Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 9, Cumulated No. 55, September 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0809

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CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Heat Treatment of Duplex Stainless Steel SAF 2205 Welded Joints

 

S. M. Khafagy1, M. A. Morsy2, F. M. Molleda3, and J. C. Suarez3

 

1 Tabbin Institute for Metallurgical Studies TIMS; 2Central Metallurgical R&D Institute CMRDI; 3E.T.S.I. Navales de la U.P.M. morsy_abokhala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The heat treatment plays an important role in final properties of welded joint. In fact, it may give unwanted structure changes in joint. The duplex stainless steel SAF 2205 welded joint has been heat treated in the temperature range 780-880 oC for time intervals between 15-45 min. The influence of heat treatment on microstructure of fusion zone (FZ), heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal (BM) has been investigated. It was found that the chromium nitride precipitated during welding was dissolved and the density of secondary austenite phase was increased in fusion zone and heat affected zone. The sigma phase precipitated at different zones of joint. The grain size and volume fraction of sigma phase (s) was measured. It was found that its volume is highest at the base metal and lowest at the fusion zone.

[S. M. Khafagy, M. A. Morsy, F. M. Molleda, and J. C. Suarez. Heat Treatment of Duplex Stainless Steel SAF 2205 Welded Joints. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

 

Keywords: Duplex stainless steels welded spesimen, heat treatment, microstructure, Chromium nitride, secondary austenite phase, sigma phase, fusion zone, heat affected zone, base metal.

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Effect of Discharge Planning On Knowledge and Self-Efficacy of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Soheir Tawfik Ahmed, Hanan Sobeih Sobeih and Neamatalla Gomaa Ahamed

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt.

Soheir2010@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis patients with strong self-efficacy influences their capacity to manage in their every day lives. Furthermore it has been found to reduce the number of visits to health care professionals and results in lowering the overall health care costs for both patient and the health care system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of discharge planning on knowledge and self-efficacy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The research hypotheses were that post implementation of the discharge planning the patients' knowledge and self-efficacy scores will be higher than their pre-implementation scores in the immediate post and follow-up tests and there is a positive correlation between level of patients' knowledge and self-efficacy. Design: a quasi-experimental research design was used. Setting: the study was conducted in the inpatient department and outpatient clinic of rheumatoid arthritis, affiliated to Ain-shams university hospital. The study was carried out a purposive sample of rheumatoid arthritis adult patient (70) from both gender. Tools: three tools were used for data collection 1-Patient's Characteristics Form. 2- Patient Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ). 3-Arthritis Self-Efficacy questionnaire. Results: there were statistically significant improvement of patients' knowledge and self-efficacy after implementation of the discharge planning. There was no relation between level of patients' knowledge and their self-efficacy after implement discharge planning. The study concludes that, at completion of the structure discharge planning, both knowledge and self-efficacy were significantly improved and this was maintained at follow-up. However, there were no correlate between RA patients' self-efficacy and their knowledge ( r= 0.076). Therefore, this discharge planning should become an integrated part of the total nursing management of rheumatoid arthritis. Long- term effects of following discharge-planning educational intervention need to be further studied.

[Soheir Tawfik Ahmed, Hanan Sobeih Sobeih and Neamatalla Gomaa Ahamed. Effect of Discharge Planning On Knowledge and Self-Efficacy of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):7-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

 

Key word: rheumatoid arthritis, self-efficacy, complains, discharge planning

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The Role of Endoscopic, Histopathologic and Parasitic Findings in Diagnosis of Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children

 

Hosny M.A. El-Masry1, Alaa-Eldin A. Hassan1, Ahmed H. Abdel tawab2, M. Abd Al Fatah3 Nabila F. Amin4, and Gehan M. Elosaily5

 

Departments of 1Pediatrics; 2Parasitology, and 3Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Egypt; 4Internal Medicine and 5Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt. hosny5219672000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic role of gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Patients and methods: Fifty children with RAP were included, their ages ranged from 3 to 15 years. All patients were subjected to detailed history, examinations, routine investigations, IgG for H. pylori, upper and lower endoscopy and biopsy. Antigliadin antibodies and indirect hemagglutination test for amebiasis. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were abnormal in 34 cases. Erythematous mucosa, nodular mucosa then ulceration and oedema, were strongly associated with presence of histopathological findings with sensitivity 94.3%, specificity 93.3%,, positive predictive value (PPV)=97.1% and negative predictive value (NPV) = 87.5%. H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 15 patients serum IgG for H. pylori was positive in 11 patients  with sensitivity 73.3%. Endoscopic findings were positive in 13 patients with H. pylori infections with sensitivity 86.7%, while histopathological findings were positive in all patients with H. pylori infections with specificity 100%, PPV=100% and NPV =94.6%. Parasitic infestations were diagnosed in 9 patients. Four patients for each GE reflux disease and gastrodudenitis .Two patients were diagnosed for each of celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic non specific colitis, duodenal ulcer and infected juvenile polyp .No etiology identified in 8 patients. Conclusions:  Pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy is a valuable and informative diagnostic procedure even in young children and can be used safely with the use of intravenous sedation.

[Hosny M.A. El-Masry, Alaa-Eldin A. Hassan, Ahmed H. Abdel tawab, M. Abd Al Fatah, Nabila F. Amin, and Gehan M. Elosaily. The Role of Endoscopic, Histopathologic and Parasitic Findings in Diagnosis of Recurrent Abdominal Pain in Children. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):16-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

 

Key words: Recurrent Abdominal Pain , Endoscopy, Histopathology H. pylori infections

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Statins-Induced Lung Toxicity and Its Possible Molecular Mechanisms in Adult Albino Rats

 

Ghada E. Elmesallamy1, Mie Sameer Gomaa1, Manal R. Abd El-Haleem2 and Naglaa A. Hussien3

 

Departments of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology1, Histology2and Clinical Pathology3, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. ganna2410@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Statins have become the most prescribed lipid lowering drugs during the last years. They recently used in the treatment of dyslipidemia, and ischemic heart diseases, and in the prevention of stroke, atheromatous diseases and Alzheimer's disease. Their toxic effects on the lung haven't been studied extensively, and its molecular, mechanisms still need more clarifications. The aim of the current work was to study lung toxicity induced by Simvastatin and Atorvastatin as being the most commonly used statins and to investigate possible underlying molecular mechanisms of such toxicity in adult albino rats. Twenty eight female albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups: group I (negative control), group II (positive control): daily received 2 ml of distilled water, group III (simvastatin treated group): daily received toxic dose of Simvastatin, 200 mg/kg b.wt. for 3 weeks, group IV (Atorvastatin treated group): daily received toxic dose of Atorvastatin 250 mg/kg b.wt. for 3 weeks. Both of Simvastatin and Atorvastatin treatment showed significant decrease in the level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, (P<0.01), and a significant increase in the levels of high density lipoproteins (P<0.01), and endothelial nitric oxide activity (P<0.05), with a marked toxicological cellular changes as compared with control group. Neither Simvastatin nor Atorvastatin induced expression of the Caspase-3. It was concluded that administration of statins induces toxic effects on the normal lung tissues through lipid lowering dependent and non-dependent mechanisms specially, the Nitric Oxide dependant one.

[Ghada E. Elmesallamy, Mie Sameer Gomaa, Manal R. Abd El-Haleem and Naglaa A. Hussien. Statins-Induced Lung Toxicity and Its Possible Molecular Mechanisms in Adult Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):24-36]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

 

Keywords: Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Phospholipidosis, Apoptosis, Caspase-3 and eNOS.

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Evaluation of the Prevalence of Silent Cerebral Infarction among Neurologically Free Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

 

Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed1; Mohamed H. Mustafa2, Zakaria M. Ahmed3; Emad Fawzy Abdel-Moneim3 and Osama A. Mohamed Abdel-Salam4

 

1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, New Domiatta-Al-Azhar University; 2Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

Corresponding author: Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed; Email Moneim234@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of silent cerebral infarction (SCI) among neurologically free chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients as judged by brain MRI examinations. Patients & Methods: The study included 230 CKD patients; 165 males and 65 females with mean age of 58±7.9 years. Seventy-six patients (34%) had ischemic heart disease (IHD), 34 patients (14.8%) with non-ischemic heart diseases (Non-IHD), 196 patients (85.2%) had diabetes mellitus (DM), 173 patients (75.2%) were hypertensive patients and dyslipidemia was detected in 185 patients (80.4%). All patients underwent categorization according estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and all underwent MRI examination. Results: Brain MRI defined SCI in 117 patients for a prevalence rate 50.9%. The frequency of patients had SCI was significantly higher in older patients with significantly higher mean age of those had SCI compared to those had MRI free of SCI. The presence of SCI showed positive significant correlation with age (r=0.278, p<0.01), but showed a negative significant correlation with eGFR, (r=-0.249, p=0.001). The frequency of cardiac patients among those had CKD was significantly higher compared to non-cardiac patients with non-significant difference according to presence of ischemia. The frequency of diabetics among CKD patients was significantly higher compared to non-diabetics with significant prevalence among CKD patients with SCI. The frequency of hypertensive patients among CKD patients was significantly higher compared to normo-tensive patients with significantly higher frequency of hypertensive patients among patients had SCI. However, the frequency of dyslipidemic patients among CKD with or without SCI was non-significant. Conclusion: The frequency of SCI as judged by brain MRI was high among neurologically free CKD patients especially the older one and if associated with IHD, type-2 DM and/or hypertension. Also, such frequency was negatively correlated eGFR as a measure for renal function. 

[Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed; Mohamed H. Mustafa, Zakaria M. Ahmed; Emad Fawzy Abdel-Moneim  and Osama A. Mohamed Abdel-Salam. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Silent Cerebral Infarction among Neurologically Free Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):37-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

 

Keywords: Silent cerebral infarction, Chronic kidney disease, MRI, Diabetes mellitus, Ischemic heart disease.

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Intubation Outcome of Patients with Anticipated Difficult Intubation: A comparative study of Dexmedetomidine versus Sevoflurane as a Sedative

 

Mahmoud M. Elsayed; Samy E. Hanoura; Tamer M. Ewieda; Mahmoud E. Allam and Ashraf A.A. Abdullah

 

Department of Anesthesia & ICU, Faculty of Medicine (for boys), AL-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author: Mahmoud M. Elsayed; email: Elsayed_Mah234@yahoo.com 

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of dexmedetomidine versus sevoflurane as a sedative for intubation of patients with anticipated difficult intubation. Patients & Methods: The study included 50 patients; 29 males and 21 females with mean age of 41.2±9.4 years and mostly proposed to have difficult intubation.  All patients underwent preoperative airway assessment including the oropharyngeal view was assessed using a modified Mallampati classification. Patients were categorized into two equal groups (n=25): group D received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine (1 µg/kg) infused over 10 min and Group S inhaled sevoflurane in the sedative dose ranged between MAC of 1-1.5%. Once the desired level of sedation was achieved; a fibreoptic scope was used for tracheal intubation. Blood samples were taken for measurement of norepinephrine and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Primary outcome included: success of fibreoptic intubation, duration till fully sedated defined as Ramsay score of 5, intubation time and procedural feasibility. Secondary outcome included assessment of patients' tolerance to intubation, occurrence adverse events one-day after surgery and impact on stress hormones. Results:  Successful intubation was achieved in 47 patients with non-significantly higher frequency with dexmedetomidine. Despite significantly faster induction time recorded with sevoflurane; intubation time was non-significantly shorter with dexmedetomidine. The recorded intubation score in group D was significantly better than group S with higher frequency of intubation score-1 in group D. Both sedatives significantly abolished cough reflex and limb movement with non-significant difference between both groups. Twenty-six patients showed no reaction, 14 patients showed slight grimacing and only ten patients showed heavy grimacing with significant difference in favor of group D. Thirty-eight patients were cooperative, 5 patients showed minimal resistance and only 4 patients required general anesthesia immediately after intubation with significantly higher tolerance for intubation with dexmedetomidine. Seven patients developed hoarseness and/or, sore throat with non-significant difference between both groups. Patients' satisfaction scores were significantly higher satisfaction rate with dexmedetomidine. Both drugs induced significant blunting of plasma levels of noradrenaline and ACTH in response to intubation with non-significant difference between both groups. Conclusion: Both drugs could be used as a sedative modality for fibreoptic intubation of patients with anticipated difficult intubation, but the reported better intubation scores with dexmedetomidine is a point for its use.

[Mahmoud M. Elsayed; Samy E. Hanoura; Tamer M. Ewieda; Mahmoud E. Allam and Ashraf A.A. Abdullah. Intubation Outcome of Patients with Anticipated Difficult Intubation: A comparative study of Dexmedetomidine versus Sevoflurane as a Sedative. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):43-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

 

Keywords: Difficult intubation, Sevoflurane, Dexmedetomidine, Fiberoptic intubation

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Road Asphalt Improvements by Recycled Polymers

 

A.A. Ezzat

 

Petrochemicals A. Professor, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Eng. Dept., E-JUST University, New Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt & x-chairman, Alexandria Speciality Petroleum Products co., ASPPC. abbassezzat@yahoo.com Abbas.ezzat@ejust.edu.eg

 

Abstract: For decades, Bitumen for road applications has been modified with special polymeric materials in order to increase the temperature range between embrittlement at low temperatures and softening point at high temperatures. A side effect was an increase in viscosity in the temperature change at which asphalts are mixed and handled. Later, Asphalt flow improves have been introduced in the form of Fischer-Tropsch Wax to overcome the polymeric material difficulties. It has resulted in some drawbacks during application, namely: (1) The adverse effects of waxes on bitumen and its relations to their crystal structure. (2) Since most of the applied waxes are multi-component mixtures, some adverse effects have been noticed on the binder structure. (3) Application difficulties of waxes having different structures compared to bituminous wax. The study has revealed that the application of Recycled Polyethylene (RPE) as an asphaltic material improver can be designed   to modify virgin hot bitumen for city road applications.

[A.A. Ezzat Road. Asphalt Improvements by Recycled Polymers. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):49-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

 

Key Words: Bitumen, Road Asphalt, Recycled Polyethylene

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(9):53-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

This article has been withdrawn.

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ANALYSING FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF UNIVERSITIES IN PAKISTAN: A CASE OF PUBLIC SECTOR UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN

 

Hassan Danial Aslam1, Asna Ali2, Faiza Iqbal3, Komal Rahim4, Saliha Saeed5

Zahra Ahmad Abbasi6

 

1Lecturer, Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

1Senior Research Consultant, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, Pakistan

2,3,4,5 Research Students, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

6 Language Instructor, Pakistan Reading Association, Pakistan

E-mail: Hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

ABSTRACT: Purpose:  The aim of this research is to find out the impact of different academic factors on the overall learning environment of higher education institute. This paper elaborates case of a public sector university operating in Pakistan. For conducting this research both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection are used. Researchers have floated questionnaires and have taken semi- structured interviews from the target population. Collected Data has been analysed in SPSS software focusing on simple means and standard deviations. However secondary information has been collected by research work conducted previously conducted by various authors. Results have shown that various factors independently and collectively influence and the overall learning environment of university. The factors as; lesson planning, application of critical thinking skills, increased confidence level of students, are positive contributors, however factors like; rote learning, gender discrimination are posing negative impact on sound learning environment of university. The results of this study can be utilized by the management of higher educational institute to make their educational environment better, yielding by bringing improvements in their teaching styles, usage of resources and other related academic practices.

[Hassan Danial Aslam, Asna Ali, Faiza Iqbal, Komal Rahim, Saliha Saeed ,Zahra Ahmad Abbasi. ANALYSING FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF UNIVERSITIES IN PAKISTAN: A CASE OF PUBLIC SECTOR UNIVERSITY OF PAKISTAN. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):56-65]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

Keywords: Academic Learning Environment, Students, Learning Environment Factors.

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Government Expenditure and GDP: The Case of ‎‎12 Asian Developing Countries

 

Gholamreza Zamanian1 *Majid Mahmoodi 2, Elahe Mahmoodi 2

 

1. Faculty of Economics, University of Sistan & Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

2. Iranshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iranshahr, Iran

*Corresponding Author E-mail: majid_mahmoodi63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth for 12 Asian developing countries over the 1960 to 2009 years. For this purpose, a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) applied to examine a bi-variate model of government expenditure and GDP. The results support causality from government expenditure to economic growth for six countries, and for other countries, results cannot support causality relationship. These findings have the policy implication for policymakers and economists. Government Expenditure and GDP: The Case of ‎‎12 Asian Developing Countries. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):66-69]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

 

Keywords: Government Expenditure, GDP, Toda-Yamamoto Causality.

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Analyzing Perceived Issues and Challenges to Professional Development of Faculty Members in Tertiary Academic Institutions: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Universities of Punjab (Pakistan)

 

Anam Siddiqui1, Hassan Danial Aslam2, Kausar Yasmeen 3, Naveed Qamar4, Sadaf Javed5, Mannan Khan6

 

1MS Scholar, Visiting Lecturer at Department of Management Sciences and Department of Commerce, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, (Pakistan)

2, 6 Lecturer, Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

2Senior Research Consultant, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society

3Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

4MS Scholar, Visiting Lecturer at Department of Management Sciences and Department of Commerce, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, (Pakistan)

5MS Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, (Pakistan)  

E-mail: Hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

ABSTRACT: Purpose:  The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze various issues and challenges to professional development of faculty members in both public and private universities of Pakistan and to recommend suggestive actions to overcome the problems discussed by respondents.  Several studies have been conducted previously on professional development of faculty members but authors have tried to make unique contribution in literature by conducting this research in both public and private universities of Pakistan and then comparing results accordingly.  Methodology: Authors have deeply searched previous studies of researchers and through scores of secondary information variables have been extracted to view the concepts clearly. The target population for this research is faculty members of four universities from which two universities are public and two are private. Authors have sampled down the population by using stratified and convenient sampling so that data collection can be made easier. Then primary data has been collected through both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Authors have used questionnaire and have conducted in-depth interviews of the respondents.  Findings: Authors have analyzed data by using simple means and standard deviations and have used t-scores for comparing results of public and private universities. It is revealed through results that the issue that has got lowest mean score for public university is perceived level of satisfaction with professional development activities this shows that most of the respondents of public university are not satisfied with the level of professional development at their institutes. However, respondents of private university revealed that they are provided with inadequate rewards and incentives for receiving training and for applying that training on the job. On the other hand, the issue that is least alarming in eyes of respondents of public universities is perceived impact of professional development activities on job performance and according to respondents of private universities they are happy and satisfied with the duration and timings of training courses that are provided to them.  Contribution: This study can be proved fruitful for policy makers and strategists of academic institutes. Moreover, management can learn through the suggestions and can improve on flaws in planning, designing, implementing and evaluating training of faculty members. The major beneficiaries are faculty members who are key personnel of academic institutes and students who are their major products.  

[Anam Siddiqui, Hassan Danial Aslam, Kausar Yasmeen, Naveed Qamar, Sadaf Javed, Mannan Khan. Analyzing Perceived Issues and Challenges to Professional Development of Faculty Members in Tertiary Academic Institutions: A Comparative Study of Public and Private Universities of Punjab (Pakistan). J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):70-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

 

Keyword: Professional development of faculty members, Public universities, Private universities, Issues and challenges to professional development.

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Studying the relationship between the operational risk management and optimizing managers’ turnover in financial institutes

 

Mahvash moazinezhad; Mohammadhadi vaysi

 

Department of management, Sahneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sahneh, Iran

Mmoazinezhad@gmx.com

 

Abstract: There have been many reasons for the financial institutes especially banks to show interest in risk management, because the operational environment of financial institutes has noticeably changed and encountered more hazards in the last few years. In this survey, given the importance of matter, it has been tried to study the relationship between managing this kind of risk with optimizing managers’ turnover in banks by identifying the most important aspects of the operational risk in financial institutes. In this regard, the researcher has stated four hypotheses, one of which has been rejected with statistic tests and the software SPSS, while the other three ones have been approved of. The results of this survey indicate that the most important aspects of operational risks in financial institutes is the human errors, and controlling this aspect leads to optimize managers’ turnover in the Prosperity Bank (Bank-e-Refah). Moreover, applying tangible and intangible control systems in different branches of the Prosperity Bank in the city of Kermanshah, managers’ turnover has been optimized. The result of the unaccepted hypothesis shows that controlling computer errors which are of other aspects of the operational risks doesn’t result in optimizing managers’ turnover in the Prosperity Bank (Bank-e-Refah), or in other words, there is no meaningful relationship in controlling computer errors and optimizing managers’ turnover.

[Mahvash moazinezhad; Mohammadhadi vaysi. Studying the relationship between the operational riskmanagement and optimizing managers’ turnover in financial institutes. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):79-84]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

 

Keywords: Risk; risk management; operational risk.

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One-Stage Posterior Instrumentation And Fusion For The Treatment Of Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis Of Dorsal And Lumbar Spine

 

Abdel Rahman Hafez¹, and Mona Fattouh²

 

Departments of ¹ Orthopedic Surgeries, ² Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University.

monarahman2002@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Spinal tuberculosis is a common disease in orthopedic clinical practice, accounting for one third to one half of bone and joint infections. Over the last 4 decades a lot has changed in the diagnosis, medical treatment and surgical procedures to treat this disorder. The aim of this study was to report the efficacy and safety of single-stage posterior debridement, interbody fusion with autogenous bone grafting and posterior instrumentation for the treatment of active dorsal and lumbar spinal tuberculosis. Our study was carried out in Sohag University Hospital during the period from January 2009 to September 2011. In our study we reported fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with age ranged from 20 to 65 years with dorsal and lumbar spinal tuberculosis. All patients underwent physical examination, routine laboratory tests, plain radiographs, MRI, and a biopsy of the infection site for culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium and for histopathological examination. Eleven patients (73.3%) had involvement at the thoracic level and 4 patients (26.7%) had involvement at the lumbar level. Vertebral collapse, destruction, cold abscess, and canal compromise were assessed in MR images. All patients underwent single-stage posterior debridement, autogenous bone graft and pedicle screw fixation. The final diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of bone biopsy which demonstrated caseating granulomas and by tissue culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium yielded growth of tuberculous bacilli stained by Zeihl-Neelsen staining. Clinical and radiographic results were analyzed. The mean follow-up time following surgery was 20.5 months (range, 9–32 months). Bony fusion was achieved at six- to nine months in all patients (average 7.5 months). Neurologic recovery averaged 1.5 grades on the Frankel scale. No recurrence of tuberculosis or instrumentation failure occurred. Postoperative complications; (superficial wound infections) were encountered in 2 cases which responded to parenteral antibiotics and daily dressing. All patients made full recovery on anti-tuberculous treatment and posterior surgical procedure. It can therefore be concluded that; single-stage posterior instrumentation and fusion can provide radical debridement and it is an effective method to achieve spinal stability in patients with Pott's disease with the advantage of minimal invasive surgery.

[Abdel Rahman Hafez  and Mona Fattouh. One-Stage Posterior Instrumentation And Fusion For The Treatment Of Tuberculous Spondylodiscitis Of Dorsal And Lumbar Spine. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):85-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

 

Keywords:  Posterior instrumentation, Tuberculosis, dorsal and lumbar spine.

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Curcumin Possible Protective Role in Acute Adriamycin Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats (Histological, Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study)

 

Manar A. Bashandy1and Safaa A. Amin2

 

1Anatomy and Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

maalbash@yahoo.com   sfamin2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Adriamycin is a commonly used anti-neoplastic agent in the treatment of a wide range of cancers, including hematological malignancies , many types of carcinoma as (bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovaries). Clinical and experimental studies have widely demonstrated the testicular as well as other organ toxicity caused by adriamycin. Aim of the work:  This work aimed to clarify toxic effects of adriamycin on the rat testis and the possible protective role of curcumin. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on twenty-four adult male Albino rats that divided randomly into four equal groups: control; curcumin treated; Adriamycin treated and protective (Adriamycin and curcumin treated). Curcumin was administered orally to rats at a dose of (200 mg/kg b.wt./day) for nine days. Adriamycin was administered intraperitoneally to the animals at a dose of (25 mg/kg b.wt.) on day seven .all animals were sacrificed on day nine. Testis of each animal was processed for histological, histochemical and immunhistochemial studies. Results: Histologically and histochemically, testis of adriamycin treated rats showed pathological changes in the form of exfoliation, disorganization and degeneration of spermatogenic cells and appearance of  vacuoles replacing spermatogenic cells & dilated interstitium. There was increase of PAS reaction in basal laminae, sperms, spermatogonia and interstitium. On the other hand, there was mild Feulgen reaction in the nuclei of spermatogonia and weak reaction in nuclei of other spermatogenic cells. Immunohistochemically, all cytoplasm of spermatogenic cell layers of seminefrous tubules of treated group showed positive immunoreactivity for caspus III in the form of intense brown reaction. On the other hand, histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical examination of the prophylactic group displayed normal appearance of  most spermatogenic cells in   seminefrous tubules, but still some tubules appeared distorted. Conclusion: toxic effect of adriamycin should be kept in mind during chemotherapeutic treatment . Curcumin advised to be administered in concomitant with  adriamycin treatment as it could ameliorate adriamycin toxicity on testis.

[Manar A. Bashandy and Safaa A. Amin. Curcumin Possible Protective Role in Acute Adriamycin Testicular Toxicity in Adult Male Albino rat (Histological, Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):91-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

 

Key Words: Adriamycin – Curcumin- Chemotherapeutic – Rat testis

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Combined Distance-Reliability Model for Hazardous Waste Transportation and Disposal

 

Abdallah W. Aboutahoun

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

tahoun44@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A mathematical model that simultaneously locating a multiple disposal or a treatment facilities and determining a route for hazmat transportation network is presented. The objective is to minimize the distance traversed and population at risk. The route which minimizes a weighted hybrid metric path designation of accident probability and distance is significantly different from the minimum distance path. An adaption of Floyd Warshall’s algorithm is used to find the hybrid path designation. An example is used to illustrate the applicability of the model.

[Abdallah W. Aboutahoun. Combined Distance-Reliability Model for Hazardous Waste Transportation and Disposal. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):101-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

 

Keywords: Waste disposal; Location and routing; Multiobjective model.

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Assessment and Modification of Risk Behavior of Osteoporosis among Childbearing Working Women

 

Farida Habib, Dalal M .K. Eshra, and Howida Dawood

 

Maternal and Newborn Health Nursing Department, Nursing College, Menoufia University

 

Abstract:   Background: Osteoporosis is one of the leading health problems for women today. About two hundred million women suffer from osteoporosis worldwide, with a lifetime risk of fracture between 30–40 percent. Genetic and lifestyle factors influence the risk for osteoporosis. Purpose: To assess osteoporosis risk factors practiced by working women during reproductive age, and to assess the effect of nutritional counseling on knowledge and practice of working women in childbearing age. Method: A quasi excremental design was used. Data was collected from working women in their working place during their break time. The sample consisted of 300 working women in the childbearing age. The inclusion criteria included women not diagnosed with chronic disease and not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis. Four tools were developed for data collection namely interviewing questionnaire to collect data about sociodemegraphic data, medical history, obstetric history, and family history, osteoporosis risk factors assessment sheet to assess women’s risk practices for osteoporosis, nutritional knowledge assessment sheet to assess women’s knowledge about nutrition. The last two tools were administered twice once before nutritional counseling and 4 months after the nutritional counseling. The fourth tool was Anthropometric measurement sheet as weight height, and Bone Mass Density (BMD) which was measured for sub sample of 139 women.  Counseling was done twice for each woman with the aim to increase women awareness about good nutritional practice to decrease risk for osteoporosis.   Results: Regarding risk factors of osteoporosis only 4 % of the women on the sample were practicing regular planned exercises. No woman in the sample used Calcium supplement. Non of the women were smoking but almost half of the sample (48.7%) had exposure to passive smoking.  There were statistical significant improvement of  women’ knowledge score after counseling than before counseling regarding diet, exercises, age risk, gender risk, signs and symptoms, and management of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Counseling about osteoporosis was successful to improve the women’ knowledge but was not enough to significantly change their practices.

[Dalal M .K. Eshra, Howida Dawood and Farida Habib. Assessment and Modification of Risk Behavior of Osteoporosis among Childbearing Working Women. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):111-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

 

Key words: Osteoporosis, Women

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New Archaeological Research in North-West of Iran: Sangar Water Supply System

 

Mamash Amir Ashayeri

 

Department of Archeology, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

amirashayerimamash@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the mid-ninth century BC, The Urartu was widespread around Van Lake and Urmia, Manna is emerging at the same time in Kurdistan. Few site attributed to Manna have been excavated. Up to now, in the North-West Iran and Urmia Lake basin any Mannaian water supply system not identited. Remnants of a water storage pond, referred to by the natives as "Sangar" lies near Nokhod Darreh Village, some 25 kilometers west of Takab in the West Azerbaijan Province and several kilometers north of Ziwiye. Pond water was supplied from a spring located 2.5 km south, partly through ceramic pipes which are frequently found in the arable lands on the pipeline, and partly by a canal taht excavated through a limestone slope beside Nokhod Darreh Village, which is still sound and viewable. More researches about this problem related to Urartu. Pottery sherd shows good parallels with with the ceramics found at Mannaian site such as Zendan-i-Suleiman 40 Km north of Sangar and Ziwiye, more known as a Median-Manna site, Kul Tarike cemetery several km south  of our sitePreliminary observation on the Sangar location  and ceramics suggest  Mannaean date for this water supply system.

[Mamash Amir Ashayeri. New Archaeological Research in North-West of Iran: Sangar Water Supply System. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):128-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

 

Key words: Northwest Iran, Water supply system, Manna, Sangar, Urartu

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New Archaeological Research in North-West of Iran: Sangar Water Supply System

 

Mamash Amir Ashayeri

 

Department of Archeology, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

amirashayerimamash@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the mid-ninth century BC, The Urartu was widespread around Van Lake and Urmia, Manna is emerging at the same time in Kurdistan. Few site attributed to Manna have been excavated. Up to now, in the North-West Iran and Urmia Lake basin any Mannaian water supply system not identited. Remnants of a water storage pond, referred to by the natives as "Sangar" lies near Nokhod Darreh Village, some 25 kilometers west of Takab in the West Azerbaijan Province and several kilometers north of Ziwiye. Pond water was supplied from a spring located 2.5 km south, partly through ceramic pipes which are frequently found in the arable lands on the pipeline, and partly by a canal taht excavated through a limestone slope beside Nokhod Darreh Village, which is still sound and viewable. More researches about this problem related to Urartu. Pottery sherd shows good parallels with with the ceramics found at Mannaian site such as Zendan-i-Suleiman 40 Km north of Sangar and Ziwiye, more known as a Median-Manna site, Kul Tarike cemetery several km south  of our sitePreliminary observation on the Sangar location  and ceramics suggest  Mannaean date for this water supply system.

[Mamash Amir Ashayeri. New Archaeological Research in North-West of Iran: Sangar Water Supply System. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):128-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

 

Key words: Northwest Iran, Water supply system, Manna, Sangar, Urartu

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(9):135-140]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

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Antibacterial properties of Piper nigrum and Thymus vulgaris extracts and the safety of using them on living tissues

 

Amnah A. H. Rayes

 

Biology Department - Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al-Qura University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

mehanna2006@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of black pepper (Piper nigrum ) and Thymus vulgaris extracts  against four Pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereuss B-3711 Salmonella typhi) and the safety of using them on living tissues (human tumor colon cell line and lung carcinoma cell line). From all the results we can conclude that the moderate dose not have any hazardous side effects on human cells.  On the other hand, we noticed that the Piper nigrum or Thymus vulgaris has antimicrobial effect on some pathogenic bacteria. So suggested using of these spices should be performed with considering their proper concentration and more safety studies on them.

[Amnah A. H. Rayes Antibacterial properties of Piper nigrum  and Thymus vulgaris extracts and the safety of using them on living tissues. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):141-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

 

Key words: Piper nigrum - Thymus vulgaris – cell line – Antibacterial potential

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DFT Studies on HOMO-LUMO Gaps of CBNNTs

 

A. A. El-Barbary1,2, Kh. M. Eid1, M. A. Kamel1 , M. M. Hassan1

 

1Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ahla_eg@yahoo.co.uk; Mrmohamed-physics@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: We have investigated the energetics and molecular orbitals of HOMO and LUMO levels for carbon boron nitride nanotubes (CBNNTs) corresponding to zigzag (5,0), (7,0) and (9,0) and armchair (4,4), (6,6) and (7,7) structures using B3LYP/6-31g(d,p). Their HOMO-LUMO gaps due to various compositions and distributions of BN atoms to C atoms within the heteronanotubes, CBNNTs(1:4) and CBNNTs(1:5) have been also studied and compared with corresponding carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes. It is found that the HOMO-LUMO gaps are dependent on the diameter of NT and on the distribution way of BN atoms to C atoms within the heteronanotubes. The important outcome of this work is that we can decrease the band gap of BNNTs (5.88 eV) by ~ 96% when heteronanotube (9,0)CBNNTs(1:5) is obtained with band gap 0.25 eV.

[A. A. El-Barbary, Kh. M. Eid, M. A. Kamel , M.M. Hassan. DFT Studies on HOMO-LUMO gaps of CBNNTs. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):146-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

 

Keywords: CBNNTs, HOMO-LUMO gap, DFT, B3LYP.

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Sacrococcygeal Teratoma a Rare Disease: Case

 

Mona Almushait

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 641, Abha, Saudi Arabia. dr-almushait@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Sacrococcygeal teratomas are rare congenital tumors that develop early in fetal life. Fetuses with this malformation are at risk of significant perinatal morbidity and mortality. This case report demonstrates the benefits of the early diagnosis and intervention of sacrococcygeal teratoma. In this case study a fetus was identified with sacrococcygeal teratoma during 33 weeks antenatal scan of 11.48×10.97×9.02 cm size. The mother opted for elective caesarean section following counseling but due to pre-term labour at 36 weeks of gestation, the mother underwent emergency caesarean section without any complications. A newborn healthy female was delivered without any fetal complications. The baby was scheduled for enbloc surgical resection of the tumor on the 3rd day of life. Histopathological report did not reveal any malignancy. Neonate had an uneventful recovery. Neonate was followed up with regular follow-ups.

[Almushait M. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma a Rare Disease: Case Report. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):154-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

 

Keywords: fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma; ultrasonography

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The Impact of Workplace Incivility on Knowledge Sharing Intention

 

Morteza Moosakhani1, Mojtaba Hajizadeh2, Ardalan Eyni3, Mehrzad Sarfarazi4

 

1-Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2-MA Student of Management

3-Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

4-Department of Public Administration, Larestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Larestan, Fars, Iran

babakhajizadeh11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There are numerous studies investigating the destructive work behaviors. Among these behaviors, workplace incivility has become a concern for the scholars and the scientists of human resource management due to its growing pace. The current study investigated the impact of workplace incivility on intention to share knowledge amongst the staff of Namazi hospital in Shiraz, Fars, Iran. The sample included 115 employees selected using random sampling method. Regression coefficients using SPSS software showed that workplace incivility significantly influences the intention to share knowledge. The results also indicated that the impact of dimensions of workplace incivility (experienced workplace incivility and instigated workplace incivility) on knowledge sharing intention is significant.

[Morteza Moosakhani, Mojtaba Hajizadeh, Ardalan Eyni, Mehrzad Sarfarazi. The Impact of Workplace Incivility on Knowledge Sharing Intention. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):157-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

 

Keywords: Incivility, Namazi, Hospital, Knowledge Sharing Intention

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Malignant hepatic focal lesions: Improved detection and characterization by diffusion weighted MRI in comparison to T2W with the use of parallel imaging SENSE and different b values

 

1Reem H Basiouny ,  1Nivine Chalabi , 2Nanees A. Adel, 2Hany Haroun and 2Eslam Safwat

 

1Department of Radiodiagnosis, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2Department of Internal Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

dr_hanyharoun@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: to evaluate the utility of diffusion weighted MRI using different b values in the detection and characterization of hepatic focal lesions in comparison to conventional T2W MRI.. Patients and Methods: 45 patients with 83 malignant hepatic focal lesions (32 hepatocellular carcinomas, 4 cholangiocarcinomas and 47 metastases were included in this retrospective study). The MRI protocol for the upper abdomen included T2W, in and opposed phased T1 weighted images and post contrast T1W images. Respiratory triggered fat suppressed single shot echo planar DWMR images were performed for all patients. Two independent observers reviewed the T2W and DW images to detect and characterize the lesions. Results: The use of DWMR showed a significantly higher detection rate in the detection and characterization of malignant hepatic focal lesions than the use of T2W images (p<0.05) using B values of 500 and 1000. The detection rate was significantly higher for small lesions as well as in cirrhotic liver. DWMRI also showed improved detection of recurrent lesions following chemoembolization in   patients. Conclusion: DW MRI can be used as a standard non contrast enhanced study in early detection and characterization of hepatic focal lesions.

[Reem H Basiouny, Nivine Chalabi, Nanees A. Adel, Hany Haroun, Eslam Safwat. Malignant hepatic focal lesions: Improved detection and characterization by diffusion weighted MRI in comparison to T2W with the use of parallel imaging SENSE and different b values. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):160-166]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

 

Key words: Malignant, Hepatic, Focal, MRI, SENSE.

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The effect of sleep disorders due to land travel on the mood profile in young football players

 

Maghsoud  Peeri (PhD) 1* ,Masoud Zamani (MA ) ,Esmael Piri (MA) 3, Parvin Farzanegi (PhD)4, Abdolali Rakhshanizadeh (MA)5

 

1Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.2Department of Gorgan Education, Gorgan, Iran 3Department of Urmieh Education, Urmieh, Iran4Department of Physical Education, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran 5Department of Zahedan Education, Zahedan, Iran

mpeeri@iauctb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sleep disorders due to land travel on the mood profile in young football players. Thus,15 football players with range age: 18.40 ± 1.24 years, height :167.66 ± 6.22 cm, weight :66.6 ± 7.28 kg, and  Body Mass Index( BMI):23.60 ± 2.47 kg/m2, completed the 24-item Brunel Mood Scale after two trips from Gorgan to Tehran and Khorramabad. The subjects were selected using purposive and convenience sampling. Repeated measures analysis of variance was applied for data analysis.The results of Bonferroni correction revealed a no significant increase in total mood response (TMR ) between the two cities of Gorgan and Tehran (p=0.100 ) , and significant increase in total mood response (TMR)between the two cities of Gorgan and Khorramabad(p=0.031).The results showed that there was a difference in the some differences the subscales of mood responses of the participants following sleep disorders due to land travel(such as confusion, fatigue,vigor ,anger depression, tension).The results of the present research showed that sleep disorders may play an important role in mood responses and the degree of severity of this effect stemmed from trip duration and the resulted disorders.and suggest that quality and depth of sleep can be a more significant determinant of profile of mood state.

[Peeri M, Zamani M, Piri E,Farzanegi P, Rakhshanizadeh A. The effect of sleep disorders due to land travel on the mood profile in young football players. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):167-172]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

 

Keywords Sleep disorders; Travelling across time zones; BRUMS; Mood state

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(9):173-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

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Efficacy of plant essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and L. monocytogenes  in fruit juices

 

Mohamed I. Hegazy
 

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

mhegazy7@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The antimicrobial and health benefits of essential oils (EOs) have been known for years, however, the research studies about their effectiveness and optimum concentrations against food pathogens is scarce. This study investigate the effectiveness of five EOs: lemongrass, cinnamon leaf, oregano, rosemary, and sage oils for control of growth and survival of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and L. monocytogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured using agar dilution method, which showed that oregano oil exhibited the highest MIC level (1μl/ml for all bacteria), followed in close levels by lemongrass and cinnamon, then rosemary and the weakest effect was shown from sage oil. Due to the un-satisfying results of sage oil, all other EOs were selected to determine their minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) against the bacteria in culture media (three fruit juices: apple, orange, strawberry juices and tryptic soy broth “TSB”) using broth dilution method. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among EO concentrations and culture media. A concentration of 1μl/ml from oregano was required to inactivate E. coli in all juices, while 2μl/ml was required for inactivation of both Salmonella enterica and L. monocytogenes. In TSB, however, higher concentrations were required to inactivate the bacteria, reaching up to 4 μl/ml for L. monocytogenes. These studies provide information about EOs as possible natural alternative for food additives to promote the safety and quality of commercial fruit juices.

[Mohamed I. Hegazy. Efficacy of plant essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and L. monocytogenes in fruit juices. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):184-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

 

Keywords: Essential oils, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteric, L. monocytogenes, fruit juices, pathogenic bacteria, Minimum inhibitory concentration.

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Predictive Ability of Financial Distress Forecasting Model Utilizing Cash Flow Components Combinations

 

Zahra Hassani1, Mohaddese Kargarfard2, Abdolrasoul Rahmaniankoushkaki2, Alireza Firoozi3

 

MA of Accounting, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Fars, Iran

Department of Accounting, Payame Noor University, I.R.IRAN

MA of Accounting

 

Abstract: Financial distress and bankruptcy forecasting is one of the important issues in business environment because it can avoid the wealth and welfare of investors to be destroyed and so, it can prevent from the loss of invested capital. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether incorporating different combinations of cash flow information in the model of financial distress forecasting (by utilizing other financial ratios) can improve its explaining ability. 120 firms from TSE (Tehran's Stock Exchange) were selected for 1378-1387 and examined thorough a logistic model. In the model used, seven different combinations of cash flow information with other financial ratios were utilized incrementally and totally for financial distress forecasting. The findings show that there is no incremental ability by incorporating the combinations to the model and so, we can say that, the different combinations of cash flow information couldn't improve the predictive ability of the other financial ratios. The relation between components of cash flow statement is less important relative to the pure amount of each section with respect to the financial distress forecasting and the users of financial statement in capital markets, didn't have consider the relations and the implications that they can consist of. That is the financial knowledge of market participants isn't deep and conceptual and they don't consider the relations.

[Zahra Hassani, Mohaddese Kargarfard, Abdolrasoul Rahmaniankoushkaki, Alireza Firoozi. Predictive Ability of Financial Distress Forecasting Model Utilizing Cash Flow Components Combinations. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):191-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

 

Keywords: Financial Distress, Bankruptcy, Cash Flow Components, Logistic Model, Financial Ratios

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Hydrogen peroxide bleaching: Effects on surface roughness, color and staining susceptibility of microhybrid and nanocomposite

 

Gihan H. Waly 1, Fatma M. El Sharkawy 2

1 Lecturer, Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Researcher, Department of Photometry and Colorimetry, National Institute of Standards, Giza, Egypt 

*Corresponding author: gihanwaly@hotmail.com

Abstract: Objectives. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching on the surface roughness of microhybrid and nanocomposite and to compare the two materials regarding their staining susceptibility before bleaching, color response to bleaching and staining susceptibility after bleaching. Materials and Methods. Two dental composite materials, microhybrid (Filtek Z250) and nanocomposite (Filtek Z350), were bleached using two hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents: one home-bleach (DayWhite ACP) and one in-office (Opalescence Boost). Ten samples were tested for each composite-bleaching agent combination (n=10). An interface microscope was used to measure the arithmetical roughness (Ra) before and after bleaching. The color changes of the samples were measured four times using a spectrophotometer: a baseline measurement, a second time (after immersion in a coffee colorant), a third time (after bleaching) and finally the samples were immersed again in the colorant then a fourth measurement was made. Color differences between the different color measurements were calculated.  Results. The roughness of the nanocomposite was more adversely affected by bleaching than the microhybrid with no significant difference between the two bleaching systems. The nanocomposite showed significantly more color change than the microhybrid when immersed in the colorant, both before and after bleaching. Bleaching did not affect the staining susceptibility of composite for all composite-bleaching agent combinations except for the microhybrid-home group where the staining susceptibility decreases after bleaching. Conclusions. The surface roughness of microhybrid composite is less adversely affected by bleaching than the nanocomposite. Nanocomposite is more prone to staining and more effectively bleached than microhybrid composite. Bleaching does not increase the staining susceptibility of nano or microhybrid composites.

[Gihan H. Waly, Fatma M. El Sharkawy. Hydrogen peroxide bleaching: Effects on surface roughness, color and staining susceptibility of microhybrid and nanocomposite. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):190-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

 

Keywords:  Bleaching - color - staining susceptibility - surface roughness - microhybrid - anocomposite - hydrogen     peroxide – composite

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[J Am Sci 2012;8(9):200-205]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

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Laboratory Studying of Effect Factors to Gas shaft by Petansio Dynamic Test

 

Soroush Zarinabadiõ1, Mehrdad Sotoudeh2, Amir Samimi3

 

1 Department of Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

2 Departments of Engineering, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, IRAN

3 Faculty member of Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr branch, IRAN

 

Abstract: Corrosion engineering of country pay attention to high cost of corrosions and Reducing of this cost is necessary for country’s oil, gas and petroleum Industry. 10% of produce cost of one Barrel of Crude oil is for corrosion cost of related industries. Particular continental conditions, History of country refiner and produces crude oil kind are main factors to influence corrosion cost in countries oil industries. There is a large mar of technical literature about test of electro chemical for kinds of metals and corrosives environment. Majority of this literature is written by experienced electrochemist and corrosion engineer’s and with use of scientist and engineers begins with test of chemical electro corrosion. Most destruction in gas shaft is because of local corrosion. Local destruction that cans occur blew insulators, sediments or with bacteria is 10 or 100 times quicker of monotony corrosion can destruct it. Ikada Believed that incomplete grow of iron carbonate crystals (FeCO3) lead to small region of Anod and ringworm corrosion. Pirit product (FeS2) in metal surface in above   QUOTE   is constant according to thermodynamic and in lower temperature speed of layer formation become slowly and Increase the corrosion. Corrosion often in sour shaft occurs in lower density of 2000 ppm of this gas and between 5 to 6.5 plt. In this paper we examine laborites factors by dynamic petansio test that has affect on corrosion in gas shaft.

[Soroush Zarinabadi, Mehrdad Sotoudeh, Amir Samim. Laboratory Studying of Effect Factors to Gas shaft by Petansio Dynamic Test. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):206-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

 

Keywords: Corrosion, Crude oil, Gas shaft, chemical electro corrosion, dynamic potential.

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Impact of marketing knowledge management on organizational performance (with respect to Pharmaceutical Organizations)

 

Bahram Kheiri, Hamed Razipour (Corrosponding author), Vahidreza Mirabi

 

Faculty member, Azad University-Central Tehran

Email: razipour_h@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In current competitive and challenging marketplace, many companies need to take a holistic and systematic approach toward internal organizational knowledge in favor of making a competitive advantage. Therefore, in recent years they have been concentrating on knowledge sustaining and utilization. In general, most of the effective marketing approaches, which have been hidden under customers’ characteristics and their shopping approach can be revealed by a knowledge based on marketing management. Specific emphasis on managing the communication with customers has made marketing responsibility as an applied domain for customers’ data analysis. Knowledge can be a critical tool if organization uses it as a mean toward utilization of current opportunities in competitive market. The main motivation of current paper is to evaluate the effect of marketing knowledge management (MKM) on organizational performance. Based on these variables, a questionnaire was developed using previous studies and a Cronbach’s Alpha obtained is 0.824, which indicates reasonable reliability of 400 of distributed questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS and Lisrel. Results from analysis indicates that if an organization poses some of the MKM advantages and capabilities then it will make competitive advantage, which in turn the organizational performance shall be improved as well. Any kind of increasing in MKM capabilities and properties would lead into better organizational market performance. In particular, such capabilities will make them to have better performance in target markets.

[Bahram Kheiri, Hamed Razipour, Vahidreza Mirabi. Impact of marketing knowledge management on organizational performance (with respect to Pharmaceutical Organizations). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):212-219]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

 

Key Words: Marketing knowledge management, Marketing properties, Marketing capabilities, Organizational performance, Marketing management.

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Effect of Repeated Bleaching Procedures on Surface Color and Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite Bonded Enamel

 

Ola. M. Sakr1 and Mohamed Al mohaimeed2

 

Departments of 1Operative Dentistry and 2Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

olasakr2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Statement of the Problem: When repeated clinical applications of bleaching procedures are needed and presence of adhesive restorations it is generally some restoration surface changes are occurred but what is recommended with in office repeated bleaching procedures. Also the effect on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to enamel. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of in office repeated bleaching procedures on restoration surface color and the shear bond strength of restoration to enamel. Methods: A gel consisting of 30% carbamide peroxide was applied to ground buccal surfaces of resin composite bonded to enamel surfaces of premolar teeth. The color changes of resin composite surfaces are detected using Environmental Scanning Electronic Microscope. The shear bond strength of the restorative systems to enamel was tested, and data was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Significant differences (p < 0.05) in shear bond strengths were found among repeated bleaching procedures. Conclusion: repeated vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel has an adverse effect on enamel shear bond strength to existent P60 resin composite.

[Ola. M. Sakr and Mohamed Al mohaimeed. Effect of Repeated Bleaching Procedures on Surface Color and Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite Bonded Enamel. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):220-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

 

Key words: repeated enamel bleaching, adhesive restoration, enamel shear bond strength

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Combining Ability for Sunflower Yield Contributing Characters and Oil Content over Different Water Supply Environments

 

A.H. Salem and M.A. Ali

 

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

zasalem@yahoo.com; abd_lhamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Combining ability estimate is essential for selection of suitable parents for hybridization and identification of promising drought tolerant hybrids in breeding program. The present study aimed to select sunflower parents with good general combining ability (GCA) and crosses with best specific combining ability (SCA) effects under different levels of water supply environments. Seven sunflower inbred lines were crossed in 7x7 half diallel. The resultant 21 hybrids were evaluated along with their parents for yield contributing characters and oil content under three levels of water supply. The analysis of variance for combining ability showed that GCA variance was higher in magnitude than that of SCA for the studied characters, indicating the preponderance of additive gene action. The GCA effects of the parents revealed that the inbred lines L350, L460, L990 and L770 proved to be good combiners for seed yield, while the parents L38,L990 and L235 were found to be promising general combiners for oil % content. Inbred lines L38, L11 and L235, are good, candidates for drought tolerance. L350 is a good combiner for seed yield, while L38 proved to be good combiner for, oil content and drought tolerance. On The basis Of SCA, the cross L38 x L350 was identified as promising seed yield and oil content.

[A.H. Salem and M.A. Ali. Combining Ability for Sunflower Yield Contributing Characters and Oil Content over Different Water Supply Environments. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):227-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

 

Key words: Combining ability, sunflower, diallel cross, additive and non-additive, drought tolerance

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The Economical Value of Nile Tilapia Fish "Oreochromis niloticus" in Relation to Water Quality of Lake Nasser, Egypt

 

Safaa M. Ezzat, Reham M. ElKorashey and Mohammed M. Sherif

 

 Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC), Cairo, Egypt

Reham_Korashey@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the quality of Nile Tilapia fish “Oreochromis niloticus” collected from three main localities (Adendan, Abou Simbel and Toushka) in Lake Nasser, Egypt. Throughout four season’s survey (2010 – 2011), 36 water samples and 60 fish samples were assayed. The Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters in the lake water were found within permissible limits. The macroscopical examination of collected fish samples confirmed their freshness, with no detected signs of clinical abnormalities. However, 23 fishes (38.3%) out of 60 were found positive for helminth parasites. The positive hosts were infected with nematodes (71.2%) and trematodes (28.8%) in the larval stage, whose incidence was restricted to the gills only and didn’t exceed 1 – 6 larvae/fish. The infection was always single and not mixed and included the genera Amplicaecum, Contracaecum and Clinostomum. The total number of parasite individuals exhibited clear seasonal variation, being significantly higher in winter (53.3%), followed by spring (40%), summer (33.3%) and least in autumn (26.6%). The muscles - main edible parts – were completely free from any larvae or adult worms and testified their safety for human consumption. The concentrations of four trace metals (Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in both fish gills and muscles were found satisfactory compared to FAO and EOSQC permissible limits and the WMPT scoring system and didn’t constitute threat to public health. The study concluded that trace metals bioaccumulation and parasites burden in Oreochromis niloticus are considered a proxy of both water quality and ecology of Lake Nasser which is by far suitable for fishing activities and safe consumption of this fish species. The study recommended proper cooking, salting or freezing of fish as a precautionary measure and prohibited disposal of infected fish parts in water ways. Regular monitoring of water and fish quality is a must.

[Safaa M. Ezzat, Reham M. ElKorashey and Mohammed M. Sherif. The Economical Value of Nile Tilapia Fish "Oreochromis niloticus" in Relation to Water Quality of Lake Nasser, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):234-247]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

 

Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus, Lake Nasser, water quality, helminth parasites, trace metals

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Detection of Genetically modified DNA in Milk Using Species Specific PCR

 

Khulod Ibraheem Hassan, Ali Abdulla Ali

 

SulamaniUniversity, Faculty of Agricultural science, Food science Department

dr_kh2005_iraq@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Milk has many nutrients that make it an ideal food all over the world and Iraq is one of the developing countries who imports milk to supply the people with this important food.And because most milk producer in the world depend on genetically modified (GM) feed to fed their animals, so these GM DNA may transfer to the products of these animals including milk. To detect of the purity of milk from GM DNA fragments this study was carried out,by collecting seven Samples of imported milk powder from the Sulaimani market in Iraq, which include: Anchor, Mudhish, Maraey Al-khadra, Dielac (Ireland), |Nido, Premier and Dielac (Neusland) and a fresh milk sample from cow, sheep and goat from private farm k .Suitable amount of DNA was obtained using by CTAB method from all the samples, To evaluate the feasibility of the PCR method for detection of GM DNA in milk, Species specific primer targeting the most common GM gene associated with feed including NOS-terminator of bar inserted gene in herbicide tolerant Event 176 GM-maize and the 35S-promoter of EPSPS inserted gene in pest resistance Roundup Ready GM-soybeans. The presence of the transgenic sequences of maize of the expected size (184bp) was reproducibly amplified in three samples whereas no amplified band was obtained using the other set of primers which are specific to the GM-soybeans. The data revealed that the PCR method can sufficiently detect GM DNA in milk powder to differentiate the GM Products from non-GM one.

[Khulod Ibraheem Hassan, Ali Abdulla Ali. Detection of Genetically modified DNA in Milk Using Species Specific PCR. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):248-252]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

 

Keywords: GMDNA, Detection, Milk powder, PCR, species specific

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Serum Relaxin Levels and Importance in Systemic Sclerosis Patients

 

Abdel Megid MH1, Saied EA1, Abdel Atti E3, Azab N6, Hamad YH2, Nkedy AM4, El Beily DA5, Abo Gabal AM4

 

1Rheumatology, 2Physical Medicine Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, 4Radiology and 5Clinical Pathology Departments. Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. 3Internal Medicine and 6Chest Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menofiya University. ehab_abdelatty@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by fibrosis of the skin and may involve the heart, lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Relaxin, a peptide hormone of the insulin superfamily, is involved in the promotion of extracellular matrix remodeling. Aim of the work: Measuring serum relaxin level, studying its antifibrotic, vasodilator, and proangiogenic effects and its association with disease activity in SSc patients. Methods: This study included 40 patients with SSc, who met ACR Criteria for the classification of SSc, and 40 age-matched healthy persons as a control group. All patients were subjected to: history taking with particular stress on the duration of the disease, presence of Raynaud's disease, finger tip ulcers, renal, heart, and lung affection, Modified Rodnan Skin Score (M.R.S.S.) using ultrasound, 2D-Echocardiography to measure systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP), computerized tomography (CT) of the chest, renal function tests, measurement of serum relaxin and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF) using ELISA technique. Results: The level of sPAP, sVEGF, serum relaxin and urinary protein to creatinine ratio of the patients with SSc was significantly higher than controls (P=0.0001). There was no significant difference between patients with and without finger ulcers and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) regarding sPAP, M.R.S.S and urinary protein to creatinine ratio. However, the level of sVEGF of the patients with finger ulcers and IPF was significantly higher and serum level of relaxin was significantly lower than patients without finger ulcers and/or IPF (P=0.0001). There was a strong positive correlation between M.R.S.S, and both serum relaxin and sVEGF, but not between serum relaxin and sVEGF. A non significant positive correlation between sVEGF and sPAP existed in patients with SSc (r=+0.27, P=0.06). Conclusion: Serum relaxin can be considered as a biomarker in SSc which correlates with disease activity and severity. Since it is a natural suppressor of age-related fibrosis in a number of tissues, including the skin, lung, kidney, and heart it can show efficacy in the prevention and treatment of fibrosis due to SSc.

[Abdel Megid MH, Saied EA, Abdel Atti E, Azab N, Hamad YH, Nkedy AM, El Beily DA, Abo Gabal AM. Serum Relaxin Levels and Importance in Systemic Sclerosis Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):253-260]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

 

Key words: systemic sclerosis, relaxin, VEGF.

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Structural and In-Plane Buckling Analysis of Two-Hinged Ogee Arches

 

Ghada M. El-Mahdy

 

Housing and Building National Research Center (HBRC), 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza, PC 11511, Egypt ghadaelmahdy@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: The ogee arch consists of a pair of two tangential circular arcs making an arch shape.  The geometry of the arch depends on several interrelated variables including the angles subtended by the arcs, the ratio of the radii of the two arcs, and the height of the arch.  This paper provides curves for designing the geometry of ogee arches and outlines the structural analysis of two-hinged ogee arches under different cases of loading.  A parametric study of the buckling behavior of ogee arches is presented using a finite element eigenvalue buckling analysis for several cases of loading.  The results of the buckling analysis are verified through a nonlinear finite element analysis with initial imperfections.  It is found that the buckling load is a function of the height-to-base radius of the arch.

[El-Mahdy GM. Structural and In-Plane Buckling Analysis of Two-Hinged Ogee Arches. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):261-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  38

 

Keywords: Arches; buckling analysis; finite element analysis; geometry; ogee shaped arch

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The role of Management & Leadership Of“Educational System”

 

Habibollah Amouzadeh Araei

 

Department of Technical & Vocational University , Tehran , Iran

habiballah_amouzadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: If we condense two billion years of life on earth into one year, we can deduce that early human being life started during the last day of this one year with civilization taking the last few seconds of this one day.  Based on these assumptions, one can say that “management science” as a single scientific field appeared during the last few moments of this hypothetical year.  One reason for the late blooming of management could be the lake of human enthusiasm in applying scientific knowledge in one’s life or human’s failure to recognize the need for such field in real world. Human tendency has always been towards group living formed on geographical and/or political considerations by default or conventions.  Social life creates the need not only for a focused management but also for an intuitive knowledgeable leadership in order to utilize resources toward community development and progress. Scientific advancement depends on innovating thinking and should consider two important aspects.  One is that any innovation is depended on previous findings and discoveries, which have set the ground for new innovations. The other aspect is the personal and social circumstances that create the required setting for innovative leadership.

[Habibollah Amouzadeh Araei. The role of Management & Leadership Of“Educational System. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):272-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

 

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Management, Leadership

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Molecular Analysis of Signal Peptidase I Gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae

 

1Muharram, M M; 1Alqasoumi, S I; 2Abulelhamd, A T

 

1Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, KSA

2Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942 Alkharj, KSA

 

Abstract: A central event in protein secretion is the type I signal peptidase-mediated cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide that targets a protein for its destination. In this study, the gene of the signal peptidase I of gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spi) was cloned, expressed and its protein was purified. Switching trial for the proteolytic processing of the outer membrane (OmpA) protein by Spi peptidase has drawn attention for the existence of a substrate specificity difference between gram-negative and gram-positive signal peptidases. Analysis of a constructed hybrid protein (preOmpA-Skc-His6) along with site-directed mutagenesis in the same construct confirmed the critical role of the -1 and -3 amino acid residues for cleavage by signal peptidase I in streptococcus pneumoniae, consistent with the idea that this peptidase contains a serine-lysine catalytic dyad.

[Muharram, M M; Alqasoumi, S I; Abulelhamd, A T. Molecular Analysis of Signal Peptidase I Gene in Streptococcus pneumonia. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):276-281]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

 

Key words: signal peptidase gene, Streptococcus pneumoniae, streptokinase, OmpA, catalytic dyad

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Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability for Some Weaning and Post-Weaning Traits in Three Different Breeds of Rabbits

 

Kh.M. El-Bayomi, M.S. El-Tarabany, T.M. Abdel-Hamid

 

Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University

Mahmoudsalah2887@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of breed on some weaning and post-weaning performance traits as well as estimation of heterosis and combining ability for these traits. Two bucks and five does from each of New Zealand White, Californian and Gray Giant Flander breeds were used as parents to produce 183 progeny. Significant differences were observed among different progeny genotypes for body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and relative growth rate (RGR) at weaning and post-weaning growing period. New Zealand White x Flander rabbits recorded the heaviest weaning weight (668.18 g). On the other hand, Californian x New Zealand White recorded the heaviest market weight at 12th week of age (2278.52 g) and the highest ADG at the age periods from 4-6 weeks (45.29 g) and 10-12 weeks (24.01 g). New Zealand White x Californian recorded the highest RGR at the age period of 4-6 weeks (72.50%). Californian x New Zealand White rabbits recorded the highest positive estimates of heterosis for body weight at all ages studied (22.69, 17.60, 6.76, 4.50 and 7.60 % for weaning, 6th , 8th , 10th , and 12th  week of age; respectively), also the highest positive estimates for ADG at the age period from 4-6 weeks (12.77 %), while Californian x Flander rabbits recorded the highest positive estimates at 10-12 weeks of age (42.27 %). In general, effect of general combining ability (GCA) was non-significant (p>0.05) on body weight, ADG and RGR at most of ages studied, while effect of specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant (p<0.01) on body weights at most of ages studied, but non-significant on ADG and RGR at most of age intervals studied. In conclusion, we recommended the use of Californian as a sire breed to improve body weights and body weight gains of fryer rabbits and crossing of Californian males with New Zealand White females will improve body weights and body weight gain due to heterotic effect. Gray Giant Flander does is better mothers than Californian and New Zealand White which is reflected by higher weaning weights of progeny of Gray Giant Flander does. Moreover, Gray Giant Flander breed and specifically, crossing of New Zealand White with Californian are the best to improve body weights of fryer rabbits during weaning and post-weaning period.

 [Kh.M. El-Bayomi, M.S. El-Tarabany, T.M. Abdel-Hamid. Estimation of Heterosis and Combining Ability for Some Weaning and Post-Weaning Traits in Three Different Breeds of Rabbits. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):282-288]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

 

Key words: Heterosis, Combining ability, Weaning, Rabbits.

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Financial Structure between Modern and Traditional Theories

 

Hoda Ahmed Ibraheem

 

College of Business and Economics, Qassim University

noura_ahmed2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The financial structure of the most important issues for which it received the interests of scientific research in the field of financial management, where developed several theoretical at about optimizing selection of the financial structure of the institution and the interpretation of behavior finance has, however, until now, there is no consensus or agreement on the theory of a particular answer on the various questions in this regard, and especially the issue of optimizing the financial structure, the economics of debt and a market economy. This paper aimed at identifying the most important determinants of the financial structure of listed industrial companies in Egypt, The researcher analysis is comprehensive for the companies; my results are compared contrasted with those reported for US Company by Graham and Harvey (2001), in addition to identifying these companies debt capacity and their ability to borrow from financing companies. So, the overall objective of this study is to examine the corporate finance practices being adopted by Egyptian companies.

[Hoda Ahmed Ibraheem. Financial Structure between Modern and Traditional Theories. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):289-303]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

 

Keywords: financial structure; CFOs, CAPM, IRR, NPV, DCF, the cost of capital; optimizing the financial structure; the value of the institution.

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A Data Mining Framework for Extracting Product Sales Patterns in Retail Store Transactions Using Association Rules: A Case Study

 

Mirzaei.Afshin 1, Sheikh.Reza2

 

1Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN, Mirzaei.Afshin@gmail.com

2Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN, resheikh@Shahroodut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Widespread use of bar codes for most commercial products, the computerization of many businesses, and the advance in data collection tools have provided us with huge amount of retail data and data sets. This may be potentially valuable but currently untapped. These large datasets need to be analyzed for useful information, In a changing competitive environment, the usage of data mining to tap the potential knowledge and its decision-supporting applications would benefit organizations, businesses and individuals by supporting decision making and providing valuable knowledge. Association rules is a recent data mining technique to discover affinities, in large transaction databases, between items frequently purchased together. It has been claimed that the discovery of frequent sets of items is well suited for applications of market basket analysis to discover regularities in the purchase behavior of customers. This paper elaborates upon the use of association rule mining in extracting patterns that occur frequently within a dataset and showcases the implementation of the FP-Growth algorithm in mining association rules from a real dataset obtained from a supermarket chain containing sales transactions of a retail store.

[Afshin Mirzaei, Reza Sheikh. A Data Mining Framework for Extracting Product Sales Patterns in Retail Store Transactions Using Association Rules: A Case Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):304-308]. (ISSN: 1545-1003)]. http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

 

Keywords: data mining, association rules, FP-Growth algorithm, RapidMiner

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Multi-criteria Group Purchasing Decision-making Process Based on Marketing Mix (4Ps) Using Fuzzy TOPSIS

 

Mirzaei.Afshin1, Sheikh.Reza2, Moodi.Najmeh1

 

1Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN, Mirzaei.Afshin@gmail.com; najmehmoodi@gmail.com

2Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN,

resheikh@Shahroodut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, we discussed two cases. First, we challenged decision making with multi-criteria. Secondly, group decision making has been discussed. Specifically, we introduced Marketing Mix (4Ps) as Multi-Criteria Decision-making (MCDM). Then, we discussed Fuzzy TOPSIS methodology; which can smooth group decision making while we have Multi-Criteria (Marketing Mix (4Ps)). To clarify our proposed procedure, a numerical example is discussed.

[Afshin Mirzaei, Najmeh Moodi,Dr.Reza Sheikh. Multi-criteria Group Purchasing Decision-making Process Based on Marketing Mix (4Ps) Using Fuzzy TOPSIS. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):309-313]. (ISSN: 1545-1003)]. http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

 

Keywords: Marketing Mix (4Ps), MCDM, Group Decision Making, Fuzzy TOPSIS

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Dimensional Change (by Temperature) for Different Type Interocclusal Recording Materials

 

Khalid Ahmed Arafa

 

Department of Prosthodontics, Al-Baha University

drkhalidarafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study to comparethe dimensional changes  for different types of interocclusal recording materials(rubber base, zinc oxid ,wax and soft curing acrylic) by temperature at room c,30c,15c and zero c .The results are  indicated that rubber base the best material followed by zinc oxid

[Khalid Ahmed Arafa. Dimensional Change (by Temperature) for Different Type Interocclusal Recording Materials. J Am Sci 2012;8(9): 314-316]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45

 

Key Words: interocclusal record, temperature changes.

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Transient Response of Vertical Magnetic Dipole above a two layer medium

 

Adel A. S. Abo Seliem1 and Fathia Alseroury2

 

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

2Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah21412, KSA

adel_atta60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The duct model used here is that Kahan and Eckart [1950]. The source of the electromagnetic field is taken to a vertical magnetic dipole in the upper surface layer, with an arbitrary time – varying moment, we can determine the transient behavior of the electric field strength at any distance above the duct .The paper presents a method which allows the calculation of the atmospheric distortion of radar pulse, provided that the influence of the atmosphere is to transfer the transmitted signal through a duct. The polarization of the primary source, whose moment varies arbitrarily in time, is chosen in such a way that it allows the exact determination of the electric field strength at some field point above the duct layer. From the physical point of view, Cahniard’s idea is applicable as it is based on evaluating the field in a series of image sources of the primary source. The step – function solution of the problem can then be determined as infinite integrals over finite integrals. Two cases would be distinguished on the basis of the distance between the receiving and transmitting ends and whether it is greater or lesser than the total reflection distance.

 [Adel A. S. Abo Seliem and Fathia Alseroury. Transient Response of Vertical Magnetic Dipole above a two layer medium] Journal of American Science 2012;8(9): 317-324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

 

Key Words: Transmitted signal; Electromagnetic field

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Effect of Interface Position and Percentage of Shear Connectors on the Behavior of One-Way Composite Pre-Slabs

 

Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay

 

Structural Engineering Dept. Faculty of Engineering, Beni Sueif University, Egypt

ahshaban2005@yahoo.com

Abstract: One of the most common types of the composite concrete elements is the pre-slabs which are used extensively in the construction of both buildings and bridges. It consists of a pre-cast concrete layer serves as a form or skeleton for the cast-in-place concrete slab. The problem of shear transfer is a major item in the study of the behavior of      pre-slabs to achieve the composite action between two layers [1 to 8]. Many researches had been carried out to study the shear transfer between two concrete layers; few of them concerned with the behavior of continuous pre-slabs with variable interface position. In this investigation, the behavior of one way simply supported composite pre-slabs with variable interface position and different percentage of shear connector was studied. The experimental program contains testing of nine Pre-Slabs and one reference monolithic slab. The studied pre-slabs composed of two layers cast at different ages with variable thickness using different percentage of shear connectors. Finally, the slabs are modeled with the finite element computer program.

 [Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay. Effect of Interface Position and Percentage of Shear Connectors on the Behavior of One-Way Composite Pre-Slabs. Journal of American Science 2012;8(9):325-332]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.47

 

Key Words:   Pre-Slabs, One way, Shear transfer, Composite, Concrete

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Prohepcidin Level Is Decreased In Patients with Chronic Viral C Hepatitis, and Has No Correlation with Disease Progression

 

Usama Khalil; Monkez Motae; Abdullah Abelaziz; Alsayed Ahmed Alnahal and Mahmoud Ashour

 

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine.Zagazig University hospital

kamel_ashour2025@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and Study Aims: iron is deemed to play a crucial role in the path physiology of liver damage in patients with chronic viral C hepatitis (CHC), Hepcidin has recently emerged as the key hormone in the regulation of iron balance and recycling. Because of technical difficulties we assessed plasma prohepcidm (hepcidin prohormone) levels in patients with CHC to investigate the association of this molecule with iron parameters (serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation ), disease activity as well as its relation to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). Patients and Methods: We enrolled 45 patients with chronic hepatitis C, 10 of them were complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma, and 15 healthy controls. Plasma levels of prohepcidin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. serum iron parameters were assessed. Liver biopsies were taken for assessment of necro-inflammatory and fibrotic arranges according to Metaver Scoring System. Results: Mean prohepcidin levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy comparison controls (P<0.05). In patients with CHC and those with HCC there was a significant increase in iron parameters compared to the controls (P <0.001).Also there was no significant correlation between serum prohepcidin or iron parameters and grade of inflammation or stage of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients. No significant difference regarding serum prohepcidin and iron parameters was found between CHC patients with and without HCC. Conclusion: Significantly lower plasma prohepcidin levels and increased serum iron and ferritin were observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C with and without HCC compared to the controls, this may open the way for the use of hepcidin analogues in CHC patients to improve the response to antiviral therapy.

[Usama Khalil; Monkez Motae; Abdullah Abelaziz; Alsayed Ahmed Alnahal and Mahmoud Ashour. Prohepcidin Level Is Decreased In Patients with Chronic Viral C Hepatitis, and Has No Correlation with Disease Progression. J Am Sci 2012;8(9): 333-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

 

Keywords: hepcidin,HCV,hepatocellular carcinoma,iron overload,ferritin

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The Effect of Situational Identification of Teacher’s Scaffolding on Students’ Better Language Use: A Case Study Based on Speaking Skill on AD Students of Asrar Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran

 

Jila Ghaemi, Zargham Ghabanchi

 

Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Letters and Humanities, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad , Iran

zhila.ghaemi@um.ac.ir, zghapanchi@um.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This study aims to identify the necessity of scaffolding, and its appropriateness in the process of learning based on Tennyson’s IDT (Instructional Design Theory). For this purpose an experimental research is done on students of two classes with the total number of fifty five, one with situational oriented scaffolding, and the other with no teacher’s reflection on its appropriateness. Fourteen students of each class (the experimental and the control groups) are randomly selected to be evaluated with the post reading oral activities given to the whole students after each reading task. The result shows significant difference between the scores of the two four groups. Students in experimental group revealed better communicative performances. The data are subjected to analysis based on two samples independent t-test in SPSS package. The results reveal significant high quantitative scores of the class with the appropriate scaffolding design; they correspond to the assumption that students are to be supported with appropriate scaffolding, if any needed.

[Jila Ghaemi, Zargham Ghabanchi. The Effect of Situational Identification of Teacher’s Scaffolding on Students’ Better Language Use: A Case Study Based on Speaking Skill on AD Students of Asrar Institute of Higher Education, Mashhad, Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):338-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

 

Keywords: Scaffolding, Tennyson’s IDT, Reading tasks, Reading post activities

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Precipitating Factors and Hospital Outcome of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhotic Patients at Tertiary Centre in Egypt

 

Mahmoud A. Ashoor, Essam A. Wahab* and Afifi F. Afifi

 

Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

* essamabdelwahab72@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common clinical manifestation of advanced liver disease and/or portosystemic shunt and is manifested clinically by neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in absence of other neurological disorders. Aim of the work: Determination of precipitants of hepatic encephalopathy and effect of different treatment regimens, and their impact on ICU stay and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: Within 8 months period, from November 2009 to June 2010, 540 patients with established liver cirrhosis manifesting signs of HE were admitted to our Internal Medicine ICU. Patients were randomized to receive four treatment regimens; Standard treatment (ST) only, ST plus branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ST plus L-Ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA) and ST plus LOLA plus BCAA. Results: Of the 540 cirrhotic patients 353 (65.4%) were males, and 187 (34.6%) were females. Mean age of participants was (61 ± 8.4 years). Hepatitis C virus was the main cause of liver cirrhosis in 465 (86.1%), 20 (3.7%) had hepatitis B, non-B, non-C cirrhosis was seen in 55 (10.2%) patients. 489 (90.6%) patients had Child-Pugh class C, 51 (9.4%) patients had class B, while no patients had Child class A. On admission, 5.4% patients had grade 1 HE while 30.4%, 41.5% and 22.4% had grades 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The most common precipitants of HE were; infection in 159 (29.4%), gastrointestinal bleeding in 146 (27%), constipation in 47 (8.7%) patients, while, no precipitant was found in 40 (7.4%) patients. Old age, hemodynamic instability, Child-Pugh class C, grades 3 or 4 HE, renal impairment, recurrent episodes of HE and sepsis were independent factors for high ICU mortality. Mean ICU stay was (2.54 ± 1days). Shorter ICU stays was associated with grade 1, 2 HE, Child class B, and treatment group IV (BCAA plus LOLA), while, longer ICU stay was associated with grade 3, 4 HE, Child-Pugh class C, and group I. In standard treated group, mean ICU stay was (2.97±1.1 days) vs. (2.1±0.9 days) in the group treated with BCAA plus LOLA. In the group treated with standard treatment, ICU mortality was 36% vs. 15.4% in the group treated with BCAA plus LOLA. Conclusion: Infections and gastrointestinal bleeding were the major precipitants for HE in our study. Patients with old age, hemodynamic instability, grades 3 or 4 HE, renal impairment, and recurrent episodes of HE on admission were associated with worse hospital outcomes. Moreover, intravenous infusion of LOLA and BCAA accelerate HE recovery, improve hospital outcome and reduce overall ICU mortality .

[Mahmoud A. Ashoor, Essam A. Wahab and Afifi F. Afifi. Precipitating Factors and Hospital Outcome of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhotic Patients at Tertiary Centre in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2012;8(9): 344-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

 

Keywords: Hepatic encephalopathy; Liver cirrhosis; Precipitants; Hospital outcome; Zagazig; Egypt

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Investigating the Intermediate Role of Achievement Goals among Personality Traits and Educational Self-Handicapping Among Payam-E-Noor University Students

 

Ahmad Rastegar, Mohsen Afshari, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Reza Ghorban Jahromi

 

Department of Educational Psychology, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

 

In order to investigate the role of achievement goals among personality traits and educational self-handicapping, 382 Payam-e-Noor university students were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling and answered questions including subscales of achievement goals, personality traits, and educational self-handicapping. The results of the path analysis showed that neuroticism has an indirect and negative influence on educational self-handicapping through mediating achievement goals. Moreover, the intermediate role of extroversion on educational self-handicapping was not proved.

[Ahmad Rastegar, Mohsen Afshari, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Reza Ghorban Jahromi, Investigating the Intermediate Role of Achievement Goals among Personality Traits and Educational Self-Handicapping Among Payam-E-Noor University Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):353-357]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  51

 

Keywords: achievement goals, personality traits, educational self-handicapping

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Prediction of Airborne Radioactivity Levels in Mines Using Statistical Relationships and Artificial Neural Network

 

G. I. El-Shanshoury and Eman Sarwat

 

Radiation Safety Dep. Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, ENRRA, Cairo, Egypt

Eman_sarwat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of the study is to define the optimal model for predicting the radiation levels of airborne radon and thoron in some Egyptian phosphate mines utilizing both statistical relationships and artificial neural network. Such prediction can be use to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers as well as for saving the time, effort and money.   The study is carried out on two Egyptian phosphate mines. Radiation measurements of airborne radon and thoron have been conducted in the two mines. These measurements have been analyzed to predict the airborne radioactivity of radon and thoron levels in these mines. Six cases for predicting radon and thoron levels are investigated in each mine. Some of accuracy measurements are calculated to assess and compare the performance of statistical models and artificial neural network. The results show that using artificial neural network method for predicting both radon and thoron levels at half distance of the mine is better than the predicting each of radon or thoron separately. It is also found that the neural network method is much better than using statistical models for predicting the levels at the same distance. However, using statistical models for predicting radon or thoron levels at all distances of the mine is found to be better than using artificial neural network at half distance of the mine. The results indicated that by using two statistical models, it is not necessary to measure the levels of radon and thoron in the mine and it is possible to anticipate levels of radon and thoron all over the mine in accordance with distances.

[G. I. El-Shanshoury and Eman Sarwat. Prediction of Airborne Radioactivity Levels in Mines Using Statistical Relationships and Artificial Neural Network. J Am Sci 2012;8 (9):358-370] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

 

Key Words: Radon and thoron levels; Statistical models; Artificial neural network; Accuracy measurements.

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Investigating the relationships between achievement motivation, self-esteem and education with creativity in pre-school teachers in Arsanjan

 

Farshid Ghasemi1, Shohreh Eskandari2 , Yones Mohammadzadeh3,

1Ma Student of Educational Sciences, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

2Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran & employed at Fars Education and Training Organization, Iran

3Assistant Professor, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

 Eskandari.shohreh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between achievement motivation, self-esteem, and education with creativity in pre-school teachers in Arsanjan. The sample included 60 pre-school teachers which was equal to the population. Data was analyzed using descriptive methods, as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient, one-way variance analysis, and stepwise multiple regression. The tools for data gathering included the Randseep creativity test, the Cooper-Smith self-esteem test, and the Ghiselli achievement motivation, which had a good validity and reliability. The study included two hypotheses and 2 questions, which investigated the relationships of achievement motivation, self-esteem and education with creativity in pre-school teachers. The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between achievement motivation and education with creativity, but they did not indicate a significant relationship between education and creativity. The first predictive variable (achievement motivation) had a 13% predictive ability, and the second one (self- esteem) had a 0.6 % predictive ability of the criterion variable (creativity).

[Farshid Ghasemi, Shohreh Eskandari, Yones Mohammadzadeh. Investigating the relationships between achievement motivation, self-esteem and education with creativity in pre-school teachers in Arsanjan. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):371-375]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org 53

 

Keywords: achievement motivation, self-esteem, education, creativity, pre-school teachers

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Influence of Cr3+-ions Substitution on the Magnetic Properties and Electrical Resistivity of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites

 

Eltabey M. M. 1, N. Aboulfotoh2 and S.A. Gharbia1

 

1 Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

2  Department of Engineering and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

nehalzr@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The standard ceramic method was used to prepare NiCuZn ferrites powders with chemical formula of Ni0.4Cu0.2Zn0.4CrxFe2-xO4 (x = 0 to x = 0.15 with step = 0.025). The effect of Cr–substitution on the structure, magnetic properties and dc electrical resistivity has been studied. X-ray patterns indicated the presence of a single spinel phase for all investigated samples. SEM micrographs revealed that the average grain size decrease with Cr substitution. VSM was used to measure the magnetization at room temperature. The initial permeability was measured, on toroidal samples used as transformer cores, as a function of temperature at constant frequency of 10 KHz and Curie temperature (Tc) was determined. It was found that the magnetization, the initial permeability and Curie temperature decreased with increasing Cr-content. Whereas, dc resistivity increased with increasing Cr-concentration. The obtained results were discussed in the light of domain theory and ion pair model.  

 [Eltabey M. M., N. Aboulfotoh and S.A. Gharbia. Influence of Cr3+-ions Substitution on the Magnetic Properties and Electrical Resistivity of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):376-380]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 54.

 

Keywords: Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites, magnetization and initial permeability

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InvestigatingThe role of customers’ electronic trust in online banking website of Maskan Bank (Case Study: Maskan Bank of Dareshahr city)

 

Bahman Gholami1, Simin Shams2, Masoomeh Amoozadeh3, Behzad Teimouri4,Zahra Rahmati5

 

                        1 Department of Management Payame Noor  University . IR . of IRAN                

          2 Department of Social Sciences Payame Noor  University . IR . of IRAN

      3 Department of Geography Payame Noor  University . IR . of IRAN

  4 Maskan Bank Branches Mangement of Ilam, Darehshar Baranch, Employed in Maskan bank 5.Islamic azad university , branch Dehloran,  Dehloran,Iran

Kh_457@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Along with the progress and developments made ​​in the society, trade as one of the pillars of human civilization, changed and has taken a new shape, in the form of e-commerce. Despite the increasing use of e-commerce and its advantages, trust in electronic systems is, particularly in the domain of ​​banking, one of the most important issues is the use of the Internet. This study aimed at investigating the role of customers’ electronic trust in online banking website of housing Bank (Bank Maskan) of Dareshahr city. Theoretical framework of this research, regarding to the appropriateness of topic, is based on reliability theory and technology acceptance models, and then research questions and hypotheses were posed. The sample size of the study was considered 241 subjects which were selected randomly through the survey methodology and questionnaire. The SPSS 18 software was used. The results suggest that all the hypotheses are confirmed by SPSS software. In other words there is a significant relationship between electronic trust and attitudes towards using  Housing Bank's (Maskan Bank’s) Internet website, electronic trust and deciding to reuse Bank Maskan’s internet website, understood easily application and understood advantages of bank and attitudes toward using Bank Maskan’s internet website. InvestigatingThe role of customers’ electronic trust in online banking website of Maskan Bank(Case Study: Maskan Bank of Dareshahr city) . J Am Sci 2012;8(9):381-386]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55


Key words: Trust, E-Commerce, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Intention.

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Serum Chemerin and Adiponectin Levels in Metabolic Syndrome Patients with or without Coronary Artery Diseases

 

Abdelhaleem A.A. *1 and Alsayed M Alsalamony 2

 

1Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, 2 Internal Medicine Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

ahaleem445@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective :Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are considered chronic inflammatory condition. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at high risk for developing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Serum levels of chemerin have been found to be elevated in patients with MS and are associated with several risk factors for CVD. Hypoadiponectinemia are found in obese individuals and have been associated with increases incidence of MS and developing of CVD . We studied the adipokines – chemerin and adiponectin serum levels in MS subjects with or without coronary artery diseases (CAD). Patients and Methods:The current study included 64 subjects with MS diagnosed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria (24 patients with coronary artery disease, CAD and 40 patients without CAD) and 36 healthy age and sex matched subjects as controls. Patients with MS underwent coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD. Body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, chemerin and adiponectin were measured for all participants . Results :MS patients had higher serum chemerin and lower serum adiponectin levels compared with healthy subjects. Level of serum chemerin was significantly elevated in MS patients with CAD compared with those without CAD and healthy controls. Furthermore, MS patients without CAD also showed higher levels of serum chemerin than did healthy subjects. Serum chemerin was positively while adiponectin was negatively associated with BMI, and all parameters of MS except HDL, HOMA-IS where the pattern reversed. Conclusions :Among apparent healthy adults, individuals with high chemerin levels coupled with low circulating adiponectin are at a significantly increased risk of dyslipidemia , metabolic syndrome and coronary artery diseases.

[Abdelhaleem A.A. and Alsayed M. Alsalamony Serum Chemerin and Adiponectin Levels in Metabolic Syndrome Patients with or without Coronary Artery Diseases. Journal of American Science 2012;8(9):387-394]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

 

Keywords: Chemerin, Adiponectin, Metabolic Syndrome, Coronary Artery Diseases.

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Anatomical and Histological Effects of Formaldehyde Inhalation on the Lung of Albino Rat

 

Asmaa M. T. Mohamed 1, Mamdouh El-Ashtokhy 1, Hanan M. Ahmed 2 and Osama Y. Ibrahim 3

 

1Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University 44519, Egypt

2Department of Clinical Toxicology and Forensic, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University 44519, Egypt

3Department of Histology and cell Biology, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University 44519, Egypt

a_tolba2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Formaldehyde (FA) is a common indoor and outdoor pollutant found in many products. Formaldehyde-induces cytotoxicity in the respiratory tract, in the form of acute lung injury which is caused by respiratory epithelial cell damage and loss of function. Much attention to the effects of formaldehyde is paid on the upper airway, in particular the nose, much less concern is focused on the pulmonary toxicity. This study evaluated the cellular toxicity of formaldehyde gas on the lung of albino rats. For this purpose, sixty adult albino rats were divided into five groups. The rats in group (I) comprised the controls, while the rats in groups (II  & III & IV and V)  exposed to formaldehyde gas inhalation in a toxic dose (0.5 part per thousand) for four hours daily for four weeks. After exposure, lung samples prepared for light and electron microscopic examination every week. The anatomical results revealed gross morphological changes in the lungs such as congestion in most lobes and focal pneumonic organization. The ultrastructural histological results revealed new cell type development in the lung called Tunnel cell, destructed blood gas barrier, inflammatory exudates, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation, thickened basement membrane zone, dilatation of interalveolar septal capillaries and dilatation of the pulmonary blood vessels. Light microscopic examination showed thickened alveolar septum, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, proliferative capillary, pulmonary vasculitis, hyperplastic parabronchiloar lymphocytic aggregations, pulmonary fibrosis and precancerous changes (goblet cell metaplasia and bronchiolar epithelial dysplasia). It was concluded that formaldehyde inhalation leads to an irritant toxic carcinogenic effect on the albino rat lungs related to the exposure durations          

[Asmaa M. T. Mohamed, Mamdouh El-Ashtokhy, Hanan M. Ahmed  and Osama Y. Ibrahim. Anatomical and Histological Effects of Formaldehyde Inhalation on the Lung of Albino Rat. Journal of American Science 2012;8(9): 395-404]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

 

Keywords: Formaldehyde inhalation; rat lung; Tunnel cell; Ultrastructural; Metaplasia; Durations.

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Barriers and Facilitators to Research Utilization as Perceived by academic staff and head nurses

 

Ahlam El-shaer1 and Elham Elhanafy2

 

1Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University.

2Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University

ahmedshawky55@hotmail.com; elham_youssef2006@yahoo.com

                                                                

Abstract: The effort to translate research to the practice setting is an ongoing and challenging endeavor. Providing safe and effective patient care, the nurse must help bridge the gap that exists between research findings and its application to practice. This study aims to identify barriers and facilitators to research utilization in Mansoura and Damanhour Universities hospitals as perceived by academic staff, nurses educators and head nurses. The study sample consists of all academic staff in nursing faculty in Mansoura university (25) and Damanhour university (25) and all head nurses in Mansoura university hospitals (167) and Damanhour medical institute hospital (77). Tool was used for data collection namely: Barriers and facilitators to research utilization. The study findings indicated that nurse related barriers were ranked as a greatest barriers in Mansoura university followed by setting barriers and then research related barriers. While, in Damanhour University, presentation and accessibility of the research were ranked as a greatest barriers followed by setting barriers, qualities of the research and then nurse related barriers. It was recommended that conducting trainings and workshops to raise nurse’s awareness on RU, research process and methodology, significant recent research articles should be translated into Arabic and should be presented in a clear and understandable ways. Closer ties between researchers and nurses staff through scientific workshops, settings should be given adequate support to RU through Providing libraries at workplace  improve work condition through decreasing work load, increase resources, availability of time to read researches and try to implement new ideas.

[Ahlam El-shaer and Elham Elhanafy Barriers and Facilitators to Research Utilization as Perceived by academic staff and head nurses. Journal of American Science 2012;8(9): 405-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

 

Keyword: Barriers and Facilitators to Research Utilization as Perceived by academic staff and head nurses

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Proniosomes as a Stable Carrier for Oral Acyclovir: Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization

 

Viviane F. Naggar, Safaa S. El gamal, Ahmed N. Allam*

 

Pharmaceutics Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Egypt

ph.a.allam@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present investigation is to formulate and evaluate proniosomal carrier systems for Acyclovir. Acyclovir proniosomal delivery system was developed and subjected to in vitro and ex vivo studies. Acyclovir proniosomal carrier systems were prepared by three different methods using different carriers. Characterization of the prepared proniosomes and the proniosomes derived niosomes were also evaluated through particle size analysis, Microscopical examination, IR spectroscopy, DSC, in vitro dissolution and storage studies. Furthermore, in vitro release and intestinal permeation studies were tested and compared with drug solution. Results obtained showed that the prepared vesicles were spherical, discrete with no aggregation. Higher lipid concentration might have resulted in higher encapsulation volume and thus, increase of entrapment efficiency, in addition to an increase in the mean particle size. In vitro release studies pointed to an initial fast release of Acyclovir from proniosomes followed by relatively slower release up to 8 hours. Ex vivo intestinal permeability studies showed that drug diffused at a faster rate from the proniosome formulations than from drug solution. Stability studies suggested that proniosomes offer a more stable system that could minimize the problems associated with conventional niosomes. In conclusion, proniosomes may be a promising carrier for Acyclovir, especially due to their simple production methodology and stability.

[Viviane F. Naggar, Safaa S. El gamal, Ahmed N. Allam. Proniosomes as a Stable Carrier for Oral Acyclovir: Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):417-428]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

 

Key Words: Acyclovir- proniosomes- stable dry vesicles – sorbitol -maltodextrin.

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Iranian Traditional games pedagogy and their importance in improving physical and psychological aspects of elementary school students

 

Mitra Rouhi

 

Farhangian university, Nasibe College, Ph.D. candidate, Tehran-I.R.IRAN

mitrarouhi@gmail.com

 

Abstract : The goal of present paper is investigating Iranian traditional games pedagogy and their importance in improving psychological and physical aspects of elementary school students. samples either by clusters in two stages or simple random. The members of this research are 144 persons; in each state were chosen as statistical samples for this study. All the information about their physical preparedness was gathered by related tests and their psychological preparedness were examined by special tools which are specified for gathering such information according to the questionnaire; however their precisions and contents were studied and confirmed by a group of connoisseur professors of the university. For investigating about the perpetuity of the questionnaire; we used the Alpha Chronbach (0.86). According to the guidelines; traditional games were held in 8 weeks and three times a week. For each player; we had to establish a record for physical preparedness and psychological traits both before and after the exercise sessions. Then we review and analyze them. For analyzing the data we used descriptive and deductive statistics . The positive impact of research results on various aspects of traditional games children showed physical and mental. Therefore, traditional games can be valuable as an educational tool in the comprehensive development of children can play an important role

.[ Mitra Rouhi. Iranian Traditional games pedagogy and their importance in improving physical and psychological aspects of elementary school students. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):429-435]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

 

Key words: traditional games, elementary grades, physical preparedness factors, psychological traits.

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Computer as Mathematics Facilitator in Problem Based Learning

 

Mohammad Jafarabadi Ashtian  Mansoor Nomanof  Bahram Sadeghi Bigham

 

1Department of Mathematics Technical and Vocational university,Tehran, Iran

 2Department of Mathematics Tajik state pedagogical university, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

3Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran

jafarabadi@eittc.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and study Electronic Problem-Based Learning (e-PBL) systems as well as proposing a method of learning which involves deeper understanding and comprehension in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The PBL system allows students to become self-directed and self-disciplined and simplifies elimination of lecturers’ physical presence in mathematics and related fields. It also overcomes some problems of other electronic-based systems in such fields of science.

 [Mohammad Jafarabadi Ashtiani Mansoor Nomanof Bahram Sadeghi Bigha. Computer as Mathematics Facilitator in Problem Based Learning. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):436-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

Keywords: -e-learning; PBL; e-PBL; Bloom; Independent Learning, Math Training

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Impact of Flow velocity on Surface Particulate Fouling - Theoretical Approach

 

Mostafa M. Awad

 

Mech. Power Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt

mostawad100@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this research is to study the effect of flow velocity on surface fouling. A new theoretical approach showing the effect of flow velocity on the particulate fouling has been developed. This approach is based on the basic fouling deposition and removal processes. The present results show that, the flow velocity has a strong effect on both the fouling rate and the asymptotic fouling factor; where the flow velocity affects both the deposition and removal processes. Increasing flow velocity results in decreasing both of the fouling rate and asymptotic values. Comparing the obtained theoretical results with available experimental ones showed good agreement between them. The developed model can be used as a very useful tool in the design and operation of the heat transfer equipment by controlling the parameters affecting fouling processes.

[Mostafa M. Awad. Impact of Flow velocity on Surface Particulate Fouling - Theoretical Approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):442-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

 

Keywords: Surface fouling, flow velocity, particle sticking, mass transfer

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Effect of Extraction Method on the Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract

 

Mustapha Hassan Bichi1, 2, Jonah Chukuemeka Agunwamba3, Suleyman Aremu Muyibi4, and Mohammed Isma’il Abdulkarim4

 

1Visiting PhD Research Student, Bioenvironmental Engineering Research Unit (BERU), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur.

2 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria.

3 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka-Nigeria.

4 Bioenvironmental Engineering Research Unit (BERU), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur

mhbichi2000@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Moringa Oleifera seeds extract has been found to posses antimicrobial properties. The mechanism of its action in this regard is still largely un-determined. In this work, six methods of extracting the active ingredients from the Moringa seed powder were considered. They were: Normal aqueous extraction (M1), Salt extraction (M2), Oil removal followed by aqueous extraction (M3), oil removal followed by salt extraction (M4), oil removal followed by aqueous extraction and microfiltration (M5), and oil removal followed by salt extraction and microfiltration. The antimicrobial action of each extract on Escherichia Coli was determined using Disc Diffusion and Agar Well methods. An average of 639.77±16.72gm of seed kernel was obtained per Kg of raw Moringa seed processed. The results also showed that 72.28±4.84% cake was produced for each 10gm of the <210 µm seed powder de-fatted and the seed oil produced was 28.75±1.68%. The zones of inhibition produced using disc diffusion method ranged 6.5mm – 9.0mm for the six extraction methods with the highest value of 9.0mm obtained with method M3. The Agar well method yielded 6.75mm – 12.38mm zone of inhibition diameter with the highest value of 12.38mm obtained with method M3 of seed extraction. The investigation thus concluded that the M3 was the best extraction method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the Moringa disinfection Solution M3 was determined to be 200µL/mL while the Minimum Bacterial Concentration (MBC) was 210µL/mL. Optimization of the operating conditions was suggested for the subsequent application of this method of seed processing in water disinfection.

[Bichi, M. H., Agunwamba, J. C., Muyibi, S. A., and Abdulkarim, M.I. Effect of Extraction Method on the Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):450-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

 

Keywords: Moringa Oleifera, Seed Extract, Extraction Method, Disinfection, Antimicrobial Activity.

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Topical Honey versus Alginate as Dressing for Management of Wagner Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcers

 

ManalElsayedEz Eldeen1, Refaat Fathey1, AymanElsayed Hasaballah2 and AfafAbdelaziz Basal3

 

1Internal Medicne; 2Vascular SurgeryDepartments, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut University

3Medical- Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing,Tanta University. Egypt.

Manal_ezeldeen@yahoo.com; afaf_bassal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetic foot problems, such as ulcerations, infections, and gangrene, are the most common cause of hospitalization among diabetic patients. Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), a leading cause of amputations, affect 15% of people with diabetes. Routine ulcer care, treatment of infections, amputations, and hospitalizations cost billions of dollars every year and place a tremendous burden on the health care system. Aim: to compare the effect of honey (Pedyphar® ointment) and alginate(Fibracol® gel) as dressing for management of Wagner Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Method :random sample of forty diabetic patients (30 women and 10 men) divided into 2 groups, group A cared by honey (Pedyphar®  ointment) and group B Alginate (Fibracol® gel) the study was performed in Assuit University Hospital during ( September 2011 to March 2012). Results: the study showed that honey dressing had less time of healing 12± 3 weeks than alginate (Fibracol® gel) dressing 16± 4 weeks and there was statistical significant difference in relation to duration of healing.Conclusion:  In our study we observed both dressing had good results in treating diabetic wounds but dressings soaked with topical honey had excellent result than alginate (Fibracol® gel). Honey dressing is a safe alternative dressing for Wagner grade II diabetic foot ulcers.

[Manal Elsayed EzEldeen, Refaat Fathey, Ayman Elsayed Hasaballah and Afaf Abdelaziz Basal. Topical Honey versus Alginate as Dressing for Management of Wagner Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcers. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):459-464]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

 

Keys words: diabetic foot ulceration, honey dressing, Alginate (fibracol gel) dressing.

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Outcomes of Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital – a retrospective analysis

 

Mohamed S. Ali, Shalakani A and Hanafi S

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ain Shams University

Mohamed_ali906@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective:The aim of the current work is to study the outcomes of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis at Early Cancer Detection Unit at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital over a 12-year period between 1999 and 2011.Patients and Methods: The current study is a retrospective analysis of outcomes of hysteroscopic adhesiolysis procedures performed at the Early Cancer Detection Unit at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital over a 12-year period between 1999 and 2011. Data were retrieved from patients’ case records available at the Early Cancer Detection Unit. Operative procedure details and notes were obtained from patients’ case records. Patients were contacted directly, through mail and/or phone calls to complete follow-up data, procedure outcomes as well as missing data. Results: A total of 363 women, who underwent hysteroscopic adhesiolysis during the period between 1999 and 2011, were included in the analysis. Of the included 130 women, 88 (24.24%) had presented with primary infertility, 181 (49.85%) had presented with secondary infertility, 39 (10.74%) had presented with recurrent miscarriage, while 55 (15.16%) had presented with amenorrhea. Laparoscopic assistance was employed in 27 (7.44%) cases, including 11 cases of perforation and 6 cases of suspected perforation or false passage and 9 cases of extensive grade IV adhesions. The procedure passed uncomplicated in 351 (96.69%) cases. Cervical lacerations occurred in 1 (0.28%) case. Uterine perforation occurred in 11 (3.03%) cases. All underwent concomitant laparoscopy and no bowel or other injuries were found. Of the included 363 women, 130 (35.81%) were accessible for follow-up. Of the accessible 130 women, 4 (3.08%) had hysteroscopic adhesiolysis performed for amenorrhea. Of the 4 women who had presented with amenorrhea, 3 (75%) had it resolved. Of the accessible 130 women, 126 (96.02%) had hysteroscopic adhesiolysis performed for infertility; of them 40 (31.75%) women got pregnant, while 86 (68.25%) remained infertile. Of the 40 women who got pregnant, 30 had term delivery, 6 had preterm delivery, while 4 had first trimester spontaneous abortion. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis in cases of IUAs for restoring normal menstrual flow in women with amenorrhea and for improving pregnancy rates in women with infertility or recurrent miscarriage is an effective and relatively safe treatment of such conditions.

[Mohamed S. Ali, Shalakani A and Hanafi S. Outcomes of Hysteroscopic Adhesiolysis in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital – a retrospective analysis. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):465-470]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

 

Key Words: Operative hysteroscopy – hysteroscopic adhesiolysis – Asherman’s syndrome – intrauterine adhesions – intrauterine synechiae

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Academic Researchers' Opinions about Internet Financial Reporting for Research Purposes: The Case of Egypt

 

Hala Abd El-Naby Abd El-Fattah

 

Accounting Department, Faculty of Commerce, Cairo University

halah62@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this research is an attempt to explore the opinions of academic researchers in Egypt regarding the usability and usefulness of Internet Financial Reporting (IFR) as a source of getting information for research purposes. The study employs the survey questionnaire of 200 possible participants of academic researchers in Egypt, 125 received responses were analyzed. The results of the descriptive statistics indicate that there is a strong agreement among the researchers on IFR being accessible, useable and considered an important and useful source of getting information at any time and from anywhere for research purposes. On the other hand, there is a great difference among researchers regarding the level of the overall design of IFR in Egypt as they cannot rely only on IFR as a source of information for research purposes. They also stated that the hard copy reports is still preferable than internet financial report. The results of the factor analysis show that the usability dimension of IFR has three main components; output features, processing features and input features. The most important factor is the output features of IFR information which is a logical result because this is the part that researchers interact most with it and accordingly perceived its value in conduct of the research. Also, the factor analysis has classified usefulness dimension of IFR into two main factors; quality features and service features. The results indicate that the quality factor is most significant and the service features came second. This result is quite logical because perceived quality of IFR information that influences the quality of the research analysis is more important than the service features determining the effectiveness and efficiency of delivering such information.

[Hala Abd El-Naby Abd El-Fattah. Academic Researchers' Opinions about Internet Financial Reporting for Research Purposes: The Case of Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):471-482]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

 

Key Words:   Internet Financial Reporting (IFR), Usability of IFR, Usefulness of IFR, IFR for business research and accounting purposes, Developing countries, Egypt.

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Therapy Examination and Intervention Process for Patients with Cervicogenic Dizziness

 

Amer Al-Saif 1, Hani Al-Nakhli2, Samira Alsenany3

 

1Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Aalsaif @ kau.edu.sa.

2Senior-Specialist, Women's and Maternity Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munnawarah, KSA.

3Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Salsenany@kau.edu.sa.

 

Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence supporting the pathophysiology and physical therapy management of patients with CGD (Cervicogenic Dizziness); however, it is still not widely adopted in clinical practice. Cervicogenic dizziness is often the result of a sensory mismatch between the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual afferent inputs. Physical trauma involving the cervical spine, such as whiplash injury, is a common mechanism of injury in CGD patients. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the etiology of cervicogenic dizziness, describe the proposed pathophysiology, and introduce the physical therapy examination and intervention process for patients with CGD. In order to determine the origin of the patient’s dizziness, the physical therapist must conduct thorough subjective and physical examinations to rule out all competing causes of dizziness. The patient history may include physical trauma involving the head and neck and cervical spine postural faults, which are commonly observed. Therefore, treating neck pain among this group of patients is one of the main objectives for physical therapists. Intervention strategies may include: (1) orthopedic manual techniques specific to the cervical spine region, (2) head and neck proprioceptive rehabilitation program, and (3) cervical-ocular motor exercises Cervical spine proprioception impairments can be treated with a specifi proprioceptive rehabilitation program. The program can be progressed by doing active head movements rather than passive head movements. In conclusion, physical therapy intervention has been shown to be effective in reducing CGD symptoms.

[Amer Al-Saif, Hani Al-Nakhli, Samira Alsenany. Therapy Examination and Intervention Process for Patients with Cervicogenic Dizziness. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):483-487]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

 

Keywords: cervicogenic dizziness, vestibular, physical therapy, cervical spine, rehabilitation

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Determining the Optimized Portfolio of Agriculture Products in Iran Mercantile Exchange: Application of Value at Risk approach

 

Masoud Dehdashti 1, Seyed-Ali Hosseini-Yekani 2, Hamid Mohammadi 3

 

1. Department of Economics and Management, Dashtestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dashtestan, Iran

2. Department of Agricultural Economics, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

3. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

dehdashti@diau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: During recent decade and after considering risk management consist of financial asset, criteria for evaluating risk based on probability that we can call it value at Risk is so important. In this case, this study determines the optimized portfolio of agriculture product in Iran Mercantile Exchange for two groups of investors with average investment of 10 and 100 million Rials by using of value at Risk. Data which is used in this study is consisting of statistic of price about 150 work days for 11 products in 2011. For analyzing information, LINGO software is used and result showed that the crap of beet and edible wheat are two products which are included in all optimized portfolios. Also it is recognized that relation between VaR extend and diversity of portfolio is opposite in the way that in the lower level of risk, portfolios are more diversified than high level of risk and the relation between risk- return is advantageous for risk averse investors.

[Dehdashti M, Hosseini-Yekani SA, Mohammadi H. Determining the Optimized Portfolio of Agriculture Products in Iran Mercantile Exchange: Application of Value at Risk approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):488-492]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  68

 

Keywords: Determining optimized portfolio; Value at Risk; agriculture products; Iran Mercantile Exchange

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Attention to Indigenous Knowledge toward agricultural development

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

ghorbani132@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Imbalance population growth, non-sustainable efficiency of natural sources and unequal distribution of resources, goods and services made involved societies in confusing issues and impasses. In these countries , inappropriate sampling of abroad countries and inordinate imports (e.g. heterogeneous and non-indigenous technology ) devastated independent collection of micro local systems , and instead has established heterogeneous and dependent system to global economy system , that obviously couldn’t supply people’s needs. Since , this development process is formed without considering social , cultural and environmental consequents so isn’t continuing and human have to find strategies which can make development sustainable and humane Indigenous knowledge owners of world in current age (which known as information age) have valuable experiences from industry age and from inappropriate exploitation of their natural sources. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum.

 [Esmaeel Ghorbani. Attention to Indigenous Knowledge toward agricultural development. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):493-498]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, agricultural development

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Improving financial situation of rural women

 

Mahdi Nazarpour

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Mahdi231@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Women played critical and important role at agriculture and now at most countries, they form major workforce of this part. In spite of importance of women workforce at different systems of agriculture, they have fewer access to development resources, compare to men. although during past two decades , various programs has been performed to enable women at agriculture , but due to different problems , gained success was very fewer than required extent . Agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture. One of major problem in this filed is inadequate and inappropriate access to extensional services. Low efficiency of agriculture extension systems to provide services for rural women doesn't just refer to structure and function of these organizations and systems, but refer to other issues including research and cultural barriers in this field.

 [Mahdi Nazarpour. Improving financial situation of rural women. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):499-504]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, financial support

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The Effect of Initial Velocity Model Accuracy on Refraction Tomography Velocity Model

in Sefid-Zakhor Gas Field, Iran

 

Maryam Noori1, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh2*, Mohammad Ali Riahi3, Javad Jamali4

 

1. M.Sc. Student of Exploration Petroleum Engineer, Abadan Petroleum University of Technology (PUT), Iran

2. PHD, Petroleum University of Technology (PUT), Iran

3. PHD, Geophysics Institute of Tehran University, Iran

4. Geophysics Expert of Exploration Direction, Iran

Maryam.Exploration@yahoo.com or Maryam.Noori@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: One of the limitations of velocity models obtained from seismic method is lack of lateral resolution at low frequencies, since in this method the stacking velocity is used. The major objective of this paper is to cover lateral resolution using refraction tomography. In refraction tomography modeling a correct initial velocity model based on refraction wave data is the main step for tomography inversion. The presented paper focuses on preparation of the initial velocity model for refraction tomography. This model is then used in seismic tomography process to minimize the time difference between the initial model and all first breaks. 31 km 2Dwide-line seismic data of Sefid-Zakhor gas field are selected so that contain exploration well of the field to compare tomography inversion interval velocity model in well location with checkshot interval velocity for validation. The high fit between checkshot and tomography velocity is observed. High accuracy result is derived because of picking first time arrivals both in shotgathers and satationgathers and considers any lateral change as a velocity layer in preparing initial velocity model. However, in the Sefid-Zakhor gas field the data acquisition is discontinues because of its erratic terrain topography, the desired result obtained in the first iteration of refraction tomography inversion because of the accuracy of the initial velocity model. Finally, the drift between well and tomography velocity is applied to the area using MATLAB Software Packages.

[Noori M, Shadizadeh SR, Riahi MA, Jamali J. The Effect of Initial Velocity Model Accuracy on Refraction Tomography Velocity Model in Sefid-Zakhor Gas Field, Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):505-514]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

 

Keywords: Initial velocity model; Lateral velocity change; Refraction Tomography; SIRT; Misfit time

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Association between the Hygiene Practices for Genital Organs and Sexual Activity on Urinary Tract infection in Pregnant Women at women's Health Center, at Assiut University Hospital

 

Manal F.Moustafa¹ and Entesar M. Makhlouf²

 

Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Assuit University Egypt

 

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are very common in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the association of Hygiene Practices for Genital Organs and Sexual Activity with Urinary Tract infection in Pregnant Women at women's Health Center, At Assiut University Hospital .This was descriptive analytical observational study with cross- sectional. The study sample consisted of (150) women from outpatient department in Women's Health Center with urinary tract infection for one year start from December 2009 to December 2010.The result of study showed that the mean age of women were 28.4±6.0 years, the majority of women (82%) multi Para, Three quarter of women (75.3%) do sexual intercourse more than 3+ /week during last month, All the sample (100%) 0f women don’t wash genitalia before intercourse. The majority of women (94.6%) don’t wash genital organ in correct direction , (81.3%) drunk only one liter of fluid/ day .Later found more than half of women (58%) had recurrent urinary tract infection it was found that there are statistical significant p value (<0.001*) between recurrent (UTI) & micturate after intercourse, wash genitalia after micturation, dry genitalia after micturation, Frequency of bathing/week , frequency of changing underwear /day and amount of fluids drunk/day (liter). Also there are statistical significant difference ( p <0.0046*) between wash in correct direction & recurrent infection. In conclusion there is association between Hygiene Practices for Genital Organs and Sexual Activity on Urinary Tract infection. It is recommended Simple &correct hygiene measures may be appropriate to prevent UTI.

[Manal F.Moustafa and Entesar M. Makhlouf. Association between the Hygiene Practices for Genital Organs and Sexual Activity on Urinary Tract infection in Pregnant Women at women's Health Center, at Assiut University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):515-522]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

 

Key words: UTI, urinary tract infection

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Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) – Based Assessment in Nursing: Students' and Clinical Instructors' Perception

                                                                                                                     

Hala M. M. Bayoumy and Hanaa Yousri

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

 

Abstract: Background: Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) is a common tool used to objectively evaluate clinical competence in medical schools and more recently in nursing profession as well. Few studies, however, have been done to elicit the views of students that method of assessment. Purpose: The present study set out to explore, evaluate and analyze the perception of students as well as clinical instructors about Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as well as exploring the strengths and weaknesses of this assessment tool as perceived by study subjects . Methods: A survey design was utilized in the study which has been carried out in the College of Nursing, KSAU-HS; Saudi Arabia. A convenient sample of seventy-three senior students and sixteen clinical instructors involved in the process of administration and organization of the OSCE were recruited. A modified self-administered version of questionnaire, (developed by Pierre, et al., 2004), was completed by students immediately after final year OSCEs to measure students’ perception of examination attributes. Clinical instructors provided their feedback using the clinical Instructors’ Perception Questionnaire which was developed by the researchers. Results: There was overwhelming acceptance of the OSCE with respect to the way of administration (58.9%), structure (63%), minimizing chance of failing (60.3%), allowed compensation for additional marks (64.4%), awareness of information needed (64.4%), awareness of exam nature (80.8%), tasks reflected skills learnt (65.8%), Sequence of stations was logical and appropriate (60.3%), OSCE provided opportunity to learn real life scenarios (63%). Authenticity of the required tasks ranged between (30.1–58.9%). However, students felt that it was a strong anxiety-producing experience and intimidating assessment method. And concerns were expressed regarding the ambiguity of some questions, inadequacy of time for expected tasks. Despite, OSCE was also the most highly preferred for use. OSCE implementation was positively perceived by majority of clinical instructors and was considered effective in evaluating knowledge and competencies. OSCE was also perceived as an excellent learning and teaching mechanism. Clinical Instructors provide several suggestions for promoting quality of OSCE in assessment process. Conclusion: Student feedback is invaluable in influencing faculty teaching and curriculum direction and appreciation of student opinion is therefore a must for improving the OSCE.

[Hala M. M. Bayoumy and Hanaa Yousri. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) – Based Assessment in Nursing: Students' and Clinical Instructors' Perception. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):523-540]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

 

Keywords: OSCE, assessment, nursing, clinical instructors, perception

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Effect of a health education program about reproductive health on the knowledge and attitude of adolescent female Port Said University students

                                                                                                                     

*Nagat Salah shalaby , **Mona Abd Elsabour, ***Inas Mohamed Abd Allah

 

1Maternal &Gynecological Nursing Department, 2Family and Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing Port Said University

3Maternal &Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal University

nagatsalama@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Adolescent reproductive health (RH) is both a challenge and an opportunity for health care providers. Egyptian girls reach puberty with little information about sexuality and reproduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a health education program addressing RH issues on the knowledge and attitude of adolescent female students. This quasi-experimental research was conducted on a convenience sample of 53 students at the University hostels for females in Port Said governorate. The researcher developed an educational program using the baseline information gathered in the assessment phase and related literature. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess pre-post changes in students' knowledge and attitude. The study was conducted from January to November 2011. The results revealed low pretest level of satisfactory knowledge (37.7%), which increased to 98.1% at the posttest (p<0.001). Healthcare providers were not mentioned as sources of information. Attitudes improved but with no statistical significance. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention, student's age and being a nursing student were positive predictors of the knowledge score. The study concludes that adolescent female students' knowledge of RH is deficient, and their attitudes are mostly ambivalent or negative. Educational programs can significantly improve their knowledge, but may be less effective regarding attitudes. The role of the family and health care providers needs to be fostered.

[Nagat Salah shalaby , Mona Abd Elsabour Inas Mohamed Abd Allah Effect of a health education program about reproductive health on the knowledge and attitude of adolescent female Port Said University students. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):541-548]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

 

Keywords: Adolescents, Reproductive Health, Health Education, Knowledge, Attitude

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the One-Humped Camel (Camlus Dromdarius) Digits

 

El-Shafey, A.A1 and Abd Al-Galil, A.S.A2.

 

1Dept. Anat. & Embry, Fac. Vet. Med., Benha Univ.  Egypt.

2Dept. Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology,  Fac. Vet. Med. Benha Univ., Egypt.

Elshafey74@yahoo.com    Atef_abdalgalil2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to describe the normal anatomical structures of the digits and footpad of the camel using Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) as well as to provide an atlas of synchronized normal Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) and cross sectional anatomy of the digits in the camel. Sagittal, Dorsopalmar and Transverse MRI images of three isolated camel cadaver digits were obtained using "Hitachi T2-NT a magnet of 0.2 Tesla and T1 Weighted sequence". The MRI images were compared to corresponding dissect specimens and frozen cross-sections of the cadaver digits. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled at each level in the corresponding images (MRI and anatomic slices). The MRI images provided anatomical detail of the digits and foot of the camel. Transversal images provided excellent depiction of anatomical structures when compared to corresponding frozen cross-sections. MRI images of the current study would serve as an initial reference for normal anatomy and clinical imaging studies of the camel digits and foot that can be used by radiologist, clinicians, surgeons or for research propose in camel lameness.

[El-Shafey, A.A and Abd Al-Galil, A.S.A. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the One-Humped Camel (Camlus Dromdarius) Digits. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):549-556]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

 

Keywords: Magnetic resonance image. Camel.  Digits.

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Efficacy and Safety of Mupirocin 2% Cream in the Treatment of Primary and Secondary Bacterial Skin Infections in Upper Egypt

 

Eman M. Kamal Youssef1*, and Michael N. Agban2

 

1Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology and 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

Karim.anwar@multipharma-eg.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bacterial skin infections are commonly encountered in the community. Topical antibiotics have the advantage of achieving high local drug concentration at target site and less systemic side effects and better compliance with patients. Objective: This is the first study in Upper Egypt to evaluate the clinical and bacteriological efficacy and safety of mupirocin® 2% cream in the treatment of different primary and secondary bacterial skin infections. Methods: In a prospective, non placebo controlled trial, 70 patients (30 with impetigo, 15 with boils, 10 with folliculitis and 15 with eczema with secondary bacterial infection) received topical mupirocin® 2% cream for 14 days. Patients were attending the clinic for three visits during which clinical and laboratory evaluation were performed. Results: Clinical and bacteriological success were obtained in the four groups with statistically significant difference between them considering age, site & severity of lesion and duration of treatment. No side effects were reported. Conclusion: Mupirocin® 2% calcium cream proved to be an effective and safe in the treatment of primary and secondary bacterial infections in Upper Egypt.

 [Eman M. Kamal Youssef and Michael N. Agban. Efficacy and Safety of Mupirocin 2% Cream in the Treatment of Primary and Secondary Bacterial Skin Infections in Upper Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):557-568]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

 

Key Words: Mupirocin® , impetigo, boils, folliculitis, eczema, secondry bacterial,treatment

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New approach to design compact heat exchanger by PSO algorithm

 

* Masoud Asadi, **Arash Nadali, ***Dr Ramin Haghighi Khoshkho**

 

* Mechatronics department of Azad Islamic University science and research branch, Tehran, Iran, Tel: 00989122469837, E-mail:

masoud2471@gmail.com

Mechatronics department of Azad Islamic University science and research branch, Tehran, Iran, Tel: 00989359977048, E-mail:

arash.nad@gmail.com  

*** Department of Mechanical Engineering & Energy engineering, Power and Water University of Technology,Tehran, Iran, Tel:009873932663, E-mail: khoshkhoo@pwut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this study a plate-fin Compact Heat Exchanger is designed for microturbine applications.One of the important stages to design a plate-fin heat exchanger is optimization process.Certainly,it depends on position where it is going to employ. Firstly, eight type of heat exchangers are designed and compared for different parameters and eventually a fin is selected for optimization process based on objective function, which is minimum volume. In this paper, it has been effort to offer a practical method for selection of the fin according to operating conditions and objective function. For example, in the food industry the total annual costs is important, while in the microturbine applications heat exchanger efficiency and outlet temperature of cold fluid is significant .So , in designing of heat exchanger for any applications noting to some characteristics of fin to optimal design is necessary. Then,optimization process has been done by GA and PSO algorithm. Eventually, by using the optimization process results redesigning process has been done that at this stage a practical heat exchanger will be designed in order to use in industry.

[Masoud Asadi, Ramin Haghighi Khoshkho. New approach to design compact heat exchanger by PSO algorithm. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):569-577]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

 

Keywords:Plate-fin heat exchanger ,Strip fin ,GA algorithm ,PSO algorithm ,Microturbine

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Effect of Denture Base Acrylic Resin, Denture Adhesive Material, and Denture Liner on Denture Stomatitis (A Longituidinal Study)

 

Khaled Ahmed Arafa*

 

Prosthodontics Department, Al-Baha University

drkhalidarafa@yahoo.com

               

Abstract: Denture stomatitis is a common complication of the complete denture, so the aim of the present study is to evaluate the amount of candida that accumulated under the denture in the normal denture, in the denture with adhesive material, and denture with soft lining material.

[Khaled Ahmed Arafa. Effect of Denture Base Acrylic Resin, Denture Adhesive Material, and Denture Liner on Denture Stomatitis (A Longituidinal Study). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):578-581]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

 

Key wards: denture, stomatitis, candida.

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Electronic Human Resources Management; Enabler of Innovation in Organization

 

Ali Atashi1*, Rouzita Abdolpour2

 

1.  Young researchers club, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

2. Department of Management, Astara Branch, Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran

ali_atashi_1316@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, rapid and exponential progress of information and communication technologies and their applicable capabilities in different organizational domains have caused infiltration of information technology into processes and systems of the human resources generating a new approach in human resources management referred to as “electronic human resources management”. Enhancement and improvement of official efficiency and utilization of diverse dimensions of technology enables human resources managers to use fewer personnel playing a more value-creating role and contribution in the organization. Rapid evolution of systems which supply electronic human resources services has provided personnel and managers with more information in more suitable format and manner so that they can benefit from this information for organization’s resources. Electronic human resources management in fact supports and assists human resources management thanks to benefiting from advanced technologies and inclusion of abundant utilities. In an environment where competition is a key to survival and durability of organizations, efficient system of electronic human resources management and its suitable performance are considered as a competitive weapon for creating opportunities and dominance over threats against the organizations. Besides, it is presumed as a relative advantage and lantern of managers’ route to the future. With exceeded environmental complexity and viability, organizations must also move more progressively toward innovation so as to identify new opportunities and maintain their superior performance versus the rivals. Creativity and innovation are prerequisites of development, progress and aspiration in an organization and society, and, awareness of its texts and techniques is an inevitable necessity for interested managers, personnel and researchers. Enhancement of creativity in organizations could contribute to quantitative and qualitative promotion of services, reduction of costs, prevention from resource losses, decrease in bureaucracy, efficiency and productivity improvement, motivation and occupational satisfaction in the personnel. Innovation can be known as a process through which inventions turn into products, processes, services or organizational changes with added value or presentable commodities in the market. The idea emphasized by researchers with regard to human resources and innovation is that activities of human resources management can create an environment that supports collaboration and participation and leads to formation, promotion and development of   human and social resources management, and consequently, encourages organizational innovation. The authors in the current paper attempt to analyze significant impact of electronic human resources management on encouraging individuals to innovate in the organization under study. Along with introducing subsystems of electronic human resources management, the following subjects will be also discussed: status and influence of main subsystems of electronic human resources such as electronic subsystems, performance management, electronic reward and payment (salary) subsystem, and its impact on encouraging individuals to innovate. By the way, the present paper is a report from a research currently being conducted.

[Ali Atashi, Rouzita Abdolpour. Electronic Human Resources Management; Enabler of Innovation in Organization. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):582-591]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

 

Key Words: Electronic Human Resources Management, Innovation, Functions of Electronic Human Resource Management, Corporate Entrepreneurship

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Energy Strategy of A Study of Obstacles on the Way of Federalism in Iraq

 

Jahanbakhsh Moradi1, Ahmad Saie2

 

1Ph.D of International Relations, Faculty Member of the Department of Political Science, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran

2Associate Professor of International Relations, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

moradi.jahanbakhsh77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Some scholars and political experts believe that federalism is the most effective way for settling the problem of nation-state building in societies having structural multiplicity such as ethno-racial and religious ones. Being a country of many races, ethnic groups and religious sects, Iraq has adopted federalism as its governmental form based on article four of the provisional constitution and article one of the permanent constitution for the post-Saddam era. However, there remains as problematique and complicated the future of federalism in Iraq. In other words, federalism has not so far been realized in Iraq and this is because of heresies and ambiguities wrought into the constitution and also a variety of legal and practical draw backs. The present article on the one hand tries to enquire about these heresies and ambiguities; on the other hand, there are examined problems such as lack of taking advantage from achievements of other federalist system; practical problems such as geographic-territorial condition, wealth distribution and especially the problems arising from existing rival discourses regarding the region of Kurdistan. On the whole, these factors are responsible for the rise of a precarious and shaky federalism faced with a plethora of challenges and set-backs.

[Jahanbakhsh Moradi, Ahmad Saie. Energy Strategy of A Study of Obstacles on the Way of Federalism in Iraq. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):592-594]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 80

 

Keywords: Federalism, nation-state, provisional constitution, permanent constitution, problematique of federalism in Iraq, region of Kurdistan.

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Indigenous knowledge as complement of modern knowledge

 

Mojtaba Sadighi

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Mojtaba_s@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Experience shows that indigenous knowledge not only has no contradiction with formal knowledge but different indigenous knowledge features, put it as well complementary for formal knowledge. Indigenous knowledge is accessible, useful and cheap. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum. enforcing indigenous productive system at villages and also encouraging youths and teens to learn indigenous knowledge at on hand , and preparing suitable research condition for applied-sciences scholars in order to identify better and increasing applied aptitude of indigenous knowledge at the other hand , is equal to protection and sustainable use of  natural resources.

 [Mojtaba Sadighi. The importance of indigenous knowledge as complement of modern knowledge. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):595-602]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge

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Fabric Defect Detection Using Image Fusion in Log Gabor Filter

 

Hiba Mohammad, Tahani Al Khatib  and Lama Rajab

 

Department of Computer Information Systems, King Abdullah II School for Information Technology The University of Jordan, 11942 Amman , Jordan. h.khadrawi@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract: Background: Defect detection of textiles is a necessary requirement for quality control and customer satisfaction. Quality inspection process for textile fabrics is mainly performed manually by inspectors; however, manual detection may be particularly challenging due to the large number of fabric defect classes, which are characterized by their vagueness and ambiguity. Thus, manual defect detection in fabric is insufficient and costly, so the automated fabric inspection is required. Material and Methods: In this paper, a new defect detection algorithm based on log Gabor filter is proposed to deal with the problem of automated defect detection for textile fabrics. This algorithm was based on the idea of image fusion using the log Gabor filters resulted. Results:  The performance of the proposed algorithm is experimentally tested and evaluated by using a wide variety of homogeneous textile images with different types of common fabric defects. The test results obtained accurate, effectiveness and better performance for defect detection. Discussions: Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and performance achieved by performing image fusion in log Gabor.

[Hiba Mohammad, Tahani Al Khatib and Lama Rajab. Fabric Defect Detection Using Image Fusion in Log Gabor Filter. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):603-606]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

 

Keywords: Defect detection, Gabor filter, log Gabor, Image fusion, textile images.

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Adaptation of Sports Related Arabic Loanwords in Farsi Language

 

Seyed Mohammad Asghari

 

Assistant of Shariati College , Tehran, Iran. sma196477@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of characteristics of a language is the extent of influence it has received from loanwords.  There is almost no pure language in this world today.  The important issue about loanwords is the extent a language has been able to maintain its originality and its capacity to provide equivalents for loanwords. This paper takes various views to study how Farsi language has acquired sports related loanwords from Arabic language.  It examines the borrowing aspects of Farsi and Arabic languages by comparing the two languages and discusses how equivalent words and phrases are made.

[Seyed Mohammad Asghari. Adaptation of Sports Related Arabic Loanwords in Farsi Language. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):607-615]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

 

Keywords:   Loanword Substitution, Sport Terminology, Farsi and Arabic Languages, Syllable

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TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF DRY SEASON VEGETABLE IN OSUN STATE-NIGERIA

 

AJAO, A.O.

 

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT

LADOKE AKINTOLA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OGBOMOSO-NIGERIA

oaajao57@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: The study was designed to examine the profitability and measure the level of technical efficiency of dry season vegetable farmers using stochastic frontier production function. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 vegetable farmers in the study area. The estimated farm technical efficiency ranges from 75% to 98% with a mean of 92%. This indicates that ample opportunities exist for the farmers to increase their productivity and income through a more efficient utilization of productive resources. Inefficiency determinants are all directly related to technical efficiency but are not significantly determined the technical efficiency of the farmers.

[AJAO, A.O. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF DRY SEASON VEGETABLE IN OSUN STATE-NIGERIA. J Am Sci 2012;8(9): 616-620]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

 

Key words: profitability, technical efficiency, dry-season, farms.

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Studying the Effect of personality Traits on Entrepreneurship Intention

(The Case of University of Isfahan’s Employees)

 

Sayyed Mohsen Allameh1, Mohamad Ghafari2, Ali kazemi3

 

 1Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Administrative Science and Economics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2MA student, Department of Management, Faculty of Administrative sciences and Economic, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, m_gh261@yahoo.com

3MA Graduate, Department of Industrial Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran  

 

Abstract: This article was aimed to studying impact of personality traits on intention to entrepreneurship. In order to examining personality traits, the big five model has been used that consists of five dimensions as extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. Entrepreneurship has been consists of six dimensions as hardworking, risk-taking, self-confidence, creativity, flexibility, and tolerance of ambiguity. In order to collecting data, a questionnaire including 47 items has been designed. Statistical population is university of Isfahan’s personnel and sample size is 160 personnel and selected based on available sampling method. In order to analyzing data, descriptive statistic, inferential statistics, ENTER method, and Durbin-Watson test has been used. But also to measuring stability of questionnaires’ items, Cronbach's alpha has been calculated for each variable separately. The results of this article indicate that personality traits have impact on tendency to entrepreneurship. Based on these results between all personality traits, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience have impact on tendency to entrepreneurship and these factors could explain 0/533 of entrepreneurship regression. Also Durbin- Watson test results indicate that there is no self-correlation between independent variables. Finally empirical suggestions has been offered for human resources managers and related professionals.

[Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Mohamad Ghafari, Ali kazemi. Studying the Effect of personality Traits on Entrepreneurship Intention. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):621-626]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

 

Key words: Personality, personality traits, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship dimensions, University of Isfahan

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Decentralization in agricultural extension

 

Jamshid Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Jamshid1245@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural extension increasingly has become defined as one or other of (apparently) differentiated activities of technology transfer or rural development. In many situations, the transfer of technology, heretofore considered the purview of public sector systems, has been reconceived. Such changes suggest a refocussing of paradigms for the delivery of public sector extension. In developed industrialized countries, which often provide models for extension service delivery elsewhere, the declining relative importance of agriculture for economic growth, the increasing education and affluence of smaller populations of rural producers, and the increasing use of  externally purchased inputs have changed the nature of publicly funded extension services and led to a questioning of the means of delivery of extension services by governments Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization."  When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector.

 [Jamshid Ghorbani. Decentralization in agricultural extension. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):627-636]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

 

Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Investigating the main variable of place  marketing-mix Effect on the Minerals Export

  

Seyed Ali Hoseiny*1 and Masoumeh pirmohammadi baghmisheh2

 

1PhD student, Yerevan State University, School of Economy and Management, Iran

 2PHD student

*Corresponding Author: Seyed Ali Hoseiny, E-mail: dr.alihoseiny@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Minerals are the pillars of sustainable development in any country 's economy infrastructure and industry of community. Human from the very beginning of his creation and during the history, depending on needs and the identification of minerals, exploits the minerals in various ways. [1]The amount and variety of mineral deposits in our country is truly amazing and in this respect the potential capabilities in Iran are far more, compared to many other countries around the world. There are over 68 types of minerals which in addition to domestic needs, is considered to be an advantage for mineral exports and increasing the foreign trade balance.[2]We should also pay attention to the export of processed minerals and increasing the investment in new equipment and technologies of processing and we should not neglect the mineral raw material exports . The necessity of planning in this sector to access the international markets, using the key elements of marketing mix (4p)  and  secondary (derivative) variables related to these elements is necessary and inevitable. Place   element with the relative-frequency distribution of 98/4 and confidence coefficient of 95 % had an effect on the export of minerals and secondary variables as following: (1) The effective of presence the international exhibitions; (2) The effect of sales offices aboard; (3) Effect of foreign sales representative.   

 [Seyed Ali Hoseiny and Masoumeh pirmohammadi baghmisheh. Investigating the main variable of place  marketing-mix Effect on the Minerals Export. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):637-645]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

Keywords: marketing mix, minerals, exports

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Doctor’s position considering HIV/AIDS and other fatal diseases and the importance of informing people

 

Yashar Moteyagheni

 

Physician,Ardebil,Iran

myaschar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Due to in confronting with every disease especially mortal disease, known or unknown with new epidemy, early discernment, has many advantages for patient, also for society and also for doctor and hygienic and medical center’s staff, clinical diagnosis and remedy from one point of view and consulting and prevention and suitable control, from another point of view, becomes very important, because the society’s infirmity and at last, high quantity of death are consequences of lack of discernment of  such disease. Purpose of this article’s presentation isn’t repeation of what we known about AIDS too, perhaps main purpose is emboss of issues which are more important and with count of them, we could have better approach to controlling of such illnesses, there fore sometimes all the texts haven’t been written and they are bring to our notice that and different seminars, in terms of kind of seminar and at time of presentation of essay, more materials will be used. The major goals of this article are: (1) Creation of wisdom and negative attitude about dangerous behaviors in order to prevention. (2) Struggle for superiority to up-to-date methods, cheaper and faster in discernment and remedy of disease. (3) Emphasis on this message for families: loyalty, abstinence, safe ways of prevention from pregnancy. (4) Pointing out the doctor’s responsibilities if he fails to recognize a disease, and come to know the rules and regulations infighting against AIDS in Iran and in the world. (5) Vigilance and obtain new information by doctors and medical students in order to being prepared for confronting with illness and informing the people.

 [Yashar Moteyagheni. Doctor’s position considering HIV/AIDS and other fatal diseases and the importance of informing people. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):646-649]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  88

 

Keywords: Message; Doctor ; Addiction; AIDS

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APPROXIMATION IN CHAOTIC SYSTEM OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BY EULER METHOD AND CONTROLLING BY ARRAY METHOD

 

Majid Amirfakhriana and Reza Firouzdorb* Gholamreza  Rahimlouc

 

a Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Central Branch, Tehran, Iran Continue Here

amirfakhrian@iauctb.ac.ir

bDepartment of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University and Young Researcher Club, Tehran Central Branch, Iran

reza.firouzdor@gmail.com

c Master of science in Mat occupy:Teacher

grahimlou@gmail.com

 

Abstract. In this article, we study an approximation of a system of differential equations when it has a noise. We use the Taylor method and we model the organization of such systems. In a system of differential equations, we set a scalar multiplication with a function and we saw that this system can be in chaotic mode. We used a method to omit the noises and chaos in this system.   

 [Majid Amirfakhrian, Reza Firouzdor, Gholamreza  Rahimlou. APPROXIMATION IN CHAOTIC SYSTEM OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BYEULER METHOD AND CONTROLLING BY ARRAY METHOD. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):650-655]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  89

 

Keywords: Chaos, ordinary differential equations, system of differential equations, approximation, strange attractors

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Investigating the Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Learning in pp.r Pipe and Fittings Production Industrial

 

Sayyed Mohsen Allameh 1, Zohreh Nekoui Brojeni 2, Javad Khazaei Pool 1

 

1. Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2. Department of Management, Mehr Alborz University, Tehran, Iran

khazaei110@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective of the present survey is to study the impact of knowledge management processes on organizational learning increase in pp.r pipe and fittings production Industrial. Therefore, it has been tried to examine the impact of key knowledge management processes (knowledge identification, knowledge dissemination, knowledge codification, knowledge transparency and knowledge reconstruction) on organizational learning increase through proposing appropriate hypotheses. This survey has been conducted using descriptive-field method and is of correlation type. The statistical population included employees and managers of companies in pp.r pipe and fittings production industrial. Descriptive statistics methods were used for data analysis to explain respondents' characteristics and correlation method and one-sample t-test were used to study the hypotheses. Obtained results illustrate all key knowledge management processes are effective on organizational learning increase.

[Allameh SM, Nekoui Brojeni Z, Khazaei Pool J. Studying the Influence of Knowledge Management Processes on Organizational Learning in Pp.r Pipe and Fittings Production Industrial. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):656-664]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  90

 

Keywords: knowledge management; organizational learning; knowledge dissemination; knowledge reconstruction

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Evaluation of synovial fluid culture in patients with high suspicion for septic arthritis

 

 

Zahra Zakeri1, Behzad  Narouie*2, ShahramShahraki3, Zohreh Bari4 ,Mostafa Dahmardehei5

and Mosa Maleki-Abardeh4

 

1:Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

2:General Practitioner, Researcher of Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne- Abitaleb  Hospital ,

Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

3:Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

4:Internist, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

5:Department of Surgery , Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

 

*Corresponding Author; BehzadNarouie  (MD)

Researcher of Clinical Research Development Center, Ali-Ebne- Abitaleb  Hospital ,

Zahedan University of  Medical Sciences , Zahedan-Iran

Email: b_narouie@yahoo.com      Telefax : +98541_3414103

 

Abstract : Septic arthritis is the infection of joints and delay in treatment may lead to irrecoverable injuries such as joint destruction and dissemination of infection to other organs. The aims of this study were to evaluate synovial fluid cultures in patients with high suspicion for septic arthritis, their clinical and laboratory findings and to determine probable causes of true/false negative cultures. In this cross-sectional study, 25 patients with painful and swollen joint and high clinical suspicion for septic arthritis enrolled the study. Sterile synovial fluid aspiration was performed and specimens were evaluated direct smear for gram staining and 3 different cultures using chocolate agar, Mac-Conkey and blood agar for 24 hours. Blood samples were also obtained for culture. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 15). Fever, joint pain, swelling, warmth and tenderness were reported by all patients. Ten patients (40%) suffered from chilling and 24 patients (96%) from restricted movement. All synovial fluid gram staining and blood cultures were negative. But synovial blood cultures were positive in 3 patients (12%) showing Klebsiellapneumoniae, Candida albicans and Brucella infections. The results of our study were different from other studies. False negative cultures may be due to fastidious organisms, inadequate laboratory techniques, or prior antibiotic therapy.

[Zahra Zakeri, BehzadNarouie, ShahramShahraki, Zohreh Bari ,MostafaDahmardehei and MosaMaleki-Abardeh. Evaluation of synovial fluid culture in patients with high suspicion for septic arthritis. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):665-671]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

Key words: Septic arthritis, culture, Gram Stain

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Contrast of grades of self-disclosure of god in kabbala (Jews) mysticism and Islamic mysticism

 

m.azizi khadem

 

Department of of Islamic azad university, dehloran, branch, dehloran, iran

Masoomehazizi912@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Disclosure one important disclosure of theology in theoretical mysticism, which appearance and manifestation of essence is in names and attributes. Doctrine of sell-disclosure or manifestation had been attended, by differences schools some of these schools are as: kabbala mysticism custom and Islamic mysticism. In kabbala mysticism god has two exalted and existential aspects. Existential aspect is produced from exalted aspect. And grade of self-disclosure of god is shown from high to low (up to down). These two grades of self-disclosure are called safiroth or safiroths . From the Muslims mystics point of view the essence of god by himself is not knowledge and it is knowledge after disclosure and manifestation in name and attributes. These self-disclosure in the stage of knowledge in cloth of names ant eternal essences and in stage of mind, determination and evolution causes sedations (pinding) of diversities and diverse of existence.This abstract points the points of similarities and diversities of these two schools by the aim of application to contrast stages of self-disclosure of god in the view point of kabbala mysticism and Islamic mysticism by the emphasis on "ibne Arabie"s thesis . in the conclusion which has been achieved every two schools of creationbeen described based on grade of disclosure of god .

[m.azizi khadem. Contrast of grades of self-disclosure of god in kabbala (Jews) mysticism and Islamic mysticism. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):672-680]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 92

 

Keywords: Species God-grades of self –disclosure-Kabbala mysticism –Islamic mysticism.

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The importance of Principles for the Adults Teachers

 

Mostafa Emami

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Mostafa1523@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For most adults, being out of the classroom for even a few years can make going back to school intimidating. If they haven’t taken a class in decades, it’s understandable that they would have some degree of apprehension about what it will be like and how well they’ll do. It can be tough to be a rookie when you’ve been an expert in your field for many, many years. Nobody enjoys feeling foolish. Your job as a teacher of adult students includes being positive and encouraging. Patience helps too. Give your older students time to respond when you ask a question. They may need a few moments to consider their answer. Recognize the contributions they make, even when small. Give them words of encouragement whenever the opportunity arises. Most adults will rise to your expectations if you’re clear about them. A word of caution here. Being positive and encouraging is not the same as being condescending. Always remember that your students are adults. Speaking to them in the tone of voice you might use with a child is offensive, and the damage can be very difficult to overcome. Genuine encouragement from one person to another, regardless of age, is a wonderful point of human interaction.

[Mostafa Emami. The importance of Principles for the Adults Teachers . J Am Sci 2012;8(9):681-688]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

 

Keywords: adult education, Teacher of Adults

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Andragogy assumptions and its technological concepts

 

Mahdi Nazarpour

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

Nazarpour_M@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Children in conditions of complete dependence on the world are entering their every need (except biological functions) should be provided by someone else.'s First baby picture of himself as a separate personality dependent personality towards her when actually takes his life by itself be managed. At home, at play, at church, school and society expects of her adolescence and adulthood goes to impose his will. This concept to encourage the adult environment is dependent. In fact, the definition of community as an individual child is learning his job all the time and this is a passive role, one receives the info. Here, the child self is formed and he sees himself that the necessary capacity for decision making for own decisions in his first test takes a small and does not exceed the adult world, but gradually increased and the range of decisions than he is the concept of children in their own way of guidance is movingmation and shall save and teachers should be that children decide what information.

 [Mahdi Nazarpour. Andragogy assumptions and its technological concepts. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):689-698]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

 

Keywords: adult education; children; chool; society; adolescence

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The relationships between personal traits and driving violations in Shiraz

 

 

Zhaleh Refahi1, Najme Aganj2

 

1-Department of Counseling, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht , Iran

2-MA of Counseling, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht , Iran

 

Abstract: The goal of the present study is to investigate the relationships between personal traits and driving offenses in Shiraz. To this end, 1853 professional and ordinary drivers were randomly selected. The tool adopted was 2 questionnaires of Manchester Driving Behaviors (MDB) and the NEO personality inventory. Driving behaviors were investigated in 4 aspects (errors, mistakes, deliberate offenses, non-deliberate offenses) and personality was investigated in 5 aspects (neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). The results of the analyses showed that among all 5 personality traits, only agreeableness and conscientiousness were positively and significantly correlated with driving offenses. Also, the findings suggested that personality traits, neuroticism, all driving aspects (error, deliberate offenses, mistakes, and non-deliberate offenses) are negatively and significantly correlated; and extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness have significant and positive relationships with all driving aspects; however, agreeableness and non-deliberate offenses were not correlated.

[Zhaleh Refahi, Najme Aganj . The relationships between personal traits and driving violations in ShiraJ Am Sci 2012;8(9):699-704]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 95

 

Keywords: Driving, Violation, Offensive Behavior, NEO, Personality

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The Effectiveness of reducing muscular tension on decreasing the perceived stress in patients with multiple sclerosis

 

Kamal barzegarghazi 1, Asghar fouladi nadinlouei2, mahmood bahramkhani 3, nazita zamani 4

 

1 Faculty of Humanities, Department of Psychology, payame Noor University, Tabriz, Iran

2Department of Psychology, payame Noor University, Gogan branch,Gogan, Iran

3 PhD Student in clinical psychology, Social welfare and Rehabilitation University, Tehran, Iran

4 M.sc Student in psychology, Islamic Azad University, Dubai Branch

Email: km.barzegar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating progressive disease which afflicts central nervous system. The cause remains uncertain but various factors such as infection, stress, immune deficiency and environmental factors may contribute to this disease. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of muscle progressive relaxation on perceived stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. Material and Method: For this aim, forty of the patients in Tabriz randomly were selected and assigned in two groups (20 in experiment group and 20 in control group). From 20 patients of experiment group, 16 patients completed the treatment. In experimental group, Relaxation with progressive contraction-relaxation method based on the 16 groups of the muscles was administered in 12 sessions. Results: Descriptive indices including mean, standard deviation, mean rank and sum of ranks were provided for research data. . Results of ANOVA showed that relaxation significantly have decreased perceived stress.

[Kamal barzegarghazi, Asghar fouladi nadinlouei, mahmood bahramkhani, nazita zamani. The Effectiveness of reducing muscular tension on decreasing the perceived stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):705-709]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 96

 

Keywords: Relaxation, perceived stress, multiple sclerosis.

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Analysis of Anthropometry Index of Rural Primary School Children in PIRANSHAHR City using Body Mass Index during Educational Year 2010-2011

 

Mohammad Soleimani1*, Ali Reyhani2*

 

1. Ph.D. Student, Urmia University of medical Sciences, Jahad Ave, Urmia, Iran.  Postcode: 57147-83737, P.O.Box: 1138

2. General practitioner, health care administrator, Piranshahr, Iran

Health_194@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background and Objective: Taking into account that natural growth is the most important sign of children’s health, and the fact that, the simplest and most reliable way to assess natural growth is measurement of height and weight and calculation of body mass index or analysis of anthropometry parameters, thus due to significance of this subject, the current study was designed and conducted with the intention of determining the body mass indices of rural primary school children of PIRANSHAHR City during educational year 2011-2012. Materials and Methods: In the current study, 1797 rural primary school students were selected out of total 7132 students using two-stage randomized method. Height and weight were measured and recorded using standard meter and scale according to the related directions. Slimness status, overweight and obesity were assessed based on body mass index for age and gender compared to standard percentiles of Center for Diseases Control (CDC 2000). Available percentiles were used to assess short height for gender and age and percentiles below 3 was considered as short height with chronic malnutrition.  Also, SPSS19 software and k-2 and t-test were used for data analysis. Findings: According to research findings, 11.55% of the children under study suffer from underweight and 2.2 of them are prone to overweight and obesity risks. Based on height versus weight standard diagram, 7.75% of children had percentile below 3 i.e. were short and 2.35% of children had percentile above 97 i.e. were tall. Short height was more frequent in girls compared to boys with significant difference (respectively, 8.5% and 7%; p=0.011). Discussion and Conclusions: Research results are suggestive of the fact that malnutrition in the form of slimness, overweight and short height is existent as a significant health problem in rural primary school students of PIRANSHAHR City.

[Mohammad Soleimani, Ali Reyhani. New Analysis of Anthropometry Index of Rural Primary School Children in PIRANSHAHR City using Body Mass Index during Educational Year 2010-2011. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):710-715]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 97

 

Keywords: Anthropometry Index – Primary School Children – Malnutrition – Center for Diseases Control (CDC) – National Center for Health Statistics

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Thermodynamical optimization a plate and frame heat exchanger for microturbine applications

 

Masoud Asadi 1, Nasrin Dindar Mehrabani 2, Mehdi Karbasi 3, Arash Nadali 4 , Dr Ramin Haghighi Khoshkhoo 5

 

1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azad Islamic University Science and Research branch ,Tehran, Iran ,

E-mail: masoud2471@gmail.com

2.Department of of Mathematics & Computer Science, Amir Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran,

E-mail: nasrin.dindar@aut.ac.ir

3.Department of of Civil Engineering, Azad Islamic University Science and Research branch, Tehran, Iran,

E-mail: karbasi.me@ gmail.com

4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azad Islamic University Science and Research branch ,Tehran, Iran,

E-mail: arash.nad@gmail.com

5.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Power and Water University of Technology ,Tehran, Iran,

E-mail: khoshkhoo@pwut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this study a plate and frame heat exchanger is designed for microturbine applications. In a microturbine cycle, normal efficiency is about 15%, but if heat of outlet gases from microturbine uses to warm outlet air from compressor, total efficiency will up by 30%. So,designing a suitable heat exchanger to transfer this heat from outlet gases to inlet air to heat exchanger is so important, and has intense influence on heat exchanger performance. In this study, two type of heat exchangers are designed, plate and frame heat exchanger and plate-fin compact heat exchanger, and compared in different terms. After evaluating plate and frame heat exchanger, thermodynamical optimization has done to improve its performance. Eventually, after modifying mass flow rates based on thermodynamical optimization, outlet air temperature have increased about 6 .

[Masoud Asadi, Ramin Haghighi Khoshkho. Thermodynamical optimization a plate and frame heat exchanger for microturbine applications. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):716-723]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 98

 

Keywords: Plate and frame heat exchanger, Plate-fin heat exchanger, Thermodynamical optimization

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Assessment of Suicidality Risk Factors and Its Management at Poison Control Center Cairo University (Adolescence suicidality)

 

Nareman Aly1, Sayeda Abdel Latief 2, Ahmed Abdel Latief3, and Abdel Rahman El Naggar4

 

,Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3Psychiatric Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

4 Clinical pharmacology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Naremanaly62@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at assessing the suicidality risk factors and its management among adolescents. A descriptive correlational design was utilized in this study. Convenient sample consisted of 300 suicidal attempters was selected; who were admitted to Poison Control Center, Cairo University over a period of three months. Tools for data collection; Socio-demographic/medical data sheet, Perceived Social Support Scale, Beck Depressive Inventory Scale, Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale, Life Stressors questionnaire and Management questionnaire. Results revealed that most of attempters were female adolescents, showed a higher tendency to be single, unemployed, moderate education , resided urban areas, using drug self poisoning ,showed none previous attempts ,high suicidal ideation , moderate depression and the most prominent problems were family problems. Attempters found to have received low family support, high friend support and receive only medical management. Suicide attempters need social and emotional support from their significant others.

 [Nareman Aly, Sayeda Abdel Latief , Ahmed Abdel Latief, and Abdel Rahman El Naggar. Assessment of Suicidality Risk Factors and Its Management at Poison Control Center Cairo University(Adolescence suicidality). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):724-728]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 99

 

Keywords: suicide, adolescents, family problems.

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Fumonisin Lung Toxicity: Gross and Microscopic Changes are Dose and Time Dependent

 

Gamal Abdel Salam1, Esam Mehlab 1 and Mohamed El-Shishtawy2

 

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

2Department of Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

G_Abdelsalam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the toxic insult of chronic fumonisin 1b (FB1) exposure on rats' lung using light (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) examination. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 60 normal healthy growing male albino rats divided into Control group (n=15) and four study groups. Two ratios of added Fusarium culture material were used: 10 mg/kg b.wt. of feed for Study group I and 30 mg/kg b.wt. of feed as a study heavy dose for Study groups II-IV.  Mean animal weight was determined weekly and percentage of weight gain in relation to baseline weight was calculated. Five rates were randomly selected from each group to be sacrificed at 1, 4 and 8 weeks after start of study regimen. At necropsy, the wet lung weight was determined and lung/body weight ratio was calculated. The lungs were also evaluated grossly for evidence of pulmonary edema and specimens were examined using LM and EM. Results: Percentage of body weight gain in study groups III and IV showed significantly lower percentage of weight gain compared both to control group and to study groups I and II with significantly decreased weight gain in group IV compared to group III. Mean lung wet-weight to body weight ratio was significantly increased in study groups III and IV compared to control and study groups I and II. LM examination of lung specimens obtained from study groups showed a progressive dose and time-dependent affection of the lung in the form of mild pulmonary congestion and alveolar edema, focal areas of interstitial edema, pulmonary congestion with inflammatory cellular infiltration at 1-week. Specimens taken 4-w after starting the study, showed moderate interstitial edema, scattered areas of hemorrhage, proliferation of alveolar cells and thickening of the capillary wall. At 8 weeks lung specimens showed proliferation of alveolar lining cells with inflammatory cellular infiltration, alveolar septal edema and scattered areas of compensatory emphysema. Two specimens obtained from animals received high dose for 8 weeks showed scattered areas of atypia suggestive of starting malignant transformation giving a picture of well differentiated carcinoma. EM examination of specimens taken after 4-weeks showed thickening of the interalveolar septa and hemorrhage and interstitial fibrosis and increased collagen fiber deposition and after 8-weeks EM examination revealed endothelial cell damage and distortion of alveolar epithelium and showed increased alveolar macrophages with apoptotic changes in the form of nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion: Exposure to fumonisins induced variable gross and microscopic effects on lung tissue and severity and character of these pathological changes showed dose and time dependency.

[Gamal Abdel Salam, Esam Mehlab and Mohamed El-Shishtawy. Fumonisin Lung Toxicity: Gross and Microscopic Changes are Dose and Time Dependent. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):729-736]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 100

 

Keywords: Fumonisin, Rats, Lung toxicity, Light microscope, Electron Microscope

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Periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes: is there a relation?

 

Ahmed A. M. Nasr, Faisal Ali Mustafa, Mahammad G. Nasr, Abd El-Naser Abd El-Gaber Ali, Hossam Alktatny

 

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department- faculty of Medicine - Al-Azhar University.  (Assiut). Egypt

aam_nasr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common chronic disorders of infectious origin known in humans. Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: To evaluate whether or not periodontal disease (PD) in pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to find the possible pathogenesis of these adverse outcomes if present. Patients and methods: 300 pregnant women were assessed for periodontal status by the criteria commonly used in epidemiological studies, probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Women were then classified according to periodontal status in two patient groups (145 pregnant women with periodontitis) and control group (155 pregnant women without periodontitis). For all participants C-reactive protein (CRP) assay was performed, follow up of all participants until delivery was done to evaluate obstetric complications associated with each group. Results: PD is associated significantly with adverse pregnancy outcomes as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, low birth weight, and prelabor rupture of membranes (p<0.05). The mean + SD levels of CRP was 75.8% higher among patient group compared to control group and the difference was statistically significant (mean + SD 2.55 +0.25 vs. 1.45 + 0.22). Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis of an association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study also suggests that CRP in periodontitis may mediate the effect of periodontitis on pregnancy outcomes.

[Ahmed A. M. Nasr, Faisal Ali Mustafa, Mahammad G. Nasr, Abd El-Naser Abd El-Gaber Ali, Hossam Alktatny. Periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes: is there a relation? J Am Sci 2012;8(9):737-744]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

 

Key words: periodontal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, CRP

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Effect of Early Versus Late Umbilical Cord Clamping of Term Infants on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

 

Eman R Ahmad1* Sahar A Aly2 Kamal M. Zahran3

 

1Obstetrics & Gynecologic Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University,

2Obstetrics & Gynecologic Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, El-Minia University,

3Obstetrics & Gynecology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

emomedo2@yahoo.com

                                                                                                                                

Abstract: Background: The umbilical cord is usually clamped immediately after birth. There is no sound evidence to support this approach, which might deprive the newborn of some benefits such as an increase in iron storage. however,  there is very little evidence to suggest that the timing of cord clamping and cutting has an impact on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and other maternal outcomes. Design: This study utilized an experimental research design to identify the effect of early versus late cord clamping at of term infants on the maternal and neonatal outcomes. Setting: The study was conducted at labor & delivery units EL-Minia University hospital, Egypt. Methodology: A total sample of 100 parturient and their newborns comprised the study sample after gaining the mothers’ acceptance. They were equally divided and randomly assigned to two homogenous groups according to the time of cutting their  newborn cord. Early cord clamping group (at > 1 min.) and late cord clamping group (at 1 to 3min.). Two tools were used for data collection namely: A structured interview questionnaire for assessing sociodemographic and obstetrical data and assessment tool for assessing maternal and neonatal haematological parameters and outcomes. Results: The findings of the present study were equivalent among both groups regards the mean maternal hemoglobin and hematocrit level, maternal blood loss, postpartum hemorrhage. For neonatal outcomes, the neonatal hematologic parameters were comparable and slightly elevated hematocrit and hemoglobin level among late cord clamping group compared to early group with no significant differences at birth and significant difference was observed at 24 hours later. This elevation was within the prespecified physiologic range. The prevalence of newborn with a hematocrit level of >45% at birth and after 24 hours was slightly higher among the early cord clamping group compared to late cord clamping with no significant differences. There were no significant differences in other neonatal and maternal outcomes. Conclusion: Delaying clamping of the cord for more than one minute to three minutes seems not to increase the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. In addition, late cord clamping can be advantageous for the infant by improving hematological values especially the status which may be of clinical value particularly in developing countries where infants access to good nutrition is poor.

[Eman R Ahmad, Sahar A Aly and Kamal M. Zahran. Effect of Early Versus Late Umbilical Cord Clamping of Term Infants on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):745-752]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

 

Keywords: Early cord clamping, late cord clamping, Term Infants, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

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Prevalence of Some Trace and Toxic Elements in Raw and Sterilized Cow's Milk

 

Salah F. A. Abd- El Aal; Esmat I. Awad and Rania M. K. M. Kamal

 

Food Control Department-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Zagazig University-Egypt

drsalah_aal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 80 random samples (40 each of raw and sterilized cow's milk) were collected from different outlets in El Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer to determine trace and toxic elements (lead, cadmium, aluminum, iron, selenium and manganese). Results revealed that the mean values in examined raw and sterilized cow's milk samples for lead, cadmium, aluminium, iron, manganese and selenium were (0.615 & 0.910); (0.416 & 0.355); (0.501 & 1.324); (5.303 & 5.681); (0.555 & 0.330) and (0.016 & 0.018) ppm, respectively. Analyzed data indicated that (90 & 100%); (100 & 92.5%); (60 & 100%); (75 & 50%); (90 & 80%) and (45 & 70%) of examined raw and sterilized cow's milk samples had residues of Pb, Cd, Al, Fe, Mn and Se above the permissible limit, respectively. The calculated daily intake of Pb, Cd, Al, Fe, Mn and Se from consumption of 200 ml raw and sterilized cow's milk per day were (123 & 182); (83.2 & 71); (100.2 & 264.8); (1060.6 & 1136.2); (111 & 66) and (3.2 & 3.6) µg, respectively, which contributed about (24.6 & 36.4 %); (118.9 & 101.43%); (8.35 & 22.07%); (22.1 & 23.67%); (2.22 & 1.32%) and (4 & 4.5%) from the Acceptable Daily intake of Pb, Cd, Al, Fe, Mn, and Se. Also, it is evident that the mean values of Pb; Al and iron were higher in sterilized milk than raw milk, but the mean values of Cd and Mn were higher in raw milk than in sterilized milk. However, the Se level in both was nearly equal. The public health significances of existing metals as well as the suggested measures to minimize the hazardous effect of these pollutants were discussed.

[Salah F. A. Abd- El Aal; Esmat I. Awad and Rania M. K. M. Kamal. Prevalence of some trace and toxic elements in raw and sterilized cow's milk. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):753-761]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 103

 

Key Words: Raw cow's milk, sterilized cow's milk, lead, cadmium, aluminum, iron, selenium, manganese

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Customer Management Process and Customer-Oriented Strategy in National Iranian Gas Company Using Balanced Scorecard

 

Fakhrossadat Hashemian

 

MS Educational Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University

fa_hashemian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Customer management requires new business strategies and modern economy has increased the importance of customer relationships. This research was a descriptive-survey study using balanced scorecard method to evaluate the role of customer management process in the performance of National Iranian Gas Company. The study population included all NIGC employees and customers. This study used stratified random sampling to select its study sample of 300 proportionally selected from 30 provinces. The study sample consisted of 250 NIGC employees and 50 customers. Final analysis showed that there is a significant direct relationship between the four studied perspectives (p<0.01). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) among factors showed that learning and growth perspective and internal process perspective had similar averages. It also indicated that customer perspective had the highest average and finance perspective had the lowest average. Customer perspective had higher average from employee point of view compared to customer point of view. Concurrent regression analysis indicated that internal process (β=0.42) plus learning and growth (β=0.31) were the best predictors of NIGC customer perspective. Improving these two perspectives shall elevate customer perspective. The study results indicated that NIGC performance is compatible with customer-oriented strategy as a service company. Therefore, more value shall be given to customer views and opinions as a means to provide feedback to employees with the objective to improve non-financial perspectives which in turn shall improve finance perspective.

[Fakhrossadat Hashemian. Customer Management Process and Customer-Oriented Strategy in National Iranian Gas Company Using Balanced Scorecard. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):762-771]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 104

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An Investigation of Establishing the Total Quality Management (TQM) System and Its Role in Improving Satisfaction in the Fars Pegah Dairy Corporation

 

Gholamreza Memarzadeh Tehran, Mehrzad Sarfarazi, Mohammad Hassan Behboodi

 

Associate Professor, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

PhD Candidate of Human Resource Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Adjunct Instructor, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, Fars, Iran

 

Abstract: The total quality management is one of the most successful management approaches and has successfully met the demands of customers, organizations and the society. This management approach incorporates various approaches in a logical way and using a new attitude, so that the customers (either domestic or foreign) are the chief concern of the organization. The purpose of present study is to explore the relationships between establishing the total quality management system and its role in improving satisfaction in customers. The population consists of managers in three levels of top, middle, and executive and staff employed permanently, by indenture, and by contract in the Fars Pegah dairy corporation. The number of the managers was 26 and the number of employees was 336. The questionnaire consisted of 33 questions which were developed by the researcher based on the hypotheses. In order to measure the validity, the content validity was adopted. In order to measure the reliability, the Cronbach's alpha was used. Data were processes in SPSS and MINITAB. They were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed a significant correlation between establishing the total management system and improving customer satisfaction. It could be concluded that managers should implement strategic planning to improve customer satisfaction with their products and services. Moreover, the customers' opinions and desires should be considered in planning and decision making processes. In order to implement the TQM, staff should be encouraged to boost relations with customers and therefore, satisfy them. Managers should base their decision making on the satisfaction of the customers so that they can attract more customers.

[Gholamreza Memarzadeh Tehran, Mehrzad Sarfarazi, Mohammad Hassan Behbood. An Investigation of Establishing the Total Quality Management (TQM) System and Its Role in Improving Satisfaction in the Fars Pegah Dairy Corporation. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):772-778]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

 

Keywords: total quality management, customer satisfaction

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The Effect of Computer Games on Children's Depression

 

Mahmood Shahsavari

 

Department of Educational Sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran

mahmoudshahsavary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Growth and development of computer games in the last quarter century had economic growth for some countries and social changes in others, and almost no one can ignore of these developments. These days, manufacturers and supplier of computer games are synchronized and may be more rapid of computer production. High sale indicate that that computer games play a special role in the lives of a new generation in the world today. Psychologists and experts social believe that the trend toward computer games keeps away children, teenagers, and even adults from reality. Depression and isolation are the first loss of computer games for children. Reinforce a sense of aggression, isolation, sluggish mind, familial tense relations and academic failure are most negative effects of excessive computer games. We will deliver the get frustrated, depressed, non-motile, and non-productive and with very low self-reliance and initiative people to community with the development of computer games, while the community needs to creative, innovative and thinker people. So it is needed to avoid prolonged use of computers for children. Also systematic plan for the use of computer games along with exercise and nutrition is essential for children.

[Shahsavari M. The effect of computer games on children's depression. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):779-782]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

 

Keywords: Computer games; children; depression; isolation

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"Discovery" in Civil Procedure: Cross-influences between Anglo-American and continental European Jurisdictions?

 

Avisha Ashrafolketabi

 

 Similarities and Differences of Legal Systems on "Discovery Rules in Civil Procedure"

PhD student of Private Law, Department of Law, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

avisha.ashrafolketabi@iauctb.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In order to determine whether a plaintiff in a civil case is entitled to claim, the underlying facts are often decisive. This article discusses the rules on fact-finding mechanism generally named discovery. These rules regulate how information is gathered, evidence is presented and how a decision on matters of fact is made .Romano – Canonical model and Anglo–American model have similarities and also differences mentioned in this article. But it is important to present their effective means and mechanisms for each other system to study and consider them in future legislations. The procedures that are used to resolve factual questions in civil or continental systems differs greatly from those used in American courts, we aimed to enhance our understanding of those differences and aimed to show these differences evolved throughout time .Often ,procedural rules are implemented that were tried and tested elsewhere. Comparative law may serve a useful tool to generate possible legal solutions to pressing procedural problems. In addition, experience in other jurisdictions may be of use to access possible   effects of legislative change.

[Avisha Ashrafolketab. "Discovery" in Civil Procedure: Cross-influences between Anglo-American and continental European Jurisdictions. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):783-788]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 107

 

Keywords:  Discovery, facts of civil cases, disclosure, access to proof, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

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Effective Model in Financial Services Marketing: An Empirical Study of Tehran Stocks Exchange Brokerage

 

Vahid Nasehifar

 

Department of Management and Accounting, Allame Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran

vahidnasehifar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today changing the Industrial Economy to Service Economy and fast development of organizations and service institutions around the world justify developing a new field of marketing called "Services Marketing". In this field, "Financial Services Marketing” has been created which has been applied in financial institutions and financial dealing. We have reviewed the importance and implication of financial services marketing in the development of stocks exchange market in the present study, through investigation of applications, methods and models of financial services marketing in Tehran stocks exchange market. We found that marketing mixes of retail and whole dealings affect on the dealings of the brokers. Also, marketing research is important and respected in the field of assessing self-potentiality, finding investors and knowing environmental conditions. In terms of market segmentation, identifying of the main investors, target and focusing of transactions on regarded stocks by special buyers are prominent and being considered. More important factors are including, having marketing plan and strategy, relationship marketing and customer orientation, striving for the best reputation in the market, attracting new customers and the satisfaction of key and target investors. In conclusion, traditional and experimental methods are being used in marketing of brokers services in Iran and since there is no competitive condition in its real sense, these methods have already been effective. Regarding the competitive environment, brokers should get familiar with systematic and scientific marketing methods or provide facilities to develop and change the management of brokers marketing through using expert and professional consultants in this field.

[Nasehifar V. Effective Model in Financial Services Marketing: An Empirical Study of Tehran Stocks Exchange Brokerage. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):789-795]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 108

 

Keywords: Pattern of Financial Services Marketing; Marketing mixes; Stocks Exchange

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Viral Load and Genotype Matter in Hepatitis C Virus Related Heart Disease in Cirrhotic Patients

 

Abir Zakaria1*, Ragai Fouda1, Mervate Naguib1 and Laila Rashed2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, and 2Clinical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

drabirzakaria@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Although the term cirrhotic cardiomyopathy expresses cardiac changes associating liver cirrhosis unrelated to its aetiology, hepatitis C virus HCV was suggested to play a role in cardiomyopathy and/or myocarditis. However the existence of such direct viral effect on the heart in HCV induced liver cirrhosis LC patients remains to be verified. Rationale of the current study was to figure out the influence of the viral load, and genotype in addition to Child Pugh CP score on cardiac structural and functional changes in HCV induced LC patients. Sixty patients were classified according to viral genotype into 4a and non-4a groups. Viral load and the degree of liver impairment according to CP score were also verified in these patients. Data were correlated with echocardiographically assessed left and right sided chambers' structures and functions. Main Results: E/A ratio as an indicator of left ventricular diastolic function showed negative correlation with the viral load and CP score. Ejection fraction of HCV induced LC patients correlated positively with viral load and CP score. Patients who belonged to non-4a genotype group showed significantly larger left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions and left atrial dimensions compared to the 4a group. Right ventricular dimensions correlated positively with CP score. Conclusion: The current study showed that both viral load and genotype had an add-on effect on the expected cirrhotic cardiomyopathic changes in HCV induced LC patients.  

[Abir Zakaria, Ragai Fouda, Mervate Naguib and Laila Rashed. Viral Load and Genotype Matter in Hepatitis C Virus Related Heart Disease in Cirrhotic Patients] Journal of American Science 2012;8(9):796-803]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 109

 

Keywords: hepatitis C virus, viral load, genotype, hepatitis C related heart disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, Child Pugh score.

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Applicability of Petro-Occipital Fissure Ossification Pattern for Identification of Age and Sex of Skull base Remnants

 

Esam M. Mehlab and Gamal Abdel Salam

 

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

G_Abdelsalam@yahoo.com

                                                                                                                                

Abstract: Objectives: To morphologically and radiologically investigate the ossification pattern of petro-occipital fissure (POF) in dried crania of adults so as to determine the developmental changes and their value in age assessment and to evaluate its applicability for identification of age and sex of unknown forensic specimens. Materials & Methods: The study comprised 75 dry skulls (39 males & 36 females) with a mean age of 62.2±15.2 years, at the time of death. Skulls were staged for ossification at the POF midpoint, i.e., between foramen lacerum (FL) and jugular foramen (JF), description of the stage of POF ossification was defined numerically from least ossified (stage 1) to complete fissure ossification (stage 6). Also, plain-film radiographs of 15 cadaveric skulls were taken in the submentovertex position in order to evaluate the degree of POF ossification. The POF ossification pattern was applied for age and sex identification of 60 skull base parts with known age and sex, collected in Forensic museum. Results: Morphological description of POF ossification reported stage I ossification in 5 skulls, stage II in 9 skulls, stage III in 11 skulls, stage IV in 17 skulls, stage V in 26 skulls and only 7 masculine skulls had stage VI ossification. There was a significant increase of the stage of POF ossification in fissures of masculine skulls in comparison to that detected in feminine skulls with a positive significant correlation between chronological age of examined skulls and determined stage of POF ossification both in males and females. Such positive correlation was non-significant till fifties and thereafter was significant to reach a higher significance at above eighties in masculine skulls and return to be non-significant above eighties in feminine skulls. Analysis of radiographic findings defined the presence or absence of POF ossification in skulls but it was difficult to fix the anatomical limits of the fissure precisely and the relative degree of POF ossification. Statistical analysis reveled that the used staged pattern showed specificity for muscaline skull identification with AUC=0.704 and for skull age with AUC=0.498, but showed high specificity for older skull remnants. Conclusion: Evaluation of stage of ossification of POF of dried skulls revealed an age-dependent ossification that started to complete above sixties in both sexes and become sex-dependent thereafter and that stages of POF ossification could be applied for forensic identification of sex and age of skull remnants of unknown identity.

[Esam M. Mehlab and Gamal Abdel Salam. Applicability of Petro-Occipital Fissure Ossification Pattern for Identification of Age and Sex of Skull base Remnants. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):804-810]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 110

 

Keywords: Petro-occipital fissure, Ossification stage, Age and sex-dependence, Cadaveric skulls

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Arabic Lexicography Syntactic and Idiomatic Dictionaries

 

Seyed Mohammad Asghari

 

Faculty and Deputy of Tehran Shariati Vocational Girls College, Theran, Iran

sma196477@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:This paper is a research on Arabic lexicography.  It provides a brief history plus the linguistic principles and subjects that are applicable in Arabic lexicography.  This paper further discusses the differences between the traditional and contemporary lexicography, the group activities that are required for writing a contemporary dictionary or a glossary, and different dictionary designs based on entries and subentries.  Additional subjects discussed in this paper include comparisons between dictionary types based on volume and number of entries, specialized or general applications, number of languages it covers, unidirectional or bidirectional dictionary, and types of references made to the subentries taken from old dictionaries.

[Seyed Mohammad Asghari. Arabic Lexicography Syntactic and Idiomatic Dictionaries. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):811-816]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 111

 

Keywords: Lexicography, Mojam versus Qamus, Main Entry, Subentry, Syntactic versus Idiomatic Dictionary.

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APPROXIMATION IN CHAOTIC SYSTEM OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BYEULER METHOD AND CONTROLLING BY ARRAY METHOD

 

Gholamreza  Rahimlou

 

Master of science in Mat occupy:Teacher

grahimlou@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this article, we study an approximation of a system of differential equations when it has a noise. We use the Taylor method and we model the organization of such systems. In a system of differential equations, we set a scalar multiplication with a function and we saw that this system can be in chaotic mode. We used a method to omit the noises and chaos in this system.

[Gholamreza Rahimlou. APPROXIMATION IN CHAOTIC SYSTEM OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS BYEULER METHOD AND CONTROLLING BY ARRAY METHOD. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):817-822]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  112

    

Keywords: Chaos, ordinary differential equations, system of differential equations, approximation, strange attractors

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Academic Engagement as a Mediator in Relationships between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Kerman-Iran

 

Elham Dehyadegary1, Kouros Divsalar2*, Fatameh Pour Shahsavari3, Sedigheh Nekouei4, Azimeh Jafari Sadr5

 

1. Payam -Noor University, Faculty of Psychology, Kerman, Iran.

2. Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

3. Payam -Noor University, Faculty of Psychology, Sirjan, Iran.

4. Kerman Social Insurance, Kerman, Iran.

5. Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran.

*Corresponding author: Kouros Divsalar, Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Address: Postal Code: 7619813159, Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, EbneSina Street, Jahad Blvd. Tel: 0341-2264180, Fax: 0341-2264198, Email: Kouros_Divsalar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence, academic engagement and academic achievement in Kerman, Iran. The respondents comprised of 382 students (191 boys and 191 girls) in the age range of 15-18 years old that were randomly selected from nineteen high schools. A self administered questionnaire was used for data collection which includes a Schutte’s Emotional Intelligence, Short, Feleming, Guiling, and Ropper’s Academic Engagement, and Grade Point Average (GPA) score. Results of the study indicate that academic engagement mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. It is recommended that academic achievement be improved in school settings with support strategies such as educational guidance, seminars, workshops, counseling.

[Elham Dehyadegary, Kouros Divsalar, Fatameh Pour Shahsavari, Sedigheh Nekouei, Azimeh Jafari Sadr. Academic Engagement as a Mediator in Relationships between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Adolescents in Kerman-Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):823-832]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 113

Keyword: Emotional Intelligence, Academic Engagement, Academic Achievement

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Effective Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis haematobium by Immunomagnetic Bead ELISA technique Using Super-Paramagnetic Nanoparticles

 

Amany Ahmed, 1Azza El Amir, 2Ibraheem Rabee and 1Somaya El Deeb

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

2Theodore Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding Author: genetic_mony1234@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis haematobium is a serious public health problem in Egypt. Detection of S. haematobium antigens is a better immunodiagnostic tool than determination of the antibody level. We developed a novel immunomagnetic bead ELISA based on IgG for detection of E/S antigen in sera of rabbit infected with S. haematobium. Detection of E/S in serum gave a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 93.7% compared to other parasitic infections group and 100% compared to healthy control group. On the other hand, detection of E/S in urine gave a sensitivity of 91%, a specificity of 93.7% compared to other parasitic infections group and 100% compared to healthy control group. The novel assay appears to be sensitive for detection of schistosomal antigenemia and valuable to judge the efficacy of chemotherapy in murine schistosomiasis.

[Amany Ahmed, Azza El Amir, Ibraheem Rabee and Somaya El Deeb. Effective Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis haematobium by Immunomagnetic Bead ELISA technique Using Super-Paramagnetic Nanoparticles. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):833-841]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 114

 

Key words: Excretory/Secretory antigen (E/S); Schistosomiasis; Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium); Immunomagnetic bead ELISA technique (IMB-ELISA).

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Physico-Chemical Analysis and Microbial Diversity during Windrow Pile Composting In Nile Delta Ecosystem

 

Mahdy A. Abd-El-Kader, Amr M. Mohamed Abd- Elall, Hesham Dahshan*, Aymian Mohamed Megahed

 

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia governorate, Egypt.

Dr_hisham2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the composting of cattle manure with or without a variety of bulking agents. Four piles formed by cattle manure, blended with rice straw (CP2), banana leaves (CP3), maize straw (CP4). However, the first pile (CP1) composted without a bulking agent. All blends were composted for 60 days. During composting, the piles were monitored for the main physical-chemical characteristics: temperature, moisture%, pH value, total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, and NH4+-N. The majority of the studied parameters were influenced by the bulking agents rather than composting of cattle manure solely. Furthermore, temperature, pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen retention were more valuable in composting pile blended with, rice straw and maize straw. Therefore, in another experimental trial of 10 weeks duration, due to its availability, rice straw was used as a bulking agent to investigate the prevailing microbial communities. The indigenous population of total mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria increased after two and three weeks, respectively and then the mesophilic decreased rabidly and the thermophilic stabilized or increased. Besides, the average number of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal enterococci showed decrement with time. In conclusion, the addition of a bulking agent was necessary to compost cattle manure in Nile Delta ecosystem. Specially, rice straw as it produced compost with an organic matter, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio content suitable for use as soil amendment and also more sanitary from the microbial counts view. Furthermore, this is the first report determining the influence of bulking agent addition to cattle manure on performance of composting process in the continent of Africa, Egypt.

[Mahdy A. Abd-El-Kader, Amr M. Mohamed Abd- Elall, Hesham Dahshan, Aymian Mohamed Megahed. Physico-Chemical Analysis and Microbial Diversity during Windrow Pile Composting In Nile Delta Ecosystem. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):842-848]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 115

 

Key words: Composting, cattle manure, physical-chemical characteristics, bulking agent, Microbial diversity.

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Review the electoral geography in IRAN ;( Case Study: Identification and Representation of Static and Dynamic Districts in the Geography of Elections in Guilan Province)

 

Roghayeh Sharifi Chaboki 1*   ,      Dr.    Zahra Pishgahi Fard 2

       

1* Department of political Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2   Department of political Geography, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University , Tehran, Iran.

Ro_sharifi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The goal of this paper is to identify and discover dynamic and static districts based on factions and representatives in 8 terms of parliament election after the Islamic Revolution of Iran (1979-2011) in Guilan Province that has highly participated in political cooperation and elections in Iran. This paper with analytical method and by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is attempting to answer the following questions that if there is dynamic and static districts for factions and representatives in Guilan Province? In case of existence of static districts, political direction of the selective districts of Guilan Province is toward which party? The gained results in this research show that these terms,  some of elective districts of Guilan Province are dynamic and some other are static, and political tendency of major of representatives and residences of selective districts are toward right party. 

 [Sharifi chaboki R, Pishgahifard Z. Review the electoral geography in IRAN (Case Study: Identification and Representation of Static and Dynamic Districts in the Geography of Elections in Guilan Province). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):849-856]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 116

 

Key Words: Parties – Political Faction – Static District – Dynamic District – Guilan Province

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Leptin and ventilatory function response to exercise in obese boys and girls: A comparative study.

 

Ashraf Abdelaal Mohamed1, Ehab Mohamed Abd El- Kafy 2, Mohamed Salah Eldien Mohamed3.

 

1Department of Physical Therapy for Cardiovascular/ Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbance of Growth and Development in Children and its Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University.

3Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Egypt.

 

Abstract: This study was an attempt to determine and compare difference in response of serum leptin and ventilatory function (including forced vital capacity "FVC" and forced expiratory volume in the first second "FEV1") in obese boys and obese girls to aerobic exercise. Subjects: 40 obese child (body mass index (BMI)) in the 95th  percentile or greater) with age range of 10 to 13 years were into the study. They were divided into two groups of equal number, 20 obese boys (Group A) and 20 obese girls (Group B). Methods: Both groups received moderate intensity aerobic exercise training on a stationary bicycle ergometer for 3 months; 5 days per week. Serum leptin level and ventilatory function (FVC and FEV1) were assessed in all children before beginning and after finishing the study. Results: After 3 months of aerobic exercise training; There were significant reduction in serum leptin and significant increase in ventilatory function  in both obese boys and obese girls groups. Furthermore; there was significant difference between both groups in serum leptin in favor of group B. In the contrary; there was significant difference between both groups in ventilatory function in favor of group A. Conclusion: after aerobic training; ventilatory functions respond in obese boys more favorably than in obese girls. In the contrary; serum leptin respond in obese girls more favorably than in obese boys.

[Mohamed A A., Abd El- Kafy EM, Mohamed SM. Leptin and ventilatory function response to exercise in obese boys and girls: A comparative study. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):857-863]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 117

 

Key Words: Aerobic Exercise, Obese Children, Serum Leptin, Ventilatory Response.

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Investigating factors of the performance of the Hormozgan Judiciary staff influencing client satisfaction using the ACHIVE model

 

Mehrzad Sarfarazi1, Amin Balaghi Inalo2, Mehdi Rouhi Khalili3

 

1PhD Candidate of Human Resource Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2PhD Candidate of Public Administration-Comparative and Development, Qom Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3MA of Public Administration, Qom Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Understanding factors influencing customer and client satisfaction will lead to improved staff performance and, as a result, to improved customer and client satisfaction. Satisfaction can be referred to as the relationship between the individual's role expectations and needs. Satisfaction is at a favorable degree when the organizations' expectations are compatible with tendencies. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the factors in staff performance which influence customer satisfaction in the Hormozgan Judiciary. The study is a survey-descriptive one which is a branch of field studies. The population consisted of 250 judiciary employees in the Hormozgan Province, 37 managers, and 200 clients selected by random clustering method. The instruments were 2 questionnaires addressing clients and staff with 8 and 19 items, respectively, which were developed by the researcher based on the questions of the study. The questionnaire was validated using the content validity and in order to measure reliability, the Cronbach's alpha was used. Data were processed in SPSS and MINITAB. Data were analyzed at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. Hypotheses were tested using the independent t test. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that organizations must provide managers with equipment to fulfill their tasks and give them financial support and managers can improve staff performance by supporting them and, this way, they can make clients satisfied. Obviously, these supports should be given under the thorough supervision of managers' actions to improve their performances and satisfy customers. Therefore, it is proposed that staff be appreciated and rewarded for their good and timely services to clients and, in this way, increase client satisfaction. It is proposed that staff performance and client satisfaction be improved by evaluating staff and managers performances through rewards and punishment. 

[Mehrzad Sarfarazi, Amin Balaghi Inalo, Mehdi Rouhi Khalili. Investigating factors of the performance of the Hormozgan Judiciary staff influencing client satisfaction using the ACHIVE model. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):864-872]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 118

 

Keywords: performance, effective performance factors, customer satisfaction, client

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Survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for SAMSUNG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers

 

* Rasool Amirusefi (Corresponding author), ** Maryam Ahrari

 

* MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran.

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran.

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study does with aim survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for SAMSUNG brand was performed among household supplies consumers in the Isfahan City. The independent variable of this study includes Perceived quality and dependent variable is brand equity. The method of research is survey, descriptive and its aim is Functional. A method of data collection in research is the library, field. A data collection tool is the questionnaire. The Sampling method is a random sampling based on geographical areas. Reliability analysis of independent variable was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha method. The research results show that independent variable of research (Perceived quality) with 95% confidence level affect in brand equity, and research hypotheses were confirmed.

[Rasool Amirusefi, Maryam Ahrari. Survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for SAMSUNG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):873-877]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  119

 

KEY WORDS: brand, brand equity, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, pay a price premium

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Survey the effect of perceived qualityon brand equity for LG & SAMSUNG brands From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers and comparison two brand

 

* Rasool Amirusefi (Corresponding author), ** Maryam Ahrari

 

* MA Of Business Management, University of ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERCITY, Torbat-e- Jam Branch

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study does with aim survey the effect of perceived quality on brand equity for LG & SAMSUNG brand was performed among household supplies consumers in the Isfahan City. Those Independent variables of this study include of perceived quality and dependent variable is brand equity. The research results show that in both of the brands, independent variables of research (perceived quality) with 95% confidence level affect in brand equity, and research hypotheses were confirmed in two brand and after compare average of variables of two brands there is no significant difference between Perceived quality and Brand equity.

[Rasool Amirusefi, Maryam Ahrari. Survey the effect of perceived qualityon brand equity for LG & SAMSUNG brands From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers and comparison two brand. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):878-882]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 120

 

Keywords: brand, brand equity, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, pay a price premium

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Survey relationship between Satisfaction and customer relationship management (case study Mellat bankof iran)

 

* Maryam Ahrari (Corresponding author), ** Rasool Amirusefi

 

* MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the role of organizations has been changed by business processes such as economic liberalization, globalization and the rapid evolution of internet. Also, the market environment has been changed due to increasing awareness of customers, their easy access to abundant information and unexampled right to choose. In such conditions, organizations could remain that do the operations, marketing, sales and services better than competitors; and increase their income and profits with obtain customer satisfaction and maintain their loyalty. According to above in this study, the customer relationship management in the Mellat bank in the Tehran city has been investigated. Results showed the research hypotheses at 95% confidence level were confirmed. Results of hypothesis test showed a significant and linear relationship have been between customer relationship management and satisfaction. Besides, after comparing the customer attitudes towards Mellat bank about tow variables (customer relationship management and satisfaction) and customer expectations in this field, observed that there is a difference (gap) between the two conditions is approximately%21.3. And it can be concluded to increase satisfaction; it needs to upgrade level of customer relationship management.

[Maryam Ahrari, Rasool Amirusefi. Survey relationship between Satisfaction and customer relationship management (case study Mellat bankof iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):883-887]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 121

 

Keywords: customer relationship management, satisfaction, customer loyalty, service quality

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Survey relationship between service quality and customer relationship management (case study Mellat bank of iran)

 

* Maryam Ahrari (Corresponding author), ** Rasool Amirusefi

 

* MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Nowadays, the role of organizations has been changed by business processes such as economic liberalization, globalization and the rapid evolution of internet. Also, the market environment has been changed due to increasing awareness of customers, their easy access to abundant information and unexampled right to choose. In such conditions, organizations could remain that do the operations, marketing, sales and services better than competitors; and increase their income and profits with obtain customer satisfaction and maintain their loyalty. According to above in this study, the customer relationship management in the Mellat bank in the Tehran city has been investigated. Results showed the research hypotheses at 95% confidence level were confirmed. Results of hypothesis test showed a significant and linear relationship have been between customer relationship management and Service quality. Besides, after comparing the customer attitudes towards Mellat bank about tow variables (customer relationship management and service quality) and customer expectations in this field, observed that there is a difference (gap) between the two conditions is approximately%27.84. And it can be concluded to increase service quality; it needs to upgrade level of customer relationship management.

[Maryam Ahrari, Rasool Amirusefi. Survey relationship between service quality and customer relationship management (case study Mellat bank of iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(9):888-892]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  122

 

Keywords: customer relationship management, satisfaction, customer loyalty, service quality

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Survey the effect of brand loyalty on brand equity for LG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers

 

*Hossein Rezaie Dollatabady, ** Rasool Amirusefi (Corresponding author), *** Maryam Ahrari

 

*Department of management,Faculty of administrative Sciences and economic,University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail: ho.rezaie@gmail.com

**MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

*** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study does with aim survey the effect of brand loyalty on brand equity for LG brand was performed among household supplies consumers in the Isfahan City. The independent variable of this study includes brand loyalty and dependent variable is brand equity. The method of research is survey, descriptive and its aim is Functional. A method of data collection in research is the library, field. A data collection tool is the questionnaire. The Sampling method is a random sampling based on geographical areas. Reliability analysis of independent variable was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha method. The research results show that independent variable of research (brand loyalty) with 95% confidence level affect in brand equity, and research hypotheses were confirmed.

[Hossein Rezaie Dollatabady, Rasool Amirusefi, Maryam Ahrari. Survey the effect of brand loyalty on brand equity for LG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):893-897]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  123

 

KEY WORDS: brand, brand equity, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, pay a price premium

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Survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for LG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers

 

* Rasool Amirusefi (Corresponding author), ** Maryam Ahrari

 

* MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran,

Email: ra.amir62@yahoo.com

 

** MA Of Business Management, Torbat-e- Jam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-Jam, Iran

Email: ahrari.maryam @yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: This study does with aim survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for LG brand was performed among household supplies consumers in the Isfahan City. The independent variable of this study includes Perceived quality and dependent variable is brand equity. The method of research is survey, descriptive and its aim is Functional. A method of data collection in research is the library, field. A data collection tool is the questionnaire. The Sampling method is a random sampling based on geographical areas. Reliability analysis of independent variable was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha method. The research results show that independent variable of research (Perceived quality) with 95% confidence level affect in brand equity, and research hypotheses were confirmed.

[Rasool Amirusefi, Maryam Ahrari. Survey the effect of Perceived quality on brand equity for LG brand From the viewpoint of Iranian consumers. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):898-902]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  124

 

KEY WORDS: brand, brand equity, brand loyalty, perceived quality, brand awareness, brand association, pay a price premium

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Determination of Legal Axle and Truck Loads with Wide-Base Tires

 

Hassan Salama1, Mahmoud Solyman2 and Ahmed Shehata1

 

1Civil & Environmental Engineering Department, Al Azhar University, Egypt

2 Construction Engineering and Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Egypt

elsaied2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trucks are considered one of the most important means of transportation. Recently, the tire designers introduced new wide-base tires to replace the conventional dual tires system. Previous studies indicated that these types of tires increase the pavement damage. This study aims to estimate the legal equivalent loads of different axle and truck configurations with wide-base tires which impose the same pavement damage as the conventional dual tires. Several axle configurations including single, tandem, tridem and quad as well as fifteen Egyptian truck configurations were considered in this study. Thick and thin pavement sections with thicknesses and material properties representing majority of the pavement cross-sections were analyzed. To quantify and compare the damage for thick and thin pavement sections due to heavy axle load configurations, forward analyses were conducted using KENLAYER program to calculate the pavement response. The horizontal tensile strains at the bottom of the hot mix asphalt and the vertical compressive strains on top of the subgrade and at the middle of each pavement layers as well as the six consecutive sub-layers of the subgrade soils were calculated from the structural model. These responses were utilized in the performance models to calculate the two main pavement distresses, fatigue cracking and pavement rutting. The Axle Factors were calculated for each axle configurations with wide-base and conventional tires then relationships between axle weights and axle factors were developed for axles with dual tire. The weights of axle with wide-base tires that produce the same damage were calculated from these relationships. Then, using simple linear regression analysis, different relationships between the weights of axles with dual and wide-base tires were developed. Using these relationships, legal loads for axles and trucks with wide - base tires that create the same fatigue and rutting were estimated.

 [Hassan Salama, Mahmoud Solyman and Ahmed Shehata. Determination of Legal Axle and Truck Loads with Wide-Base Tires. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):903-911]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 125

 

Key words: Multiple axles, Pavement damage, legal axle and truck loads, Conventional and Wide-base tires

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Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Angle and Length of Bendway Weirs on Scouring and Sedimentation in a Meander River

 

Mohammad Hemmati1, Mehdi Ghomeshi2, Seyed Mahmood Kashefipour2, Mahmood Shafai-Bejestan2, Stefano Lanzoni3

 

1. PhD Student, Department of Hydraulic Structures, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran.

2. Professor, Department of Hydraulic Structures, University of Shahid Chamran, Ahvaz, Iran.

3. Professor, Department of IMAGE, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

mhemmati1982@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Through conducting the experimental tests, this research aims at evaluating the maximum scour depth at the tip of bendway weirs and point-bar height at the inner bank side of the bend in a meander river. To achieve the purpose of this study, a meandering canal with movable bed (fed with a constant sediment discharge) were constructed. Different series of bendway weirs were constructed at the outer wall of the central bend at three inclination angles (60°, 75° and 90°), three lengths ratio (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) and three discharges ratio (0.8, 1 and 1.2) while the height and distance between weirs were kept fixed. At the end of each test the maximum scour depth and point-bar height were measured using a laser distance meter. The results show that the changes of length ratio and inclination angle do not affect significantly the point-bar height, weirs construction reduced the point-bar height at high flow discharge ratio (Q/Qd1); as point-bar generally reduced by 20% and 18% (for various angles and lengths ratio, respectively) after weirs construction. Also, α=60o and Lw/B=0.4 have the maximum impact on the eroded surface of point-bar. Moreover length ratio of weirs equal to 0.3 and angle 75° has more effect on maximum scour depth than other parameters at the tip of weirs.

[Hemmati M, Ghomeshi M, Kashefipour SM, Shafai-Bejestan M, Lanzoni S. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Angle and Length of Bendway Weirs on Scouring and Sedimentation in a Meander River. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):912-917]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 126

 

Keywords: Bendway weirs; scouring; sedimentation; meander river; experimental.

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Building new towns in Iran

 

Hamid Reza Varesi 1, Mohammad Ghanbari 2

 

1 Associate professor, University of Isfahan, department of geography and urban planning

2 (Corresponding Author) Postgraduate Student University of Isfahan, department of geography and urban planning

Email: M.ghanbari233@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The increase in urban population and the need to plan new urban centers in order to accommodate the added population in big cities has been one of the influential factors in building new towns. Regarding the growth in urbanism during the century, the idea of building new cities as a necessity in absorbing the surplus urban population and decentralization in population and worldwide employment and Iran has been introduced and implemented. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of new towns in Iran in absorbing population, and the research method employed in this article is “descriptive-analytical” method of research. This article has assessed the realization of the population of new towns of Iran. The results from surveys indicate that the new towns of Iran are in different positions regarding attracting population. Andisheh New Town has a better stature among these towns regarding population attraction, but the total average of realization index in attracting population in new towns of Iran based on the predictions of the comprehensive plan equals 21.49 percent, which means they have an unfavorable condition in terms of attracting population. Therefore, a revision in the new towns comprehensive plans, especially their population predictions seems necessary.

[Hamid Reza Varesi, Mohammad Ghanbari. Building new towns in Iran. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):918-926]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 127

 

Key words: assessment, realization, comprehensive plan, population, new towns of Iran

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Ultrasonographic Differential Diagnosis of Tenosynovitis in Horses. A report of 40 Cases

 

                                                    Torad , F.A.; Inas, N. El-Husseiny; Ibrahim, M.I. and Ali, K.M.                    

 

Department of Surgery, Anaesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

drinasnabil@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was carried out on 40 horses (34 draft and 6 race). The study was aimed to demonstrate the role of ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of tenosynovitis in horses. In acute aseptic tenosynovitis, the increased synovial fluid appeared as clear anechoic fluid between the flexor tendons and within the digital sheathes with variable degree of synovial membrane thickening. In cases with acute hemorrhagic tenosynovitis, hyperechoic dots representing the cellular nature of the fluid floating in an increased anechoic synovial fluid were noticed. In cases with acute septic tenosynovitis, the synovial fluid appeared more echogenic than the normal (hypoechoic) with   marked thickening and increased echogenicity of the synovial membrane. Cases with chronic tenosynovitis showed thickening of the digital sheath with marked hypoechoic bands within the anechoic synovial fluid.

[Torad, F.A.; Inas, N. El-Husseiny; Ibrahim, M.I. and Ali, K.M. Ultrasonographic Differential Diagnosis of Tenosynovitis in Horses. A report of 40 Cases. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):927-931]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 128

 

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Tenosynovitis, Horses

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Outcome Of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Duodenal Switch In Management Of Morbid Obesity

 

Mahmoud A. Abd El-Razik, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Reheem, Omnia M. Hassan

 

General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine For Girls Al-Azhar University

O_rabie2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Laparoscopic Sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained enormous popularity as bariatric procedure, not only as first step in high-risk or super-obese patients but mainly as a sole and definitive operation in morbidly obese. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) is one of the most effective and durable procedures in terms of weight loss. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the results of LSG versus BPD/DS on complications, body mass index (BMI), excess weight loss (EWL), and comorbidities resolution. Methods: Eighty obese patients were included in this study, were divided into two groups, the first group (mean BMI 44±6) include 40 patients underwent open BPD/DS, while the second group (mean BMI 42±5) included 40 patients underwent LSG. Analysis of demographic, operative data, complications and outcome. Results: Mean operative time was 180±40min in group I and 95±25min in group II. Length of hospital stay was 9±2 days in group I and 3±1 days in group II. Conversion rate was 2.5% in group II. Mortality was 2.5% in group II . Major postoperative complications were registered in 18 patients in group I while only 2 patients in group II . In 7 cases, reoperation was needed in group I while one patient reoperation was needed in group II. The mean EWL 86.7% in group I and 63.5% in group II. Diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were cured in 87.5%, 83.3%, and 100% in group I and 83%, 80%, and 100% successfully in group II . Conclusion: LSG can be performed for the majority of morbid obese patient . when surgery is indicated as a first step. The other mal-absorptive surgical component can be added later when LSG failed fulfill the attended goals of surgery in these cases. BPD/DS is a complex procedure associated with increased operative times hospital stay , and higher postoperative complication rates.

 [Mahmoud A. Abd El-Razik, Mahmoud A. Abdel-Reheem, Omnia M. Hassan. Outcome Of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Duodenal Switch In Management Of Morbid Obesity. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):932-936]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 129

 

Keywords: Morbid obesity, sleeve gastrectomy bariatric surgery , Duodenal switch

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Teacher's Concept and its Relation to Temperament and Coping Strategies among Mentally Retarded Children

 

Bothina E.Said1, Sayeda A. Abd Ellatif1, Hanaa H. Ali1 and Eman S. Abd Allah2

 

1Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University

2Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University

Dr.hanaa_elzeiny@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at assess the teachers' concept and its relation to temperament and coping strategies among mentally retarded children. A descriptive correlational design was utilized in this study. convenient sample consisted of 130 mentally retarded children, their parents and 31 teachers was selected; who were presented at the schools of El- Tarbia- El- Fekria in Hahia and Zagazig city. Tools for data collection were; Socio-demographic data sheet, the teachers' Temperament Questionnaire (TTQ), the teachers' concept of the mental retardation, and The Coping Ability in Children. The results reveald that Temperament increased with increasing coping abilities, Children coping score had positive significant correlations with children IQ, No statistically significant associations between teachers’ concept and coping and temperament. It was concluded that when IQ of those children was high, the coping abilities increased. The study recommended that the teachers should continuously observe and evaluate the children to recognize the temperament and coping abilities in the class. Building positive relationship and deal with children by love, sympathy, empathy and caring.

[Bothina E.Said, Sayeda A. Abd Ellatif, Hanaa H. Ali and Eman S. Abd Allah. Teacher's Concept and its Relation to Temperament and Coping Strategies among Mentally Retarded Children. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):937-944]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 130

 

Keywords: Mental retardation, temperament, coping, teachers concept.

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General Nursing Measures Implemented For Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection In The General Operating Rooms

 

Thanaa M. A. Alaa.Eldeen ; Amna Y. Saad Ead and Hend A. Eid ElShenawie

 

Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

 

Abstract: Today, There is an increasing concern worldwide to control and prevent acquired Infection .The incidence of nosocomial infection in the hospital environment ranges from 5% to 8%.which occurred by one in 20 patients admitted to the hospital.(1) It is estimated that 20% of these infections are contracted in an operating theatre with possible irreversible consequences for patients.(2) Operating room departments are one of the high risk for nosocomial infection, it bears a surgery and an emergency treatment of patients for any surgery, so the high  quality of nursing and surgical  measures  implemented to control and prevent infection are directly affect the prognosis of  surgical patients and hospital recovery.(3) Thus , the aim of the study is to determine the view of the operating room nurses, anesthesiologists and surgeons in general nursing measures implemented for control and prevention of  nosocomial infection in the operating rooms The study was carried out in the  general operating rooms of the main university hospital in Alexandria. The interview questionnaire sheet of  all nursing measures implemented for prevention and control of infection in the operating rooms was used for data collection. The study revealed that the most of infection control activities were performed by operating room nurses during the intra operative period. Except between each operation, weekly cleaning and caring of physical environment, caring and cleaning of air condition filter were not performed by the majority nurses. So the nurse's must increase their awareness about their vital role in the prevention of infection in the operating room. Also, Nurses performance should be adequately supervised by qualified head nurses.

 [Thanaa M. A. Alaa. Eldeen ; Amna Y. Saad Ead and Hend A. Eid ElShenawie. General Nursing Measures Implemented For Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection In The General Operating Rooms. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):945-957]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 131

 

Keywords: Implemented; Control; Prevention; Nosocomial; Infection; Operating.

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Study of the Possible Modulatory Effect of Resveratrol and Coenzyme Q10 on MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism in Mice

 

Mohamed N. Abdel Rahman and Ayman A. Elsheikh

 

 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

aymanahe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Parkinson's disease is a motor system disease caused by factors that compromise survival of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The mechanisms of degeneration of these neurons include mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble vitamin found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is involved in the electron transport chain that supplies energy to vital organs. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine that had been shown to offer protective effects in cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To study the effect of the combination of L-dopa with CoQ10 or resveratrol in comparison with L-dopa alone on MPTP-induced parkinsonism in mice. Methods: Fifty albino mice were divided into 5 equal groups: control group, MPTP group, L-dopa+MPTP group, L-dopa+CoQ10+MPTP group, and L-dopa+resveratrol+MPTP group. Catalepsy score, striatal dopamine, TNF-α, NO, mitochondrial complex I activity and ATP were measured. Results: The combination between L-dopa and either CoQ10 or resveratrol induced significant increase in striatal ATP, dopamine and mitochondrial complex 1 activity with significant decrease in striatal TNF-α and NO with significant improvement in catalepsy score compared to the group that received L-dopa alone or MPTP-treated group. Conclusion:  The combination of L-dopa and CoQ10 or L-dopa and resveratrol has a better effect than L-dopa alone on MPTP-induced parkinsonism in mice.

[Mohamed N. Abdel Rahman and Ayman A. Elsheikh. Study of the Possible Modulatory Effect of Resveratrol and Coenzyme Q10 on MPTP-Induced Parkinsonism in Mice. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):958-967]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 132

 

Key words: Resveratrol, Coenzyme Q10, MPTP, Parkinsonism.

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Hematological, Biochemical and Hormonal Studies on Postpartum Alopecia in Ewes

 

Ramadan Taha

 

Clinical Pathology Dept, Faculty of Vet Medicine, Suez Canal University

Ramadan_clinic@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out on twenty ewes. Fifteen from them suffering from postpartum alopecia and other five ewes were kept as control. Two blood samples were obtained from each ewe. The first sample was collected in tube with EDTA as anticoagulant for hemogram studies. The second blood sample was collected in plain tube for serum separation for biochemical and hormonal studies. Hematological examination revealed that normocytic normochromic anemia in alopecic ewes as well as neutrophilic leukocytosis and lymphocytopenia. There were significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin in diseased group. Liver enzymes revealed significant increase in ALT,AST activities in alopecic ewes. Urea level also increased in alopecic group while non significant changes in ALP and creatinine. There were significant decrease in zinc, copper and calcium while non significant changes in phosphorus and magnesium levels. Hormonal studies revealed a significant increase in prolactin and cortisone hormones. It could be concluded that, nutritional deficiency as well as stress play an important role in postpartum alopecia. 

[Ramadan Taha. Hematological, Biochemical and Hormonal Studies on Postpartum Alopecia in Ewes. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):968-972]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 133

 

Keywords: Hematological; Biochemical; Hormonal; Postpartum; Alopecia; Ewe

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Transcaruncular Jones Tube Intubation without Dacryo-cystorhinostomy in Management of Canalicular Obstruction

 

Hesham A Enany and Mahmoud A Al-Aswad

 

Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

dr_henany@yahoo.com

                                                                                                                                

Abstract: Purpose: To describe and evaluate the functional surgical success, complications, and degree of satisfaction after transcaruncular Jones tube intubation without dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Methods: This study evaluated 25 eyes of obstruction of the lacrimal canalicular systems with mean epiphora of 2.3 years. An incision was made on the side of the caruncle, and the lacrimal bone was penetrated between the lacrimal sac and the nasal mucosa by Bowman probe. Insertion of a Jones tube was made at the new lacrimal pathway, a punctum dilator or scissors was introduced through the caruncle and dilated across the lacrimal bone into the nasal cavity. The Jones tube was introduced over the probe into the nasal cavity, and fixed at the caruncle with non-absorbable suture material. This procedure was done without DCR. Results The overall success rate was 90%. The length of Jones tube used ranged from 16 to 30 mm. Complications of this technique included tube problems, in particular, downward displacement, which was corrected easily in the outpatient clinic, and extrusion. Other complications were frequent inflammation and conjunctival growth over the tube opening. Conclusions Jones tube intubation without DCR is a simple and useful procedure for correcting canalicular obstruction. Transcaruncular Jones tube is an operation of least manipulation and of short operative time.

[Hesham A Enany and Mahmoud A Al-Aswad. Transcaruncular Jones Tube Intubation without Dacryo-cystorhinostomy in Management of Canalicular Obstruction. J Am Sci 2012; 8(9):973-977]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 134

 

Keywords: Early cord clamping, late cord clamping, Term Infants, Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

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135

Underwater GPS Navigation

 

Hussam Elbehiery

 

Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Technology, Misr University for Science and Technology (MUST), Cairo, Egypt

helbehiery@must.edu.eg, hussam.elbehiery@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research introduces how to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) underwater although GPS cannot be used underwater due to its weak signals. SONAR modules will be used to determine the location underwater and deliver its signals to a water surface station. In the introduced system, precise location determination of a submarine, persons, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) or other asset will be recorded at regular intervals. The recorded location data can be stored within the tracking unit, or it may be transmitted to a central location data base, or internet-connected computer, using a cellular (GPRS or SMS), radio, or satellite modem embedded in the unit. Navigation and communication assistance is provided by a GPS/GSM unit integrated in a surface floating buoy. First tests under real conditions were successfully carried out.

[Hussam Elbehiery. Underwater GPS Navigation. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):978-987]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 135

 

Keywords: GPS, GSM, SONAR, Navigation, and Ultrasonic

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Evaluation of ELISA Using Different Antigens in the Discrimination between Brucella Vaccinated and Infected Cattle

 

Amin. M. M.1, Ahmed, S. A1., Zaki, H. M2. and Ismail, R. I2.

 

1Dept.of Vet.Medicine &Inf. Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

2Department of Brucellosis Research, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

dr.mahmoudamin43@gmail.com

 

Abstract:The main objective of the present study was the diagnosis and differentiation between Brucella infected and vaccinated cattle. The animals included in this study were180 naturally infected non vaccinated cows in governmental farm (group 1), 125 brucella free cows in which strain 19 vaccination had never been practiced (group 2) and 530 strain 19 vaccinated cows (group3). Sera from these animals were examined for brucellosis using Immunoblot and iELISA using LPS or CPE as coating antigens.The highest values of the ability of serological tests to differentiate S19 vaccinated animals from those infected ones were detected in iELISA using CPE as coating antigen and lowest values were seen in iELISA using LPS as coating antigen.

[Amin. M. M., Ahmed, S. A., Zaki, H. M and Ismail, R. I. Evaluation of ELISA Using Different Antigens in the Discrimination between Brucella Vaccinated and Infected Cattle. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):988-996]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 136

 

Keywords: Brucellosis, Serodiagnosis, ELISA, Immunoplot.

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Systolic and Diastolic Myocardial Function, Comparative Study between Splenectomized and Non Splenectomized Thalassemic Patients

 

Sahar Hossam Elhini1 ; Gehan Lotfy Abel Hakeem2 ; Hany Taha Askalany3

 

 1Internal Medicine, 2Pediatric Department and 3Cardiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, El Menia University, Egypt. gehanlotfy72@yahoo.com

                                                                

Abstract: Cardiac complications still the most common causes of death in patients with major B thalassemia. Iron overload causes  severe and permanent cardiac damage even more than untreated anemia . Aim of the work: The aim of this study was to compare splenectomized and non splenectomized B thalassemic patients echo cardio graphically  as regard  systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Forty B thalassemic patients  whom  regularly visit both pediatric and internal medicine hematology clinic and 20 ae and sex matched volunteers controls were recruited in the study . The  age range of  patients  was (2-18)years. Patients were classified into two groups: group I (non splenectomized) including 20 patients whom were medically treated with frequent blood transfusion plus chelation therapy and the other splenectomized group(group II) including  20 patient receive the same treatment and had done surgical splenectomy more than six months. Results: There was significant difference between  the two studied groups regarding fractional shortening (p= 0.006) , mitral E/A ratio (p =0.03), Tei  index (p = 0.001), pulmonary artery pressure (p =0.001) while no significant difference between the two groups regarding ejection fraction (p = 0.197). In non splenectomized B thalassemic patients, there was significant positive correlation between amount of blood transfusion/year and ejection fraction (p =0.03, r =0.46) while in splenectomized B thalassemic patients, there was significant positive correlation between Hb level and fractional shortening (p =0.01, r = 0.56) and between Hb level and ejection fraction (p =0.005,r =0.59) also, there was significant positive correlation between serum ferritin and mitral E/A ratio (p =0.04, r =46).   Conclusions: Diastolic function of right and left heart in B thalassemic patients is affected by multiple transfusions and final iron overload. While splenctomy partially improve systolic and diastolic myocardial performance, pulmonary hypertension may be a consequence of  splenectomy  in B thalassemic patients.

[Sahar Hossam Elheeny; Gehan Lotfy Abel Hakeem; Hany Taha Askalany. Systolic and Diastolic Myocardial Function, Comparative Study between Splenectomized and Non Splenectomized Thalassemic Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(9):997-10