Science Journal


The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 7, July 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0607

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Titles / Authors



Nutritive evaluation of some tropical under-utilized grain legume

seeds for ruminant’s nutrition.


*Festus Tope Ajayi, Sikirat Remi Akande, Joseph Oluwafemi Odejide1 and Babajide Idowu

Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University,

Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria.

1Federal College of Agriculture, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional potential of seeds of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), sword bean (Canavalia gladiata), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), Lablab (Lablab purpureus) and soybean (Glycin max) for feeding livestock using in-vitro techniques. The crude protein of the seeds ranged from 18.8% in jack bean to 33.5% in soybean. The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was between 16.4% in soybean and 23.2% in African yam bean. Soybean was lowest (4.5%) in acid detergent lignin (ADL) compared to other legumes investigated. Tannin content was between 2.1 g/100g in soybean and 7.2 g/100g in lima bean. The seed of soybean was least in concentrations of phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor, saponin and oxalate whereas significant (P<0.05) variations were observed among the under-utilized grain legume (UGL) seeds for these anti-nutrients. The metabolizable energy (ME), Organic matter digestibility (OMD) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of the UGL seeds differed (P<0.05) significantly. The ME was between 8.8 and 12.1 MJ/Kg, OMD was between 49.6 and 80.5% while the SCFA ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 mmol. Gas production characteristics revealed that methanogenesis was low in jack beans (35 ml) and highest in soybean (48.7 ml), potential gas production, b, was between 23.4 ml in lima bean and 38.5 ml in soybean. The rate of substrate fermentation was lowest in jack bean and highest soybean. It is concluded that among the UGL seeds investigated Lima bean, pigeon pea and jack bean seeds are unsuitable as feed resources for ruminant livestock. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Degradation coefficients, gas fermentation, secondary metabolites, under-utilized grain legume seeds

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Application of Elovic and Bhattacharya/Venkobacharya Models to Kinetics of Herbicide Sorption by Poultry Based Adsorbent: A GCMS External Standard Approach


Itodo Adams Udoji1,FunkeWosilat Abdulrahman2,Lawal Gusau Hassan3,S.A.Maigandi4,Happiness Ugbede Itodo5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract: Three kinetic models were utilized in analyzing the removal of Atrazine from herbicide solution by its adsorption onto acid treated Poultry dropping Activated carbon. The forecasted pseudo-first order (with K1=0.00921min-1) was proven unfit in predicting the adsorption rate by the Bhattacharya and Venkobacharya rate constant which is approximately the same (ka= -0.009212min-1) but opposite in sign to the former. The linearity of (U)T shows that atrazine molecule has great accessibility to the adsorbent molecule .Desorption constant by the Elovic model was estimated as 12.987g/mg. Other parameters investigated to increase linearly with contact time include the fractional attainment at equilibrium(Ca/Co),equilibrium constants(Kc), sorption efficiency (%RE) and Gibbs free energy (-ΔG). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):8-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Poultry dropping, Kinetics, Herbicide, Sorption, Activated carbon.GC/MS

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GC/MS Batch Equilibrium study and Adsorption Isotherms of Atrazine Sorption by Activated H3PO4 - Treated Biomass.


Itodo Adams Udoji1,Funke Wosilat Abdulrahman2,Lawal Gusau Hassan3,S.A.Maigandi4,Happiness Ugbede Itodo5

1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Nigeria

3Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

4Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

5Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria

Abstract: Acid modified abundant lignocellulose Agricultural wastes, Sheanut shells (SS/A) was used to develop activated carbon and applied to removal of Agrochemical(Atrazine) from a multicomponent herbicide solution. A GCMS which can separate, detect and measure the target (sorbate) was applied to estimate equilibrium phase atrazine. Generated data were tested with 3 isotherm models.Extent of fitness follows the order Freundlich (R2=0.994)>Langmuir (R2=0.977)>BET (R2=0.894) implying that surface coverage is more of  heterogeneous. Freundlich adsorption capacity was valued at 0.045 х10-3 KF (units in mgg-1 (1mg-n(n)). Study of the effect of initial sorbate concentration  (%RE) revealed that adsorption efficiency increases linearly with time in a range of 46.08% (for SS/A/5gdm3) to 66.324 (for SS/A/25gdm3).Generally,t he GCMS quantitation via external standard methods shows that sorted waste could be a potential source of active filter for atrazine sorption. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):19-29]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:: Sheanut shells; Atrazine; Activated carbon; GCMS

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An Assessment of Fluid Inclusions Composition Using the Raman Spectroscopy at Daleishan Goldfield, Dawu County, Hubei Province, P.R. China.

Diarra Karim 1*, Hanlie Hong 2

1China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China

2 Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (Hubei province), China; *Corresponding Author: E mail:


Abstract: The purpose was to assess fluid inclusions composition in the Goldfield, Hubei province, China. The laser Raman spectroscopy was used as an analytical tool. The results show that water and carbon dioxide (70 %), and quartz (10 %) are the primary and secondary compositions of most of the inclusions, respectively. A number of three phase inclusions were low and inclusion size varies from 1 to 27µm. The density of CO2 fluid inclusions measured in quartz mineral varied from 0.61 to 0.96 g/cm3. No traces of other gases such as hydrogen (H2), ethylene (C2H2), ethene (C2H4), benzene (C6H6), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed, confirming epithermal origin of the deposit (quartz ± calcite± adularia ± illite assemblage). In Daleishan goldfield, according to inclusion composition, vapor and liquid may be main agent transports for gold in epithermal systems as well as for silver. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):30-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Auriferous veins, Raman spectroscopy, inclusions fluids, Daleishan Goldfield, quartz

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Early-age compressive strength assessment of oil well class G cement due to borehole pressure and temperature changes


Mojtaba Labibzadeh 1, Behzad Zahabizadeh 1, Amin Khajehdezfuly 1

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran;


Abstract: Development of high early-age compressive strength oil well cement is an important task in the oil well cement design. Achievement of suitable early-age compressive strength of oil well cement ensures both the structural support for the casing and hydraulic/mechanical isolation of borehole intervals. Holding this issue in mind, in this research, the effect of pressure and temperature changes inside the borehole on the class G oil well cement compressive strength has been studied. In the proposed work, in contrast to the mostly previous studies which considered some certain temperatures and atmospheric pressure in their tests, the effects of contemporary pressure and temperature changes on the early-age compressive strength of oil well cement have been investigated.  Using a non-destructive method, the compressive strength of 48 hours cured cement samples under progressive changing of simultaneously pressures and temperatures coincident to a real oil well data were measured and recorded continuously at predefined intervals during this 48 hours period time. The case study was an oil well located in Darquain region of Khuzestan province in Iran.  Obtained results showed that 8 and 12 hours aged samples have a maximum compressive strength in a certain combination of pressure and temperature, 51.7 MPa and 121°C, whereas 24, 45 and 48 hours aged samples have a minimum point in their compressive strength curve at 17.2 MPa and 68°C and a maximum point at 41.4 MPa and 82°C. All the samples show the significant reduce (up to approximately 70%) in compressive strength after the 51.7 MPa and 121°C point. Considering the case study oil well profile of borehole pressure and temperature changes, this tested class G cement is recommended to use in cementing job from ground level down to the almost 4000 m below the surface.  [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):38-47]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Compressive Strength, Oil Well, Cementing, borehole Pressure and Temperature

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Influence of Oil Well Drilling Waste on the Engineering Characteristics of Clay Bricks


Medhat S. El-Mahllawy* and Tarek A. Osman

Raw Building Materials Technology and Processing Research Institute Housing and Building National Research Center, Egypt; Email:


Abstract: Huge quantities of oil-based mud waste were produced during oil well drilling operations in Egypt. These quantities are environmental hazards and usually disposed in open pits that constructed during drilling operations. These pits, approximately 50 years old, resemble an extreme environmental and health hazards integrated with fire and dangerous sinking risks. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is to explore the influence of oil well drilling waste, basically oil based mud waste, on the engineering characteristics of the manufactured environmentally friendly, sufficient performing red clay building brick. Compositions of the used materials as well as physico-mechanical characteristics of fired briquettes were investigated. The laboratory results demonstrate that the water absorption, bulk density, efflorescence and compressive strength of the fired briquettes are met the acceptable limits of Egyptian Standard No. 204-2005 for clay masonry units used for load and non-load bearing walls construction. The reuse of this waste material in the building industry will contribute to the protection of the environment through great advantages in waste minimization and beneficial income to the community through the utilization process in building industry. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):48-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

Keywords: Oil-based mud, clay brick, physico-mechanical properties, bearing walls construction

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Mass Multiplication of Celastrus paniculatus Willd - An Important Medicinal Plant Under In Vitro Conditions using Nodal Segments


Devi Lal and Narender Singh*

Department of Botany, Kurukshetra University,Kurukshetra, Haryana, India—136119.


Abstract: A rapid clonal propagation system has been developed for Celastrus paniculatus (Celastraceae) an important medicinal plant under in vitro conditions. Nodal explants from mature plant of this species were collected and cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg l-1) of cytokinins (BAP and Kn) and auxins (IAA, NAA and 2, 4-D) alone and in various combinations under controlled condition of 16 hours of photoperiod and 8 hours dark period at a temperature of 25±2ºC. The maximum number of shoots (8.9±0.5) along with hundred per cent bud break was recorded in the MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 BAP. Most of the combinations of cytokinins with IAA induced the formation of less number of shoots. The in vitro regenerated shoots were excised aseptically and implanted on full and half strength MS medium without or with growth regulators (IAA, NAA and IBA) at the concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg l-1 for rooting. MS half strength medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l-1 NAA proved best with hundred per cent rooting. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in pots containing sterilized soil and sand mixture (3:1). The plantlets were then transferred to the field conditions. Seventy per cent of the regenerants survived well. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):55-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Micropropagation, nodal segments, multiple shoots, Celastrus paniculatus.

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Fatigue Analysis of Hydraulic Pump Gears of JD 955 Harvester Combine Through Finite Element Method


Hassan seyed Hassani 1, Ali Jafari 2*, Seyed Saed Mohtasebi 2 and Ali Mohammad Setayesh 3

1. Msc Student in Mechanic of Agricultural Machinery, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.


2. Members of Scientific Board of Faculty of Engineering & Agricultural Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

* Corresponding author, Phone number: e-mail:

3. Department of Research & Development, ICM Company, Arak, Iran.


Abstract: Throughout the present research, the gears fatigue of the hydraulic pump in JD 955 harvester combine was investigated through the finite element method and using contact analysis for precise determination of the contact region of the engaged teeth so that their lifespan was estimated. The reason for performing this research was to study the intended gears behaviour affected by fatigue phenomenon due to the cyclic loadings and to consider the results for more savings in time and costs, as two very significant parameters relevant to manufacturing. The results indicate that with fully reverse loading, one can estimate longevity of a gear as well as find the critical points that more possibly the crack growth initiate from. For the investigated gears, the most critical points were detected as nodes numbered 36573 and 37247. Furthermore, the allowable number of load cycles and using fully reverse loading was gained 0.9800E+07. It is suggested that the results obtained can be useful to bring about modifications in the process of the above-mentioned gears manufacturing. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):62-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Harvester combine; Fatigue; Longevity; Finite element; Optimization; Contact analysis

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Subsurface Geophysical Estimation of Sand Volume in Ogudu Sandfilled area of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.


Adeoti Lukumon ¹, Oyedele K. Festus ¹ and Adegbola R. Bolaji ²

¹·Department of Geosciences University of Lagos, Lagos Nigeria

²·Department of Physics, Lagos State University, Lagos Nigeria.,

Abstract: Surface geophysical survey was carried out using Electrical resistivity and induced polarization methods to estimate volume of sand deposits for the purpose of development/exploitation via dredging in Agboyi area of Lagos State .The study area was divided into square, rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal cells before conducting the geophysical survey. A total of 125 Vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were collected using Schlumberger electrode configuration with an electrode spacing varying between 100 and 400m. Five wells were also drilled for the collection of soil samples with a view to mapping the litho-logical variations of the subsurface strata. The combination of Vertical electrical sounding (VES) data, Induced Polarization (IP) data and well log data were used in inferring the litho-logical units of each geo-electric layer within the study area. The geo-electric sections delineate three to five subsurface layers, which include sand, sandy clay/ clayed sand, and clay. The 2-D and 3-D Isopach maps show the distribution of sand with thickness ranging between 0.5m and 7.0m.The volume of sand within each cell was calculated and the results were summed to give a total volume of 165596.5712m3 of sand as against 1.5million m3 projected. Hence, the analysis shows that the study area is devoid of enough sands for the purpose of development/exploitation via dredging. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):68-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Vertical Electrical sounding (VES); Geoelectric Section; Lithological

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Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus niger and the biodegradation of Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) via Microcalorimetry.


Alhaji Brima Gogra a,d, Jun Yao a,*, Edward H. Sandy a, ShiXue Zheng b, Gyula Zaray c, Zheng Hui b

a State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Chinese Ministry of Education, School of Environmental Studies and Sino-Hungarian Joint Laboratory of Environmental Science and Health, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, PR China.

b State key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, PR China.

c Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eötvös University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32, Hungary.

d Department of Chemistry, School of Environmental Sciences, Njala University, Sierra Leone.

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: (J. Yao) or (A. B. Gogra)


Abstract: This work was focused on investigating the occurrence of cell surface hydrophobic (CSH) character among diethyl phthalate (DEP)-degrading microbes (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus niger) by evaluating the effect of DEP on microbial cell surface hydrophobicity and to investigate any relationship between cell surface hydrophobicity and the ability of such microbes to degrade DEP using microcalorimetry and other methods. In this study, a TAM III multi-channel microcalorimeter, at 28 oC, was used to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DEP and the DEP biodegradation efficiency by fitting the thermogenic curves and integrating the area limited by these curves, respectively.  Using MATHS (microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons) assay, CSH of the microbial cells was determined as a measure of their adherence to the hydrophobic n-octane. From the experimental data, S. aureus was found to be the most efficient DEP degrader and E. coli the least and that S. aureus showed high, whilst E. coli and A. niger showed moderate hydrophobicity and autoaggregation abilities. There were positive correlations between microbial cell surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation ability, DEP biodegradability, IC50 values for the tested strains. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):78-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Hydrophobicity, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Microcalorimetry, Diethyl phthalate, Autoaggregation, IC50.

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Effect of planting dates and different levels of potassium fertilizer on growth, yield and chemical composition of sweet fennel cultivars under newly reclaimed sandy soil conditions


Abou El-Magd, M. M. *Zaki, M. F.* and Camilia Y. Eldewiny**

* Department of Vegetable Res., National Research Centre (NRC),  Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

**Department of Soil and Water Use, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.


Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural research Station, National Research Centre, El-Nobaria province, El Beheira Governorate, Egypt, during the two successive winter seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 on sweet in an area of newly reclaimed soil to study the effect of transplanting dates and different rates of potassium salphate fertilizer on vegetative growth, yield, quality and chemical content of six sweet fennel cultivars (cvs. Dolce, Zefa Fino, Selma, Fino, De Florance and Zwejahrig). Transplanting dates were early  (15th September) and late  (1st October) combined with four rates of potassium salphate,i.e. 0, 45, 60 and 75 kg K2O/ fedd.(Feddan = 0.40 ha.). Results indicated that transplanting dates differed statistically in their effect on the vegetative growth of sweet fennel plants. The highest vegetative growth expressed as plant height, leaves number /plant, fresh and dry weight of the total plant and its organs, bulb dimensions (thickness, width and length); total green yield and macro-nutrients content in leaves and bulbs (N, P and K) were obtained by early plantation (15th September). On the other hand, lower values of vegetative growth, green yield and quality of bulbs were obtained in the late plantation (1st October). Results summarized that sweet fennel cultivars as mentioned previously differed statistically in their vegetative growth, bulb dimensions and total green yield as well as chemical content in leaves and bulbs of sweet fennel plants. Zwejahrig cultivar was superior in its vegetative growth expressed as plant height; leaves number; fresh and dry weight of the total plant and its organs; bulb dimensions (thickness, width and length); total green yield and macro-nutrients (N, P and K) content in leaves and bulbs compared with other cultivars. On the other hand, the lowest values were recorded by cvs. Dulce and Zefa Fino. With respect to potassium fertilizer rates, results reveal that sweet fennel plants treated with 75 kg K2O/ fed. showed higher vegetative growth parameters (plant length, leaves number and bulb dimensions, thickness, width and length), fresh and dry weight of leaves, bulbs and total plant; total green yield; physical bulb quality (flatten, cylinder and elongated shape ratios) and macro-nutrients content (N, P and K) in tissues of sweet fennel leaves and bulbs than the lower rates of potassium. The results indicated that combined effect of transplanting dates and cultivars of sweet fennel caused significant increases in vegetative growth, green yield, bulb quality and chemical contents. The highest vegetative growth, yield and quality as well as chemical contents were obtained by cv. Zwejahrig combined with early date. The interaction effect between cultivars and rates of potassium fertilizer gave a significant increase in vegetative growth, bulb yield and chemical constituents. The highest values were obtained by adding the highest potassium rate (75 kg K2O / fed.) to cv. Zwejahrig plants. The highest values were obtained by early date combined with the highest potassium rate (75 kg K2O/ fed.). In addition, the highest vegetative growth with the maximum total green yield was obtained under the combination of cv. Zwejahrig in early date and the highest potassium rate. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):89-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Sweet fennel; Cultivars; Sowing dates; Potassium mineral fertilizer; N; P; K; Green yield and quality; Chemical content

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An Expertise Recommender System for Web Cooperative Production

Muhammad Aslam1, Ana Maria Martinez Enriquez2, Muhammad Tariq Pervez3, Zakia Saeed4

1Department of CS & E, U.E.T., Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of CS, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico

3Department of CS, Virtual University Shadman Campus, Lahore, Pakistan

4Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology(FIC), Faisalabad, Pakistan


Abstract: This paper focuses on providing dedicated expertise recommender system to enhance awareness among group members, working in a distributed cooperative environment. Normally, coauthors lack the information about the production capabilities of their colleagues. As a result of this lack, when they need assistance for the production of complex objects (formulae, figures, style sheets, etc.) they ask their colleagues for help, consequently the authoring process is disturbed. On the other hand, personal referrals may not be useful due to human biasing, liking, and disliking. The existing expertise recommender systems work on user profiles containing user qualification, experience, and history of solved problems. These systems require manual database updation which can be performed by only skilled person. We treat the issue by developing an expertise recommender system which is in-charge to seamlessly observe user activities and to auto detect a possible human expert of elaborated productions on the basis of a generic criterion. Whenever, a participant is deduced as a novice having some production problem, the developed system recommends him/her the presence of an expert with whom the novice can communicate. The entire goal is to enhance awareness coordination among collaborator activities and hence to generate a consistent shared production. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):106-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Knowledge based systems, presence awareness, collaborative information filtering, recommender systems

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Impact Of Emission Uniformity On Nutrients Uptake And Water And Fertilizers Use Efficiency By Drip Irrigated 15 Years Old Washington Novel Orange Trees Grown On A Newly Reclaimed Sandy Area.


EL-Hady O.A1., S.M.Shaaban2 and A.A.M., Mohamedin3.

1Soils & Water use Dept. National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Water Relations and Field Irrigation Dept. National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

3 Field Drainage Dept., Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt


Abstract A two successive years (2008- 2009) completely randomized field experiment with four replications on ≈ 15 years old Washington novel orange trees was conducted in a drip irrigated newly reclaimed sandy area at Wadi El- Mollak, Ismailia governorate. Field emission uniformity (Eu) and absolute field emission uniformity (Eua) were determined for the area under study to be 85.6% for Eu and 86.8% for Eua. The irrigation system at the studied area could be considered as good. Although the uniformity of irrigation at the area under sandy has exceeded 85%, great differences were estimated between the discharge of the drippers that adversely affected the uniformity of growth, nutrients uptake, yield and both water and fertilizers use efficiency by the trees. With this respect, differences among the annual amounts of irrigation water received by the trees and consequently fertilizers dissolved in it have reached 43.1%. accordingly, significant variations were calculated to be 27.8% for leaf area, 26.7% for the dry weight of the leaves and 40.6% for obtained yield. Content of nutrients in the leaves of trees that received the maximum amount of irrigation water were higher than those of trees that received the minimum amounts by 18.3, 22.0, 25.8, 18.4 and 30.4% for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Consequently, relative uptake of these nutrient took the same trend. Positive differences in this parameter were 45.3, 49.0, 51.8, 46.6 and 56.4% for the aforementioned nutrients, respectively. Values of water and fertilizers use efficiency by the trees were also greatly affected by the uniformity of irrigation. Higher amounts of irrigation water and applied fertilizers adversely affected both parameters. Improving the uniformity of emission of the trickle irrigation system to be more than 90% will lead to uniform fertigation. Uniform production (quantity and quality of fruits for each tree) is expected. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(7):113-119]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).       

Key Words: Trickle irrigation, Field emission uniformity, Sandy soil, novel orange, Water use efficiency, Nutrients uptake, Fertilizers use efficiency

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Physiological Responses of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill) Plants to Some Growth Substances. The Effect of Certain Amino Acids and a Pyrimidine Derivative

M. E. El-Awadi* and Esmat A. Hassan

Botany Department, Division of Agricultural and Biological Research National Research Centre, Dokki, 12311, Cairo, Egypt.



Abstract: In the Green house of the Botany Department (winter season 2007/08-2008/09) fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), from Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, were cultivated after 3 hours   soaking in the amino acids methionine and tryptophan and in the pyrimidine derivative material (SG93)  provided by the Department of The Pharmaceutical Industry, each  at 100 and 500mg/l. Growth measurements and chemical analyses of the plant were carried out at juvenile and fruiting stages, i.e. age of 84 and 119 days respectively. The pre-sowing seed treatment with the growth substances; methionine, tryptophan and the pyrimidine derivative (SG93) resulted in significant increases in plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, fresh and dry weight of shoots, number of umbels per plant,  weight of seeds per umbel and per plant , in comparison to control. The pre-sowing seed  treatments led to an elevation of leaf photosynthetic pigments` content, total protein, total phenolic compounds in the shoots and in the yielded seeds as well as in the percentage of  fixed and  essential oils as compared to the control. The highest content of the essential oil percentage was obtained as a result of seed-soaking treatment in methionine at 100mg/l concentration. In this connection, anethol represented the major component of such a percentage. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(7):120-125]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Essential oil, Foeniculum vulgare, growth, growth substances, productivity

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Vegetative Growth and Chemical Constituents of Croton Plants as Affected by Foliar Application of Benzyl adenine and Gibberellic Acid


Soad, M.M. Ibrahim, Lobna, S. Taha and M.M. Farahat

Department of Ornamental Plant and Woody Trees, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


Abstract A pot experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 seasons at National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, Research and Production Station, Nubaria.  The aim of this work is to study the effect of foliar application with benzyl adenine (BA) at (50, 100 and 150 ppm) and gibberellic acid (GA3) at (100, 150 and 200 ppm)  on the vegetative growth and some chemical constituents of croton plants.  Most of the criteria of vegetative growth expressed as plant height, number of branches and leaves/plant, root length, leaf area and fresh and dry weights of stem, leaves and roots were significantly affected by application of the two factors which were used in this study.All foliar applications of BA and GA3 separately promoted all the aforementioned characters in this study, as well as chemical constituents i.e. Chl. (a and b), carotenoids, total soluble sugars, total indoles ,total soluble phenols and N, P and K content compared with control plants.  The highest recorded data were obtained in plants treated with GA3 200 pm  for all chemical constituents and growth parameters, except stem diameter and number of branches/plant, and N, P and K % while BA 150  ppm gave the highest stem diameter and number of branches and N, P and K % and content. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):126-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:  croton plant, benzyl adenine (BA)  , gibberellic acid (GA3 )

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Ability of Immobilized Starter Cells and Metabolites to Suppress the Growth Rate and Aflatoxins Production by Aspergillus flavus in Butter


Kawther El-Shafei; *Eman M. Hegazy and Zeinab I. Sadek*

Dairy Department and Food Toxicology and Contaminants Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt.

*E-mail address:

Abstract: Antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria ( LAB )starter cultures, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides and their metabolites in single and mixed cultures were found to inhibit spoilage and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in butter ,and have potential as bio-preservative agents. Also, treating cream before churn with free cells culture proved to give the greatest antifungal control upon A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production; while the use of immobilized cells showed lower activity, then the immobilized metabolites of the mixed culture. In cream artificially contaminated with aflatoxin (B1, B2, G1andG2) treated with immobilized cells or immobilized metabolites of the mixed cultures revealed a reduction of the concentration of aflatoxins recovered from butter made from this cream. The study indicated that the use of lactic acid bacteria and their metabolites in cream or butter have the potential to be as food-grade bio-preservatives for extending the shelf-life of butter and combating the problem of moulds and associated toxins. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):131-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

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Development of Doubled Haploid Wheat Genotypes Using Chromosome Eliminating Technique and Assessment under Salt Stress

*A. Y. Amin1 and G.  Safwat2,3  and G., El-Emary4

1 Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2 Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture research Centre, Doki, Giza, Egypt

3 Faculty of Biotechnology, October University of Modern Sciences and Art,  Egypt

4 Institute of Efficient Productivity, Zagazig University.


Abstract: The chromosome elimination technique is an efficient method by which beneficial characters for salt tolerance can be combined within a short time and a large number of doubled haploid (DH) genotypes with desirable variability can be produced. In the present study 120 spring wheat DH genotypes has been developed using the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x millet (Pennisetum glaucum) crosspollination method with the F1 cross between Kharchia (Indian cultivar) one of the most cultivar recorded as salt tolerance worldwide and Sakha 93 (Egyptian breeding cultivar) cultivated in saline soil and recommended for newly reclaim lands, north area of Egypt. Under normal conditions the DHs agronomical traits (i.e. flowering time, number of spikelets per spike (NSPS), plant height, spike length and 1000 grain weight) distribution was normal and significant transgressive segregation was observed. ANOVA analysis showed significant differences among DH genotypes for all agronomical traits, and the DH 11, 22, 57, 98, 106, 111 and 118 lines found to have better yield characters SNPS, spike length and 1000 grain weight than the parents under non-saline condition. The 120 DHs and both parents were grown in hydroponics culture medium, with the concentration of NaCl : CaCl2 4:1 being 150mM. Some of those DHs showed much high in responses to growth under salinity than both parents. The variances between DH lines were significant for Na+ and Cl- ions, leaf Fresh weight (lfw), leaf dry weight (ldw), leaf 2 extension rate before salt additions (LE-b), leaf 4 extension rate after salt additions (LE-a), number of spikes per plant (SNPP), number of spikelets per spike (NSPS), number of grains per plant (GN) and grain weight per plant (GW),  and non-significant for K+ ion and  water percentage (W%). Overall the mean values for the DHs were higher than the parents values under salt stress, for the DH 3, 12, 38, 57 and 96 genotypes mid-values of LE-a were close to the average of LE-b under non-saline conditions. A significant negative correlation was determined between Na content and yield parameters i.e. SNPP, NSPS, GN and GW. In contrast it was positively correlation with W%, which might indicates that better yield characters of DH lines i.e. 10, 25, 42, 57, 68, 96, and 114 than parents under salt conditions may be due mainly to better exclusion of Na from the shoots. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):139-148]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:  doubled haploid , chromosome elimination, salinity, Triticum aestivum L, breeding

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A New Method for Fabrication and Laser Treatment of Nano-Composites

Hebatalrahman. A

Housing & Building National Research Centre (HBRC), Egypt.


Abstract: A new method for manufacturing of nano-composites was invented; a new technique calls Composite material machine with four strokes was established. Composite material machine is a machine for manufacturing of both plastic and metals matrix composites independent on size, type, and volume fraction of fillers. The machine works in four strokes, each of which worked separately. It depends on the material. The four stokes can be controlled to work in schedule controlled by the main control unit connected to the computer, the machine also work manually. The final products were treated by laser irradiation to improve mechanical properties without any significant change in composition. The new technique is cheap, qualified and simple design. The technique was full automated and has been transferred to industry successfully. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):149-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Fabrication, parameters, nanocomposite, laser irradiation, nanoparticles, reinforcement

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Optimized Conditions for Increasing Escherichia coli Resistance to p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid


Mohamed M. Aboulwafa1, *Ramadan A. El Domany2, Riham M. Shawky2 and Shima M. A. Ibrahim2

Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University1, and Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University2; *E-mail:

Abstract: The present study aimed at increasing resistance of Escherichia coli to p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) through manipulation of different environmental and physiological factors. According to the study, different incubation temperatures, pHs, agitation rates and medium components were tested to characterize E. coli resistance to pHBA in shake flask and a laboratory fermentor.  Genetic analysis using PCR of four representative E. coli isolates showed that yhcP gene was detected in both sensitive and resistant wild isolates of natural sources, a finding that stressed the importance of studying different environmental, physiological and genetic factors affecting the regulation of yhcP gene. MIC of pHBA against E. coli strain BW25113 that has the YhcP efflux pump showed a 64 fold increase by changing the growth medium from nutrient broth to basal medium containing 2% peptone and 2.6% glucose and keeping the pH constant at 8. Increased resistance of E. coli to pHBA could provide an effective solution to the toxicity of acid to the producing host bacterial cell which in turn will help to increase production of this molecule for commercial use. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):155-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keyword:  Escherichia coli, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, environmental, physiological factors, yhcP gene

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Immunomodulation of Hepatic Morbidity in Murine Schistosomiasis mansoni Using Fatty Acid Binding Protein


Ibrahim Rabia1; Eman El-Ahwany2; Wafaa El-Komy 1 and Faten Nagy2

1Parasitology 2Immunology Department,Theodor Bilharz Research Institute,Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension are responsible for morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni.The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible anti-morbidity effect of fatty acid binding protein (FABP) of Schistoma mansoni when given to mice before infection. Multiple small doses of FABP were injected intra-peritoneally into experimental animals (100 μg of purified FABP followed 2 weeks later by two booster doses of 50 μg each at weekly intervals) and the experimental design included 3 groups of 15 mice each; the first group received FABP (immunized group), the second group was injected with the 3 doses of FABP one week prior to infection with 100 S.mansoni cercariae (immunized-infected group) and the third group served as infected control. Data revealed reduction in CD4+ cells and increase in CD8+ cells of hepatic granuloma in FABP-immunized infected group, resulting in significant decrease in CD4+/CD8+ ratio, in comparison to infected control group; the serum cytokine levels of both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were also significantly decreased. Histopathological examination of liver revealed remarkable increase in percent of degenerated ova within hepatic granuloma which decreased in diameter (12%). In this study, significant reductions in worm burden (46%) and tissue egg loads (42.8% and 50% for hepatic and intestinal ova respectively) were observed in addition to decreased  percent of immature stages with increase in percent of dead ova in Oogram pattern .This work could present a trial contributing to shaping the severity of hepatic morbidity. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):170-176]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words:  Schistosomiasis. – fatty acid binding protein – immunization. – histopathology

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Fault Determination Using One Dimensional Wavelet Analysis


S. Morris Cooper, Liu Tianyou, Innocent Ndoh Mbue

 Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences,

 Wuhan 430074, China;


Abstract: Faults play an important role in mineral exploration and volcanic activities. Their identification, a major problem in the world of geosciences, is significant to both geologists and geophysicists. Multiscale wavelet analysis, a powerful tool for filtering and denoising, has been applied to solve many problems in geophysics. Wavelet transforms have advantages to traditional Fourier methods in analyzing physical situations where the signal contains discontinued and sharp spikes.   In this paper we advance the use of one dimensional multiscale wavelet for the identification of faults from potential field data. The method is based on the power of the discrete wavelet utilizing the concept of breakline and discontinuity (edge detection) and uses the Daubachies wavelet.  The method is applied to synthetic data and real potential field data from Dagang, southern China yielding very good results. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):177-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Wavelet decomposition, Fault, Potential field, Dagang Oilfield

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The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), a new tool for Potential Field Separation


S. Morris Cooper1, Liu Tianyou2, Innocent Ndoh Mbue3

1, 2 Institude of Geophysucs and geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan

3 Faculty of Earth Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan



Abstract: In this paper we are proposing the use of the Empirical Mode decomposition method as a tool for potential field data separation. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a new data analysis method suitable to process non-stationary and nonlinear data. Its power to filter and decompose data has earned it a high reputation in signal processing. Its decomposition results in what is called “Residual”, which is similar to the regional anomaly of a potential field data. This residual does not require any preset parameters unlike contemporary field separation methods. The method is applied to a magnetic data from the Jianshandian mine in Hubei, China enabling us to construct a 2.5D inverse model inferring the existence of deep ore deposits. The method is effective at separating both local and regional data from magnetic data. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):183-187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Empirical Mode decomposition (EMD), Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF), potential field separation, Jianshandian Mine

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Remote Sensing Data Dissemination and Management: Potential of Replication and Provenance Techniques


Tauqir Ahmad 1 ,   Abad Ali Shah 2

Department of Computer Science

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore


Abstract: With the proliferation of computer technology in almost every sphere of life such as e-government, health care and services sector, there is an increased reliance on digital data. More recently, satellite and remote sensing data has gained importance owning to its applications in real time decisions for GIS, military and strategic needs, and, surveillance and security systems.  However, real time access to the digital repositories most of which are web based is plagued by various management and dissemination issues. In data intensive domains such as scientific computations, bioinformatics and e-commerce, replication and provenance have been used successfully for improved performance of data sources by handling the issues of availability, discovery, reliability, authenticity and consistency. In this paper we argue that remote sensing data dissemination and management share common issues and problems with the data intensive domains mentioned above. We also suggest that replication and provenance techniques offer a promising solution to remove the bottleneck of data dissemination and management for real time decision making based on remote sensing data. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):188-198]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Remote sensing data, data dissemination, data management, replication, provenance

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Potential field Investigation of the Liberia Basin, West Africa


S. Morris Cooper

Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics

China University of geosciences



Abstract: Euler deconvolution is a useful tool for providing estimates of the localities and depth of magnetic and gravity sources. Wavelet analysis is an interesting tool for filtering and improving geophysical data. The application of these two methods to gravity and magnetic data of the Liberia basin enable the definition of the geometry and depth of the subsurface geologic structures. The study reveals the basin is sub-divided and the depth to basement of the basin structure ranging from 5km at its Northwest end to 10km at its broadest section eastward. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):199-207]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Wavelet transform, Euler deconvolution, Potential field, Liberia basin

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Joint magnetic and seismic interpretation; Determining Depth and Orientation of Volcanic Rock in the Qikou Depression, China


S. Morris Cooper, Liu Tianyou

1 Institute of Geo physics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences

Wuhan, China;


Abstract: Identification of volcanic rocks is important in both the oil and gas industry since they may serve as either hindrance or source rocks. Their exploration in deep layer, especially when judging their geological properties, is usually difficult, even for 3-D seismic method. However, these special geological bodies vary distinctly in density, susceptibility and resistivity, which laid a foundation for adopting comprehensive geophysical prospecting techniques to solving this kind of problems. In this paper we use integrated geophysics method to construct a 2.5d inverse model of an igneous rock in the Qikou depresson, eastern China. The model was constrained by a seismic straitigraphic model based on reflection coefficient and well data. The combination of seismic and magnetic data for the inversion of volcanic rocks produces a much clearer understanding as to the orientation of said rocks as demonstrated in this paper. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):208-212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords:  Reflection coefficient, seismic data, magnetic data, modeling, Qikou depression

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Non-insect benthic phytomacrofauna and organism-water quality relations in a tropical coastal Ecosystem: impact of land based pollutants.


C.A. EDOKPAYI, R.E.UWADIAE and C. E.NJAR (In memoriam)

Benthic Ecology Unit, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.

Email: Tel: +2347059497190.


Abstract. The impact of land based pollutants on the non-insect benthic phytomacrofauna and water quality in Epe lagoon was investigated between September, 2004 and February, 2005. Five study stations impacted by land based pollutants were selected upstream along the course of the Lagoon. The study showed that land based pollutants caused a decrease in dissolved oxygen and pH and an increase in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphates. Significant differences in these parameters were established among the stations sampled. A post hoc test indicated that stations 2, 3, and 4 were mostly impacted by pollutants. A generally low taxa population and diversity were recorded in this study. Eight taxa were identified from a total of 65 individuals collected from the five stations along the lagoon. No organism was recorded in station 3.The analyses showed that the overall abundance of fauna differed significantly among the stations. Analysis of variance showed that the abundance of Lymnaeidae was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the other families. The dominance of the taxa Lymnaeidae was a clear indication of pollution which resulted in a decline and total elimination of other benthic macroinvertebrates, which are intolerant of the effects of polluting effluents. This study suggests that the response of benthic phytomacrofauna is important in the study of impacted aquatic systems. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):213-220]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: phytomacrofauna, water quality, tropical coastal ecosystem.

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Rare Plants Protection Importance and Implementation of Measures to Avoid, Minimize or Mitigate Impacts on their Survival in Longhushan Nature Reserve, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.


Dado Toure*, J. Ellis Burnet*, Zhou Jianwei*

*China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), School of Environmental Studies

Wuhan, Hubei. 430074. Lumo Lu. P.R.China; ,


Abstract: Longhushan reserve is a karst forest of very high geological and biological quality. Located in South of China, Guangxi Region, the area reflects the high diversity of Guangxi, which biological resources are among the first in China, and ranks first among the Chinese provinces in terms of rare species of plants. The present research was undertaken to examine the ecosystems within the forest, and generate awareness about the importance of rare plant species in order to stimulate the conservation role of Governments, administrators and population. A field survey was conducted, plant species were recorded from 17 quadrats, geological and soil samples were collected to examine some of their chemical and physical characteristics significance on the vegetation. During the survey, 152 plant species were recorded, 35 species were found as dominant canopy and substrata species, and 12 species were identified as endangered. Within those endangered species, 6 are included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) red list for endangered species and 3 are endemic. Analysis of geological and soil samples revealed that dolomite appears to be the factor that impacted species distribution, while rare plants and dominant species responded differently to soil type, PH, moisture and organic matter (OM) content. Which lead to say that in the reserve each karst environment is unique due to its localized conditions, geological and soil properties, land use practices, climatic conditions, hydrological and geomorphologic status. The results also pointed out the evidence of karst ecosystem fragility which makes the vegetation formation or restoration slow and difficult process. Therefore, plant species protection especially endangered species is fundamental in the area because their conservation is central not only to biodiversity conservation but also to the preservation of karst ecosystems. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):221-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Rare plants Protection; Longhushan; avoidance, minimization/mitigation measures; Impact

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Biomimetic Synthesis Of Guided-Tissue Regeneration Hydroxyapatite/Polyvinl Alcohol Nanocomposite Scaffolds: Influence Of Alignate On Mechanical And Biological Properties.




1. Biomaterial Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

2. Civil Engineering Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

3. Physics Department, Faculty of science, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt


Abstract: This paper presents a part of a major research, in which HA/PVA/alginate scaffolds -with different alginate compositions -up to 20wt% were fabricated by a modified freeze-extraction method. This method includes the physical cross-linking of PVA and chemical cross-linking of the alginate. Characterization of the prepared scaffolds was performed by morphology observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Different physical properties – as porosity and density-were measured. It was noticed that by increasing alginate composition scaffolds exhibited highly porous, open-cellular pore structures with almost porosity about 90%, regardless of alginate composition and the pore sizes from about 150 to about 300µm.The In Vitro bioactivity and biodegradability of nano-composite scaffolds were investigated by incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF) and water under osteoclastic resorption conditions, respectively. The in-vitro bioactivity test indicating the higher bone-bonding ability of the biomimetically synthesized a scaffold that is awarded by the fast formation of bonelike apatite on their surfaces within one day.  Also The addition of alginate to HA/PVA scaffolds increased the biodegradability compared with that one without alginate. Mechanical behavior of scaffolds was investigated under axial loading. Scaffolds stress strain behavior, maximum true stress, and elastic moduli, were calculated. It was found that increasing alginate content from 0 to 20% by weight, decreased the compressive modulus from 85.3 to 44.7 MPa, whereas the maximum compressive strength decreased from 6 to 5 MPa. Finally, it was concluded that the proposed scaffolds expressed promising performance, despite of the resulting degradation in their mechanical behavior. The obtained compressive strength and modulus of elasticity were still within satisfactory limits. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):239-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Tissue re-generation, Poly(vinyl), composites, scaffolds

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Chlorpyrifos (from different sources): Effect on Testicular Biochemistry of Male Albino Rats.

Afaf, A. El-Kashoury* and Hanan, A. Tag El-Din**


* Department of Mammalian and Aquatic Toxicology, Central Agricultura Pesticides Laboratory, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

** Chemistry Department, Hormonal Lab., Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.


Abstract: Organophosphates are known primarily as neutrotoxins. However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by organophosphates may be involved in the toxicity of various pesticides. Therefore, in this study we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of three trade names of chlorpyrifos (CPF) pesticide, from different local manufactures  [ chlorozan (K) pestpan (W) and pyriban (H)] on testicular weight , testicular oxidative stress and some testicular biochemical parameters in male albino rats. Methods: Three compounds (K, W and H) were administrated orally to rats at dose of 23.43, 21.40 and 17.43 mg/kg b.w., respectively (which represent the 1/4 LD50) with 5 doses per week for 28 days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using anesthetic ether. Testes were collected , cleaned and weighed. Right testes were fractionated and supernatant of testicular homogenate was obtained by centrifugation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), total glutathione, activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases, lactate dehydrogenase and total protein were measured. Moreover, the left tests were histologically examined. Results : The testes weights were significantly decreased in (W) group only . Chlorpyrifos treatments ( K, W and H) alter markedly the testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, while, the decline in the total glutathione (GSH) was occurred only in (W and H) groups, in comparing with the control group. Also, there was significant decrease in the activities of alkaline and acid phosphatase (ALP and ACP) and lactate dehydrohenase (LDH) in all treated groups . Total protein (TP) level exhibited an elevation in testicular tissue in comparison with the control group. Treatment-dependent histopathological changes were seen in testes of CPF-W group only. Conclusion: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) alters testicular functions possibly by induction of testicular oxidative stress and inhibition of the activities of marker enzymes, thereby disrupting male reproduction. [Journal of American Science 2010;7(7):252-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).                             

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos; rats; lipid peroxidation; total glutathione; acid and alkaline phosphatase; lactate dehydrogenase; total protein ; tests

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Issues In Interacting With GIS In Hydrocarbon Exploration Industry


Muhammad Shaheen 1, Muhammad Shahbaz 2, Zahoor ur Rehman 3, M. Sarshar Aurangzeb4


1,2,3. University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Punjab Pakistan

4 Pakistan Accumulators Pvt. Ltd. Pakistan

1, 2, 3, 4


Abstract: Technology changed the scenarios in past few decades. Recent developments in the processing power and storage capacity revolutionized the industrial development and even troubleshooting. There was a time when basic computational tools were very slow or even unavailable in industry but now state of the art tools and technologies can envisage exploring virtual reality. In energy sector, world is desperately looking for large reserves of fossil fuels along with other reserves. The efforts in hydrocarbon discovery phase deplete lots of resources resulting in either a very small sized reservoir or in failure. Geographic information system (GIS) along with related technology of remotely sensed satellite images, information system skeleton, graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and analytical tools can also be used for automated hydrocarbon explorations. GIS is operated by GIS analysts who have specialized skills in geo-spatial technologies. Therefore the exploration companies especially in the developing countries of the world do not rely on the capabilities of GIS and remote sensing. The reasons are concluded to be. (1). Interface of GIS is not friendly for non-specialist and/or novice user. (2). Accuracy of spatial data is not convincing for accuracy-critical tasks. (3). Unavailability of standards of spatial / non-spatial data display. The paper addresses the issues in interacting with GIS for hydrocarbon exploration and proposes enhanced model of Geographic Information System (GIS) for making it a reliable technology in any part of the world in hydrocarbon discovery phase. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):262-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Geographic Information System (GIS), Usability, Interactivity, Human-GIS Interaction, Positional Accuracy, Hydrocarbon Exploration, Backpropogation Neural Network

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Surgical Site Infections and Associated Risk Factors

in Egyptian Orthopedic Patients


1Khaleid M. Abdel-Haleim, 2Zeinab Abdel-Khalek Ibraheim, 3Eman M. El-Tahlawy  


Departments of 1Orthopedic Surgery, 2 Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Cairo University,

 3Departement of environmental health, National Research Center, Egypt


Abstract: Background:Surgical site infections (SSIs) were identified on inpatient surgical wards, and most were associated with cardiac, abdominal, and orthopedic surgery. SSIs surveillance data are the foundation of effective infection control programs. Aim of the work:This study was conducted to estimate the risk factors and major pathogens involved in SSIs in orthopedic ward in a public hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Materials and Methods:During a 9-months period; a total of 93 consecutive orthopedic surgery patients were followed prospectively for 30 days after surgery. Risk factors for SSIs development were assessed for each patient. Swabs from infected surgical wounds were inoculated into routine culture media. Isolates were identified to the species level, and antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined. Results:The present study detected an overall SSIs rate of 25.8% (from 4.1% in clean wound to 66.7% in dirty contaminated wounds). Surveillance of risk factors of SSI, defined age, obesity (Body mass index "BMI" > 25), smoking, length of stay in hospital, class of wound, number of persons in the operating room, duration of operation and National Nosocomial infections surveillance (NNIS) index as independent risk factors for SSIs development. Microbiological study of infected surgical sites detected 47 pathogens. S. aureus was isolated most frequently 42.6%, Coagulase negative staphylococci "CoNS" and Enterococci were detected in 10.6% and 6.4% of isolates respectively. K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa, K. oxytoca, E. coli and A. baumannii were detected in percentages of 14.9%, 10.6%, 4.3%, 4.3% and 2.1% of isolates respectively. Candida albicans was also detected in 4.3% of isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates detected Oxacillin resistant S.aureus (ORSA) in 65% of S. aureus isolates. Enterococcus species resistance to vancomycin (VA) was 33.4%, and that to ampicillin (AMP) was 66.7%. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) resistance was detected in 20% of P. aeruginosa isolates. Extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESBLs) was detected in 50% of K. oxytoca isolates, 40% of P. aeruginosa and 28.6% of K. pneumonia isolates. Carbapenem resistance was detected only in K. pneumonia isolates (14.2%). Conclusion: We concluded that incidence of SSIs in orthopedic patients in Egypt is higher than that reported in some developing countries. S. aureus is the most common pathogens associated with orthopedic SSIs. ORSA, VA-resistant Enterococcus species, ESBLs producing Klebsiellae species and P. aeruginosa, as well as FQs resistant P. aeruginosa and carbapenem resistance K. pneumonia pose  an  ongoing  and  increasing challenge to the antimicrobial policy in our hospital. In orthopedic surgery unit risk factors for SSIs that may represent points of intervention including; limiting the number of personnel entering the operating room, improving NNIS risk index of patients and reduction of duration of surgery. In the era of restricted hospital budgets and increased bacterial resistance, long-term surveillance of SSIs rates and follow-up of compliance may provide a way to improve performance at low costs. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):272-280]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words; Surgical site infections (SSIs); Risk factors of SSIs; S. aureus, Oxacillin resistant S. aureus (ORSA); Extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance (ESBLs); Carbapenem resistance

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A Hybrid Approach for Minimizing Spurious Trips in Hard Real-Time Systems


1Mahmood Ahmed, Dr. 1Muhammad Shoaib.

1Department of Computer Science & Engineering

1University of Engineering and Technology

Lahore, Pakistan;


Abstract: In this paper a hybrid neural network and rule based approach for spurious trips minimization in hard real time systems such as nuclear reactor power plants is proposed. This approach is a hybrid or a mix of rule base and neural network. The purpose is to learn from experience in the same way as humans learn from their past experience in operation of nuclear power plant. The approach would use artificial neural network as well as a rule based approach for intelligent decision-making. The patters of data will be taken from the modern control systems like DCS, PLC etc. via OPC and is fed to the trained ANN. The output of the algorithm will be a optimized decision. The operator can improve his decision making based on suggested values by the Algorithm. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):281-286]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Spurious trips, Hard Real time system, OPC, rule base, Backpropagation

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Key factors for implementing the lean manufacturing system

Mohammad Taleghani

Department of Management, Islamic Azad University - Rasht Branch, IRAN.


Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical review for the role of management in implementation of lean thinking in a lean manufacturing environment. This paper begins with this subject who introduces the lean manufacturing as the combination of directions and a culture which managers could draw guidelines for achieving benefits through that. Two basic lines of lean manufacturing are “respect to the workforce" and "waste elimination" which is introduced in this paper and how these factors can cause an effective leadership during implementations. Then, it is described that h ow companies use the benefits of lean tools in their conception of lean implementations, and what factors involve managers with culture and leaderships issues. Also, this study implies that not only it is necessary to implement most of the technical tools but an organizations culture needs should change too. Furthermore, the alternatives which are needed could be implemented through an organizational value chain. Lean has a major strategic significance, though its implementation procedure. General approach to the supplier base viewing learns as a set of tactics rather than embracing it as a philosophy, because lean manufacturing has a strategic importance which the directions could be implemented through them. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):287-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Lean Management, Success and failure factors, Lean manufacturing

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Mutageneic effects of Kochia indica extract on Vicia faba L.


Soliman A. Haroun*

Department of Botany, college of Science, Kafrelsheikh University 33511, Egypt


Abstract: The present study investigate the effect of Kochia indica extract using Vicia faba L assay. All parameters investigated were being affected. Four concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40% were applied for three time duration (6, 12, 24 hr). The percentage of germination and plant height are dose and time dependent, probably due to alterations in cell cycle. Treated roots were highly affected compared to seed treatment. Low doses applied for short time show stimulatory effect on germination, growth and MI parameters. On the other hand high concentrations applied for long time gave rise to substation reduction for all parameters investigated. The percentage of mitotic and meiotic abnormalities increase as the concentration increase and time prolonged. Various types of abnormalities with special reference to micronuclei, laggards and bridges were observed at all concentrations but more frequent at higher doses. Following the same trend meiotic parameters of chromosome association, chiasma frequency and pollen fertility were being negatively affected and dose dependent. High concentrations show low chiasma frequency, pollen fertility and high percentage of abnormalities. Types of multivalents and univalents were also observed.  The present studies recommend the use of this extract at concentrations up to 30% to minimize the side effects on plants as non target organism. It also encourages use of botanical extracts for biological control instead of synthetic chemicals.  [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):292-297]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: kochia indica, Vicia faba, mitosis, meiosis,chiasma,abnormalities

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Thermodynamic parameters of zinc sorption

in some calcareous soils


F. Dandanmozd1 and A.R. Hosseinpur2

1.Soil Sci. Dep. College of Agri.Bu-Ali Sina Univ. Hamadan, Iran.

2.Soil Sci. Dep. College of Agri. Shahrekord Univ. Shahrekord, Iran.


Abstract: Sorption is one of the most chemical important process, in which determine micronutrients availability in soil. Sorption isotherms provide useful information about sorption capacity of soils. Sorption data can be used to determined sorption thermodynamic parameters. To evaluate the sorption of zinc (Zn) onto some soils, an experiment was conducted with ten calcareous soils of Hamadan province in the west of Iran. Half g soil samples were equilibrated at 25±1 and 45±1°C with 25 ml of 0.01M CaCl2 containing 0 to 30 mg L-1 Zn as ZnSO4. Suspensions were centrifuged, filtered and concentration of Zn in the clear extract solution was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Amount of Zn sorbed by the soil was calculated from difference between initial and final concentration of Zn in the equilibrium solution. Sorption of Zn was evaluated using adsorption isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters viz. K, ∆G, ∆Hand ∆S were determined using sorption data and concentration of Zn in equilibrium solution at two different temperatures.The results showed that Zn Sorption was described by linear, Feeundlich, Temkin and D-R models. The values of Ko increased with rise in temperature from 25 to 45 °C in all the soils. The ΔGo values at 25 °C and 45 °C were negative and ranged from -7.00 to -16.64 and -13.24 to -41.93 kJ mol-1, respectively. The values of ΔHo and ΔSo were positive and ranged from 357.47 to 74.02 kJ mol-1 and 1255.97 to 281.79 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Evaluation of thermodynamic parameters provide an insight into mechanism of Zn sorption in the soils.  The values of ΔGo were found negative indicating Zn sorption was spontaneous and the values of ΔHo were positive indicating Zn sorption was endothermic. Thermodynamic parameters revealed Zn sorption increased as the value of Ko, ΔGo, ΔHo and ΔSo increased with temperature. Also the results showed that calcareous soils can sorb high amounts of Zn and that thermodynamic parameters are useful in describing Zn sorption.  we suggest that such research be done in contaminated soils. Also we suggest that effect of thermodynamic sorption parameters on Zn uptake by plant be done using the pot experiment. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):298-304]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).


Keywords: Sorption isotherm; Calcareous soil; Zinc; Thermodynamic parameter

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Assessment Lake Nasser Egypt Within The Climatic Change


Elsayed Ahmed El Gammal

National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science- Cairo,Egypt

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Abstract-Changes of water level interacted with physical features in Lake Nasser to yield positive and negative geoenvironmental impct. In the current search, the problem postulated in two strangle portions in the course of the lake. First, El Madiq strangle zone where sands fall down  and drifted on stream gradient to narrow course which exhibit  shallow water on satellite imagery. Second, the entrance of the lake subjected to new delta initiation, with maximum thickness concentrated in a zone lies between Km 350 and 420 from the Dam. Two positive implications also determined, in Allaqui the difference in water area between 1987 and 2000 is 91.9 km2. and the difference in water extension is 25.54 km. Fine soil in an area about 30121 km2 in the basin can be cultivate in Allaqui. The saturated water zone in Kurkur is closed to the land surface and subjected to transpiration and evapotranspiration. Kurkur vadose water can flow to the lake course and interflow water can also migrate back to the land surface to evaporate. An area of 392 km2 ready for agriculture that can avoid Kurkur area from evaporation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):305-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

key words; Lake Nasser, strangle, sand drift  and  High Dam

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Application of native excretory /secretory products from third larval instar of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera:Calliphoridae) on an artificial wound


1*Nancy Taha, 2Afaf Abdel-Meguid, 1Ahmed El-ebiarie

1Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University,

2Department of Entomology,Faculty of Science, Cairo, University, Egypt.



Abstract: The analysis of native excretory/secretory products from third larval instar of C.megacephala using SDS-gel electrophoresis produces a band at 16KDa,a band between 16KDa and 23KDa and a broad band between 23 and 45KDa.This native excretory /secretory products cause the healing of an artificial wound in a rabbit. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):313-317]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key Words: Chrysomya megacephala, mid-gut, excretory/secretory products, maggot therapy

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Effect of Geometric Configuration of Quadratic Folded Plate Roofing Systems on Their Static and Dynamic Behavior.


1H. Elkady and 2A. Hasan

1Civil Engineering Dept., National Research Center, Cairo, 2 Beni-suef University, Egypt.


Abstract: Some researchers proposed different analytical methods for presenting boundary conditions, and stiffeners effect in analytical solutions of folded plate slabs. This study investigates the effect of each of these factors to review the previous approximations range of validity for longer spans Quadratic Folded Plate (Q.F.P) slabs. The chosen elements are: Stiffness of end diaphragms, intermediate beams stiffness, and folded plates rise (height). Besides, the effectiveness of increasing the folded plates’ thickness on the structural behavior of the system was investigated as well. Hence, the impact of such variance on the static and dynamic behavior of the system is studied. All previous parameters were applied on systems with three different spans 14, 20 and 26 meters. In order to achieve the previous objectives, 3-D Finite Elements Models (F.E.M) were perform linear static analysis on the investigated systems, and the effect of each of the above mentioned parameters on deflections and stresses was studied and analyzed. The studied Q,F,P. rises varied from 90 cm to 180 cm. This doubling of rise reduced the roof deflection by 60%  Increasing Q.F.P slab thickness from 8 to 12 cm limited this reduction in deflection to 15%. Stiffness of intermediate beams was another investigated factor, its original stiffness was increased up to six time.  Tripling the intermediate beams original stiffness resulted in reducing slabs deflections by 17%.  These parameters resulted in a similar trend in reduction of intermediate beams bending moments. As for reduction in end diaphragm bending moments due to changing Q.F.P rise, it reached 40% decrease on increasing the rise from 90 to 180 cm. Three Dimensional dynamic modal analyses were performed as well. The effect of different diaphragms, intermediate beams, and spans on the fundamental modes was investigated. From modal analysis, it was concluded that increasing the span from 14 to 20 meters did not have significant effect on the fundamental frequencies. On the other hand the 26 meters natural frequencies were lower by 27% from both spans. Increasing the roof rise from 90 to 180 cm increased the natural frequencies by 25%, this can be attributed to the increase in the stiffness of the system. Finally, the obtained results confirmed on the diffiecency in design that can result from approximate end conditions, or neglecting stiffners effect in analytical modeling, especially for Q.F.P. slabs with long spans. Consequently, elaborate numerical analysis is recommended in dealing with longer spans Q.F.P systems, as the geometric properties of each contributing element had obvious effect on the overall performance of the system. It is also concluded that folded plate rise is the most effective in the investigated parameters, while difference in folded plate thickness had the lowest effect on both static and dynamic behavior of the investigated system. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):318-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key Words: Folded plates, height, end diaphragm, stiffness, and free vibrations

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Adsorption of (152+154)Eu from Radioactive Waste Solution Using  Modified Clay Polymer


M. Abdel Geleel1, M.S. Sayed2,  and H.A. Omar3

1National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Cairo, 2Radiation Protection Department, Hot Laboratory Center, 3Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority,  Egypt.


Abstract: Removal of (152+154) Eu from it's liquid radioactive wastes using Aswan clay (C), Aswan clay/Polyacrylonitrile (C/P) and Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was investigated. Factors affecting the polymer preparation as weight/ratio of clay to polymer, initiator percent (benzoyl peroxide) and temperature were tested. Characterization of the prepared matrices as surface area, swelling properties, FTIR and thermal properties were studied. The effect of pH, contact time, grain size, weight of the sorbent material and concentration of the initial adsorbent on the uptake percent of (152+154)Eu from liquid radioactive waste were studied. The data followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The equilibrium sorption data were described by the Langmiur and Freundlich isotherm models. The highest value of Langmiur maximum uptake Qmax was found to be 188.68, 155.58 and 70.92 mg.g-1 for C, C/P and PAN respectively. The capacity of C/P to adsorb 152+154Eu was also determined by column technique and found to be 50.66 mg/g. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):327-333]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Key words: Radioactive wastes/  (152+15)4Eu/ Clay/ Polyacrylonitrile/ Adsorption

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Immobilization of Liquid Radioactive Wastes by Hardened Blended Cement - White Sand Pastes


M.S. Sayed1and Magdy M. Khattab2*

1 Department of Safety and Radiation Protection, Hot Laboratory Center, Atomic Energy Authority,

2Department of Radiation Chemistry, National Center of Radiation Research, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt;


Abstract: A study was undertaken to determine the immobilization performance of blended cement pastes contains different ratios of white sand (WS) loaded with cesium and cobalt radioactive ions. The effect of different ratios of white sand namely 5%, 10% and 20% on the physico-mechanical of the prepared blended cement pastes was also studied.  Particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, thermal stability, and FT-IR analysis of the neat hardened blended cement (OPC) paste and with white sand as additive have been carried out.  A pronounced increase of the compressive strength values were observed for the hardened blended cement pastes with different white sand ratios at different hydration time intervals 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days comparing to the hardened neat Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The cumulative pore volume becomes much smaller as the percent of white sand increases in the prepared blended cement pastes. The cumulative leach fraction (CLF) for 137Cs and 60Co radioactive ions from the hardened blended cement white sand pastes after 90 days were measured. The examination of the leaching data revealed that adding white sand to cement reduces the leach pattern as OPC+5% white sand < OPC+10% white sand < OPC+20% white sand < OPC only for the studied radionuclides. A simplified mathematical model for analyzing the migration of radioactive ions has been developed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):334-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Cement; white sand; immobilization of radioactive ions; leaching properties

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A Novel 3D Reconstruction Approach Based on Camera Perspectives


Muhammad Abuzar Fahiem and Abad Shah

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan.


Abstract: Engineering industry requires line drawings for manufacturing, machining and production of engineering equipments/objects. The generation of these paper-based drawings or computerized drawings is a complex and time consuming task. Conventionally, these drawings contain three two dimensional (2D) orthographic views, namely top, front and side of an object. Modern trends in engineering industry require three dimensional (3D) engineering drawings. Therefore, to fulfill this requirement the conversion of these 2D drawings to 3D drawings is essential. This conversion is referred to as the reconstruction. Various approaches have been proposed for the conversion/reconstruction using existing drawings. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D reconstruction approach which uses camera perspectives in the reconstruction process. Note that in the existing approaches this feature (camera perspective) is not used. Another salient feature of our approach is its underlying mechanism of tangential lines and hypothetical cuboid. Using our proposed approach, manufacturing cost and time can be saved, and it can also be helpful in technology transfer. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):342-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: 3D Reconstruction, Boundary Representation, Constructive Solid Geometry, Tangential Lines, Hypothetical Cuboid, 3D Modeling

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Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiparkinsonism Activities of Some Novel Pyridazine Derivatives


Naif O. Al-Harbi 1, Saleh A. Bahashwan 2

1. Pharmacy Department, College of Health Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

2. Pharmacy Department, College of Health Sciences, Taibah University, Medina Monawarah, Saudi Arabia;


Abstract: Six compounds of pyridazine derivatives 1-6 have been pharmacological screening. The pharmacological screening showed that many of these compounds have a good anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiparkinsonism activities comparable to reference drugs. The compounds 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, and 5 were found more potent than Prednisolone (prednisolone)® and the inhibition of plasma PGE2 for these compounds were found more potent than prednisolone (prednisolone)®. The analgesic activities of all compounds were more potent than Valdecoxib (Bextra)®. Also, the compounds 1b, 2a, and 3b are the most potent antiparkinsonism agent comparable to Benzatropine (Benzotropene)®. The pharmacological properties are reported. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(7):353-357]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: Pyridazine; Anti-inflammatory; Analgesic; Antiparkinsonism

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Numerical Simulation of the Mass Flow of Leachate in a Municipal Solid Waste Fill (Part 2) - Vertical Flow Systems


Olayiwola Ademola Gbolahan Oni PhD

University of Ado-Ekiti, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, West Africa;

Current Address: Proworks Ltd., 13 Newman Street, Southampton, UK


Abstract: A numerical simulation of the mass of leachate solute in a vertical flow system in a waste fill has been undertaken. The simulation technique involves dividing the waste body into refuse layers of equal and constant volumes and iterating with different time-steps. The principle of mass conservation in steady flow continuity has been applied to replicate the characteristics of the measured solute in saturated and oversaturation conditions of vertical flow in a waste fill. Comparison of modeled and the actual measurements shows a reasonable fit, indicating that the simulation model and underlying principles are suitable for simulating the solute mass flux. [Journal of American Science 2010:6(7):358-366]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Keywords: municipal waste, leachate solute, simulation, vertical flow, waste layers

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This issue is presented as online first for peer-review started from May 1, 2010. 
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