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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003 (print); ISSN 2375-7264 (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 10, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 82, December 25, 2014

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am1012

 

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CONTENTS   

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The Reality of Competencies to Activate Practice of Musical Activities in Kindergarten In light of Status Quo in Port Said-Governorate Kindergartens

 

Neveen Hassan Arnous

 

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Kindergarten, University of Port Said, Egypt.

neveenarnous@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Early childhood is the foundation of human personality, as their society and their environment influence them, where they receive numerous experiences. They pass kindergarten experiences through practice of different activities, including musical activities. They aim to raise the individual's human level because of the close relationship between education and music. This kind of activities plays an important role in developing artistic sense in kindergarten, the stage in which their abilities are invested. The musical activities have an attractive effect on child, through which they can acquire various concepts and skills aiming at developing them in all aspects (cognitive, mental); (somatic, motor); (social, linguistic); (emotional). Musical activities are a set of acts based on using the basic musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony). They are also every intentional act carried out by children to achieve a specific goal in one of their personal aspects. The types of activities are determined depending on the nature of the child's chronological and mental age. The musical activities appropriate for kindergartners are composed of "singing, listening and appreciation, playing rhythm band instruments, innovation, and motion represented in musical games and movement story with music." In the researcher's opinion, practice of musical activities in kindergarten activity curriculum depends on non-regulated diligence by female teachers who are non-specialists in music. This hinders activating practice of these important activities for child properly. That has required identifying the competencies required for activating the practice of musical activities in kindergartens in light of status quo to get to know the competencies available to activate practice of these activities and to identify the obstacles to achieve these competencies. To do so, the study has used the following tools: (1) A questionnaire of kindergarten female teachers to measure the competencies required for activating the practice of musical activities in kindergarten. (2) Reality form of musical activity use in kindergarten. These tools were applied to a sample of 80 kindergarten female teachers. The study concluded that there were some obstacles prevented achieving the competencies required for activating the practice of musical activities in kindergartens, competencies related to teacher, curriculum, and kindergarten in light of status quo of musical activity use reality for children. The study recommended paying attention to provide the appropriate atmosphere for carrying out the various kinds of musical activities in an effective way for child, and working on preparing the status quo to achieve the competencies required for activating the practice of musical activities for children in kindergarten.

[Neveen Hassan Arnous. The Reality of Competencies to Activate Practice of Musical Activities in Kindergarten In light of Status Quo in Port Said-Governorate Kindergartens. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):1-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.01

 

Keywords:Ÿ Musical activities Ÿ songs Ÿ innovation Ÿplaying Ÿ listening and appreciation Ÿ movement Ÿ musical story Ÿ musical game Ÿ competencies

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The main causes of low quality at secondary level in New Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

 

Zubair Muhammad1, Mubina Pathan2, Khalid Noor Panhwar3, Barkatullah Qureshi4, Muhammad Ali Pasha5, Murad Iqbal Panhwar6

 

1,6Newports Institute of Communication & Economics, Karachi, Pakistan.

2Institute of Information Technology Center, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam

3Department of Public Administration, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

4Department of Statistics, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam

5Department of Economics, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

 

Abstract: The grounds of this probe were to determine the major reasons of low quality at secondary stage in New Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. It was accomplished in the course of survey. The inhabitants of the study was equally “government and private” schools Teachers and students. The eyeshot’s of masculine and feminine students and teachers were acquired. Fifty respondents were indiscriminately picked out. The questionnaire was used as an enquiry instrument that was comprised of twenty five points. Data accumulated on two purpose scale form was examined by applying proportion methodology. Majority of the respondents had the horizon that the subsisting thus referred to as analysis system, untrained Metric passed  lecturers and lack of interest of Administration in quality  are the most reasons of low  of quality at secondary level in New urban center, Karachi, Pakistan. Several of the respondents argue that primitive metric passed feminine teachers & imperfect administration square measure the causes of caliber of education at secondary level education & Short range of respondents expressed that dangerous scrutiny system became causes of caliber at secondary level education in new Karachi center, Karachi, Pakistan.

[Zubair Muhammad, Mubina Pathan, Khalid Noor Panhwar, Barkatullah Qureshi, Muhammad Ali Pasha, Murad Iqbal Panhwar. The main causes of low quality at secondary level in New Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):14-20]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.02

 

Key words: Secondary level, Quality Education, evaluation system, Untrained Metric Passed Female Teachers and Imperfect Administration.

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Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles with and Without Silver Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Induced Periodontitis in Dogs

 

Reda G. Saleh (1), Olfat M. Gab Allah (1), Heba M. El Tokhey (1), Hoda M. El-Guindy (2)

 

[1] Oral Biology department, Faculty of dentistry. Tanta University

2 Periodontology, Oral Diagnosis & Radiology Department, Faculty of dentistry. Tanta University

eltokheyheba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Regeneration of periodontal tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Recent advances in nanotechnology introduce new therapeutic materials for periodontal regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANP) with and without silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on regeneration of periodontium after inducing periodontitis in a dog model. Methods: Twelve beagle dogs were used in this study divided into three equal groups. Group (GP) I was divided into GP IA (negative control) represented the healthy untreated dogs, GP IB (periodontitis), GP II (HANP treated dogs), GP III (Ag-HA nanocomposites treated dogs). periodontitis was induced by cotton ligatures in the distal aspect of the mandibular right first, second and third pre-molar teeth. Four weeks after inducing periodontitis group I were sacrificed, while the GPs II, III were subjected to conventional periodontal treatment and treated subsequently using HANP and Ag-HA nanocomposites. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the dogs of GPII & III were sacrificed and the specimens were subsequent processed for H&E and Masson trichrome stains, immunohistochemical reaction by Osteopontin (OPN) antibody. These followed by statistical evaluation. Results: GP IB showed degradation of periodontal tissues and all histological features of periodontits. GP II revealed obvious periodontal regeneration, while periodontal tissue was almost normal in GP III. The Masson trichrome stain, immunohistochemical & statistical results confirmed these findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that HANP induces the key elements of the true periodontal tissue regeneration, which enhanced aggressively by a combination of AgNP & HANP, offering potential as therapeutic material in periodontal regeneration.

[Reda G. Slaeh, Olfat M. Gab Allah, Heba M. El Tokhey, and Hoda M. El-Guindy. Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles with and Without Silver Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Induced Periodontitis in Dogs. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):21-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.03

 

Keywords: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, Silver nanoparticles, Periodontits, Periodontal regeneration, Dog

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Role of Galectin-9 (Gal-9) In Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Microvascular Complications

 

Abd El Raouf, Y. M1; Eissa, A. T1; Khalil, H. M1 and Elbendary, A. S.2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University

2Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. masyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There has been a recent explosion of interest in the notion that chronic low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system are closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. A major component of innate immunity is a series of sentinel cells including macrophages. M1 macrophages are polarized in adipose tissue under the effect of activated CD8+ve T-cells and are proinflammatory, secreting cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. M1 macrophages express CD11-c +ve which is responsible for insulin resistance. Galectins are a family of carbohydrate binding proteins that have specific binding affinity for β-galactosides, and they exhibit evolutionary conservation from fungi to mammals and there is evidence that galectin-9 protein induces apoptosis, suggesting a role in negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Furthermore, Gal-9 induced apoptosis in activated CD-8+ve T cells. That is we investigated the relationship of galectin-9 to type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy as an example to microvascular complications of diabetes. This study included 60 patients: 15 patients were diabetic without nephropathy (group I), 30 diabetic patients with nephropathy (group ΙΙ) subdivided into 15 patients with microalbuminuria and 15 patients with macroalbuminuria and 15 as control healthy subjects (group ΙΙΙ). All patients were subjected to thorough history taking, complete clinical examination, laboratory investigations including: Serum Galectin-9 level using ELISA technique, fasting serum glucose level and postprandial serum glucose level, HbA1c, serum creatinine level and BUN level, albumin/creatinine ratio in urine, estimated glomerular filtration rate. Imaging study of all subjects was done using ultrasonographic examination of kidney. We found that that there 's no significant difference between the three groups regarding age, weight and sex and studied laboratory parameters except galectin-9 serum level which showed a mean of 257.55 205.98, 298.45 136.54, and 2287.86 295.52 in groups I, ΙΙ, and ΙΙΙ respectively. There was no significant difference between group Ι and ΙΙ (p > 0.05), but there was significantly higher in control group than diabetic patients without nephropathy (p < 0.01), and was significantly higher in control group than diabetic patients with nephropathy (p < 0.01).

[Abd El Raouf, Y. M; Eissa, A. T; Khalil, H. M and Elbendary, A. S. Role of Galectin-9 (Gal-9) In Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Microvascular Complications. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):34-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.04

 

Key words: Galectin-9, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetic vascular complications

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Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study of the Effect of chronic low dose of methotrexate and folinic acid on long bone of adult male guinea pigs

 

Manar A. Bashandy 1 and Hala elharoun 2

 

Anatomy1 and Histology2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

a_z491@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Methotrexate is anti-folate metabolite. It is used in low dose as first line therapy for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is a main treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Several studies reported its wide range side effects such as gastrointestinal intolerance and bone defects in the form of fracture and bone growth defect. Aim of the work: the current study examined the structural cellular damages to the bone caused by long term low- dose methotrexate treatment, as well as the potential protective effects of folinic acid supplementary treatment. Material and Methods: Forty adult male guinea pigs were subjected to experiment for nineteen days. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each of 10 guinea pigs as follow: Group I: (control group) were injected subcutaneously (distilled water and normal saline). Group II: received Folinic acid (1 mg/kg b.wt./ day) was injected intraperitoneally. Group III: received methotrexate (0.65 mg/kg b.wt/ day subcutaneously injected) for two separate 5 days courses (5 days on/9 days off/5 days on). Group IV: received Folinic acid (1mg/kg b.wt./ day) intraperitoneally injected 6 hrs after the administration of same dose of methotrexate as group III.On day twenty, the guinea pigs were anaesthetized with ether then sacrificed. Right tibias were removed from guinea pig and dissected free from soft tissues and subjected to histological, histo-chemical and immunohistochemical studies. Results: Histologically and histochemically, tibia of methotrexate treated guinea pig showed that, long term use of low dose methotrexate can cause oesteocytes dysfunction, bone erosion, bone damage, suppress bone formation, and increase bone resorption resulting in overall bone loss, via inducing osteocytes apoptosis. There was marked increase of Masson trichrome staining in resorption cavities of bone with reduction of collagen fibers in thin cortex of bone. Immunohistochemically, in methotrexate treated group showed positive immunoreactivity for caspus 3 in bone osteocytes and positive immunoreactivity for CD 68 in numerous bone osteoclasts which increased in number when compared to control group. On the other hand, histological, histochemical and immunohistochimical examination of the tibia of guinea pig protective group treated with both folinic acid and methotrexate displayed improvement in bone structure, reduce methotrexate damage in the bone formation. It prevents osteoblasts from undergoing apoptosis and suppressing methotrexate-induced osteoclast formation. Conclusion: Toxic effect of methotrexate should be kept in mind during chronic usage. Folinic acid was advised to be administered in concomitant with methotrexate as it could ameliorate its adverse effect on rat testis.

[Manar A. Bashandy and Hala elharoun. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical study of the Effect of chronic low dose of methotrexate and folinic acid on long bone of adult male guinea pigs. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):47-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.05

 

Key Words: methotrexate – folinic acid – guinea pig bone

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Petrophysical analysis for hydrocarbon exploration based on well log data, North Maryut, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt

 

Adel A.A Othman1, Throut, A.H.1, M.Fathy.1, and Adel, M. Negm2

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

adelnegm_88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Well logging is a study of acquiring information on physical properties of rocks that are exposed during drilling of an oil well. The key purpose of well logging is to obtain Petrophysical properties of reservoirs such as Porosity, hydrocarbon saturation etc., for hydrocarbon exploration. Petrophysical parameters such as effective porosity (Φ), water saturation (Sw), formation water resistivity (Rw), hydrocarbon saturation (Shr) and true resistivity (Rt) are evaluated by using the well log data. This paper presents the log analysis results from two wells located in off shore Egypt in the western side of the Nile delta in water depth reach to 450m. The first well (North Idkue -4x) was drilled on Viper and Anaconda channel in lower Pliocene prospect to assess the reservoir presence, quality and commercial hydrocarbon potential of stacked, structurally and stratigraphically controlled Pliocene channel levee complex with seismic attributes anomalies while the second well(Raven -2) drilled on two channel (lower and upper channel) in lower Miocene.

[Adel A.A Othman, Throut, A.H, M. Fathy and Adel, M. Negm. Petrophysical analysis for hydrocarbon exploration based on well log data, North Maryut, Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):58-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.06

 

Keyword: Petrophysical analysis, Well logging, seismic attributes, channel, N. Maryut

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Effect of Varroa Infestation on the Morphological and Histological Structure of the Hypopharyngeal Glands of Apis mellifera Workers

 

Saad I. Yousef 1 ; Zeinab M. El Basheir 2;   Salam S. Teleb 2; Enas E. N. Ibraheem 2.

 

1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt;

2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Hsn_egy@Yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most dangerous of honeybee Apis mellifera parasites, as it causes many losses in apiculture worldwide. Several researches have demonstrated distinct levels of virulence of the mite and increased colony mortality rates due to its infestation; however only a few studies report the mite's effects on specific tissues, glands or other organs in bees, the main secretory products of the hypopharyngeal gland (HPGs) are royal jelly components, as well as other substances such as α -glucosidase. The present study aimed to evaluate the parasitic effect of the mite V. destructor on hypopharyngeal glands of A. mellifera, to identify changes in the morphometrical Measurements of HPGs acini at different ages. The histological and ultra structures of HPGs are also studied due to its important role in the development of the colony. Morphometrical measurments of HPGs of honey bee workers clear that the mean acinal surface area increased gradually from emergence until it reached the maximal area on the  12 day of worker age (0.0628 0.007 and 0.0356 0.004 for control and  infested workers, respectively). A gradual decrease was taken place towards guarding and foraging activities. Data of histological and ultrastructure investigations came in parallel with the morphometry of the HPGs where the highest number and size of gland acini and secretory vacules; the density of secretory granules within the vacules; the quantity of secretion in the main duct of the glands were seen in 12 days old workers, recording the highest secretory cycle followed by gradual decrease up to 18 day where ireversable degeneration stated to take place with foraging activity. Varroa infestation causes reduced acinal surface area, number of secretory vacules, quantity of secretion in the gland duct and an acceleration towards gland degeneration.

[Saad I. Yousef; Zeinab M. El Basheir; Salam S. Teleb; Enas E. N. Ibraheem. Effect of Varroa Infestation on the Morphological and Histological Structure of the Hypopharyngeal Glands of Apis mellifera Workers. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):69-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.07

 

Key words: Apis mellifera, exocrine gland, hypopharyngeal, Varroa destructor, ultrastructure, histology.

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Angiogenic factors in adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal complication

 

Laila Hamed Damanhouri and Kaltoom-AL-Sakkaf

 

Immunology Department, Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 10415, Jeddah 21433, Saudi Arabia

Lailahhd71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: This study was to investigate the role of vascular endothelial growth factor  in renal complications in T2DM patients. Methods: 100 patients with T2DM (50 patients with diabetic nephropathy , 50 without complication) And fifty healthy subjects matched with patient’s age . Plasma levels of VEGF, angiopoietin-2, adrenomedullin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  Results: VEGF and angiopoietin-2 plasma levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients versus healthy control (P =0.0001). Adrenomedullin plasma level was significantly higher only in T2DM with renal complications (P =0.0001). In T2DM patient without renal complications, significant positive correlations were found between blood glucose with VEGF (r= 0.322, P =0.022) and angiopentin-2 (r= 0.441, P =0.001). In T2DM patient with renal complications, significant positive correlations were found between angiopoitin-2 with serum urea (r= 0.529, P =0.0001) and serum creatinine (r= 0.754, P =0.0001) and between adrenomedullin with serum urea (r =0.649, P =0.0001), serum creatinine (r =0.807, P =0.0001); HbA1c (r= 0.407, P =0.003) and Ang-2 (r= 0.678, P =0.0001). Conclusion:  our study revealed elevations of VEGF, Ang-2, and adrenomedullin in T2DM patients with renal complications. suggest the implication of these vascular markers in pathogenesis of renal complications in T2DM.

[Laila Hamed Damanhouri and Kaltoom-AL-Sakkaf. Angiogenic factors in adult with type 2 diabetes mellitus with renal complication. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):79-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.08

 

Key words: vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin-2, adrenomedullin, diabetes mellitus, renal complication.

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Potential Effect of Bovine Colostrum on Tongue Mucosa in Ovariectomized Rats

 

Doaa A. Labah and Mona A. Abd-Elmotelb

 

Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt

doaalabah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract : Background: Menopause is a physiologic stage in women life.  Oral cavity is subjective to the endocrine disturbance linked with menopause particularly in sex steroid hormone deficiency. Aim of study: To investigate the possible effect of bovine colostrum consumption on rat tongue mucosa during estrogen deficiency. Material and Methods: Twenty four, 6 month old, virgin female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four equal groups; Sham, Sham/Colost, Ovx and Ovx/Colost groups.  Colostrum  was given by oro-gastric intubations for one month after confirmation of estrogen deficiency. Then animals were euthanized by overdose of anesthesia. Samples were processed for routine histological Hematoxyline and Eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and P53. Statistical analysis was used to compare PCNA and P53 expression between all groups. Results: Histologically, Ovx group tongue mucosa showed abnormal shaped filiform papillae when compared with the tongue mucosa of Sham and Sham/Colost groups.  Interestingly, Ovx/Colost group revealed improvement in tongue mucosa with almost normal architecture. Immunohistochemically, Ovx group had a significant PCNA expression (p<0.05), extended to prickle cell layer.  However, other groups PCNA expression was limited to the basal cell layer.  Unexpectedly, P53 showed no expression in all groups. Conclusion: Estrogen deficiency affected the tongue mucosa in different ways resulting in altered mucosal turnover and architecture. However, bovine colostrum was able to abolish those effects.

[Doaa A. Labah and Mona A. Abd-Elmotelb Potential Effect of Bovine Colostrum on Tongue Mucosa in Ovariectomized Rats. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):88-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.09

 

Key words: Colostrum, Ovariectomy, Estrogen deficiency, PCNA, P53, Tongue mucosa.

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Management of Gingival Recession with Puros Dermis Allograft Tissue: A Case Report

 

Dhafer  S  Alasmari, B.D.S

 

Demonstrator of Periodontology and Oral medicine, College of Dentistry, Qassim University, KSA.

Dr.dhafeer@gmail.com

 

Abstract: One of the most common esthetic concerns associated with the periodontal tissues is gingival recession. marginal tissue recession is associated with esthetic complaints, thermal and tactile sensitivity, and a tendency toward root caries. A large variety of mucogingival grafting procedures are available palatal anatomy may limit the amount of autogenous tissue that can be harvested, thus limiting the number of procedures that can be performed. Moreover a patient may not desire to have additional tissue transplanted from the palate, due to increased pain and morbidity. This case report demonstrates successfully the use of Puros Dermis Allograft Tissue (PDM) for the treatment miller's class III recession in upper anterior teeth.

[Dhafer S Alasmari, B.D.S. Management of Gingival Recession with Puros Dermis Allograft Tissue: A Case Report. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):97-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.10

 

Keywords: Gingival recession, Puros Dermis Allograft Tissue, root coverage.

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"The Standard of Care and Evidence Based Dentistry" – Ethics and Needs of Patient in Present Era: A Brief Case Report towards Setting the "Standards of Dental Care" in Dental Malpractice

 

Mohammed Suleman Alruthea

 

Department of Prosthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University, Al-Qassim Province, Saudi Arabia

dr.mohammed.alruthea@qudent.org

 

Abstract: A case report is used  to clarify the “standard of care in dentistry”, following evidence based dentistry treatment approach. The patient suffering from pain in the upper teeth, and unpleasant smile received four stages of treatment, , resolving his chief complaints, and enhancing his teeth appearance. The  treatment plan was developed using radiography and mounting models on semi-adjustable articulator. The completed treatment was successful, with the patient continuing to do well 1.5  year after completion of treatment.

[Alruthea MS. "The Standard of Care and Evidence–Based Dentistry" – Ethics and Needs of Patient in Present Era: A Brief Case Report towards Setting the "Standards of Dental Care" in Dental Malpractice.. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):100-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.11

 

Keywords: Standard of care; evidence based dentistry; malpractice; complete oral rehabilitation.

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Carboxymethyl and carbanilated cellulose modified with tosyl and trimethylsilyl groups: Preparation, characterization, and applications in controlled release of anti-acid drugs

 

Maha M. Ibrahim1, Tamer Y A Fahmy1*, Ehab I. Salaheldin11, Fardous Mobarak1, Mohamed A. Youssef2, Mohamed R. Mabrook2

 

1Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

2Helwan University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

drtamer_y_a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To adjust the properties of the macromolecular structure of cellulose, chemical modification can take place to find different applications. In the current study, cellulose was extracted from bagasse, where it was derivatized to carboxymethyl cellulose, and carbanilated cellulose. These two cellulose derivatives were further chemically modified in homogenous system by tosyl and trimethylsilylation to synthesize cellulose macromolecular derivatives, namely tosylcellulose derivatives and trimethylsilylcellulose derivatives. The compositional microstructure of the synthesized cellulose derivatives was investigated by 1HNMR analysis, FT-IR and SEM. This study demonstrated that cellulose, cellulose derivatives and both tosyl and trimethylsilyl cellulose derivatives formed under homogeneous conditions can be evaluated as potential carriers for controlled release of anti-acid drugs. The release was investigated as a function of pH and time in various pH solutions, namely 2.0, 3.5 and 5.0. The results indicated that the release is controlled by the type of the modified cellulose and thus it was concluded that modification is important for the use in slow drug release.

[Maha M. Ibrahim, Tamer Y A Fahmy, Ehab I. Salaheldin, Fardous Mobarak, Mohamed A. Youssef, Mohamed R. Mabrook. Carboxymethyl and carbanilated cellulose modified with tosyl and trimethylsilyl groups: Preparation, characterization, and applications in controlled release of anti-acid drugs. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):108-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.12

 

Keywords: Cellulose extracted from bagasse; carboxymethyl cellulose; Carbanilated cellulose; Derivatization of carboxymethyl cellulose and carbanilated cellulose; Controlled drug release

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Relation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Genetic

Polymorphisms and Pulmonary Hypertension in Egyptian Children with Congenital Heart Disease

 

Sherif Mohamed Yousry1; Yasser Sedky2 ; Sherif Mohamed Yousry3; Yasser Sedky4;

 

1Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kasr El-Ainy Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Department of  Pediatrics ,Faculty of Medicine, Abu- Elreesh children Hospital ,Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

3Address: 132 ElBahr ElAzam Street, Giza, Egypt.Telephone number: (+2)235732499 , 01003441875 Email: sherifyousry2000@yahoo.com

4Address: 25A ELhegaz street Elmohandseen , Giza Egypt, Telephone number: (+2)01221174971, Email: ymsedky@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to congenital heart disease is a common type of pulmonary arterial hypertension and it is associated with very poor prognosis. The disease is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, smooth muscle proliferation and insitu thrombosis in the pulmonary artery, eventually leading to right ventricular failure. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key endothelial mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH . Various endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms have been shown to affect NO production and it was hypothesized that variants of the eNOS gene may cause individual susceptibility to pulmonary hypertension .The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the eNOS G894T and 4b/4a polymorphisms are related to pulmonary hypertension in Egyptian children with congenital heart disease. Genotyping for the eNOS 4b/4a and G894T polymorphisms was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism in 64 children with pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to congenital heart disease, 92 children with congenital heart disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension and 80 healthy controls and showed that only the frequency of eNOS 894T allele (p < 0.0001) was significantly higher in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. In conclusions our results advocate that there is a correlation between eNOS 894T allele and pulmonary arterial hypertension in Egyptian children with congenital heart disease.

[Sherif Mohamed Yousry ; Yasser Sedky  ; Sherif Mohamed Yousry ; Yasser Sedky . Relation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Genetic Polymorphisms and Pulmonary Hypertension in Egyptian Children with Congenital Heart Disease. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):124-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.13

 

Keywords: PAH, Nitric oxide, Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), Polymorphism, Polymerase chain reaction.

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Effect of seasoning on formed carcinogenic compound during beef meat cooking methods at high temperatures

 

Manar, M.A. Farag

 

Meat and Fish Technology Research development, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author mail: dr.manar2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study performed to examine the possibility of inhibiting 2-amino-3-methyl imidazoquionline (IQ) which formed during cooking methods at high temperature by feeding of rats on experimental diets. The 36 adult male rats (1232g) were randomly divided into 6 groups; (G1) negative control group that fed on basal diet,(G2) positive control that treated with IQ at concentrate 10ppmIQ /100gb.w  for 10 days un-sequence (day after day), (G3) rats fed on boiled beef meat, (G4) rats fed on fried beef meat,  (G5) rats fed on grilled beef meat and (G6) rats fed on pre-seasoning grilled meat with 1% ginger. The duration of the experimental period was 16 weeks.Estimation of IQ in different cooked beef meat, serum and urinary excretion were performed.The results obtained a significant differences among them where contained grilled beef meat without seasoning on the highest values of IQ were 14.368 ng/g (ppb), 7.23 ng/ml and 20.19 ng/ml in food, blood serum and urine, respectively.  But seasoning beef meat with 1% ginger over time before grilling that led to decrease IQ concentrate in food, serum and urine to 3.367ng/g, 0.49 ng/ml and1.74 ng/ml, respectively with decreasing percent reached to 76.56, 93.17 and 91.37%, respectively comparing with un-seasoning grilled meat. Whereas, IQ concentrate in pan fried meat was 8.806ppb.Although, IQ concentrate in grilled meat at 250◦C higher than pan fried meat at 180◦C because IQ concentrate increase with increasing heat temperature and concentrate internal beef tissues than surface but its content effect on biological properties in fried meat stronger than grilled meat where IQ soluble in the fat that its content in fried beef was higher than other cooked meat that led to absorption and metabolism it in the body faster and harmless, moreover, melting of some beef fat by cooking at high heat temperature and drip way in soup in case of boiling or burning on the surface in case of grilling. Conclusion: Seasoning of beef meat with herbs before cooking able to reduce the harm effect of IQ that formed at high temperature.

[Manar, M.A. Farag. Effect of seasoning on formed carcinogenic compound during beef meat cooking methods at high temperatures. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):131-137]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.14

 

Key words: Imidazoquionline (IQ)concentrate - different cooked beef meat - serum - urinary excretion - rats - F.C.E.

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Preparing Classroom and Community Education Teacher in Egypt in the Light of the Information Revolution: A Case Study

 

Hanem Khaled Mohammed Mohammed Saleem.

 

Educational and Psychological Department, Faculty of Specific Education, Zagazig University, Egypt.

dr.hanimkhalid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present research aims at identifying the most important features of the information revolution and its effect on the classroom and community education teacher preparation,   revealing the reality of the classroom and community education teacher preparation in the qualitative education faculty in Zagazig, identifying the most important challenges that face the classroom and community education teacher preparation, identifying the most important traits of the classroom and community education teacher that suit his/her tasks and responsibilities, and suggesting some mechanisms and procedures through which we can improve and develop the preparation of the classroom and community education teacher. The present study uses the descriptive analytical method to collect, observe, diagnose, analyze and explain the data,  information  and statistics of information revolution and the process of the classroom and community education teacher preparation in the qualitative education faculty of Zagazig. The study uses also the case study method in order to focus deeply on the reality of the educational process in the department and the way of preparing the classroom and community education teacher in it. The results of the study shows that there are many difficulties in the process of one class teacher preparation such as the shortage of human and matrialistic capacities and the weakness of academic, professional and cultral preparation of the students in this section. Accordingly, the study suggests a new study plan for this section which go ahead with the criteria of Faculties of Education in Egypt.

[Hanem Khaled Mohammed Mohammed Saleem. Preparing Classroom and Community Education Teacher in Egypt in the Light of the Information Revolution: A Case Study. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):138-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.15

 

Key Words: Teacher Preparation, Class and Community Teacher, Information Revolution.

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Morphological variations in the root canal system of mandibular Premolars : A case series

 

Youssef A. Algarni, BDS

 

Specialist of Endodontics, Jeddah,  KSA

dr_yousseef@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The mandibular premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. Mandibular premolars usually have single root with single root canal system. The incidence of two or more canals in these teeth is quite rare. This report presents the diagnosis and clinical management of mandibular premolars with complex anatomy, drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls.

[Youssef A. Algarni. Morphological variations in the root canal system of mandibular Premolars: A case series . J Am Sci 2014;10(12):157-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.16

 

Keywords: morphological variation, mandibular premolar, complex anatomy.

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Sinus Membrane Perforation: A Case Report

 

Saad  M Alqahtani, B.D.S

 

Saudi Board in Peridontics , KSA

dr-s-q@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The maxillary posterior edentulous region presents many unique and challenging conditions in implant dentistry. Grafting of the maxillary sinus has become a highly predictable surgical technique for posterior maxillary site development and implant reconstruction if proper treatment planning, careful surgical technique, adequate clinician experience, and patient compliance criteria are met. There are, however, complications associated with this technique that would be expected with any surgical procedure. The most common complication is membrane perforation. The aim of this report to review the procedures adopted when a perforation of the sinus membrane takes place during sinus lift, and factors that may cause the perforation, and the complications that may happen from the perforation. Conclusion, the most effective treatment of sinus membrane perforations is their prevention.Sinus membrane perforations may be successfully managed when encountered during sinus augmentation thereby resulting in significant bone augmentation in the treated sinus area .Implant may be placed in theses augmented sinuses and restored successfully .

[Saad M Alqahtani, B.D.S. Sinus Membrane Perforation: A Case Report. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):163-166]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.17

 

Keywords: sinus augmentation,dental implants, maxillary sinus,bone graft.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Nocturnal Enuresis and Obesity: A Vicious Circle entrapping Children

 

1Mohamed F. Shindy MD and 2Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty MD

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and if there is a positive therapeutic effect of adenotonsillectomy (AT) on the frequency of bed-wetting.  Patients & Methods: The study aimed to collect 150 snorer children with present history of bed wetting. Parents were asked to answer a questionnaire to determine the frequency and severity of snoring and enuresis. Only children scored 3 or 4 were considered to be enuretic. All children underwent over-night pulse oximetry and data were scored according the McGill Oximetry Scoring. Patients with McGill scores of 2-4 (n=123) underwent AT and patients with McGill score of one (n=27) were subjected to further evaluation. All enrolled patients were subjected to weight reduction dieting regimen and aerobic exercise for three months. Pulse oximetry and questionnaire were conducted after 6 months of enrolment and scores were compared to preoperative data. Results: AT induced significantly lower postoperative (PO) desaturation index and significantly higher PO lowest SaO2% with significantly lower total PO McGill scores compared to preoperative data. PO enuresis scoring showed significantly higher frequency of low scores with significantly lower PO score compared to pre-treatment score for a total PO success rate of 79.3%. Medical intervention provided a success rate of 59.3%. Mean post-treatment enuresis scoring was significantly lower compared to pre-treatment scores, irrespective of line of treatment with significantly higher post-treatment scores for those had AT. Dietary intervention and exercise induced significant decrease of body weight and BMI of studied patients at the end of 6-months.  Conclusion: OSAS, NE and obesity constitute a vicious circle endangering quality of life of children. NE is not always a urological problem and consultation of pediatrician and otorhinolaryngologist is mandatory. Adenotonsillectomy provided complete recovery of both OSAS and NE in 55% and improvement in 29% of patients had adenotonsillitis. Weight reduction programs alone or after surgery induced significant body mass index reduction and improved outcome of patients free of adenotonsillitis by rate 59.3%.

[Mohamed F. Shindy and Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Nocturnal Enuresis and Obesity: A Vicious Circle entrapping Children. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):167-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.18

 

Keywords: Nocturnal enuresis, OSAS, Obesity, Adenotonsillectomy, Weight reduction.

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A computational study on electrical characteristics of a proposed double gate heterojunction SB-CNTFET

 

1* M. Ossaimee, 1A. Shaker, 1 M. El-Banna and 2 M. Abouelatta

 

1 Department of engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

2 Department of Electronics and communications, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

*Corresponding author:  m_ossaimee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a coaxial gated SB-CNTFET with double gates heterojunction DGHJ is proposed. By using a non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method, the transport characteristics of a DGHJ-SB-CNTFET is compared to those of conventional SB-CNTFET with homogenous channel. According to simulation results, DGHJ-SB-CNTFET demonstrates much less leakage tunnelling current, larger ON-OFF current ratio              (ION / IOFF), suppression of ambipolar characteristics and better switching parameters. According to these advantages, the proposed structure could be a suitable candidate for low-power and high speed applications.

[M. Ossaimee, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna and M. Abouelatta. A computational study on electrical characteristics of a proposed double gate heterojunction SB-CNTFET. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):175-177]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.19

 

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), heterojunction, NEGF, nanoscale transistors, delay time, PDP.

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Uniaxial and torsional strain engineering in Schottky barrier and tunneling CNTFETs

 

* M. Ossaimee and M. El Sabbagh

 

Department of engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

*Corresponding author: m_ossaimee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of both uniaxial and torsional strain on the performance of Schottky barrier carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor (SB-CNTFET) and tunneling carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor (T-CNTFET) are examined. This is done by solving the Poisson equation and the Schrodinger equation using the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism under the mode space approach for reduction of computational time. We found that applying the uniaxial or torsional strain can dramatically minimizes the minimum-leakage current, makes the subthreshold swing steeper, and decreases the power delay product (PDP). Switching behavior represented by delay time and cutoff frequency are also studied under strain and we found that compressive strain can enhance cutoff frequency. Such improvement of the device performance can be understood qualitatively to be caused by the band gap modulation in the CNT channel region.

[M. Ossaimee and M. El Sabbagh. Uniaxial and torsional strain engineering in Schottky barrier and tunneling CNTFETs. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):178-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.20

 

Key words: strain engineering, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Schottky barrier, nanoscale transistor, NEGF, PDP.

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Hardware Synthesis and Dynamic Modeling of Bitumen Tank

 

AR. Hamed1, R.R. Darwish1, E. M. Shaban2, and A. M. Abdel ghany3

 

1Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt.

2Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, – Saudi Arabia,
On leave from Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University – Egypt

3Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University. Email: ghanymohamed@ieee.org

 

Abstract: Bitumen, as one of petrol derivatives, is a raw material used in insulation industries. Bitumen in its raw state needs additives such as polymers and fillers to achieve a certain properties. The mixing temperature depends upon the Bitumen grade and the quantity of additives. The mixing temperature is one of the primary factors considered in the mixing process, which should not exceed 5% of the specified temperature. The current work accentuates the hardware synthesis of the feedback control system and modelling of the Bitumen tank, sited in INSUMAT Company, Tamouh – Giza, Egypt, http://www.insumat.com, in order to achieve the set point of the mixing temperature. The paper shows the interfacing process of the three-way valve to control the flow rate of the hot oil by means of an AC motor and potentiometer, as well as interfacing the PT100 temperature sensor to feedback the current Bitumen temperature to the control system. LabJack UE9 is used as a data acquisition (DAQ) system and signal conditioning unit to interface the whole mechatronics system with a laptop, with preinstalled LabVIEW™ software version 8.0, for the sake of monitoring and controlling. This is followed by Data Based Modelling (DBM) for the entire Bitumen system to estimate its discrete-time Transfer Function (TF) which predicts the dynamic behaviour of the system for the sake of preventive actions. Here, the equation error algorithm is used and compared to well-established Simplified Recursive Instrumental Variable (SRIV) method existed in CAPTAIN toolbox. The results are close enough regarding the TF parameters estimation given the identification of the discrete-time TF.

[AR. Hamed, R.R. Darwish, E. M. Shaban, and A. M. Abdel ghany. Hardware Synthesis and Dynamic Modelling of Bitumen Tank. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):183-189]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.21

 

Keywords: Data Based Modelling (DBM); Discrete-Time Transfer Function (TF), Bitumen tank.

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The relation between Obesity and Periodontitis; Emphasis on the inflammatory state and insulin resistance

 

Amany A Mousa1, Samah H Almaadawy2, Azza Abdel Baky3 and Rania MA Elhelaly3

 

1Internal Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Oral Medicine and Periodontology Dept., Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

E-mail: aamousa2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Several studies found a significant association between obesity and periodontal disease the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has further suggested effects of periodontal disease on more serious systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease.  So, we conducted this study to evaluate the possible relation between obesity with its associated inflammatory state and periodontitis. Methods: The present study comprised 54 obese (21 males and 33 females) and 31 non obese healthy persons (12 males and 19 females). Clinical assessment of periodontitis was done using five periodontal indices. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance parameters (fasting glucose, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA–IR),  lipid profile, high sensitivity C-RP (hs-CRP) and resistin were measured in patients and controls. Results: All periodontal indices, HOMA-IR, serum resistin, hsCRP, cholesterol, and LDL-C were higher in obese subjects than none obese subjects. There was statistically significant correlation between BMI and waist circumference resistin, hsCRP, cholesterol and LDL-C with most of periodontal indices. Moderate and severe periodontitis were associated with significantly higher serum resistin, hsCRP and HOMA than mild or no periodontitis in both obese and nonobese. Conclusion:  There is a relationship between periodontitis and obesity that could be bidirectional and mediated by the inflammatory state.

[Amany A Mousa, Samah H Almaadawy, Azza Abdel Baky and Rania MA Elhelaly. The relation between Obesity and Periodontitis; Emphasis on the inflammatory state and insulin resistance. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):190-195]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.22

 

Key Words: obesity, periodontitis, inflammatory state.

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Management of Tooth with Necrotic Pulps and Open Apex  : Case Report

Nuha S ALGhamdi , BDS

 

Specialist of Endodontics, KSA

lady_noo@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A necrotic immature maxillary first premolar in an 8 year-old patient was treated. Instead of  the  standard root canal treatment protocol and apexification,, the  antimicrobial agents were used in the canal. After the disinfection protocol is complete, the apex is mechanically irritated to initiate bleeding into the canal to produce a blood clot. The double seal of the coronal access is then made. Radiographic examination showed the start of increase the root length and width at six months. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure was confirmed at two years after the treatment, indicating the antimicrobial protocol and   the effective coronal seal appears to have produced the environment necessary for successful revascularization potential of a young permanent tooth pulp into a bacteria-free root canal space.

[Nuha S ALGhamdi , BDS. Management of Tooth with Necrotic Pulps and Open Apex  : Case Report.J Am Sci 2014;10(12):196-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.23

 

Keywords: tooth with open apex, revascularization, and immature tooth.

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Vacuum assisted closure [VAC] in management of diabetic foot

 

Hisham W. Anwar1 and Ayman A. Al-Tramsy2

 

1Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Introduction: Treatment of diabetic foot wound, especially hard to heal wound.  Need more effort to develop a standardized protocol for management of diabetic foot.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) in management of diabetic foot. Patients and Methods: Fifteen cases of advanced diabetic foot that were treated with VAC, between October 2012 -May 2014. Age of patients between (44-65years). Ten patients had undergone local foot surgery, five patients had undergone Spinal foot surgery in all patients extensive debridement was performed that resulted in open minor amputation in three cases, ten cases with deep ulcer and below knee amputation of two cases.  The median follow-up period of the patients was six months.  Results: Wound healing of diabetic foot was achieved in all cases.  Number of changes with VAC was 12 within median period of 6 weeks, most of them was performed as outpatient procedures.   There was no major complication. Conclusion: The uses of VAC in management diabetic foot appears as gold standard and very helpful in closure of diabetic foot wound.

[Hisham W.Anwar and Ayman A. Al-Tramsy. Vacuum assisted closure [VAC] in management of diabetic Foot. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):200-204]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.24

 

Keyword: Vacuum, closure, diabetic, foot.

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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy fundus first

 

Nasr Algalaly

 

Department of Surgery – Al – Azharuniversity Hospitals

 

Abstract:Background: Removal of the gallbladder with dissection at the fundus first is well recognized as a safe technique during difficult "open" cholecystectomy because it minimizes the risks of damage to the structures in or around Calot's triangle, and although feasible in laparoscopic cholecystectomy it has not been widely practiced. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is most simply carried out using antegrade dissection with a grasper to provide cephaladfundic traction. Fundus-first dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an alternative to techniques previously described.Methods:This study included 24 patients treated over 24 months. The inclusion criterion was the presence of ultrasound proven gallstones. Patients were excluded from the study if there was evidence of common bile duct stones, a bilioenteric fistula, or carcinoma of the gallbladder.Results: Fundus-first dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was used in 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were 5 male and 19 female patients. 8 patients had moderate or severe adhesions involving the gallbladder. Median duration of surgery in the 24 patientswas 79.5 minutes (35–130). The procedure was successful in 23patients, but in one patient it was converted to open operation because of dense adhesions. There was no mortality.Conclusions:Fundus-first dissection technique during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was easy to learn with a shortlearning curve, and it is therefore recommended thatlaparoscopic surgeons acquire this technique for useas a secondary approachwhen faced with a difficult case.

[Nasr Algalaly. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy fundus first. J Am Sci 2014; 10(12):205-209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.25

 

Keyword: Laparoscopic, cholecystectomy, fundus.

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Efficacy of resistance training in malnutrition-Inflammation complex syndrome of chronic kidney disease

 

Adel A. Nosier, Ahmed A. Moharram and Christine J. Fahmy

 

Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Drchristine.j@gmail.com

 

Abstract: protein malnutrition starts in the early stage of chronic kidney disease and increases steadily as kidney function declines. There is a connection between malnutrition and chronic inflammation in people with kidney disease. Eating problems may occur frequently in kidney disease patients, especially for those with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and on dialysis. Poor appetite results in a lack of calorie and protein intake. Over time, a condition called protein energy malnutrition (PEM) occurs. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of resistance training in malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome of chronic kidney disease. Methods: - forty patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis therapy from both sexes participated and completed the study. They ranged in age from 40 to 60 years. The patients were randomized into two groups of equal number. Group A: received resistance training with low protein diet, and Group B: received low protein diet regimen only. The evaluation procedures was  in form of measurement of the level of serum C-reactive protein (mg/l), albumin (g/dl), creatinine (mg/dl), BMI (kg/m2) and isokinetic peak torque of quadriceps (Nm) at 90/s pre-treatment and after three months post treatment. Results: - showed significant decrease in the level of serum (CRP) and significant increase in the level of serum albumin and in isokinetic peak torque of quadriceps in resistance training group versus controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion: - It could be concluded that resistance training can decrease inflammation and improve nutritional status and muscle strength in patients with chronic kidney disease.

[Adel A. Nosier, Ahmed A. Moharam and Christine J. Fahmy. Efficacy of resistance training in malnutrition Inflammation complex syndrome of chronic kidney disease. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):210-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.26

 

Key Words: resistance training, isokinetic, malnutrition, inflammation and chronic kidney disease.

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Mortality rate and histopathological changes of Oreochromis niloticus gills experimentally exposed to Escherichia coli

 

1Amal M. Yacoub,*2Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra and 3Mona Khaled D. Al-Kourashi

 

1(Pollution Lab. / National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries)

*2(Department of Microbiology / Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt)

3(Zoology Master Student)

1,*2 &3(Biology Dept., Science College, Taif University, KSA)

yacoub-am2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fish of Oreochromis niloticus were treated with different concentrations of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as (103-105, 106-107 and 109-1010/ml water). Samples of water and fish were collected at 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th day respectively. Incidence of mortality rate for fish under experiment, the highest concentration at phase 3 which was clear as 100%, 83.3%, 25% and 00% in phases 3, 2, 1 and control respectively. Incidence of ETEC isolated from gills of fish under-experiment, were isolated from gills of fish as highest concentration in phase 3as 50, 75, 75, 75, and 75%. Its isolation was highest in the 9th day of each phase as 75%. Incidence of re-isolation of ETEC from water used of fish under-experiment, were re-isolated from each phase, as well high concentration especially in phase3 as 25, 50, 75, 100, and 100% respectively. The re-isolation was clear at 9th day of each phase. Fish gills were exposed to three successive concentrations. Histopathogical changes included hyperplasia of epithelial cells, degeneration and necrosis in addition to telangiectasis in the first concentration (103- 105/ml water of E. coli). Exposure to the second concentration (106- 107/ml water of E. coli) caused complete fusion of secondary lamellae, edema, necrosis and hemorrhage. After treatment with the last concentration (109- 1010/ml water of E. coli), all fish specimens died in the 6th day after demonstration of severe hemorrhage and hyperplasia of epithelial cells. The results revealed the hazardous effects of water polluted with E. coli on the health status of O. niloticus and human consumption.

[Amal M. Yacoub, Sherifa Mostafa M. Sabra and Mona Khaled D. Al-Kourashi. Mortality rate and histopathogical changes of Oreochromis niloticus gills experimentally exposed to Escherichia coli. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):217-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.27

 

Key words: Oreochromis niloticus, Mortality rate, gills, histopathology, Escherichia coli.

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Application of infrared thermal imagery for monitoring salt tolerant of wheat genotypes

 

Tarek Youssef Bayoumi 1, 2,  Salah El-Hendawy2, Mohamed Sabry Hamada Yousef2, Mohamed Abed El Gawad Emam2; Salah Ahmed Abed El Gawad Okasha2

 

2Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, 41522 Ismailia, Egypt

dr.tarekbayoumi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Salinity is an international problem causing soil degradation and desertification; thereby threaten sustainable crop production in agriculture. Traditional methods of measuring wheat growth have been time-consuming and have often involved in the destructive harvest of plants. Thermal infrared imaging (IR) is now an established technology for the study of stomatal responses and for phenotyping the stomatal behavior under various environmental stresses. Two Experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of El Quantara Shark, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt to test whether thermal imaging can be used to distinguish between tolerant and sensitive wheat genotypes. Ten bread wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerance were evaluated under two soil salinity levels (EC =3.78 dS m-1and EC= 8.24 dSm-1). The salinity stress created a wide range in leaf temperature, stomatal conductance (IG) and Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) between tested genotypes. Proline content increased by 13 fold in landraces 1, 2, 3and 10 folds in genotypes Sakha 8 and Kharchia due to salinity stress. There were inverse correlation between canopy temperature and CWSI (r= -0.31) and IG (r = 0.53). Thermal imaging can distinguish between salinity stress and non-stress canopies. Therefore, the application of these technologies and methodologies for efficient salinity managements in wheat open new opportunities and challenges in future precision farming.

[Tarek Youssef Bayoumi;  Salah El-Hendawy, Mohamed Sabry Hamada Yousef, Mohamed Abed El Gawad Emam; Salah Ahmed Abed El Gawad Okasha. Application of infrared thermal imagery for monitoring salt tolerant of wheat genotypes. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):227-234]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.28

 

Keywords: Crop Water Stress Index, leaf temperature, stomatal conductance.

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Aggregate Demand & aggregate Supply: Formulating Equations and their Policy Implications

 

Yassin El Tahir

 

King Khalid University, Faculty of Administrative and Financial Sciences, Abha,KSA

Email: yasn_99@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Macroeconomic indicators like inflation, unemployment as well as payment balance influence by national income level and growth. To manage macro indicators ought to compromise national income growth. Hence factorization of income helps in assessing these indicators beside achieving their target levels. This study approaching national income through aggregate demand and supply, specifically the attempt to formulate equations to these concept facilitates the analysis as well as management of national income. Accordingly by solving the final equations a unique equilibrium values to price level and income will be found out. From these values exchange rate and interest rate equilibrium values were reached, consequently, sub markets equilibrium quantities will be obtained. The approach of this study concentrates on economy’s potential which frame the limits within which the policy makers design their plans. Finally the choice between different policies will belong to the geometric version of the model, which also rationalizes the adoption of specific school of thought.

[Yassin El Tahir Aggregate. Demand & aggregate Supply: Formulating Equations and their Policy Implications. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):235-240]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.29

 

Keywords: Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply, AS & AS analysis, Equilibrium.

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Expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 and Ki-67 in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

 

Eman M. Ahmed 1 Asmaa S. Farag 2

 

1 Pathology Department and 2Dermatology and Venereology Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-azhar University. Cairo, Egypt. dremankhalil150@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequent malignancy of the oral cavity, highly invasive with unfavorable prognosis and unimproved 5-year survival rate for at least two decades. An elevated level of EMMPRIN in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor invasion in numerous cancers including oral cavity and larynx. Ki-67 is a specific marker of proliferation and the expression of which is strictly associated with cell proliferation and used to measure the growth fraction of cells in human tumors. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 and Ki67 markers in OSCC and to correlate the expression of either marker with each other and with the clinico-pathological parameters of OSCC. Methods: Thirty five formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded tissue blocks of OSCC were included in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. The expressions of EMMPRIN and Ki67 were detected by immunohistochemical method. Results: The expression of EMMPRIN and Ki-67 were positive in all OSCC cases. EMMPRIN high expression score was observed in 26 cases (74.3%). No significant relationships were found between clinicopathologic factors and this protein except for clinical stage, and histological grade (P=0.047 and 0.005 respectively). The high expression of EMMPRIN was associated with higher grade and advanced stage of OSCC. On the other hand, Ki67 with high proliferation score was observed in 17 cases (48.5%) of 35 OSCC. Significant relationship was found between Ki67 and histologic grade (P =0.003). Also a statistically significant correlation was found between EMMPRIN high expression and Ki67 high proliferation scores (P =0.001). Conclusion: Increased expression of EMMPRIN in more than two third of cases with statistical significant association with proliferative marker highlight the importance of EMMPRIN in cancer progression, indicating that EMMPRIN could be an attractive target for immunotherapeutic approaches in a group of patients with OSCC.

[Eman M. Ahmed and Asmaa S. Farag. Expression of EMMPRIN/CD147 and Ki-67 in oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):241-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.30

 

Key words: EMMPRIN/CD147; Ki67; Oral squamous cell carcinoma; immunohistochemistry

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Assessment of Women Knowledge and Attitude toward Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in Assiut University Hospital

 

Madiha Mohamed Tosson1; Alsaeed Elsayed A. Askar2 and Shokria Adly Labeeb.1

 

1Gynecology &Obstetric department, Community Health Medicine department Faculty of Nursing Assiut University

2 Gynecology &Obstetric department Faculty of Medicine Al-Azhar University

sa_og2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To study women knowledge and attitudes toward menopause and HRT in outpatient department (OPD) in Assiut University Hospital. Introduction: Menopause occurs in a critical period of woman’s life and coincides with many social transition events. Now hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is becoming referable to manage symptoms and prevent medical sequels of menopause. There is lack of basic information in Assiut to start the practicing HRT.  Material and Methods: A structured questionnaire (designed and guided by questionnaire from other studies) was used to test knowledge and attitudes toward menopause and HRT. Through six months period, the questionnaire was distributed for above 45 years old women attended in OPD in Assiut university hospital. Descriptive statistic was used to present and correlate attitude statements and some demographic variables. Results: Ninety-nine completed the questionnaire. Most of them were postmenopausal and illiterate. Their knowledge regarding symptoms of menopause was average (66.5%) and they were poor regarding signs (44.4%). Their knowledge about HRT was very limited. Friends and relatives were their important information source. Health staff did not play the appropriate role in health education. Attitude of the majority toward menopause was negative. And toward management of menopausal effects was directed to natural approach. Conclusion: The mass media and the health staff should give more attention to elaborate the true information regarding symptoms, signs and management of menopause and HRT. More researches to study the attitude of the health staff toward HRT are needed

[Madiha Mohamed Tosson; Alsaeed Elsayed A. Askar and Shokria Adly Labeeb. Assessment of Women Knowledge and Attitude toward Menopause and Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) in Assiut University Hospital. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):250-255]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.31

 

Keywords: Menopause, hormone replacement therapy, HRT, knowledge and attitudes

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Relation between Hyperparathyroidism and Osteoporosis in Chronic Renal Failure Patients with Regular Haemodialysis

 

Fawzy Hamed Saafan1, Alsayed M. Rashed1, Amged A. Awad1, Haytham S. Abd Elhameed1, Mahmoud Haddad. Hemida1, Loay Mohammad Emam2 and Fareid Fareid Attia3

 

Departments of Internal Medicine1, Clinical Pathology2 and Tropical Medicine3

Faculty of Medicine for Boys AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

drsayedawad@gmail.com, nadia_nour27@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to find a relation between hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis in chronic renal failure patients (CRF) with regular haemodialysis (HD) at haemodialysis unit of Al-Hussein University Hospital. 100 CRF patients on regular HD and 20 healthy controls were studied. All included patients and controls were subjected to the following: Full history taking, complete clinical examination, complete blood picture, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorous, Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron" binding capacity. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) by immunoradiometricassay (IRMA). Bone density by quantitative heel ultrasound (QUS). The results of this study revealed that 27% of haemodialysed patients had normal bone mineral density (HMD) (T-score above-1), 53% were osteopenic (T-score between-1 to-2.5) and 20% showed Osteoporosis (T-score less than -2.5). There were significant increase in serum iPTH levels in 40% of our haemodialysed patients, these results indicate that reduced BMD was due to osteopenia and Osteoporosis in addition to renal osteodystrophy as indicated by elevated serum: iPTH in 40% of our patients. These results indicate that 33% of our patients had frank osteopenia and Osteoporosis other than renal osteodystrophy. There were significant negative correlation" between BMD and iPTH, serum phosphorous, age, body weight, body mass index and duration of haemodialysis. There were significant positive correlation between BMD and serum calcium, height and sex as incidence was more in females. In conclusion: osteopenia and Osteoporosis among patients undergoing haemodialysis were common..Static and kinetic bone histomorphometry after double tetracycline labelling and bone biopsy are essential for assessment of the bone disease in uremic patients especially in high risk or recurrent fractures.

[Fawzy Hamed Saafan, Alsayed M. Rashed, Amged A. Awad, Haytham S. Abd Elhameed, Mahmoud Haddad. Hemida, Loay Mohammad Emam and Fareid Fareid Attia. Relation between Hyperparathyroidism and Osteoporosis in Chronic Renal Failure Patients with Regular Haemodialysis. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):256-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.32

 

Keywords: Hyperparathyroidism; Osteoporosis; Chronic Renal Failure; Patient; Haemodialysis

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The relation between Obesity and Periodontitis; Emphasis on the inflammatory state and insulin resistance

 

Amany A Mousa1, Samah H Almaadawy2, Azza Abdel Baky3 and Rania MA Elhelaly3

 

1Internal Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Oral Medicine and Periodontology Dept., Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Clinical Pathology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

E-mail: aamousa2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Several studies found a significant association between obesity and periodontal disease the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes. On the other hand, epidemiological evidence has further suggested effects of periodontal disease on more serious systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease.  So, we conducted this study to evaluate the possible relation between obesity with its associated inflammatory state and periodontitis. Methods: The present study comprised 54 obese (21 males and 33 females) and 31 non obese healthy persons (12 males and 19 females). Clinical assessment of periodontitis was done using five periodontal indices. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance parameters (fasting glucose, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA–IR),  lipid profile, high sensitivity C-RP (hs-CRP) and resistin were measured in patients and controls. Results: All periodontal indices, HOMA-IR, serum resistin, hsCRP, cholesterol, and LDL-C were higher in obese subjects than none obese subjects. There was statistically significant correlation between BMI and waist circumference resistin, hsCRP, cholesterol and LDL-C with most of periodontal indices. Moderate and severe periodontitis were associated with significantly higher serum resistin, hsCRP and HOMA than mild or no periodontitis in both obese and nonobese. Conclusion:  There is a relationship between periodontitis and obesity that could be bidirectional and mediated by the inflammatory state.

[Amany A Mousa, Samah H Almaadawy, Azza Abdel Baky and Rania MA Elhelaly. The relation between Obesity and Periodontitis; Emphasis on the inflammatory state and insulin resistance. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):262-268]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.33

 

Key Words: obesity, periodontitis, inflammatory state

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Study the effect of cupping on the level of fat in the body for practitioners of sports activity Age 40-50years

 

Assist.Prof. Dr. Haider Balash jabr

 

Department sport education. Faculty physical Education, AL-muthanna University, Iraq.

ayadabd96@yahoo.comkarar110@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: That medical advances in the treatment of many diseases has been fast in Shred processors and achieve results, but there was a synonym for these developments despite presented namely alternative therapies or so-called alternative medicine and through the practices and experiences of this treatment showed the results of a large and not damage them because they not be there chemical residues treatments of alternative medicine and this is what favored people at the present time to have recourse to such treatments and these treatments cupping a cure Old has been used by many peoples and civilizations in the world, including our nation has been inspired by this treatment through the commandments in this respect, including the commandments of the Great Prophet (Pray God and his family and him) about cupping (from cupping to seventeen of the month, and nineteen, and twenty-one had a cure for every disease we can see from these conversations that cupping the right cure for every disease more useful and good. Recognizes the western medicine and especially French benefits of cupping in dermatology, especially lupus tuberculosis and lupus erythematous. the wet form of traditional medicine Finnish where he was treated (15) patients this therapeutic method, they talk that cupping patients were very useful from dental pain and persistent Nubian,(1:3) For the treatment of head and neck, shoulders, back pain, as reported in the treatment of high blood pressure and a number of chronic dermatome’s, preferably made after the massage of the area after a hot bath or sauna. in dermatology, considering cupping the wet form of traditional medicine Finnish where he was treated (15) patients this therapeutic method, they talk that cupping patients were very useful from dental pain and persistent Nubianconfirms that the number of leukocytes in the blood rise after cupping and explains it to happen activated marrow product bone leukocyte after cupping like to have woken up and get rid of his labor after blood rid of impurities and blends and is considered the study that the most important reasons for this large difference in the incidence of liver cancer is the distinction between the sexes women, considering that out of menstrual blood purifies the body and relieves members like natural cupping divine. In all conditions and show it back to its natural state after cupping .studies Arab.

[Haider Balash jabr. Study the effect of cupping on the level of fat in the body for practitioners of sports activity Age 40-50 Years. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):269-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.34

 

Keywords: cupping.activity. Practitioners.

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Effect of domestic processing methods of some legumes on phytochemicals content and bioavailability of some minerals

 

Amany A. salem*, El-Bostany, A. Nahla, Samia A. Al-Askalany and Hala A. Thabet

 

Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Technology Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt.

Amanysalem2013@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Legumes are valued over the world for their protein content as well as their low glycemic index and are commonly included in Egyptian diets. So,the present study was conducted to determine the effect of common household processes on nutiritional value and antioxidant factors as well as in vitro bioavailability of iron and zinc. Generally, the domestic processing methods on the legumes under study resulted in increases in protein and crude fiber contents,while total carbohydrates, fat and ash contents were decreased as comparing with the raw materials. The soaking process caused significant decrease in mineral contents of tested legumes, while cooking and germination processes caused increases in Ca, Fe and Zn contents, but caused decreases in Na and K contents as compared to raw materials. Concerning in vitro bioavailability percent of Fe and Zn, there were an increment in their contents when the row materials of legumes under went to different treatments.The trend observed in the degree to which processing increased the bioavailability percent of Fe and Zn was germination+ cooking ˃ germiation ˃ cooking ˃ soaking. From results too, the same trend was observed in total phenols and total flavonoids.The total antioxidant percent increased after all processes and arranged in desending order germenation ˃ germenation+cooking ˃ cooking ˃ soaking. According to fractionation of isoflavones, it was clear that genistein was the highest detected component and formononetin was the lowest one in all studied legumes.Treatments of soaking and cooking resulted in a decrement in isoflavone fractions relative to raw materials. In addition, germination process increased their contents compared to soaked ones. Also, the vitamins B were decreased in all processes except germination treatment. From the present results, it could be concluded that the common household processes for legumes, in particular, germination process could be improved the nutritional value through reduction in carbohytrates and lipids contents and elevation in the capacity of antioxidant constituents and vitamin B fractions as well as increased the in vitro bioavalibilty of minerals.

[Amany A. salem, El-Bostany, A. Nahla, Samia A. Al-Askalany and Hala A. Thabet. Effect of domestic processing methods of some legumes on phytochemicals content and bioavailability of some minerals. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):276-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.35

 

Key words: Legumes - Soaking – Germination – Cooking – Antioxidant activity – Fe and Zn Bioavailability – Vitamin B – Isoflavones and Phenols fractions.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Nocturnal Enuresis and Obesity: A Vicious Circle entrapping Children

 

1Mohamed F. Shindy MD and 2Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty MD

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and if there is a positive therapeutic effect of adenotonsillectomy (AT) on the frequency of bed-wetting.  Patients & Methods: The study aimed to collect 150 snorer children with present history of bed wetting. Parents were asked to answer a questionnaire to determine the frequency and severity of snoring and enuresis. Only children scored 3 or 4 were considered to be enuretic. All children underwent over-night pulse oximetry and data were scored according the McGill Oximetry Scoring. Patients with McGill scores of 2-4 (n=123) underwent AT and patients with McGill score of one (n=27) were subjected to further evaluation. All enrolled patients were subjected to weight reduction dieting regimen and aerobic exercise for three months. Pulse oximetry and questionnaire were conducted after 6 months of enrolment and scores were compared to preoperative data. Results: AT induced significantly lower postoperative (PO) desaturation index and significantly higher PO lowest SaO2% with significantly lower total PO McGill scores compared to preoperative data. PO enuresis scoring showed significantly higher frequency of low scores with significantly lower PO score compared to pre-treatment score for a total PO success rate of 79.3%. Medical intervention provided a success rate of 59.3%. Mean post-treatment enuresis scoring was significantly lower compared to pre-treatment scores, irrespective of line of treatment with significantly higher post-treatment scores for those had AT. Dietary intervention and exercise induced significant decrease of body weight and BMI of studied patients at the end of 6-months.  Conclusion: OSAS, NE and obesity constitute a vicious circle endangering quality of life of children. NE is not always a urological problem and consultation of pediatrician and otorhinolaryngologist is mandatory. Adenotonsillectomy provided complete recovery of both OSAS and NE in 55% and improvement in 29% of patients had adenotonsillitis. Weight reduction programs alone or after surgery induced significant body mass index reduction and improved outcome of patients free of adenotonsillitis by rate 59.3%.

[Mohamed F. Shindy and Hesham A. El-Ghaiaty. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Nocturnal Enuresis and Obesity: A Vicious Circle entrapping Children. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):289-295]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.36

 

Keywords: Nocturnal enuresis, OSAS, Obesity, Adenotonsillectomy, Weight reduction

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Uniaxial and torsional strain engineering in Schottky barrier and tunneling CNTFETs

 

* M. Ossaimee and M. El Sabbagh

 

Department of engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

*Corresponding author: m_ossaimee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effects of both uniaxial and torsional strain on the performance of Schottky barrier carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor (SB-CNTFET) and tunneling carbon nanotubes field-effect transistor (T-CNTFET) are examined. This is done by solving the Poisson equation and the Schrodinger equation using the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism under the mode space approach for reduction of computational time. We found that applying the uniaxial or torsional strain can dramatically minimizes the minimum-leakage current, makes the subthreshold swing steeper, and decreases the power delay product (PDP). Switching behavior represented by delay time and cutoff frequency are also studied under strain and we found that compressive strain can enhance cutoff frequency. Such improvement of the device performance can be understood qualitatively to be caused by the band gap modulation in the CNT channel region.

[M. Ossaimee and M. El Sabbagh. Uniaxial and torsional strain engineering in Schottky barrier and tunneling CNTFETs. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):296-300]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.37

 

Key words: strain engineering, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Schottky barrier, nanoscale transistor, NEGF, PDP.

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A computational study on electrical characteristics of a proposed double gate heterojunction SB-CNTFET

 

1* M. Ossaimee, 1A. Shaker, 1 M. El-Banna and 2 M. Abouelatta

 

1 Department of engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

2 Department of Electronics and communications, Faculty of engineering-Ain Shams University-Cairo-Egypt

*Corresponding author: m_ossaimee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a coaxial gated SB-CNTFET with double gates heterojunction DGHJ is proposed. By using a non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method, the transport characteristics of a DGHJ-SB-CNTFET is compared to those of conventional SB-CNTFET with homogenous channel. According to simulation results, DGHJ-SB-CNTFET demonstrates much less leakage tunnelling current, larger ON-OFF current ratio (ION / IOFF), suppression of ambipolar characteristics and better switching parameters. According to these advantages, the proposed structure could be a suitable candidate for low-power and high speed applications.

[M. Ossaimee, A. Shaker, M. El-Banna and M. Abouelatta. A computational study on electrical characteristics of a proposed double gate heterojunction SB-CNTFET. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):301-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.38

 

Keywords: carbon nanotubes (CNTs), heterojunction, NEGF, nanoscale transistors, delay time, PDP.

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Hardware Synthesis and Dynamic Modeling of Bitumen Tank

 

AR. Hamed1, R.R. Darwish1, E. M. Shaban2, and A. M. Abdel ghany3

 

1Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt.

2Faculty of Engineering, Jazan University, – Saudi Arabia, On leave from Faculty of Engineering (Mataria), Helwan University – Egypt

3Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University. Email: ghanymohamed@ieee.org

 

Abstract: Bitumen, as one of petrol derivatives, is a raw material used in insulation industries. Bitumen in its raw state needs additives such as polymers and fillers to achieve a certain properties. The mixing temperature depends upon the Bitumen grade and the quantity of additives. The mixing temperature is one of the primary factors considered in the mixing process, which should not exceed 5% of the specified temperature. The current work accentuates the hardware synthesis of the feedback control system and modelling of the Bitumen tank, sited in INSUMAT Company, Tamouh – Giza, Egypt, http://www.insumat.com, in order to achieve the set point of the mixing temperature. The paper shows the interfacing process of the three-way valve to control the flow rate of the hot oil by means of an AC motor and potentiometer, as well as interfacing the PT100 temperature sensor to feedback the current Bitumen temperature to the control system. LabJack UE9 is used as a data acquisition (DAQ) system and signal conditioning unit to interface the whole mechatronics system with a laptop, with preinstalled LabVIEW™ software version 8.0, for the sake of monitoring and controlling. This is followed by Data Based Modelling (DBM) for the entire Bitumen system to estimate its discrete-time Transfer Function (TF) which predicts the dynamic behaviour of the system for the sake of preventive actions. Here, the equation error algorithm is used and compared to well-established Simplified Recursive Instrumental Variable (SRIV) method existed in CAPTAIN toolbox. The results are close enough regarding the TF parameters estimation given the identification of the discrete-time TF.

[AR. Hamed, R.R. Darwish, E. M. Shaban, and A. M. Abdel ghany. Hardware Synthesis and Dynamic Modelling of Bitumen Tank. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):304-310]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.39

 

Keywords: Data Based Modelling (DBM); Discrete-Time Transfer Function (TF), Bitumen tank

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Prevalence of Antenatal TORCH Infections by Serological detection in Cases of Poor Obstetric Outcome

 

Abeer A. abdelmonem1, Hany A. Abdel-Hafeez2

 

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of medicine, BeniSuef University,

2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of medicine, Beni-Suef University

akefhany@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The TORCH test, which is sometimes called the TORCH panel, consists of tests for antibodies of four organisms that cause congenital infections transmitted from mother to fetus. The name of the test is an acronym for the organisms detected by this panel: Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis), rubella (German measles), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Objective: To determine the prevalence rates of IgM and IgG to common TORCH agents in pregnant women using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cases of poor obstetric outcome. Subjects and Methods: A total of 950 samples of sera were tested for antibodies to TORCH agents known to cause serious congenital infections: Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Rubella, herpes simplex viruses. Results: In our study, out of 950 pregnant women, a total of 220 (23.1%) were positive for IgM Rubella and a total of 550 (57.8%) were positive for IgG Rubella. Toxoplasma IgM positive were 66 (6.9%), Toxoplasma IgG positive were 380 (40%), CMV IgM positive were 65 (6.8 %) CMV IgG positive were 890 (93.6 %) and 25 (2.6%) were positive for HSV II for IgM and 320 (33.6%) were positive HSV II for IgG . Conclusion: all antenatal cases with poor obstetric outcome should be routinely screened for TORCH as early diagnosis and appropriate intervention, will help in proper management of these cases. Some of pregnant women commonly have IgG antibodies to CMV followed by rubella, and then T. gondii, and the last one HSV.

[Abeer A. abdelmonem and Hany A. Abdel-Hafeez. Prevalence of Antenatal TORCH Infections by Serological detection in Cases of Poor Obstetric Outcome. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):311-314]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.40

 

Keywords: TORCH, Obstetric outcome, Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Congenital, Antenatal, Serological test

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CFD parametric simulation of low specific speed centrifugal pump

 

Mahmoud Fouaad1, Mohamed Adel2 and Ahmed Ashmawy3

 

1 professor, Mechanical Power Engineering department, faculty of engineering, Cairo University.

2 professor, Mechanical &Electrical Research Institute, National Water Research Center.

3 postgraduate student, Mechanical Power Engineering department, faculty of engineering, Cairo university.

Eng_ahmed_ashmawy86@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present work CFD simulation is used to investigate the effects of adding splitter blades and change in volute cross section shape on the performance of low specific speed centrifugal pump. Low specific speed centrifugal pumps are high demand in numerous applications, this type of pumps, however they are very sensitive to changes as they are characterized by relatively low efficiency. A three dimensional simulation was used to predict the flow pattern inside centrifugal pump. Standard k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall function and PISO (Pressure-Implicit with Splitting of Operators) were chosen for turbulence model, wall treatment and pressure-velocity coupling respectively. This simulation has been carried out for model that has the following properties (head (H) =77.6 m, discharge (Q) =225 m3/h, specific speed (Ns) =14.2, inlet blade angle (β1) = 10.2, outlet blade angle (β2) = 15.1). For pump model simulation was done at five different operating points (0.1Q, 0.4Q, 0.7Q, Q, 1.2Q). The difference between the head from CFD simulation less than the head from experimental with average value of (2.7%). Adding splitter blades to the impeller lead to increase the head of the pump with (14.4%) than the head from experimental. Changing volute case cross section shape to rectangular leaded to reduce the head by (2.5%) compared with the head from experimental, reduce the efficiency by (3.45%). Changing volute cross section shape to trapezoid leaded to reduce the head by (3%), reduce the efficiency by (4.8%).

[Mahmoud Fouaad, Mohamed Adel and Ahmed Ashmawy. CFD parametric simulation of low specific speed centrifugal pump. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):315-323]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.41

 

Keywords: CFD, Impeller, centrifugal pump, volute, spilleter blades and pump performance.

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Study the Physico-Chemical Properties and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Garden Cress Seed Oil

 

Ghada M. Youssef1, Heba E. El-Ghamery2 and Hayam Abd-Elaziz El-Sawy1

 

1Special Food and Nutrition Department, Food Tech. Res. Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

2Faculty of Education, King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia.

Y-mriyad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is an annual herb, grown mainly for its seeds. Physico-chemical of oil, fatty acid composition tocopherols and total phenolic of garden cress seed oil were studied. Also, the objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding on garden cress oils with different levels 25, 50 and 75% on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. Thirty adult albino male rats were classified into two groups. One was fed on standard diet and kept as control group. The second of rats were fed on standard diet with cholesterol for 3 weeks to be hypercholesterolemic, and then classified into 4 groups. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and triglycerides (TG), were determined. Also, serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) were calculated. The results showed that linolenic acid (34.8%) was the major fatty acid in garden cress seed oil followed by oleic acid (21.9%), linoleic acid (11.4%). A qualitative estimation of tocopherols in garden cress oil showed the presence of alfa(α), gama(γ) and sigma (ᵹ) -tocopherol, were 957, 668 and 535 ug/g oil, respectively. The experimental animal fed with Supplemented diet of rats with garden cress seed oil significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, VLDL-c and (AST and ALT) enzyme compared to positive control. However, The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed on different levels from garden cress oil. Therefore, the diets rich in garden cress oil have more favorable effects on the blood lipid profile and plasma lipoproteins and can be recommended for patients with dyslipidemia diseases.

[Ghada M. Youssef, Heba E. El-Ghamery and Hayam Abd-Elaziz El-Sawy. Study the Physico-Chemical Properties and Antihyperlipidemic Activities of Garden Cress Seed Oil. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):324-330]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.42

 

Key words: Garden cress seeds, Fatty acids, Tocopherol, Hypercholesterolemic, Lipid profile

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Motivators and barriers to quit smoking among Saudi smokers

 

Mohammed M Beyari1 and Rabab I Salama2

 

[1] Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Removable Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukaramah, KSA

[1] Department of Preventive Dentistry, Division of Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah Al- Mukaramah, KSA.

sad2_4@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Smoking prevalence in Saudi Arabia was reported a high prevalence and the disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. To foster successful smoking cessation, public health professionals need to understand better the reasons why smokers quit smoking. As well as the researchers have to study the motivators and barriers that may predict and guide the way for smoking cessation. Aim of the work: The present study was aimed to identify the different motivators and barriers to quit attempt among Saudi and Non Saudi smokers. Results: The present study identify multiple of factors as health concern, religious and financial considerations as motivators to quit attempt, while physical and nicotine addiction were the major barriers addressed by the participant preventing their quit attempt. Conclusion: Healthcare providers, as well as smokers, need to understand the process and challenges of quitting. Healthcare providers can set the stage for successful quit attempts by making evidence-based cessation materials readily accessible and by tailoring cessation strategies by address barriers and motivators identified by smokers.

[Mohammed M Beyari, Rabab I Salama. Motivators and barriers to quit smoking among Saudi smokers. J Am Sci 2014;10(12):331-334]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43. doi:10.7537/marsjas101214.43

 

Keywords: Quit smoking, Saudi smokers, Motivators, Barriers

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