Umrah seasons. This is apparent in all areas of health care, including the outpatient clinics, emergency rooms and hospital wards. The main goal of communication is to get the right information through to ensure understanding of the patient’s background, and in the delivery of medications, patient care, health education and other areas of health management. Communication between health care personnel and patients is, therefore, considered as a crucial element for patient safety and quality health care. This research focuses on bridging the communication needs between patients and health care givers at three hospitals in the city of Madinah, through the use of a health communication booklet containing illustrative drawings. The research employed a cross sectional descriptive method. Data were collected through two sets of interviews based on Likert scale questionnaires, directed to doctors, nurses and patients in the three selected hospitals. The first questionnaire was an exploratory investigation of communication needs which was used to inform the design of an illustrative booklet as a communication aid. The second questionnaire considered evaluations of the usefulness of the booklet in facilitating communication. It is expected that the results of this research will facilitate communication between patients and health professionals, and thereby improve patients’ health care, especially during the Hajj and Umrahseasons, in Madinah, and perhaps in Saudi Arabia.

[Thuraya Abduljalil Alabsi and Inass Muhammad Taha. Using Drawings to Facilitate Communication of Non Arabic and Non English Speaking Patients in Al Madinah Health Care Sector. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):174-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.22


Keywords: Communications with patients; health illustrations; drawings for communication; health language barrier; use of drawings to communicate with patients.

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Age, Platelets Count, Serum Cholesterol and Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase, as Non Invasive Markers for Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Patients


Hesham Alshabrawi1 Muhamad M.Abdelghafar2 and Mohamad A. Allam3


Departments of 1Internal Medicine and 2Tropical Medicine, Ahmad Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: The prognosis and management of chronic liver disease greatly depends on the degree and progression of liver fibrosis. Until recently, liver biopsy was the only way to evaluate fibrosis. However liver biopsy is an invasive and painful procedures which has rare but potentially life-threatening complications. Liver histology, especially, fibrosis staging provide prognostic information and may be useful in deciding therapeutic strategies in individual cases. However, liver biopsy may cause undesirable events, such as pain in 20% - 30% of cases, major complications in 0.5% e.g. bleeding and even death. Other than the complication derived from the procedure their is frequent poor patient acceptance also the direct cost of such procedure is high. In this study a total of 101 patients will be studied for their liver biopsy histopathology staging (metavir- staging), for their serum cholesterol, GGT, platelets count and age, and By using a, formula constructed by Forns and colleagues a cutoff value will be determined to discriminate between the significant and non significant fibrosis to avoid unnecessary liver biopsy for HCV patients recommended for interferon therapy. The area under the R O C curve 83.8% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity for the validation group and of 0.751 accuracy, using the best cut off score (5.42) according to the statistical analysis results, presence of significant fibrosis (F2,F3,F4) could be excluded i.e. had high negative predictive value for excluding significant fibrosis, where it has a 66% positive predictive value for diagnosis significant fibrosis i.e. score >5.42., Multivariate analysis identified these factors of the age, gamma glutamyl trans peptidase (GGT), cholesterol and platelets count as an independent predictors of fibrosis.

Hesham Alshabrawi Muhamad M. Abdelghafar and Mohamad A. Allam. Age, Platelets Count, Serum Cholesterol and Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase, as Non Invasive Markers for Liver Fibrosis in Chronic HCV Patients. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):191-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.23


Keywords: HCV, Liver Fibrosis, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase

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Effects of type of roughage and level of concentrate supplements on feed digestion and utilization in growing female dromedary camels


A. M. Abdel-Wahed


Animal Nutrition Department, Desert Research Center, El Matareya 11753, Cairo, Egypt



Abstract: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of ad lib feeding three roughages (Atriplex, clover hay or rice straw) at two levels of concentrates supplementation (95% and 50% ad lib) on feed intake, utilization and animal performance in growing female dromedary camels. The roughages were selected to represent different grazing conditions prevailing in arid rangelands. The concentrates were corn grains and un-decorticated cottonseed meal offered separately. Nine healthy growing she-camels (28-30 months old and 376.3 kg body weight, BW) were housed individually in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to three treatments, three camels each. The experiment lasted 60 days in two periods, 30 days each. Results indicated that limiting concentrates offered from 95% to 50% decreased  (P <0.05) feed intake of concentrates, digestion coefficients all nutrients, ME intake, DCP intake, nitrogen intake and nitrogen balance as well as average daily gain, while increased (P <0.05) feed intake of roughage, crude fiber %DMI, rumen un-degradable protein (RUP) %TP and urinary nitrogen. Moreover, the effect of the type of roughage indicated that the atriplex-fed camels had higher (P <0.05) daily feed intake, digestion coefficient of ash and nitrogen intake. Also, the hay-fed camels had higher digestion coefficients and ME intake. The camels fed-straw were the least (P <0.05) in DN, UN and NB than the other two roughage groups.  The faecal nitrogen (FN) and the ratio of NB/ND were not affected by the type of roughages. The roughage-concentrate interaction was significant (P <0.05) in cottonseed meal intake, crude protein and crude fiber digestibility and DCP intake. The results indicated that camels fed high concentrate levels at 95% ad lib with clover hay showed the best results concerning feed intake and digestibility, energy intake, nitrogen balance, body weight gain and feed efficiency, while those fed atriplex had the highest feed intake. 

[A. M. Abdel-Wahed. Effects of type of roughage and level of concentrate supplements on feed digestion and utilization in growing female dromedary camels. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):198-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.24


Key words: Camels, diet selection, feed utilization, nitrogen utilization, growth

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Evaluation of Groundwater Potential and Proposed Scenarios for Development in the Eastern Desert of Egypt : (Case study; Wadi Qena)


Dr. Manal Abd El Monem


 Researcher, Research Institute for Groundwater, NWRC, MWRI, Egypt.



Abstract: Groundwater is the main source of water especially in the Egyptian deserts where surface water is not available. The eastern desert and its valleys are considered one of the priority areas for development based on the groundwater as a principal source for different activities.  Wadi Qena is one of the most important valleys in the Eastern Desert, it lies on the axis El Saeed - the Red Sea, which was created to link between Asyut and Sohag cities. To achieve an integrated development plan for this valley, hydrogeological studies were applied for evaluating groundwater potential and assessment of the future development activities of this valley in the field of agriculture and land Reclamation. The main objective of this research is to investigate the hydrogeological characteristics of the study area, evaluate groundwater potential and to simulate the proposed development scenarios based on groundwater during the period of 50 years of operation. To achieve the objectives of the research, wells inventory include locations and extractions for all production wells have been carried out in the study area. The total amount of extraction concentrated in the south part of the study area. Evaluation of groundwater potential for the present two aquifers systems was based on the calculated hydraulic parameters from the pumping test of three experiment/production wells. A numerical groundwater flow package Visual modflow was used and the evaluation of the present conditions has been simulated. The modeling was used to test the proposed scenarios for groundwater development for 50 years. The results of the current research indicated that groundwater potentiality could be classified as medium (at the southern part) to low (at the northern part) and any further groundwater extraction should be controlled in future.

[Manal Abd El Monem. Evaluation of Groundwater Potential and Proposed Scenarios for Development in the Eastern Desert of Egypt : (Case study; Wadi Qena). J Am Sci 2014;10(6):207-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.25


Key words: Groundwater potential, modeling, Wadi Qena, development Scenarios.

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Eight Weeks of Basketball practice Can Significantly Alter Body Composition and motor proficiency in primary school children Who Are Overweight


Taghread A. Elsayed


Department of team sports, Faculty of physical education, Zagazig University, Zagazig, EGYPT.



Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of an 8-week basketball practice on body composition and motor proficiency in primary school Children who were Overweight and obese. Twenty-four children (age=101.5 years, height=142.8 2.3 cm, body mass=54.3 1.8 kg) participated in this study. Basketball practice program were used for 8 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week, the session lasted approximately 90 minutes and included of a variety of basketball skills with different objectives. The equations were used to calculate body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM) and Percent body fat (%FM). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency Short Form (BOTMP-SF) was used to evaluate the motor proficiency. All Measurements were made before and upon completion of the training program. After the training, there was a significant decrease (p> 0.05) in body weight (8%vs6%), BMI (12%vs5%), fat mass (10%vs5%) and percent body fat (3%vs1%), while there were no significant changes in height. A significant increase in total score of BOTMP-SF was found, mainly due to the improvement in gross motor skills (40%vs21%), fine motor skills (13%vs0.7%), gross &fine motor skills (8%vs1%), while there were no significant changes in Visual-Motor control subtest. Our results suggest that basketball practice program was able to reduced Body mass index, fat mass, and percent body fat. Additionally it was able to improve motor proficiency in children who were overweight. Therefore, the use of team sports especially basketball may be more beneficial to improve body composition and motor proficiency.

[Taghread A. Elsayed. Eight Weeks of Basketball practice Can Significantly Alter Body Composition and motor proficiency in primary school children Who Are Overweight. J Am Sci 2014;10(6):212-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas100614.26


Keywords: BOTMP-SF, Gross Motor Skill, Fine Motor Skill, Fat Mass, Percent Body Fat

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from April 27, 2014. 
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