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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 10, Cumulated No. 44, October 25, 2011

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0710

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CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Limitations of existing Chemical Biology Public Domain Data sources

 

1Syed Ahsan, 2Muhammad Shahbaz, 3Syed Athar Masood

 

1,2Department of Computer Science

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

3Department of Engineering Management, College of E&ME Rawalpindi

1 ahsancs@hotmail.com   2 m.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk   3atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

  

Abstract: We have established an HEC funded basic Analysis Node for Bioinformatics at, Al-Khwarzmi Institute of Computer Science, U.E.T., Lahore with the objectives of establishing and strengthen bio/chem-informatics infrastructure in Pakistan through linkages with international organizations involved in R&D and manufacturing activities in biotechnology. This paper describes the nature and objectives of collaboration with The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard (http://www.broad.mit.edu) to create components of a public database that provides transparent access to high-quality compound probe development research data generated as part of ongoing projects at the Broad Institute, enabling the data to be used as effectively by outside researchers as it is by Broad investigators. Limitations of existing ChemBank v2 and need for ChemBank V3 as a new model of public databases is identified.

[Dr. Syed Ahsan, Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz,. Dr. Syed Athar Masood. Limitations of existing Chemical Biology Public Domain Data Sources. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

 

Keywords: interoperability. Probe development, drug discovery

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Comparison of the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments Manufactured From Two Different Alloys

 

Marwa Mohammad Aly, Taha Abou Seeda,1Shehab El-Din M. Saber 2, Dalia Yahia Ibrahim 1

 

Ehab Elsayed Hassanien. 2

1 Department of restorative and dental materials research, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Department of endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile GT (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and ProFile GT Series X (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Files of  taper 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08, 25 mm in length, and ISO sizes # 30 were compared (n = 10 per group). Cyclic fatigue was determined by recording the time until fracture of a file rotating in a simulated canal with curvatures 45 º and 60 º degrees. The files were operated in a cyclic fatigue testing device that was especially designed and made for this test. There was a statistically significant difference between ProFile GT 30/4 in 45 ̊ curvature and ProFile GTX 30/4 in 45 ̊ curvature, as well as, between ProFile GT 30/8 in curvature 45 ̊ and ProFile GTX 30/8 in curvature 45 ̊ .These differences were extremely significant for both (P < 0.001). While for ProFile GT 30/6 in curvature 45 ̊ and ProFile GTX 30/6 in curvature 45 ̊   the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). In the simulated canal of 60 ̊ degrees curvature, the differences were not statistically significant between the tested instruments (P > 0.05).

[Marwa Mohammad Aly, Taha Abou Seeda, Shehab El-Din M. Saber, Dalia Yahia Ibrahim Ehab Elsayed Hassanien. Comparison of the Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Rotary Nickel Titanium Endodontic Instruments Manufactured From Two Different Alloys. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):5-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org. 2

 

Key Words: Cyclic fatigue, nickel-titanium files, M-Wire, manufacturing process

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Description and Evaluation of some Grape Cultivars under Egyptian Conditions

 

Abd El-Wahab, M.A.

 

Viticulture Res. Dept., Hort. Res. Instit., Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

Corresponding author: mohamedabdelaziz2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation was conducted for three successive seasons (2008, 2009 & 2010) in a private vineyard located at El-Khatatba, Menoufiya governorate to description and evaluation four grape seedless cultivars namely: Thompson Seedless clone 2A, Fiesta, Melissa and Crimson Seedless grape cultivars under Egyptian conditions. The chosen vines were five years old, grown in a sandy loam soil, spaced at 2 X 3 meters apart, irrigated by the drip system, and cane-pruned and trellised by the Spanish Parron system. Some phenological aspects, description studies including (growing tips, leaves, tendrils, bunches and berries), yield and physical and chemical studies of bunches and berries and histogical studies of percentage of predicted bud fertility at different bud positions lengthwise the cane were carried out. The results revealed that Thompson Seedless clone 2A and Fiesta grape varieties were the earliest varieties giving the lowest number of days with regard to the phenological dates (budburst, full bloom, fruit set, veraison and grape maturity) compared to Melissa and Crimson Seedless grape varieties which were the latest in this respect having the highest number of days through the three seasons of the study. All studied cultivars were characterized by good vegetative growth and bunch quality. The average bunch weight of Crimson Seedless cultivar was medium, whereas it was big in Thompson Seedless clone 2A, Fiesta and Melissa cultivars. Concerning berry weight and size, Thompson Seedless clone 2A and Fiesta cultivars were medium, while, Melissa and Crimson Seedless cultivars were big. As for the berry shape, Thompson Seedless clone 2A and Fiesta cultivars were rounded- spherical, while, Melissa and Crimson Seedless cultivars were oval–cylindrical. Concerning berry colour, it is clear that in Thompson Seedless clone 2A cultivar it was yellow, greenish yellow in Fiesta cultivar, yellowish green in Melissa cultivar and bright red in Crimson Seedless cultivar. Percentage of predicted bud fertility at different bud positions lengthwise the cane increased gradually from the basal buds to the middle buds of the cane where it reached its maximum then decreased gradually towards the distal buds in all studied cultivars.

[Abd El-Wahab, M.A. Description and Evaluation of Some Grape Cultivars under Egyptian Conditions. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):10-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

 

Keywords: Grape, Thompson, Fiesta, Melissa, Crimson, bud fertility and bunch quality

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Creating Learning University through Integration of ANP and SWOT with fuzzy AHP Methodology

(Case of University of Tehran)

 

Abbas monavvarian 1, Mohammad Reza Fathi 2, Asie Omidian 3, Mohammad Karimi Zarchi 2

 

1 Associated Professor, Department of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 M.S. Candidates of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 M.S. Candidate of business Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: reza.fathi@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The aim of this research is formulation and recognition of the priorities of transforming the University into dynamic learning organization. At first, the most influential internal and external elements were detected with the help of the techniques of strategy formulation. Then having used the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) matrix, that is, the primary organizational strategies, we formulated the primary strategies. This research uses the analytic network process (ANP), which allows the quantitative analysis of SWOT and measurement of the dependency among the factors. Then using of fuzzy AHP technique, all of strategies will be prioritized. The research outcome is the formulation and recognition of the priorities of transforming the University into dynamic learning organization with the help of ANP and SWOT with FAHP techniques. 

[Abbas monavvarian, Mohammad Reza Fathi, Asie Omidian and Mohammad Karimi Zarchi. Creating Learning University through Integration of ANP and SWOT with fuzzy AHP Methodology (Case of University of Tehran). J Am Sci 2011;7(10):23-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

 

Keywords:  Strategic planning, Learning organization, SWOT analysis, Analytic network process, Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

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Petroleum System of Evans Shoal Gas Field, northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia

 

Suliman Ahmed Hamid Fadul1,2, Ye Jia Ren1, Cao Qiang 1and Zhang Yang1

 

1. Key Laboratory of Tectonics and Petroleum Resources, China University of Geosciences

 MOE, Wuhan 430074, China

2.  Sudan, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Technical Education Corporation

marfsud@yahoo.com, jrye@cug.edu.cn and charleycq@163.com

 

Abstract: Evans Shoal Gas Field comprises the wells Evans Shoal-1and Evans Shoal-2 .Our study aimed to determine the hydrocarbon potential of the main source rock in the study area and analyze the petroleum systems and guide future hydrocarbon exploration and development. The methods used encompass BasinMod techniques using mathematical methods. Analysis of the source rock potential helped to identify the Plover-Plover (!) system. The main source rock and reservoir rock are located in the Plover Formation. The source rock of Plover Formation is currently mature and characterized by OM Type II and Type III. The average TOC of the Plover Formation in well Evans Shoal-1 is 1.78 wt%, whereas in well Evans Shoal-2 it is 1.84 wt%. The reservoir composed predominantly of fine-grained sandstone deposited with marine and estuarine environments. The measured porosity and permeability are reduced with depth and the upper part of the reservoir section is better than lower one. Cleia and Echuca Shoals formations encompass the main Seal. The overburden includes Cleia, Echuca Shoals, Darwin, Jamieson, Wangarlu, Vee, Lynedoch, Turnestone, Hibernia, Oliver, Barracouta and Alaria formations. The traps were developed from Middle Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous, are almost anticline structural traps. The threshold for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion of the Plover Formation occurred during Late cretaceous and reached the peak at Early Paleocene. The intensities of gas generation and expulsion of the Plover Formation source rock are greater than that of oil generation and expulsion. The Plover-Plover (!) System comprises a complete geological elements and processes.

[Suliman Ahmed Hamid Fadul, Ye Jia Ren, Cao Qiang and Zhang Yang. Petroleum System of Evans Shoal Gas Field, northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):36-48]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org. 5

 

Keywords: Petroleum System; geological elements; geological processes; Plover Formation; Evans Shoal Gas Field

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The prevalence of four cardiovascular risk factors in employees of three companies affiliated to the Ministry of Oil

 

Abdullah sarami1, Sayed Abdolreza Ghani2

 

1-     Mph Infectious Specialist Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Great oil hospital 2- nutritionist
 

Abstract: In this study of 1,983 employees with no choice as a center for health and industrial medicine, and four risk factors (obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure and diabetes, separately and together) in these subjects were studied. Statistics that the percentage of overweight tenth 10.1 and obesity and blood lipid 30.5 and obesity, blood fat and blood pressure 13.6 and obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure and diabetes, 10.3 in this population was determined. Examining four factors: obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure and diabetes, separately and together were able to rate each of them separately and together to be realized. Of these, 655 patients were equivalent to 33% for perfectly healthy and had no problems.95% of participants were male and mean age was 50-35 years, and only those involved in the study patients were women age 45-40 years.  Group on operational activities and the group were in the office and staff. 90% of high school graduates to higher education were inadequate and 1.3 in 89 Arabic-speaking people and the education cycle. Obesity and blood lipids in 32% of patients are evident.  

[Abdullah sarami, Sayed Abdolreza Ghani. The prevalence of four cardiovascular risk factors in employees of three companies affiliated to the Ministry of Oil. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):49-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org. 6

Keywords: cardiovascular, obesity, blood lipids, blood pressure and diabetes

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Working and Applications of Global Positioning System

 

Shafqat Hameed1 , Ahmad Raza2 , Junaid Tariq3

 

1National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan

2University of Bradford, Bradford, UK, Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk

 

Abstract- The most promising and fully operational GPS (Global Positioning System) is a navigation system based on a group of 24 satellites developed by U.S. Department of Defence. Every satellite sends data to the receiver in the form of signals, having some information about satellite and orbital information. This paper aims to discuss the potential of GPS as constantly global communication medium and gives insights in terms of its business and military applications. It focuses on the architecture of GPS, its working, changing signal conditions and discusses its technical applicability and uses current advanced applications of GPS like vehicle tracking, location-based services as a case study. Even in worst weather conditions this GPS system is used to find out exact location with respect to timing information anywhere on the surface of globe. The paper will also consider different weather and geographical conditions to prove the suitability and compatibility of the GPS. The paper will also compare GPS with other navigation systems and will discuss its advantages such as high precision and continuous coverage.

[Shafqat Hameed, Ahmad Raza, Junaid Tariq. Working and Applications of Global Positioning System. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):51-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 7

 

Keywords: Global Positioning System, satellite, signal, suitability, compatibility, location, navigation.

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TCP/IP Traffic with Efficient Bluetooth Technology

 

Shafqat Hameed1, Umar F.Khan2, *Muhammad Saleem3

 

1,3National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Pakistan

2University of Bradford, Bradford, UK,

Shafqat.hameed@ceme.nust.edu.pk; hameed.shafqat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract- As new communication technologies are emerging they are introducing new form of short range wireless networks. Bluetooth is one of them as well, which allows information exchange over a short range. Bluetooth is a low cost, short range and low power radio technology which was originally developed to connect the devices such as mobile phone handsets, portable computers, headsets without having cable. Bluetooth was started in about 1994 by Ericson mobile communications but version 1.0 of Bluetooth came out in 1999.  Bluetooth is a fastest growing technology. Its applications are increasing as the research goes on. By using Bluetooth we can make connection for traffic between sender and receiver. It can be either synchronous traffic such as voice or asynchronous traffic such as traffic over the internet protocol. In this paper we shall discuss that how efficiently Bluetooth can carry the TCP/IP traffic and as well as we shall analyse that how retransmission and delays are handled when there is an error in a packet of data. In addition we shall discuss the Bluetooth layer model and how it works and make the comparison between OSI reference model and Bluetooth layer model.

[Shafqat Hameed, Umar F.Khan, Muhammad Saleem. TCP/IP Traffic with Efficient Bluetooth Technology. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):58-62]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

 

Keywords:  TCP/IP, Bluetooth, OSI reference model

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Split tensile strength of cementitious composites in the optimum state

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Split tensile strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.

[Farzad Soleymani, Split tensile strength of cementitious composites in the optimum state. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):63-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org. 9

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; split tensile strength; cementitious composite; curing medium; optimal strength.

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Potential of High Velocity Oxy Fuel Thermal Spraying in Turbine Shaft Repairing

 

M. Jalali Azizpour1   S. Norouzi 2    H.Mohammadi Majd3   D.Sajedipour4     E. Pipelzadeh5   B.Aslani6  H.Talebi7   A.Ghamari8    

 

1, 3, 4, 5 Production Technology Research Institute, branch of ACECR

2Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

6Powderafshan, Isfahan, Iran

7,8SETESCO, Ahwaz, Iran

Mahdi.jalali.azizpour@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, the application of thermal spray coatings in high speed shafts by a revolution up to 23000 RPM has been studied. The agglomerated WC-12Co powder was coated on gas compressor components using high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) method and its microstructure and residual stress were evaluated.  Two high speed shafts were coated using the experimental data and the results demonstrated an acceptable performance in the high cycles. The results have shown that the developed coating has 148±30 MPa using hole drilling method and 156-257 MPa compressive residual stresses in curvature method. Morphological and crystallographical studies were conducted using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction respectively to evaluate the powder and coating characteristics.

 [M. Jalali Azizpour, S. Norouzi, E. Pipelzadeh, D.Sajedipour, H.Talebi, A.Ghamari, b.Aslani. Potential of High Velocity Oxy Fuel Thermal Spraying in Turbine Shaft Repairing. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):69-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org. 10

 

KeywordsHole drilling, Residual stress, WC-12Co, Thermal spraying

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Risk Factors of Obesity on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women

 

Hala Ibrahim Zaiton*1, and Eman elsayed mohammed elsabagh2

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Dept.*1, 2Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. *hala_zaton@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity constitutes a major risk factor for both maternal and fetal complications for mothers includes, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, eclampsia and higher frequency of cesarean section and fetal complications includes intrauterine death, low Apgar score and macrosomia. This study aimed to assess risk factors of obesity on maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant women. Prospective cohort study, the study subjects consisted of four groups; 27 women with normal BMI (group I: BMI 19.1–25 kg/m2), 25 overweight (group II: BMI 25.1–30 kg/m2), 73 obese (group III: BMI 30.1–40 kg/m2) and 25 morbidly obese women (group IV: BMI >40 kg/m2). The study was conducted in obstetric department, labor ward at zagazig university hospital. Women in group III and IV were characterized by higher systolic booking blood pressure and higher diastolic booking blood pressures, with mean differences being 27.9,14.2 respectively. Similar differences were found in booking diastolic blood pressures with mean difference being 12.13 and 1.83 respectively. Women in group III and IV are at increased risk at gestational diabetes with OR 2.72; and OR 10.1. Requirement of instrumental deliveries or lower segment caesarean section occurred more often in group II, III and IV with 2.07, 2.58 and 6.61 respectively. The birth weight in group III and IV are significantly higher with mean differences 1.54 and 1.72. Macrosomia occurred more often in all increased BMI groups, but significance was only found in women of group IV with OR 4.4. The present study had revealed that the obesity during pregnancy represents a major risk for adverse outcome for pregnant women. Maternal weight measurements need to be recorded during antenatal care and used consistently because BMI is obviously a risk factor for maternal complications during pregnancy, labor and postpartum period.

[Hala Ibrahim Zaiton, and Eman elsayed mohammed elsabagh. Risk Factors of Obesity on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes among Pregnant Women. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):74-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 11

 

Key words: Risk factors, Obesity, maternal, perinatal, outcome.

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Symbolic world of dream in Kushnameh

 

Nahid Yousefzadeh

 

Department of Persian literature, University State-National Tajikistan, Tajikistan

yousefzadeh1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, dream symbols and their effect on opinion of the poet are reviewed, and difference between the application of this element in Shahnameh and Kushnameh is expressed. The dreams are one of several attractiveness factors of Iranshah stories in Kushnamh. He expresses beautiful and mysterious stories and legends, and in addition to respecting national and cultural values and figures, secret of many complexities are revealed to us in the form of a dream. His mysterious dreams have also features of Ahormazda dreams. In addition, they carry messages that contain their probable problems as well, which are symbolic and the truth is hidden in secrets. Iranshah has tried to reflect the hidden dimensions of his story characters and heroes in their dreams, and to create images with elements of dream that never happen in reality. He also tries to warn his readers and those who suffer from negligence and awaken and bring them to the world of conscious.

[Nahid Yousefzadeh. Symbolic world of dream in Kushnameh. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):84-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org. 12

 

Keywords: Sleep; Dream; Ahourai dream; Decryption; Kamdad mysterious; Abtin

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The Evaluation of the Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene Polymorphism in Controlling Ovarian Hyperstimulation

 

Gaber, S.S. *1; Elgindy, E.2; Elrehany, M.A.1; Abd-Elghany, H.M.1; and Okasha, A.M.1

 

Departments of Medical Biochemistry1, and Obstetrics and Gynacology2, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. *elrehany1963@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was performed to investigate the association between FSH receptor (FSHR) gene polymorphism at position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Egyptian women. The FSHR genotype distribution was 36.6% for Asn/Asn, 31.7% for Asn/Ser, and 31.7% for Ser/Ser FSHR genotype groups. Although there was no difference among the three genotype groups in terms of the age and infertility diagnosis of study subjects, the basal levels of FSH (day 3) were significantly different [6.37 ± 1.65 mIU/ml (mean±SEM), 6.93 ± 2.09 mIU/ml, and 8.42 ± 3.22 mIU/ml] for Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser groups, respectively. The Ser/Ser group tended to require a least dose of gonadotropins for COS, though these differences did not reach statistical significance. When the patients were classified according to their ovarian response, the mean levels of basal FSH in Asn/Asn and Ser/Ser subgroups showed an increasing level from poor to good and high responders. In contrast Asn/Ser subgroup showed a decreasing level of day 3 FSH from poor to good and high responders, thus indicating a relative resistance to the action of FSH in this subgroup. The numbers of oocytes retrieved tended to be different for the three groups (5.47 ± 3.02, 6.54 ± 7.48, and 11.23 ± 4.48 for Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser groups, respectively). Clinical pregnancy rate was higher (23.08%) in Ser/Ser, compared to the others. The homozygous Asn/Asn genotype of FSHR polymorphism at position 680 may be associated with a reduced ovarian response to COS for IVF, while Ser/Ser genotypes showed a higher pregnancy rate.

[Gaber, S.S.; Elgindy, E.; Elrehany, M.A.; Abd-Elghany, H.M.; and Okasha, A.M. The Evaluation of the Role of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Gene Polymorphism in Controlling Ovarian Hyperstimulation. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):91-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key word: FSH, polymorphism and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

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[J Am Sci 2011;7(10):101-112]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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The Fine Structure of the Spermatozoa of Three Species of Land Snails Belonging to the Genus Monacha (Müller, 1774) in Egypt

 

Mohamed F. Mansour*; El-Sayed M. El-Habibi; M. M. Mortada and Amany M. Ramez

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*mohmansour44@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the ultrastructure of the mature spermatozoa of three species belonging to the land snail genus Monacha (Müller, 1774). These snails are considered as agricultural pests. These species are M. cantiana, M. cartusiana and M. obstructa. They are morphologically closely similar to each other. The present investigation is a new trial to differentiate between them. The snails were collected from the field crops at Dakahlia governorate and brought alive to the laboratory where they were dissected and the gonads were isolated and fixed to be prepared until they were examined and photographed by the transmission electron microscope. Examination of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of the three species revealed that sperm of each of them composed of head (acrosome and nucleus), Neck region, midpiece and end-piece. The nucleus has nuclear fossa in which impregnated the components of the neck region. The midpiece contains the mitochondrial derivative and one glycogen helix containing glycogen granules. The end-piece contains only the axoneme surrounded by the plasma membrane. The axoneme has the typical 9+2 microtubule arrangement. There are some differences between them which can be summarized as follow; the nucleus in M. obstructa has a perinuclear sheath, the plasma membrane is convoluted in M. cantiana, the coarse fibers are present in the neck region in the three species but in M. obstructa they extend until the end of the midpiece. The midpiece can be differentiated into glycogen helix region and mitochondrial derivative region in M. cantiana and M. cartusiana but in M. obstructa it can be divided into glycogen helix region, middle region and posterior region. The mitochondrial derivative region in M. cartusiana contains cortical microtubules. In M. obstructa the anterior region of the midpiece has the glycogen helix; the middle region has the glycogen granules in a tubular form around the axoneme, while the posterior part contains only a condensation of glycogen granules around the axoneme. The glycogen helix region in M. obstructa contains cortical microtubules beneath the plasma membrane. According to the above descriptions of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of the three species of Monacha in Egypt and due to the presence of many differences between them, the present study recommend that they are actually three valid species representing this genus of land snails in Egypt.

[Mohamed F. Mansour; El-Sayed M. El-Habibi; M. M. Mortada and Amany M. Ramez The Fine Structure of the Spermatozoa of Three Species of Land Snails Belonging to the Genus Monacha (Müller, 1774) in Egypt. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):113-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 15

 

Keywords: Spermatozoa; Land Snail; Genus; Monacha; Egypt

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Armenian challenges for establishing independent educational system in Iran from Mashrotiat (Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1905-1911) to Islamic Revolution (1979)

 

Mahvash Lotfi

 

1Ministry of Research Science and Technology

2Student of Ph.D major of educational management

E-mail: M7_lotfi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Armenian people include one of the most important religious minorities of Iran and they have been regarded as one of the most professional and intellectual population of the country. Since there have been few articles or books regarding the educational system of Armenian-Iranian people up to now, this article reviews the challenges and efforts of Armenian society for establishing their own educational system in Iran from the Mashrotiat (Constitutional) event to 1978 (the Islamic revolution), mainly during the reign of Pahlavi . This research was conducted based on the documents and studies performed regarding Armenian educational policy in Iran. The results show that the principle of education and religious training was regarded as a main challenge for the Supermen  Armenian council in different provinces of Iran since 1941 and Armenians tried to follow up their request in different methods by referring to the ministry of culture and prime minister of the country. Establishing Armenian schools in different provinces of country was involved with different problems influenced by the socio-cultural condition of the province itself and the central government  policy.

[Mahvash Lotfi. Armenian challenges for establishing independent educational system in Iran from Mashrotiat (Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1905-1911) to Islamic Revolution (1979). J Am Sci 2011;7(10):125-129]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org. 16

 

Keywords: Armenian, educational system, Iran

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Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Rabbit Meat as Affected by Gamma Irradiation

 

Hesham M. Badr

 

Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Research Center, Abou Zaabal, P.O. Box 13759 Cairo, Egypt.  

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in lipid and fatty acid composition of gamma irradiated rabbit meat samples were aerobically packaged and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses of 0 and 3 kGy at room temperature and 0 and 7 kGy at the frozen state. Lipids were extracted and isolated as neutral lipids and phospholipids classes, then the individual fractions of these classes were separated by thin layer chromatography. Furthermore, the observed neutral lipids and total phospholipids as well as the major phospholipids fractions, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, were converted to fatty acid methyl esters and analyzed by gas chromatography. The obtained results revealed that irradiation of rabbit meat samples had no significant effect on their contents of total lipids and the observed fractions for neutral and phospholipid classes were similar in lipids separated from irradiated and non-irradiated rabbit meat. Moreover, irradiation treatments showed no significant effects on the contents of triglycerides, however, significant decreases in the contents of cholesterol and phospholipids were observed. The fatty acids of neutral lipid class showed no significant changes due to irradiation of rabbit meat, while significant decreases, but of minor interest, were observed in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of total phospholipids and their major fractions. The observed results demonstrate that irradiation of rabbit meat samples at doses recommended for irradiation of poultry had no adverse effects on their lipid and fatty acid composition and the observed decreases in the contents of cholesterol or phospholipids and their polyunsaturated fatty acids were of minor interest.

[Hesham M. BadrL ipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Rabbit Meat as Affected by Gamma Irradiation. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):130-136]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

 

Key words: Rabbit meat, irradiation, lipids, neutral lipids, phospholipids, fatty acids

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ssessment of Some Heavy Metal Contents in Fresh and Salted (Feseakh) Mullet Fish Collected from El- Burullus Lake, Egypt

 

Yosef  TA and Ghada M Gomaa

 

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology,

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt

E-mail: tarektoxicology@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations were determined in muscle, gills and liver of fresh and salted (either by analytical or industrial salt) mullet fish caught from El-Burullus Lake. Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending on the type of the tissue and salt. Generally, the lowest concentrations of the studied metals were found in fresh fish, while the highest concentrations were recorded in salted fish by industrial salt which were higher than salted fish by analytical one. Fish organs of fresh and salted fish by analytical salt contain metals followed the order: liver>gills>muscle, while in salted fish by industrial one showed: gills>muscle>liver. The metal levels were ranked as follow: Fe>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Fe and Cd concentrations exceeded the upper limit of standards while, Zn one recorded much below level in all deliberate fish organs. Cu content was slightly higher than the permissible limit in muscle and gills of salted fish by industrial salt. Concerning Pb level, it was almost double the concentration of the permissible limit in the liver of all groups and muscle of salted fish by industrial salt, while it were triple the concentration of the permissible limit in gills of that group.

[Yosef  TA and Ghada M Gomaa. Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Contents in Fresh and Salted (Feseakh) Mullet Fish Collected from El- Burullus Lake, Egypt. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):137-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 18

 

Keyword: Assessment, Heavy Metal, Fresh and Salted (Feseakh) Mullet Fish, El- Burullus Lake.

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Measurement the Immunological and Hormonal Parameters in Intensive Excises in the Environment 33°C

Mozhgan Ahmadi1; Hamid Agha Alinejad2; Maghsood Peeri2; Zuhair Hassan 3

 

1 Ph.D. student of Exercise Physiology, Physical Education & Sport Science college. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Iran

2 Asisstant Professor , Physical Education & Sport Science college. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Iran

3 Professor, Immonology Dept, medical science college. Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: mahmadi1376@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Heat stress is one of the physical stresses which play a role in arising central body temperature and making changes in immune and hormone responses. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of one stage severe aerobic exercise in warm environment on active women’s immune and hormone factors. 16 physical education students with average age of 20.25 ±0.9 years, maximal oxygen uptake of 42.14±9.8 ml/kg/m and body mass index of 22.11±2.66 kg/mm have randomly divided in tow experimental and control groups. The experimental group has pedaled the ergometer wheels with VO2max 75% for 60 minutes and the control group has no activity during the test. The environmental temperature and humidity were maintained 33° centigrade and 40% respectively fixed during the test. Blood samples for measuring the levels of IL-10, TNFα, CRP, cortisol , epinephrine were taken in three periods pre, immediately and 2 hours after termination of the activity from participants. There wasn’t any significant difference between control and experimental groups in density of IL-10, TNFα, CRP, epinephrine when they were doing intensive activity in warm weather. There were only significant differences between groups on density of CPR and immediately and two hours after activity (p≤0.05). These data demonstrate that a 60 min exercise heavy in hot environment under these conditions can not affect on  immunity and  hormonic responses in activity women 

[Mozhgan Ahmadi; Hamid Agha Alinejad; Maghsood Peeri; Zuhair Hassan. Measurement the Immunological and Hormonal Parameters in Intensive Excises in the Environment 33°C. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):145-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org. 19

 

Keywords: IL-10, TNFα, CRP, Cortisol, Epinephrine, Women`s Active

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Rumen Constituents and Ciliates Generic & Species Composition in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt

 

Baraka, T. A.

 

Dept. Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

drtaherbaraka@cu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Rumen liquor physical, biochemical and ciliates orders, families, species, genera, forma and their dimensions in 37 native buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) belonging to private farms in Giza Governorate were performed. Obtained results revealed that mean value of pH was 6.70 ± 0.12, total protozoa count 15.85 ± 6.29 ×104, generic composition of Entodinium, Diplodinium, Epidinium and Holotricha were 95.71 ± 2.62, 1.18 ± 0.11, 2.5 0± 0.21 and 0.61 ± 0.41% respectively. Ammonia concentration, volatile fatty acids, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc levels were 373.65 ± 9.189 mmol/L, 73.25 ± 7.57 mmol/L, 9.47 ±1.66 g/L, 1.57 ±0.50 mmol/L, 2.96 ±0.67 mmol/L, 6.57 ± 1.11 µmol/L and 23.12 ± 3.80 µmol/L respectively. In addition; 13 new species belonging to 6 genera were identified. They were Entodinium rectangulatum f. caudatum, Entodinium  longinucleatum, Entodinium  longinucleatum f. spinolobum, Entodinium ciclum, Diplodinium monocanthum, Eudiplodinium magii, Ostrachodinium gracile, Ostrachodinium nucleulobum, Ostrachodinium tiete, Ostrachodinium mammosum, Metadinium banksi, Metadinium esalqum, Epidinium caudatum and Epidinium bicaudatum. On conclusion; physical, biochemical and cellular constituents of water buffalo should be put in consideration during clinical examination and evaluation of rumen performance, and typing of buffalo rumen ciliates needs further investigation to be a guide during rumen juice transplantation.

[Baraka, T. A. Rumen Constituents and Ciliates Generic & Species Composition in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 152-160].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.  20

 

Key words: Buffaloes, rumen constituents, ciliates.

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Elastic Joints and its lateral forces Futuristic structural concept

 

Hesham Gerisha

 

Misr University for Science and Technology – 6.October city –Egypt

Con_develope@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Bridge structures have been supported on flexible and elastomeric bearings for a number of years. In this paper supporting the structure system concerning buildings in every connection on elastomeric bearing will be discussed. The human body structure content elastic joints in its connection. A simulation of this concept can be useful for the buildings concerning earthquakes. Most structures act as transfer elements, receiving certain forces and transferring them to other points. This transfer capability is dependent on the internal strength and stability of the structure. A thin sheet of aluminum may be easily buckled, a block of wood may be easily split along its grain, and a rectangular framework with loose, single-pin joints may be easily collapsed sideways. All of these structures fail because of an inability to maintain internal equilibrium through lack of strength, or because of the lack of some inherent stability, or for both reasons. The complete static equilibrium of a structure requires two separate balances: that of the external forces and that of the internal forces. Externally sufficient reaction components must be developed by the supports. Internally, there must be an inherent capability for stability and sufficient strength to do the work of transferring the applied loads to supports.  But what is about a flexible structural system? Can we damage the movement of the system? Are sensors useful for this new structural concept? The idea is to develop a steel structure system with elastic connection. And this system includes a error reader (sensor) response for the linearity of the system. If we have any horizontal force in form earthquakes or wind the sensor give the signal to the stepper motor to correct the error through moving the structure with the tension member.  We propose that the humane design is one of the most important principles of sustainability in architecture.

[Hesham Gerisha. Elastic Joints and its lateral forces Futuristic structural concept. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 161-167].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org 21

 

Keywords: Improvement in seismic design, Basic elements of seismic isolation system, Design objective, Elastic Connection, Structure type's analysis, Comparing between knee and Slab connection, Equilibrium of structures, Elastic sensor added structure Concept

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Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers

 

Soad M. Hegazy*1, Ghada M. Mourad2, Rania A. Zaki2 and Hamdi H. Emam3

 

Departments of 1Medical-Surgical Nursing; 2Psychiatric ∕ Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing , Ain Shams University, 3Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, Naser Institute, Cairo, Egypt

*soadmahmoud43@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Foot ulcers are a significant source of morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life (QOL) in patients with diabetes. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proposed as a possible treatment. Aim:  this study aims to evaluate the effect of HBOT on QOL in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. This study was conducted at the HBOT unit and surgical outpatient clinics, affiliated to Naser Institute Hospital. Sample: A purposive sample included 46 adult patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Tools: 1) Patient's interviewing sheet to assess QOL domains: physical, psychological, social and spiritual (pre/post tests), 2) Strauss wound classification scoring system (Pre/post tests), 3) Wound symptoms chart (pre/post tests), 4) Hamiltons anxiety rating scale and 5) Numerical rating pain scale (pre/post tests). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between QOL domains before and after HBOT among the studied patients. Moreover there is an obvious improvement regarding wound ulcers healing added to significant reduction in the anxiety level post treatment sessions. Conclusion: HBOT had a positive effect on the improvement of QOL in patients with diabetic foot ulcers, which is possibly attributable to better ulcers healing. Recommendations: Further studies should be done to assess the long term success of HBOT and to follow up patient's QOL.

[Soad M. Hegazy, Ghada M. Mourad, Rania A. Zaki, and Hamdi H. Emam Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):168-175].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.22

 

Key words: Hyperbaric Oxygen, Diabetic Foot Ulcer

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Multiplex PCR for Detection and Genotyping of C. Botulinum Types A, B, E and F Neurotoxin Genes in Some Egyptian Food Products

 

Shabaan H. Ahmed*, Mohamed S. Badary, Wegdan A. Mohamed, Amal A. Elkhawaga

 

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt

dr.shabaan@gmail.com    amy.elkhawaga@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Clostridium botulinum [C. botulinum] is an obligatory anaerobic, Gram positive, endospore forming bacterium. It produces lethal botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) that causes life threatening neuroparalytic illness known as botulism. Many cases of foodborne and infant botulism were reported worldwide. This study determined the prevalence of C. botulinum and its spores in some Egyptian food products using conventional methods and Multiplex PCR.  A total number of 250 food samples (50 honey, 100 fish products and 100 meat products) were randomly collected from apiaries, fish shops, butcher shops, retail stores and supermarkets in Assiut City. They were examined for the presence of C. botulinum and its spores using conventional methods. Finally, multiplex PCR was done for genotyping isolated C. botulinum neurotoxin genes types (A, B, E and F). Total number of positive samples for C. botulinum was 13 (26 %) in honey, 19 (19%) in fish products and 21 (21%) in meat products. Standard filtration (SF) method detected C. botulinum spores in honey more efficiently than Dilution centrifugation (DC) method. Genotyping using multiplex PCR was successful. It revealed that C. botulinum type A was 10% in honey and 6% in meat products; C. botulinum type B was 20% in honey, 5% in fish and 11% in meat products; C. botulinum type E was 14% in fish and 4% in meat products. While, C. botulinum type F was 0%. The present study revealed that some food products in Assiut City may present a potential hazard for foodborne and infant botulism.

[Shabaan H. Ahmed, Mohamed S. Badary, Wegdan A. Mohamed, Amal A. Elkhawaga Multiplex PCR for Detection and Genotyping of C. Botulinum Types A, B, E and F Neurotoxin Genes in Some Egyptian Food Products. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 176-190 ].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Clostridium botulinum, spores, botulism, Multiplex PCR

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Computer-Aided Design of Framed Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Flood Scouring

 

Hamed Salem

 

Structural Engineering Dept., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
hamedhadhoud@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the beginning of 2010, several reinforced concrete structures collapsed due to floods in Sinai and Aswan, Egypt. Scour of soil beneath foundations lead to excessive differential settlements, failure of main structural members and finally complete structural collapse. A three-dimensional nonlinear dynamic analysis of a multi-storey reinforced concrete framed structure with induced soil scour under its foundation is carried out using the Applied Element Method. The analysis of the structure is followed until its complete collapse. The numerical analysis is then used to propose a safe design against collapse. Three different alternatives proposed for preventing progressive collapse are independently investigated; floor beams, tie beams connecting footings, and diagonal bracings. Increasing the size of the floor beams was found not to have significant effect on mitigating progressive collapse, while the use of diagonal bracings in the ground floor or rigid tie beams connecting the structure’ footings was found to efficiently prevent progressive collapse. With diagonal bracings or rigid tie beams, the excessive differential settlements of the footings can be eliminated and the gravity loads can follow a safe alternative path preventing the structural collapse. The tie beam reinforcement was found to have a significant effect on the structural behavior during such an extreme loading case. Section analysis of the tie beam suggests that its ultimate strength should be based on rupture of main reinforcement, which is more economical and appropriate for such loading case.

[Hamed Salem Computer-Aided Design of Framed Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Flood Scouring. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 191-200].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.24

 

Key words: Flood scouring, progressive collapse, Applied Element Method, tie beams

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Impact of Nitrogen rates on growth and yield attributes of Sweet Corn grown under different Phosphorus levels

 

Mehrzad Alimohammadi1, Mohsen Yousefi2 and Peiman Zandi1

 

1Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

2Young Researchers Club, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

E-mail: z_rice_b@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of different nitrogen levels (0, 200 and 400 kg urea ha-1) and phosphorus rates of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg  ha-1 in the form of triple superphosphate on growth and yield components of sweet corn was investigated at a research field, in Takestan, Iran, during 2006 growing season. The experiment was carried out using split plots based on randomized complete block design with four replications. Results showed that nitrogen fertilizer effect was significant on number of grains per ear, number of nodes per stalk, ear height, ear diameter, husked green ear weight, 1000-grain weight, plant height and grain yield of sweet corn. Phosphorus rates significantly affected plant height, ear diameter, ear height, grain yield, husked green ear weight and 1000-grain weight. Interaction effect of nitrogen × phosphorus was only affected 1000-grain weight, grain yield and husked green ear weight. whereas the rest of studied traits were remained unaffected. The highest grain yield (7781.10 kg ha-1) was that of application of 200 kg urea ha-1 coupled with 200 kg ha-1 of triple superphosphate. It is concluded that optimum dose of phosphorus/nitrogen for sweet corn crop is 200 kg ha-1. It is also suggested that further research should be done under different environmental conditions.

[Mehrzad Alimohammadi1, Mohsen Yousefi2 and Peiman Zandi. Impact of Nitrogen rates on growth and yield attributes of Sweet Corn grown under different Phosphorus levels.J Am Sci 2011;7(10):201-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org 25

 

Key words: sweet corn (Zea mays L.); nitrogen; phosphorus; grain yield

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Treatment Results and Prognostic Factors of Pharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Either Radiotherapy Alone or in Combination with Systemic Chemotherapy

                                                                                                                                                                                   

Hala F. Elshazly; Ashraf F. Barakat ; *Hanan S. Gamal El-Deen and  Heba H. El Setiha.

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta, Egypt

*hannshawky@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pharyngeal carcinoma has been identified as a significant public health threat. Systematic evaluation of the significant impact of several prognostic factors in pharyngeal carcinoma treated either with radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy is of great importance to health care providers and policy makers. This study used to evaluate the correlations between disease characteristics, treatment, and survival for patients with pharyngeal carcinoma. Main outcome measures were disease-free survival, overall survival, and treatment response. Methods: This study included 97 patients with pharyngeal carcinoma treated at Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University Hospital between January 2000 and December 2005.  Results: The mean age of all patients was 50.18 years (range; 23 - 75 years). Men made up 61.9% of patients. Pathologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 77.3% of cases. Younger patients (<50 years) had a much higher frequency of presentation with stage I and II tumors (58.5%). Most tumors were located at the hypopharynx (57.7%) with clinical stage III or IV (63.9%). Treatment response was associated with age, tumor status, nodal status, tumor site, Karnofsky performance status, and clinical stage before treatment. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate for all patients (n = 97) was 21.6% and the 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate for patients who achieved complete response (n = 31) was 51%. The significant prognostic variables were Karnofsky performance status, nodal status and primary tumor volume. Conclusion: A combination of clinical factors, such as primary tumor volume measurement, nodal status, tumor site, Karnofsky performance status, age, and clinical stage are reliable ways to stratify outcome as predictors of overall survival, disease-free survival, and treatment response in pharyngeal carcinoma.

[Hala F. Elshazly; Ashraf F. Barakat ; Hanan S. Gamal El-Deen and  Heba H. El Setiha. Treatment Results and Prognostic Factors of Pharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Either Radiotherapy Alone or in Combination with Systemic Chemotherap. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):207-217].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Pharyngeal carcinoma, Prognosis, Radiotherapy, chemotherapy,    chemoradiotherapy.

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Size Composition, Growth Pattern and Sexual Maturity of the Blue Crab, Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne, 1883) in three interconnecting tropical lagoons.

 

Aderonke O. Lawal-Are* and Kola Kusemiju

 

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos –Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: aolawalare@gmail.com

 

AbstractThe size composition, growth pattern, sex ratio and gonadal stages of Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) in three interconnecting tropical lagoons were investigated over 18 months. The major ecological variable in the lagoons was salinity. The crabs exhibited negative allometric growth. The largest sized crabs were obtained in the freshwater Lekki Lagoon. The males were significantly more abundant than the females in the freshwater Lekki Lagoon while the sex ratio was nearly 1:1 in the brackish Badagry and Lagos Lagoons. Five stages of gonadal maturity were recorded for both males and females in the three lagoons. Fecund females carrying eggs underside of the abdomen were obtained only in the high brackish water Lagos Lagoon. The salinity gradient and occurrence of the blue crab throughout the year in the three interconnecting lagoons makes them a suitable environment for completion of its life history in the lagoons.

[Aderonke O. Lawal-Are and Kola Kusemiju. Size Composition, Growth Pattern and Sexual Maturity of the Blue Crab, Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne, 1883) in three interconnecting tropical lagoons. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):218-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Salinity, size, growth, gonadal stages

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Application of adsorbent from Dum palm for the removal of Manganese (II), Zinc (II) and Copper (II) ions from aqueous solution

 

1*Yisa Jonathan, 2Hassan  Hussaina and 1Jimoh Oladejo Tijani

 

1Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State

2Department Science Laboratory, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State

joeyisa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The batch adsorption of Mn (II), Zn (II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solution using frond and leaves of dump palm was investigated. The influence of sorption time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage were evaluated. The results showed that these parts of dump palm have relatively high adsorption capacity for these heavy metals ions. The percentage removed was (76%), (64%), (62%) and (64%) (57%) (56%) for Mn (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions respectively for frond and leaves. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90mins for Mn (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions. The equilibrium data generated fitted well for Freundlich adsorption model. The obtained results show that the both the leaves and the frond of dump palm are favourable for the sorption of the heavy metal ions.

[Yisa Jonathan, Hassan  Hussaina and Jimoh Oladejo Tijani. Application of adsorbent from Dum palm for the removal of Manganese (II), Zinc (II) and Copper (II) ions from aqueous solution. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):226-230]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: adsorbent; palm; Manganese; Zinc; Copper; ion; aqueous solution

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Silica nanoparticle size effect on mechanical properties and microstructure of cement mortar

 

M.R. Arefi1, M.R. Javaheri1, E. Mollaahmadi1, H. Zare2, B. Abdollahi Nejand3,4*, M. Eskandari3

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Taft branch, Islamic Azad University, Taft, Iran

2. Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif   University of Technology, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran     

3. Nanomaterial Research Group, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) on TMU, Tehran, Iran

4.Kil o Pico Aryan Company, 56 North Dibaji St, Suite#01, Farmanieh, Tehran, Iran

ba@kilo-pico.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the effects of micro and nano silica particle size and their quantity on mechanical properties and microstructure of fabricated cement mortar was investigated. The measurements carried out at the 7th day after the production of the cement mortar. The results showed that the cement mortar containing silica nanoparticles had better mechanical properties compared with the pure cement mortar. The production method used here caused a homogenous dispersion of silica nanoparticles in the cement mortar; therefore, its mechanical properties increased even with addition of only 1% silica nanoparticles. In the othr words the compressive strength increased by more than 100% by addition of critical amount of SiO2 nanopowder. The SEM, DTA, TGA, water permeability tests revealed that nano and microparticles not only work as fillers for the cement mortar’s porosity and improves its microstructure, but also reduce the amounts of Ca(OH)2 and other calcium hydrates.

M.R. Arefi, M.R. Javaheri, E. Mollaahmadi, H. Zare, B. Abdollahi Nejand, M. Eskandari. Silica nanoparticle size effect on mechanical properties and microstructure of cement mortar. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):231-238]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Mechanical properties; Silica nanoparticles; Cement mortar; Particle size effects

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Infratentorial Brain Tumors in Children: The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Differentiatial Diagnosis

 

Mohamed T. Abd Alhak, Alya A. Elnaggar* and Yasser M. Fekry

 

Radiodiagbosis Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Egypt

*alyaelnaggar@ymail.com 

 

Abstract: Background and Aim of the Work: Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in children and are the second most common neoplasm in childhood after hematological malignancies, and accounts for 20% of all pediatric cancers. Approximately half of all intracranial neoplasms in children are found within the posterior fossa. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging is the corner stone in the initial evaluation of pediatric brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of MRI in differential diagnosis of infratentorial brain tumors in children by MRI. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out on 30 patients (17 male, 57% and 13 female, 43%), their age ranged from 4 – 11 years old with the mean age 7.5 years. All patients were selected according to their presentation with cranially related manifestations and all were subjected to full history, full clinical data and radiological examination by MRI. Results: The MRI evaluation and histopathological reports showed that: 10 cases of cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (33%), 10 cases of medulloblastoma (33%), 4 cases of infr atentorial ependymoma (13%), 5 cases of brain stem glioma (17%) and one case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (3%). Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the primary imaging modality used for the assessment of intracranial tumors as MRI provides superior delineation of the extent of tumor.

[Mohamed T. Abd Alhak, Alya A. Elnaggar and Yasser M. Fekry Infratentorial Brain Tumors in Children: The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Differentiatial Diagnosis. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):239-245]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Infratentorial Brain Tumor; Children; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

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Historical transformation of vowel sounds from traditional Persian to current Bakhtiarian Izeh language

 

Nour Ali Ahmadi Falehi

 

The professor of Enghelabe Eslami technical college

             Email:  n_a_faleh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Backtiari area is located in south west of Iran in alignment with Zagros Mountain ,Covering 39900 Km, including towns such as Daran and Fereidan shahr (Isfahan Province), Aligodarz (Lorestan District), Dezfool, Andimeshk, Masjed soleiman, Izeh, Shoshtar (Khuzestan Province), Borojen, Lordegan, Farsan (Charmahal Backtiary Provincel). Ize is a small town with 3930km located in north east of Khuzestan province between eastern latitude (T) and northern altitude This town is, 200 KM to Ahvaz the capital of khozestan province. Among the population residing in this town, 108232 people are living in urban districts and the rest are the rural communication living at the countryside. This town is cold in autumn and winter and warm in spring and summer. Although Izeh is a part of Backtiarian area, but there are some important difference between the language common in Izeh area and other Backtiarian population. Many books and articles have been published regarding the history, culture and linguistic characteristics of the whole Backtiarian population. Among them we may refer to (1) conversation customs and beliefs of Backtiarian People (Adivi), (2) Backtiarian Language which is dominantly as a dictionary instead of paying attention to languages (Khosravi) (3) Backtiari language dictionary written by saral (2002) (4) summary of Backtiarian poems (Mir Ghayed) – 2003), (5), Backtarian legend (Daghighian), (6) poems (Divan) of Mulla Zolfali Backtiari (Backtiari – 1996) and a book a bout the history and geography of Ize which is part of the Islamic Encyclopedia  including also some common words and language in Backtiari which is different from Izeh Language. Since a significant part of Iranian population in khozestan, Isfahan, Fars and Lorestan provinces talk in this language ,this article is intending to focus on Historical transformation of vowel sounds from traditional P persian to current Bakhtiarian Izeh language. On the other hand, oil discovery in this area increased its importance for many geographic, sociologic researchers and historians, among them Scarmann was first foreigner who published some texts of Backtiary literature in 1904 and a Russian researcher, called Dimitry Jokovski published some of these texts in Saint Petersburg in 1923. In 1922, Lorimer and English officials working in Iran worked on some language in Iran as well as Backtiary language and published some of them in BSOAS Izeh area. Through the history of Backtiary population played a significant role in Iranian social political situation, and this society was under the attention of many tourists and researchers.

[Nour Ali Ahmadi Falehi. Historical transformation of vowel sounds from traditional Persian to current Bakhtiarian Izeh language. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):246-253]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: VOWEL, Ize, Backtiari, zagros, Khuzestan, urban, fucyclopedia, Iranian population, geographic, socilolgic.

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Nonlinear Analysis of Circular Composite Columns

 

Mohamed A. A. El-Shaer

 

Civil and Construction Engineering Department, Higher Technological Institute, 10th of Ramadan City, Cairo, Egypt

ecg_group@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The finite element is introduced to describe the behavior of circular columns: confined, partially confined or reinforced with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). Geometric and material nonlinearities are taken into consideration. The column is analyzed under axial force together with a biaxial moment applied at its ends. This paper presents the initial results of a study aimed at quantifying the increase in strength of columns due to introducing FRP in different methods. Results show that using FRP as external wrapping gives higher increase in strength than using it as embedded reinforcement.

[Mohamed A. A. El-Shaer Nonlinear Analysis of Circular Composite Columns. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 254-262].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keyword: Nonlinear Analysis of Circular Composite Columns

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Insecticide Resistance in Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea Operculella Zeller in Egypt

 

Hafez El-kady

 

Faculty of Agriculture at Damytta, Mansoura University, Egypt

 

Abstract: The potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera - Gelechiidae), is a major pest of the potatoes world-wide attacking the foliage and infest the tubers in both field and store causing serious economic damage. In this study, the efficacies of seven insecticides [organophosphate (Fenitrothion & Pirimiphos-methyl),  carbamate (Carbosulfan & Aldicarb), pyrethroid (Lambda-cyhalothrin & Deltamethrin) and imidaclopride (Confidor)] were determined against four strains of P. operculella collected from four Governorates in Egypt [Damytta (DAM), Dakahlia (DAK), Behera (BEH) and Menofia (MEN)]. Collected strains were bioassayed and compared with a reference susceptible strain. DAM and BEH strains recorded 193.4 and 23.3-fold resistance, respectively to fenitrothion and also recorded 133.7 and 23.6-fold resistance, respectively to pirimiphos-methyl. DAM and MEN strains recorded 87.2 and 23.8-fold resistance, respectively to lambda-cyhalothrin while DAM and BEH strains recorded 81.2 and 13.7-fold resistance, respectively to deltamethrin. DAM and MEN strains demonstrating 36.1 and 16.6-fold resistance, respectively to carbosulfan while DAM and BEH strains demonstrated 63.4 and 7.1-fold resistance, respectively to aldicarb, and also DAM and BEH strains recorded 134.7 and 15.3-fold resistance, respectively to confidor. These results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms of resistance present in the studied P. operculella strains and underpin the resistance management strategy for potato tuber moth in Egypt.

[Hafez El-kady Insecticide Resistance in Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea Operculella Zeller in Egypt. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):263-266].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Insecticide Resistance in Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea Operculella Zeller.

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The relationship between budget deficits and current account deficits

 

Neda Farahbakhsh 1, Mohammad Poorgholamali 2

 

1. Department of Economic, Islamic Azad University, Rood hen Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Financial Assistant of Statistics, Planning and Budget of Sepah Bank of Iran, Tehran, Iran

farahbakhsh1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: The significance of budget and current account deficits dates back to 1980s which trade and budget deficits dramatically increased in the United States. Two theories have been arisen about twin deficits: Keynesian theory and Ricardian equivalence. According to Keynes theory, the budget deficit affects the domestic and foreign economy, while the Ricardian equivalence neglates any relationship between budget deficit and other economic sectors including domestic or foreign. In this paper, two visions are theoretically studied and eventually the impact of budget deficit over the variables of domestic sector (private consumption and economic growth) and variable of foreign sector (current account deficit) within the period of (1985-2006) will be analyzed.  The review of this issue has been conducted for different countries (70 countries) which according to the world development indicators are categorized into 3 groups of high, middle and low- income countries. A summary of the acquired results would not affirm the relationship between the budget deficit and current account deficit, consumption and economic growth in the period of study in high-income countries. This relationship remains in force in middle and low income countries, in other words Ricardian equivalence is rejected in these countries.

[Neda Farahbakhsh, Mohammad Poorgholamali. The relationship between budget deficits and current account deficits. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):267-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Ricardian equivalence; Keynesian theory; twin deficits hypothesis; integration model

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Effects of rumen protein availability on transition ewe's performance

 

Tayyebeh Ajam Rangraz and Asadollah Teimouri Yansari

 

Department of Animal Science, Animal Science and Aquaculture faculty, Agricultural and Natural Resource University, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran. astymori@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two experiments carried out to determine the effects of rumen protein availability on ewe's performance at transition period. The first trial were performed using the in sacco method with two fistulated Zel ewes to determine degradability of untreated (UCM) and formaldehyde treated canola meal (FTCM; 4 ml/ 100 g CM). In second experiment, sixteen 3-years old pregnant Zel ewes (133 ± 4day in pregnancy) were fed ad libitum two rations that consisted of UCM and FTCM with same composition that offered as a TMR twice daily at 0900 and 2100 h. Formaldehyde treatment decreased a, b, potential degradable fractions and effective degradability for dry matter (DM) and crud protein (CP), with no effect on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation. The FTCM increased body weight before lambing and reduced body weight loss after parturition. There were no differences between DM intake (except on 2 weeks after lambing). Control treatment had greater digestibility for CP, NDF and ash than FTCM treatment. The body weight of lamb at birth, 7, 14 and 21 day after lambing and lamb’s daily gain were higher in treatment than control. Milk production, fat (% and kg/day), protein (kg/day) and total solid (%) content of milk increased in sheep that fed ration contained the FTCM. However, using FTCM enhanced milk production (13.2 % based on control), therefore, can be beneficial to high-producing dairy ewes.

[Tayyebeh Ajam Rangraz and Asadollah Teimouri Yansari. Effects of rumen protein availability on transition ewe's performance. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):276-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: transition ewe; formaldehyde treat; degradability; protein; milk yield

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Analyzing the required social supports from On-line interactions network in chat users in Tehran

 

Dr. Mehrdad Navabakhsh 1, Zahra Zare 2

 

1. full Professor , department of sociology , Science and Research Branch,Islamic Azad University (IAU)

2. Phd Student ,department of sociology , Science and Research Branch,Islamic Azad University (IAU)- Corresponding author: zahra_zare2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Social networks not only help to increase social captials but also expand the communications between people. This is important because we can see erosion of social captials in today world. Developing communication and information technologies provides people to have a virtual social network in a cyber space through their interactions and enjoy its supports. So, this study has tried to analyze the conditions of required social supports from Online Interaction Network in Tehran users in 2010-2011 through Online Questionnaire and ground theory. This study shows that Tehran On-line interactions users in their virtual social network in on-line interactions do not receive many supports from the network. It means that: 1) each person in his own network does not need or expect to receive some kinds of aid 2) companionship and advice is two main aids in this network. Since the social network of the person in real world is his main network and his support source, it seems that social network provides some kinds of supports which the person isn’t able to ask for or provide them in the real world. The most required support in Chat On-line interaction users is companionship. Undoubtedly, the received supports from virtual social network help people to compensate some support gaps in real world as well as expanding the communication.

[Mehrdad Navabakhsh, Zahra Zare. Analyzing the required social supports from On-line interactions network in chat users in Tehran. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):284-290]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Social network, social captials, virtual space, social support, virtual social support

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Impact of Educational Program among Open Heart Surgery Patients on Minimizing the Incidence of Post Operative Infections

 

Sahra Z. Azer1; Sanaa M. Alaa Eldeen2;  Mohammed Abd-Elwahb3;Amal M. Ahmed4

 

1Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, 2Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University,  3Cardiothoracic Surgery Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, 4Medical - Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University. *

sahra_zaki_azer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of educational program among open heart surgery patients on minimizing the incidence of post operative infections. Data were collected from cardiothoracic surgery department, intensive care unit, and outpatient clinic at Assiut University Hospital. The study was conducted on 60 adult patients with open heart surgery (30 - study group and 30 - control group) who have been selected randomly. Data were collected through: four tools; (cardiac surgery patient needs assessment sheet, cardiac teaching program based on individualized patient needs assessment, cardiac post operative observation checklist sheet, and cardiac post operative wound site infection evaluation sheet). Results of this study concluded that, more than half of the patients in study group 53.3 % were females, 70 % were married, and 40 % their ages ranged from 18 - 29 years. While the majority of the patients in the control group 63.3 % were male, 46.7 % were married, and 33.3 % from 30 - 39 years. Conclusion; Significant differences for improvements throughout educational program phases among study group regarding total score of knowledge and practice about open heart surgery. The study recommended that, pamphlets and simple illustration booklet should be available for patients illiterate to with simple explain how to safely live after open heart surgery. The patients must understand the importance of oral hygiene and visiting a dentist regularly because dental infections can affect the valve prosthetic.

[Sahra Z. Azer; Sanaa M. Alaa Eldeen;  Mohammed Abd-Elwahb;Amal M. Ahmed. Impact of Educational Program among Open Heart Surgery Patients on Minimizing the Incidence of Post Operative Infections. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):291-304]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words: Heart Surgery Patients on Minimizing the Incidence of Post Operative Infections

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Using Wind Energy and Fuel Cells to Construct an Autonomous Energy System

 

A.M. Agwa1 and S. A. Nagy2

 

1Electrical Engineering Department; 2Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: This research presents an assessment of using wind energy in addition to fuel cells instead of diesel generators in autonomous power system. A small community in Sinai (Abu Geida) is electrified for a period of 8 hours per day, in the context of which an autonomous power system based on a 48 kW diesel generator is installed. Simulation results based on wind energy plus fuel cells system has been developed for Abu Geida autonomous power system. The simulation and optimization of the case study have been performed by using the HOMER software tool.

[A. M. Agwa and S. A. Nagy Using Wind Energy and Fuel Cells to Construct an Autonomous Energy System. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 305-311]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Wind Energy, Fuel Cells, Autonomous Energy System

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Can We Predict Left Ventricular Dysfunction Induced Weaning Failure? Invasive & Echocardiographic Evaluation

 

Akram Abdelbary; Yasser Nassar; Khaled Hussein & W Ayoub

 

Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, critical care department

 

Abstract: Introduction:  Cardiovascular dysfunction may contribute to unsuccessful ventilator discontinuation & promote prolonged ventilator dependence. Aim: Studying the relation of weaning failure to development of LV diastolic dysfunction using echo & PA catheter Methods: Thirty invasively mechanically ventilated patients fulfilling criteria of weaning from mechanical ventilation & Shifted to SBT (using low PSV (8 cmH2O)) for 30 minutes. 2 sets of variables were measured at the beginning& end of the SBT; Weaning failure was defined as; Failed SBT, Reintubation and /or ventilation or death within 48 h .Following extubation ,Swan Ganz catheter was inserted to get the right atrial (RAP) ,pulmonary artery (PAP), pulmonary artery occlusion (PAOP) pressures, & cardiac index (CI). Using trans-thoracic Echocardiography; The LV internal diameter at end diastole (LVIDd) & end systole (LVIDs), Ejection fraction (LVEF %), E/A ratio; Deceleration time (DT), Isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT) in ms were measured & E/E` ratio using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).  Results: Mean age was 56.6 ±15.9 years, 53% were males. The outcome of weaning was successful in 76.6% of patients. The pts were subdivided into two groups according to weaning outcome; Group І: 23 pts (successful weaning), Group ІІ: 7 patients (failed weaning). RAP,PAOP&SVO2 were similar at the start of SBT(6.3±1.9 vs.7.6±2.3,p=0.1),(12±3.7 vs.14.6±3,p=0.4),(72±2.4 vs.71±3.1,p=0.1) between group І & ІІ yet significantly different at the end of SPT; (6.2±2.4 vs.10±3.5,p=0.01), (12.8±3.5 vs.19±5.4,p=0.004), (73±2.8 vs.66.6±7, p=0.009) respectively. CI was similar between group I &II at both ends of the SBT, p=0.5&0.9.Group I & II had similar LVIDs &EF at the beginning of SBT (3±0.7 vs. 3.3±0.5,p=0.2),(68±8vs.62±6,p=0.08) yet different at the end (3±0.6 vs. 3.5±0.5,p=0.048), (66±8vs.58±7, p=0.03) respectively. There was no significant differences in E/A,IVRT,DT yet significant difference in E/E' between group І &group ІІ at both ends of the trial; (1.04±0.4 vs. 0.97±0.3,p=0.78),(1.02±0.4 vs.1.07±0.4,p=0.78),(94±26 vs. 99.6±18, p=0.52),(97±22vs. 91±24,p=0.57),(194±31 vs. 196±30,p=0.98),(197±27 vs.189±33, p=0.6), (8.9±2 vs. 12.2±4, p=0.02), (9.4±2.3 vs. 13±5, p=0.02) respectively. Conclusions: LV dysfunction may have an impact on weaning outcome. Invasive monitoring as well as echocardiography and tissue Doppler indices may be reliable in monitoring and detection of LV dysfunction and subsequently may be possibly useful in improving weaning outcome  RAP may be particularly a reliable and easy method to monitor during the period of weaning.

[Akram Abdelbary; Yasser Nassar; Khaled Hussein & W Ayoub. Can We Predict Left Ventricular DysfunctionInduced Weaning Failure?Invasive & Echocardiographic Evaluation J Am Sci  2011; 7(10):312-319]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words:  mechanical ventilation, LV dysfunction, echocardiography& weaning failure

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A Complete General Logic-Based Intelligent Approach for HIF Detection and Classification in Distribution Systems

 

Ebrahim A. Badran, Elsaeed Abdallah, and Kamal M. Shebl

 

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

 

Abstract: The High Impedance Faults (HIFs) are the faults which are difficult to detect by overcurrent protection relays. In this paper a general logic-based intelligent approach for detecting and classifying the HIF in distribution systems is presented. The proposed approach recognizes the distortion of the current waveforms caused by the arc usually associated with HIF.  The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based pattern recognition is used for extracting the current signals.  Single line to ground, double line to ground, and three lines to ground faults are classified using three simple logic functions.  In order to detect the faulty feeder a general logic-based intelligent approach has been designed. The proposed approach is verified by applying several fault scenarios on IEEE-34 node test system. The proposed approach can be applied for any configuration, current rating or voltage rating.  The results confirm that the proposed approach accurately detects and classifies the HIF in the distribution systems.

[Ebrahim A. Badran, Elsaeed Abdallah, and Kamal M. Shebl  A Complete General Logic-Based Intelligent Approach for HIF Detection and Classification in Distribution Systems. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):320-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

 

Keywords: Fault Detection, Fault Classification, HIF, DWT, Distribution Systems

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Investigation of Ferroresonance in Offshore Wind Farms

 

        Ebrahim A. Badran, Member, IEEE, Mohammad E. M. Rizk, and Mansour H. Abdel-Rahman, Member, IEEE

 

Egypt

 

Abstract — Up to date, many literatures have investigated ferroresonance in electrical systems particularly distribution systems due to abnormal switching operations. Ferroresonance has bad effects on the insulation system and causes damages to surge arresters also. Recently, many researchers have investigated electromagnetic transients in offshore wind farms after the wide penetration of offshore wind farms in many countries as a renewable source of electricity. However, ferroresonance phenomenon has not been investigated in offshore wind farms. This paper investigates ferroresonance phenomenon and its bad effects in offshore wind farms.  The PSCAD/EMTDC program is used for modeling the offshore wind farm. The offshore wind farm investigated in this study consists of 72 wind turbines arranged in eight rows. Ferroresonance in offshore wind farm in this investigation is produced by three different abnormal switching operations. The results show that the transient overvoltages produced by ferroresonance have bad effects on the insulation of both submarine single-core cables and the transformers. The results show also the surge arrester damage due to the continuity of ferroresonance phenomena.  Furthermore, this paper suggests a protective method for suppression the ferroresonance in offshore wind farms.  The results show that the proposed protective method against ferroresonance gives high suppression to ferroresonance in offshore wind farms.

[Ebrahim A. Badran, Member, IEEE, Mohammad E. M. Rizk, and Mansour H. Abdel-Rahman, Member, IEEE. Investigation of Ferroresonance in Offshore Wind Farms. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):329-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words: Offshore Wind Farms, Ferroresonance Phenomenon, Abnormal Switching Operations, Wind Turbine Transformer (WTTs), Single Core Submarine Cables, Capacitor Banks.

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      A Comparative Study between intralesional Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Triamcinolone Acetonide for Treatment of Erosive-Atrophic Oral Lichen Planus.

 

Egypt

 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory mucosal disease in which T-cell mediated immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis. Various treatments have been employed to treat symptomatic OLP, but a complete cure is very difficult to achieve because of its recalcitrant nature. Topical corticosteroids therapy of OLP has shown conflicting results in many reports. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of topical intralesional 1% low molecular weight chitosan with topical intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide in the treatment of oral erosive and atrophic lichen planus and level of TNF-α. METHODS: Twenty patients with symptomatic OLP were randomly assigned treatment with intralesional 1% low molecular weight chitosan or Triamcinolone Acetonide. The assessments were at weeks 0, 2, 4, 16 by appearance score, pain score, and TNF-α of the target lesions. Results: Appearance score, pain score, and TNF-α, were reduced in both groups. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups regarding the response rate and relapse. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that 1% low molecular weight chitosan was as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide therapy without any adverse effects and it may be considered as an alternative treatment for erosive-atrophic OLP in the future.

[A Comparative Study between intralesional Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Triamcinolone Acetonide for Treatment of Erosive-Atrophic Oral Lichen Planus. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):338-345]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org. 42

 

Keywords: Chitosan; Triamcinolone Acetonide; Erosive-Atrophic Oral Lichen Planus.

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Alleviation of Cisplatin-induced Toxicities by Encapsulation IntoLiposomes in the Absence or Presence of GinkgoBiloba

 

Elawady A Ibrahim*§, Medhat W. Ismail**, Hossam S. Kareem***

 

Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza,   Egypt.

Physics Department, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Physiological Optics unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.

§ Corresponding Author: Elawady A Ibrahim

Mailing Address:  2 Al-Ahram Street Giza, Egypt.P.O.Box: 90

e-mail: amalawady@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Over the last three decades, cisplatin has been one of the most effective cytotoxic agents, but its administration has been hindered by its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, myelotoxicity, and retinal toxicity. Recently, liposomal cisplatin has been formulated and tested thoroughly in preclinical studies (in vitro). Experiments on animals showed that liposomal cisplatin is less toxic than cisplatin while keeping its anti tumor function.Antioxidants are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage by means of reducing the adverse effects of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species on the biochemical processes in the body, hence, they play an important role in the protection and defense mechanisms of the body. This study aims to reduce the adverse effects of cisplatin on the blood and the electroretinogram (ERG) of rabbits through the administration of liposomal cisplatin and by liposomal cisplatin combined with Ginkgo bilboa(G.b) . To achieve this goal, 36 albino rabbits were used and were divided into 6 groups, the first group didn't receive any treatment (control group), the second was given Ginkgo biloba only, the third one was administrated with IP cisplatin only, and the fourth was given oral Ginkgo biloba plus IP cisplatin. The fifth and sixth groups were administrated with liposomal cisplatin and liposomal cisplatin plus Ginkgo biloba respectively. Our results indicate that there was a reduction of some hematological parameters and ERG waves after the administration of cisplatin, while these values reached comparable values to the control level in the fifth and sixth groups.

[Elawady A Ibrahim, Medhat W. Ismail, Hossam S. Kareem. Alleviation of Cisplatin-induced Toxicities by Encapsulation IntoLiposomes in the Absence or Presence of GinkgoBiloba. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):346-356]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

KeyWords: Cisplatin, Liposomal cisplatin, Ginkgo biloba, ERG, Ocular toxicity, Chemotherapy, DSC, Haematotoxicity, Liposomes

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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of α-Aminophosphonates Bearing Neocryptolepine Moiety

 

Ibrahim El Sayed1*, Salah M. El Kosy1, Mohamed A. Hawata, Ahmed Abdel Aleem El Gokha, Aliaa Tolan and  Mostafa. M. Abd El-Sattar 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, El Menoufeia University, Shebin El Koom, Egypt

ibrahimtantawy@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: A novel amino-substituted neocryptolepine analogues 7 have been synthesized starting from methyl-1H- indole-3-carboxylate and N-methylaniline. The three pot reaction of 7 with aldehydes and triphenylphosphite in presence of zinc (II) triflate as a Lewis acid catalyst led to the formation of novel  α-aminophosphonate derivatives 10 bearing neocryptolepine moiety in good yields. The synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral  studies. The synthesized  products  have  been  screened in vitro  for  thei              antibacterial.                                                                                                                                                          [Ibrahim El Sayed, Salah M. El Kosy, Mohamed A. Hawata, Ahmed Abdel Aleem El Gokha, Aliaa Tolan and  Mostafa. M. Abd El-Sattar .opySynthesis and Antibacterial Activity of α-Aminophosphonates Bearing Neocryptolepine Moiety. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):357-361]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: neocryptolepine, α-aminophosphonates, Lewis acid, antibacterial agents

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Impact of Peer Education Using Group Approach and Procalcitonin detection on Peripheral Intravenous Catheter-

Related Blood Stream Infections and Associated Complications among Mansoura University Patients

 

Karima Elshamy 1, Maggie R Mesbah 2

 

1. Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2. Microbiology and Medical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

Correspondence to: Dr. Karima Elshamy, Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University

Karima_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A peripheral venous catheter (PVC), also known as peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs), peripheral venous line or peripheral venous access catheter is a catheter (small, flexible tube ≤ 7.5cm in length) usually inserted in the veins of the forearm or hand. This article describes the Impact of Peer Education Using Group Approach and Procalcitonin detection on Peripheral Intravenous Catheter.

[Karima Elshamy, Maggie R Mesbah. Impact of Peer Education Using Group Approach and Procalcitonin detection on Peripheral Intravenous Catheter. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):462-472]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Peer Education; Procalcitonin detection; Peripheral Intravenous Catheter

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 The Effect of Postoperative Pain Assessment and Management Monitoring Program on Surgical Nurses’ Documentation, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Patients' Satisfaction at Mansoura University Hospitals

 

Karima Elshamy 1Eiad Ramzy 2

 

1   Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2   Department of Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

Correspondence to: Dr. Karima Elshamy, Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University

Karima_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Post operative pain is an expected adverse outcome following surgery and it often delays mobilization and overall recovery. Acute post operative pain is subjective and cannot be measured directly.Aims: The aim of this study was to: 1- Assess nurses' postoperative pain assessment and management documentation of pain in the first three days postoperatively in the surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals. 2-Assess nurses’ knowledge of and attitudes toward pain in the surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals.3- Assess nurses’ communication with patients and their satisfaction of pain management, and 4-Evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a postoperative pain assessment and management program (POPAM) on improving nurses’ documentation, knowledge, attitudes, communication with the patients and their satisfaction of pain management .Subjects and Method: The POPAM program was implemented for six months during the period of Data were collected by interviewing 18 nurses working in surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals. The program was evaluated by means of a quasi-experimental pre-post test design Documentation of pain in the first three days postoperatively in the patients' records were audited, nurses’ knowledge of and their attitudes toward pain, and, assessment of nurses’ communication about pain with patients and their satisfaction about nurses’ intervention were assessed before and after implementing the program.

[Karima Elshamy, Eiad Ramzy. The Effect of Postoperative Pain Assessment and Management Monitoring Program on Surgical Nurses’ Documentation, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Patients' Satisfaction at Mansoura University Hospitals.  J Am Sci 2011;7(10): 373-387].  (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: postoperative pain, nurses´ knowledge, nurses´ attitudes, surgical wards, pain management program, acute pain

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Disposition of Staff Nurses’ Critical Thinking and its Relation to Quality of their Performance at Mansoura University Hospital

 

Reda Shehata El-sayed1, Wafaa Fathi Sleem1, Neamat Mohamed El-sayed1 and Fardos Abd el-Fatah Ramada2

 

1Nursing Administration, Faculty Of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2General Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

 

Abstract: Along with the evolution in the scope of nursing practice, there has been greater autonomy for nurses and a growing demand for expanded critical thinking abilities. Therefore, Critical thinking in nursing is an essential component of professional accountability and quality of nursing performance. So, this study aimed to examine the relationship between the disposition of staff nurses toward critical thinking and quality of their performance at Mansoura University Hospital. Cross sectional descriptive design was used for staff nurses working at all general medical and surgical units of Mansoura University Hospital. It included 95 staff nurses (35 staff nurses working at medical units and 60 staff nurses at surgical units). Data collected through two tools: the first tool consists of two parts; the first part was intended to collect demographic characteristics; and the second part was The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The second tool was Observation checklist to measure staff nurses ' performance. Within the total sample (n=95) the relationship between the disposition of staff nurses toward critical thinking and quality of their performance was statistically significant.       

[Reda Shehata El-sayed, Wafaa Fathi Sleem, Neamat Mohamed El-sayed and Fardos Abd el-Fatah Ramada Disposition of Staff Nurses’ Critical Thinking and Its Reflection onQuality of Their Performance at Mansoura University Hospital. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):388-395]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: disposition critical thinking, quality of performance, staff nurses' performance

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Nursing Guidelines For Improving Foot Care Practecies For Adult Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Based on National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines, 2004.

 

Fathia Ahmed Mersal, Nahed Ahmed Mersal

 

Community health nursing Department, Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract :  Foot problems are a common complication in people with diabetes. Fortunately, most of these complications can be prevented with careful foot care. If complications occur, daily attention will ensure before they become serious.  These complications have been shown to be already present in about 10% of diabetic patients at the time of diagnosis. Teaching patients proper foot care is a nursing intervention that can prevent costly, painful, and debilitating complications. Half of all major leg amputations in the UK are performed on people with diabetes who have uncontrolled ulceration, infection, and gangrene. Morbidity and mortality associated with the diabetic foot are unacceptably high, there is a perceived need for evidence-based guidelines to improve outcomes in management of the diabetic foot, which is a major public health problem, In response to this, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has published Clinical Guidelines in Prevention and Management of Foot Problems (2004) for Type 2 Diabetes.  This study aims to improve foot care practice for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus .A quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in Eldemerdash outpatient clinic for diabetes, Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, on a sample of 180 type 2 diabetic patients randomly divided into two equal study and control groups. Data were collected using interview questionnaire, foot care practice scores; foot care guideline was developed based on NICE Guidelines and implemented on the study group. Data were collected at pre-post, and 3 months follow up phases. The finding of this study revealed that the mean age of the study and control group was 39.3±5.6 and 40.3±4.9 years respectively. About (19.8%) of patients in the study and control (20.5%) groups had previous exposure to foot injury, health information needs were very high in both groups. At post and follow up tests, patients in the study group had satisfactory knowledge, 95.3% and 87.2% respectively (p<0.001), compared to 24.4% and 23.2% respectively in the control group, in the study group adequate practice were 96.5% and 79.1% at the post and follow up phases among patients in the study group, compared to 16.8% and 13.2% respectively in the control group (p<0.001), It was concluded that foot care knowledge and practice for diabetic adults were improved after guidelines.

[Fathia Ahmed Mersal, Nahed Ahmed Mersal. Nursing Guidelines For Improving Foot Care Practecies For Adult Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.  J Am Sci 2011;7(10): 396-403] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, foot care practices, NICE guidelines.

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New markers of disease activity in children with atopic dermatitis

 

Abdel hakeem Abdel mohsen,1 Hosam  Abdel wahab.,2 and Emad Allam 3

 

From the Departments of Pediatrics,1 Dermatology and Andrology,2 and Clinical Pathology,3 Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with 2 phases, acute and chronic..  Recent studies had shown that inducible nitric oxide synthetase (i NOS) is expressed in the atopic skin lesion, suggesting the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the skin inflammation of AD. Soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) adhesion molecules expressed on endothelial cells can regulate leukocyte migration and shed into the circulation. Their level in the serum is known to reflect the degree of systemic inflammation, and therefore be used as a marker of inflammations and activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of serum nitrate and sE-selectin concentrations in relation to severity and clinical course of atopic dermatitis in children. Serum Nitrate and sE-selectin levels were assessed in 40 patients with AD (24 males and 16 females) aged 8-84 months and 16 healthy children as controls (9 boys and 7 girls) aged 6-60 months by ELIZA. Serum nitrate and sE-selectin concentrations in patients with AD were significantly increased as compared to non-atopic controls (P<0.001) and there were also significant differences between subgroups of AD (mild, moderate and severe) as compared to controls and among subgroups themselves. The levels of both markers were significantly diminished after treatment of severe cases of AD. Significant correlations were present between serum nitrate levels, sE-selectin levels, disease activity and eosinophilic count, but no correlation was found between serum nitrate and sE-selectin levels. Our results indicate that NO and Soluble E-selectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD skin and could be used as indicators of   disease severity and activity

[Abdel hakeem Abdel mohsen, Hosam  Abdel wahab.,and Emad Allam. New markers of disease activity in children with atopic dermatitis.  J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):404-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words; Atopic dermatitis, sE-selectin and Nitric oxide

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Platelet-Associated CD154 in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children

 

AbdelHakeem Abdel Mohsen*, Sawsan M El Banna*, Asharaf M Othman**, Hazem M Salah*

 

*Department of pediatrics faculty of medicine Al-Minya University Egypt

 *Department of clinical pathology faculty of medicine Al-Minya University Egypt

 

Abstract: Background; CD40-ligand (CD154) is expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes and is essential for the T cell–dependent activation of B lymphocytes. CD154 is also expressed at the activated platelet surface. Objective; to investigate the role of CD154 in ITP pediatric patients and correlate their levels with the course and progression of the disease.  Subjects and Methods; This study included 25 patients with acute ITP (13 Females and 12 males) with age ranged between 2-6 years (group1).and 25 patients with chronic ITP (14 Females and 11 Males) with age ranged between 8 – 12 years (group II) also 25 apparently healthy children, (10 Females and 15 Males) with age ranged between 3-12years as control (group III). Studied groups were subjected to the following investigations; complete blood counts, bone marrow examination and flowcytometric analysis of CD154 B lymphocyte counts Results; We found that there was a highly significant increase in CD154in patients with acute ITP compared with chronic ITP and control group p0.001 and 0.0001 respectively) also there was a negative correlation between CD154  and platelet count  in acute and chronic groups (r=-0.6, p=0.004 and r=-0.5, p=0.005 respectively) Also there was a positive correlation between CD154 and lymphocytic count in acute and chronic groups (r=0.422, p=0.007 and r=0.77, p=0.001 respectively), Conclusion; the increased number of CD154 might be one of the mechanisms that cause immune regulation dysfunction in ITP also the count is related to the severity of the disease as it was highly increased in acute phase than chronic and therefore CD154 expression is increased in ITP and is able to drive the activation of auto reactive B lymphocytes in this disease.

[AbdelHakeem Abdel Mohsen  ,Sawsan M El Banna,  Asharaf M Othman, Hazem M Salah. Platelet-Associated CD154 in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):409-415] (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org

 

Keyword: Platelet-Associated CD154 in Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children

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Evaluation Fiber Properties of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes under Different Environments Using Geometric Method

 

*Abeer S. Arafa and O.D.M. Nour

 

Cotton Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Sameh_owf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The colored areas under graph are used to evaluate the behavior of the Egyptian genotypes under different locations and comparing its results with classic statistical method. The Egyptian cotton cultivars, namely, Giza 80, Giza 90 and the H6 genotype [G83x(G75x5844)] were grown at four  different locations at upper Egypt, namely; El-fayoum, El-menia , Sohag, and El-matana .  While, the Egyptian cotton cultivars, namely, Giza 88, Giza 92 and H10 genotype [G84x (G70xG51b)x pima62] were grown at four  different locations at delta, namely; El -dkahlia , kafr El-sheikh, el-Behira and Damietta . The Experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The Upper Egypt genotypes gave their best fiber quality under Loc 4 except for, the H6 genotype gave the best fiber quality under Loc 3 . However, all the genotypes couldn't adapted to the weather conditions of the first locations . In contrast , the first location exhibited the highest fiber properties for Giza 88 and Giza 92 cultivars while the second location exhibited the highest fiber properties for H10 genotype .The color area under radar graph indicated those results as clear as compared with the statistical analysis.

 [Abeer S. Arafa and O.D.M. Nour Evaluation Fiber Properties of Some Egyptian Cotton Genotypes under Different Environments Using Geometric Method. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):416-421]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: cotton-genotypes-fiber-properties-location-climate

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From Simnan to Kichowcha

 

Nayereh Abyat

 

Center for International Religious Studies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

abyat1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The most powerful wave of expansion of Islam in Indian subcontinent is indebted to the migration of scholars, mystics, and Jurists to India. Scholars believe that the contribution of Sufis in preaching Islam in India was both positive and enormous. They developed close contacts with the local people socially and culturally and preached Islam amongst them. Four Sufi orders i.e. Chishtiyeh, Sohravardiyeh, Qaderiyeh and Naqshbandiyeh have been popular in India from early days till our times and are known more than other orders in India. The Sufis of the subcontinent are in some way or the other connected with these four schools of Sufi order. The shrines and tombs of prominent Sufis of all these orders are situated in Indian subcontinent and are centers of congregation during annual URS i.e. the date of death of the master Sufi. One of followers of Chishtiyeh is Mir Seyed Ashraf Jahangir Simnani from Simnan city of Iran. He left Iran for his destined goal in 8 century. After the long distance and passing through different cities of India, he reached to Sheikh Ala al-Haq in India.Then he went to small town called Kichowcha and their expansion of Islam and mysticism there. This article is about Seyed Ashraf Simnani’s life and his influence among Indian and unknown small town called Kichowcha near Ahmedabad and Lacknow.

[Nayereh Abyat. From Simnan to Kichowcha. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):422-431]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Chishtiyeh; Ashrafiya; Seyed Ashraf; Jahangir; Simnan; Kichowcha

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Social capital and participatory actions among aged population of Ahwäz, Iran

 

A. Asadollahi 1, A. H. Hoseinzadeh 2, N. Ahmad 3

 

1. Department of Social Work, University of Applied Science and Technology (UAST), Ahwäz, Iran

2. Department of Sociology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwäz, Ahwäz, Iran

3. Department of Development Studies & Deputy Dean, Institute for Social Sciences, Ahwäz, Iran

asadollahi1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The importance of social capital and its variables including participatory actions and voluntarily behaviors can be considered for higher age ranges and elderly. Using randomized stratified sampling, 194 elderly in Ahwäz participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to groups of experiment and control groups. It was demonstrated that the two conceptual fields of participation; interaction structures (networks) and the quality of relationships (norms) have significant statistical correlation with voluntarily actions of the elderly in the experiment group. The findings were along with that of other research in the elderly study field decreased social participation, and reduction in elements of social capital is associated with literacy and social awareness. Nevertheless, investment in establishment and development of anticipatory variables of social capital for the elderly will surely affect their attitude toward an effective end for their individual social life.  

[A. Asadollahi , A. H. Hoseinzadeh , N. Ahmad. Social capital and participatory actions among aged population of Ahwäz. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):432-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Elderly Population of Khuzestan; social capital; participatory actions; social participation

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Performance Status and the Number of the Metastatic Sites are Powerful Prognostic Factors in Patients with Carcinomas of Unknown Primary Site

 

*Mohamed El-Shebiney and Alaa Maria

 

Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Gharbia, Egypt

*melshibiny@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Previous studies dealing with prognostic features in patients with carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUP) identified a number of independent adverse variables such as male sex, a poor performance status, a high number of metastatic sites, the presence of liver metastases, and an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level. Because conclusions drawn from small series are limited, many authors have advocated for the design of randomized trials in CUP patients. Methods: Univariate and multivariate prognostic factor analyses were conducted in a population of 84 consecutive patients with CUP who were evaluated at Oncology Department, Tanta University Hospital from January 2006 to March 2010. Results: Univariate prognostic factor analysis revealed baseline performance status (PS) of two or more, >1 metastatic sites,  poorly or undifferentiated adenocarcinoma, lung metastasis, liver metastasis, brain metastasis and low serum albumin levels  as adverse clinical and biologic prognostic factors. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that, poor PS and >1 metastatic sites had the most powerful adverse impact on survival. We developed a prognostic model using those two variables; a good-risk group (PS 0–1 with 1 metastatic site) and a poor-risk group (PS ≥2 and/or >1 metastatic sites). The poor-risk group showed significantly poorer overall survival (OS) than the good-risk group (1 year OS 5.08% versus 40% respectively, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Cancers of unknown primary site has a poor prognosis. Poor PS and >1 metastatic sites were identified as adverse prognostic factors in CUP. Consideration of the authors’ to improve the prognostic model for survival of patients with CUP is warranted.

[Mohamed El-Shebiney and Alaa Maria Performance Status and the Number of the Metastatic Sites are Powerful Prognostic Factors in Patients with Carcinomas of Unknown Primary Site. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):442-447].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Metastasis of unknown primary site, prognostic factors.

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Maternal Serum soluble Endoglin Level as Early Predictor for Pre-eclampsia

 

Mohamed A. Al-Nory1; Adel F. Al-Kholy2; Mamdouh Z. Abadier 2 and Ibrahim Rageh 3

 

Departments of 1Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2Medical Biochemistry and 3Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

adeladel59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To compare serum soluble endoglin (sEng) in women developed pre-eclampsia (PE group) versus those free of hypertensive manifestations (Control group) till delivery and to evaluate the predictability of single estimation versus sequential estimations for the development of PE. Patients & Methods: The study included all primipara attending the antenatal care unit prior to the 12th week gestational age (GA) so as to select 90 pregnant PE women. Then, all women attended the clinic 4-weekly till delivery for follow-up and to donate blood sample for serum sEng estimation. Women developed PE were categorized according to time of development of PE into Early- and Late-onset PE and stopped blood donation once diagnosed.  Results: Thirty-eight women developed early and 52 women developed late-onset PE. Mean serum sEng estimated at 16th week GA were significantly higher in early compared to late-onset PE, despite the non-significant difference at 12th week GA and so the difference between 16th and 12th week estimations was significantly higher with early versus late-onset PE. Serum sEng estimated at time of PE diagnosis was significantly higher in early compared to late-onset PE. Serum sEng levels estimated at 12th week GA showed positive significant correlation with the possibility of development of PE and systolic blood pressure and at cutoff point of 14 ng/ml could identify women liable to develop PE with high sensitivity, but was a weak point for differentiation between early and late PE, while on 16th week GA at cutoff point of 6 ng/ml could specifically identify women liable to develop early-onset PE  Conclusion: Serum sEng at 12th week GA could be used as a sensitive screening test for women liable to development of PE and 4-weeks sequential estimation of serum sEng in susceptible women could specifically identify women liable to develop early-onset PE prior to clinical diagnosis.

[Mohamed A. Al-Nory; Adel F. Al-Kholy, Mamdouh Z. Abadier and Ibrahim Rageh Maternal Serum soluble Endoglin Level as Early Predictor for Pre-eclampsia. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):448-453].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Pre-eclampsia, Soluble Endoglin, Sequential  levels

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Flutamide Induces Xenoestrogenic Environment in Rat testes: Light and Electromicroscopic Evaluation

 

Abdel Wanes Alawdan; Sadeia Shalaby; Essam Mehlab; Omar Abdul Aziz and Ali M. Ali

 

Departments of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

 

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the toxic effects of prenatal flutamide exposure on testicular structure and ultrastructure of pubertal rats.  Materials and Methods: 40 newly born male albino rats were divided into: Control group: included 10 offspring whose mothers were injected subcutaneously by vehicle only from the 10th gestational day until birth and Study group: included 20 offspring whose mothers were injected by flutamide in a dose of 5 mg /day dissolved in vehicle from the 10th gestational day until birth. When rats reached the adult age, they were sacrificed and both testicles were removed and prepared for light microscopic (LM) and electron microscopic (EM) examination.  Results: LM examination of treated animals' specimens showed seminiferous tubules containing few numbers of germ cells, spermatogonia and spermatocytes with degenerated material in the cavity, but contains no sperms. Part of the seminiferous tubule contained edematous fluid in between the germ cells and the lumen of the tubule contains debris of degenerated cells. EM examination showed little number of degenerated primary spermatocytes and Sertoli cells with multiple vacuoles in their cytoplasm, but no sperms were detected in lumen. Higher magnifications showed degenerated Sertoli cells with multiple vacuoles in its cytoplasm and degenerated spermatogonia. In other parts of the seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cells appeared deeply infolded (lobulated nucleus) with vacuolated cytoplasm. Degenerated spermatogonia with rounded nuclei and patches of heterochromatin appeared resting on irregular basal lamina. Degenerated spermatocytes with shrunken nuclei were also seen. Basal lamina was distorted with collagen deposits. Sertoli cells cytoplasm contained scanty mitochondria with loss of its cristae.   Conclusion: Prenatal exposure to flutamide has deleterious effect on adult testicular function as regards spermatogenesis with proved ultrastructural changes and pregnant females should be instructed to avoid exposure to flutamide either as occupational exposure or as therapeutic use.  

[Abdel Wanes Alawdan ; Sadeia Shalaby; Essam Mehlab; Omar Abdul Aziz and Ali M. Ali Flutamide Induces Xenoestrogenic Environment in Rat testes: Light and ElectromicroscopicEvaluation.  J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 454-462].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Flutamide, prenatal exposure, ultrastructure changes

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Targeting PCOS-associated Insulin Resistance: Aerobic Exercise and Hypocaloric Diet without Medications could adjust the Hyperandrogenic milieu and help Induction of Ovulation in Infertile PCOS women

 

Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny1 and Adel F. Al-Kholy2

 

Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology1 and Medical Biochemistry2, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

*adeladel59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the impact of weight reduction and exercise interventions on ovulatory function of infertile polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women. Patients & Methods: 90 infertile PCOS women diagnosed depending on the Rotterdam criteria underwent anthropometric measurements and determination of body fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percent body fat (BF%) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin (FPI) and serum testosterone (Test), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured and free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) with HOMA-IR score >2 was considered insulin resistant (IR). All women performed 6-months weight-reduction dieting regimen in association with no exercise (Group A), aerobic exercise (Group B) or combined aerobic-resistance exercise (Group C). All measures were evaluated at 3 and 6-months but ovulation was monitored monthly. Results: At end of 6-months, all women showed significant change of anthropometric measures with significantly higher extent of change in groups B and C compared to group A. Also, IR was significantly modulated with significant reduction of HOMA-IR compared to pre-treatment levels; however, change was least in Group A and only 15 of 63 women were still IR. Serum testosterone and SHBG levels estimated at 6-m showed significant difference compared to baseline levels in groups B and C and all groups showed progressive decrease of FAI with significantly lower FAI level in group B compared to group A. Fifty-nine women got ovulation with ovulatory success rate of 65.6% with non-significant difference among studied groups. Conclusion: Weight reduction regimens associated with aerobic physical exercise intervention could induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity with subsequent amelioration of inhibitory effect of obesity and insulin resistance on the reproductive function and adjustment of the hyperandrogenic milieu.

[Mohamad F. Al-Sherbeny and Adel F. Al-Kholy Targeting PCOS-associated Insulin Resistance: Aerobic Exercise and Hypocaloric Diet without Medications could adjust the Hyperandrogenic milieu and help Induction of Ovulation in Infertile PCOS women. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):463-469].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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Single-setting Combined Uvulopalatopharyngeoplasty and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Therapeutic Modality for Obesity-associated Obstructive Sleep Apnea

 

Ahmed F. Allam1; Mohamed F. Shindy1; Ahmed A. Al-Shal1 and Gamal I. El-Habbaa 2

 

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology1 and General Surgery2, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

Shindy_Fahmy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of single-setting laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and uvulopalatopharyngeoplasty (UPPP) as a management policy for Obesity-associated sleep-disordered breathing.

Patients & Methods: The study included 23 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) with body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m2. Preoperative OSAS evaluation included Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and polysomnography to determine the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). OSAS was diagnosed if the patients demonstrated an AHI ≥15/h or ≥5/h with an ESS ≥10. Body weight (BW) and BMI were evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery and the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) and the percentage of excess BMI loss (%EBMIL). AHI and ESS score were re-determined at 6 months after surgery and percentage of change was determined. Results: Mean total theatre time was 105.3±10.7, mean time till first ambulation was 2.5±0.7 hours, mean time for first oral intake was 41±11.2 hours and mean hospital stay was 4.9±0.8 days. LSG and postoperative dieting regimen allowed significant progressive BW reduction with a progressive increase of %EWL and %EBMIL at 6 months after surgery compared to percentages reported at 3 months after surgery. Moreover, BMI strata showed progressive change with 21 women had BMI <35 and only 2 had BMI >35 but <40 kg/m2. Both ESS score and AHI evaluated at 6 months PO were significantly reduced compared to preoperative measures. At 6-m after surgery, the mean percentage of decrease of ESS and AHI were 66.3±10.5 (45.5-85.7%) and 80.4±7.5% (67.2-91%), respectively. Conclusion: Combined LSG and UPPP improved outcome of bariatric surgery for management of obesity-related OSAS without prolongation of theatre time or interfering with scheduled PO care of gastrectomy patients and should be advocated for management of such patients.

[Ahmed F. Allam; Mohamed F. Shindy; Ahmed A. Al-Shal and Gamal I. El-Habbaa Single-setting Combined Uvulopalatopharyngeoplasty and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy as a Therapeutic Modality for Obesity-associated Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):470-478].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Obesity, Uvulopalatopharyngeoplasty Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

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The Protective Role of Brown Alga (Sargassum Crassifolia) Against the Degenerative Toxic Effects Induced by Nimbecidin in Muscles of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus L.

 

Hawazin H. Mutawie1 and Asmaa M. Hegazi2

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Aquatic Pathology, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Al-Qanater, Cairo, Egypt   hhmutawie@uqu.edu.sa        dr.amhegazy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential effect of the brown alga Sargassum crassifolia against biochemical and histological alterations in the muscles of fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to 1/10 LC50 (0.03 ppm ) of Nimbecidin (azadirachtin).  S. crassifolia was added to the basal diet of fish in different proportions (0, 10 and 25%) and the experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Exposure of fish to Nimbecidin induced significant decrease in the activity of reduced glutathione, catalase and in the total protein content of fish muscles. Also many histopathological changes including degeneration and necrosis, disorganized myofibers with chromophobic cytoplasm, haemocytic infiltration, oedema and inflammations were noticed in Nimbecidine - treated fish. Exposing fish to Nimbicidin and  Sargassum crassifolia (10% and 25% ) led to marked improvement in the examined biochemical parameters together with the histological structure of muscles . This improvement was more obvious at high concentration of Sargassum crassifolia.   In conclusion , the results of the present work indicated that the brown alga Sargassum crassifolia had ameliorative effect against muscle damage induced by Nimbicidin and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant activities.

[Hawazin H. Mutawie and Asmaa M. Hegazi The Protective Role of Brown Alga (Sargassum Crassifolia) Against the Degenerative Toxic Effects Induced by Nimbecidin in Muscles of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis Niloticus L. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 479-488].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Sargassum crassifolia, Oreochromis niloticus, antioxidant, neem, Nimbecidin, muscles, Glutathione, Catalase, Total protein.

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he Association of Resistin Polymorphism (3’UTR+62G®A) with Insulin Resistance and Hypertension at High Fat Diet Induced Type2 Diabetes in Rats: Experimental Study

 

Enas N. Morgan1 and Amal M H. Mackawy2

 

1Department of Physiology; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig, University, Zagazig, Egypt

omarpubmed@yahoo.com          amalmackawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Resistin, an adipocyte- and monocyte- derived cytokine that thought to be the missing link between obesity and diabetes. It also probably plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance. This factor considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of type2 diabetes and insulin resistance-related hypertension. Recently, gene polymorphism is considered one of the most important factors that determine occurrence of diseases. Resistin gene polymorphism (UTR+62G>ASNP) may be a possible factor that link the hypertension with type 2DM. Aim: We aimed to investigate the correlation between resistin gene polymorphism (UTR+62G>A SNP) with serum resistin levels and if it is associated with insulin resistance-related hypertension in high fat diet- induced diabetes in rats (type 2 DM). Method: The current study was carried on 100 adult albino rats that have been divided into two groups. Group I: included 20 rats that were served as control group. Group II: that included 80 rats and they were given high fat diet for 16 weeks. At the end of the study, the blood pressure has been measured for both groups. Then the blood samples were collected to examine the serum glucose level, lipid profile level, serum resistin levels, the serum insulin levels and the allele and genotype frequencies of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (UTR+62G>A SNP)  in both groups. Insulin resistance was determined using HOMA-IR. The correlation of the gene variant to the hypertension, plasma resistin and insulin resistance have been investigated. Results: In the different diabetic groups, there was a significant association of the resistin A and G alleles of group IIb and group IIc when compared to controls (X2=12.21, X2=46.88, P=0.000) respectively. However, in group IIa the A and G allele were not significantly changed when compared to controls (X2=1.457, P=0.2). Serum resistin levels were significantly increased in group IIa, group IIb and group IIc in comparison with the control group (t=4.72, t= 9.82, and t=17.64/ P=0.000) respectively with a significant increase in group IIc than group IIb (t=8.23, P=0.000). There was a significant positive correlation between serum resistin and insulin levels(r=0.939, P< 0.0001). In all groups, rats with GG genotypes carriers were found to have a significant increase of serum resistin, total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin levels and HOMA index levels compared to AA genotype (P<0.0001). In conclusion: This study suggested that, the 62G/A polymorphism in resistin gene; genotype GG and G allele were significantly associated with increased serum resistin levels, hypercholesterolemia, increased insulin levels, and also associated with increased risk of insulin resistance and hypertension in obese diabetic rats.

[Enas N. Morgan and Amal M H. Mackawy The Association of Resistin Polymorphism (3’UTR+62G®A) with Insulin Resistance and Hypertension at High Fat Diet Induced Type2 Diabetes in Rats: Experimental Study. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 489-498].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: resistin, UTR+62G>A SNP, gene- polymorphism, Obesity, Diabetes, Hypertension.

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A new species of genus Philbyella China, 1938 (Nogodinidae, Fulgoromorpha, Hemiptera) from Gabal Elba, Egypt

 

Rawda M. Badawy; Hayam El Hamouly and Rabab F. Sawaby

 

Entomology Departement, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

 

Abstract: Philbyella adeiba is described as a new species from two males and one female which collected from Wadi Adeib (Gabal Elba), family Nogodinidae is recorded as a new from Egypt. The species is characterized by the patches and spots on vertex, pronotum, mesonotum, frons, antennae and ovipositor. The structure of male and female genitalia has distinct features. Detailed description accompanied with figures were given.

[Rawda M. Badawy; Hayam El Hamouly and Rabab F. Sawaby A new species of genus Philbyella China, 1938 (Nogodinidae, Fulgoromorpha, Hemiptera) from Gabal Elba, Egypt. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 499-502].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

        

Key wards: Fulgoromorpha, Philbyella, new species, new recorded family and colored images.  

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The Effect of Ergonomic Intervention Program on Neck Pain among Computer Employees at a Communication Company in Zagazig City

 

Sohair A. Hagag* and Sahar A. Abou El-Magd

 

Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine- Zagazig University

*dr.sohierhagag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: work- related neck disorders are a major health problem in many occupations, so many epidemiological studies dealing with them. The objectives of this study to determine the prevalence of neck pain among communication company employees, to explore some socio demographic and occupational risk factors of neck pain, to plan for an ergonomic health education and physical exercise programs and to evaluate the effect of this program after 3 months using the same pre- test questionnaire.  Subjects and methods: This study was carried out at the governmental communication company in Zagazig city. One hundred and thirty employees were randomly selected from the workstations and were subjected to a pre-constructed questionnaire included socio demographic, occupational and Ergonomic features in the workplace.  An ergonomic educational program was applied after addressing the Northwick neck pain questionnaire to measure neck pain and the consequent patient disability. Evaluation of the program was done after 3 months. Results: The mean age of the participants was 42.75+ 9 years, 58.5% were females, 80% were married and 91.5% were nonsmokers. The percentage of chronic headache was 24.6%, the majority of them had psychosocial troubles (70.8%). Neck pain prevalence was 61.5%. The present study revealed that body mass index had significant association with neck pain (p < 0.05). Also employment duration, chronic headache, psychosocial troubles and boring work had significant association with neck pain. After application of the ergonomic health education program the change in monitor level and keyboard position had statistically significant difference. Neck pain had also improved among communication employees after application muscular exercise program.Conclusion: current study concluded that there is a relationship between neck pain among computer users and some risk factors as duration of employment, body mass index, boring work, psychosocial troubles and chronic headache. Application of Ergonomic Education program and neck physical exercises can reduce neck pain among computer employees. Recommendation: application of periodic ergonomic health education programs for refreshing employees knowledge and provide new employees with required knowledge also physical exercise program should be a part of daily work schedule. Further researches should be focused on risk factors of neck pain among computer employees.

[Sohair A. Hagag and Sahar A. Abou El-Magd The Effect of Ergonomic Intervention Program on Neck Pain among Computer Employees at a Communication Company in Zagazig City. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 503-509].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: neck pain- work related- computer- Ergonomic- intervention

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Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome on Quality of Life among Female Patients Attending Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinics in Zagazig University Hospital

 

Sohair A Hagag*1 , Shereen Eassa1and Mahmoud Abdou Aashour2

 

Community Medicine and Public Health1& Internal medicine2 Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

*dr.sohierhagag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: little is known about the health- related quality of life(HRQOL) of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Although it is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. The illness is characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain and altered bowel habits .These symptoms can adversely affect HRQOL of people who suffer from IBS. Objectives of this study: to assess QOL of females with irritable bowel syndrome and to find the relationship between severity, duration and types of IBS and QOL.  Subjects and methods : a case – control  study ,93 Female patients suffer from (IBS)  attending internal medicine outpatient clinic of Zagazig  University Hospital  were included in this study, compared to control group( 93 females). Data was collected using 1- structured questionnaire covering some socio-demographic data, 2- Rome11 criteria of IBS diagnostic questionnaire, 3-a generic QOL (SF 36) questionnaire. Results: females with IBS had worse QOL of physical functioning,  role limitation due to physical health,  role limitation due to emotional problems,  vitality ,social functioning, pain, emotional wellbeing and general health  perception compared to controls p<0.05.  Female patients suffered from severe IBS symptoms had a significantly poor QOL of domains (physical functioning, pain and emotional wellbeing) compared to IBS female patients reported moderate symptoms (p<0.05). Diarrhea- type and mixed- type IBS female patients had worse QOL of the three  domains ( role limitation due to physical health, role limitation due to emotional problem and emotional wellbeing)  than constipated- type of IBS patients p <0.05.Also there was negative significant correlation between duration of IBS and QOL of IBS female patients in domain of  physical functioning, role limitation due to emotional problems  , social functioning , pain and  vitality (r - 0.4, - 0.24 , - 0.33 , - 0.39 ,-0.34)  respectively p < 0.05. Conclusion: and recommendation: IBS- symptoms had a great effect on the QOL of female patients so early detection may improve the progress of health problem and decrease the burden of disease on health service. So there is a great need to include QOL as a tool during assessment and evaluation of IBS patient

[Sohair A Hagag ,Shereen Eassa and Mahmoud Abdou Aashour2 . Impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome on Quality of Life among Female Patients Attending Internal Medicine Outpatient Clinics in Zagazig University Hospital. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 510-516].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), quality of life (QOL), short form 36- item health survey(SF36).

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Impact of Maternal Diabetes Mellitus on Fetal Echocardiographic Parameters

 

Mohamed A. El-Nory

 

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology- Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

adeladel59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the impedance to the ductus venosus (DV) flow and the pulmonary vein pulsatility index (PVPI) in fetuses of diabetic mothers with and without myocardial hypertrophy (MH) in comparison to control fetuses of non-diabetic mothers. Patients & Methods: The study included 100 pregnant women; 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics of the same gestational age. Prior to cardiological evaluation, the fetal anatomy was analyzed using ultrasound assessment to rule out malformations and fetal biometry. Fetal echocardiographic examinations were conducted for assessment of ventricular septum thickness (VST), ductus venosus pulsatility index (DVPI), mitral and tricuspid atrioventricular flows and pulmonary vein flow studies were also conducted. Results: Mean VST was significantly increased in fetuses of diabetic mother (FDM) compared to its thickness in non-diabetic group and 19 fetuses had VS hypertrophy (VSH) with significantly thicker VS compared to FDM free of VSH. FDM showed significant increase of DVPI compared to fetuses of non-diabetic mothers (FNDM) with significantly higher index in those had VSH. Mean mitral and tricuspid E wave peak flow was significantly higher in FDM compared to FNDM. Pulmonary vein pre-systolic flow showed a significant decrease and PVPI was significantly higher in FDB compared to FNDM.  Conclusion: Maternal hyperglycemia induces ventricular hypertrophy that increases impedance to blood flow through cardiac chambers manifested as increased ductus venosus and pulmonary vein pulsatility indices.  [Mohamed A. El-Nory Impact of Maternal Diabetes Mellitus on Fetal Echocardiographic Parameters J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 517-522].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Pregnancy, Diabetes mellitus, Fetal echocardiography, ductus venosus flow

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A Possible relation between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Erectile Dysfunction:

A Double-blinded Screening Observational Study

 

Mohamed F. Shindy*; Ahmed A. Al-Shal and Mohamed Al-Azab

 

Departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

*shindy_Fahmy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To screen subjects seeking for medical advice for their obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or erectile dysfunction (ED) who consider themselves healthy as regard to ED or OSAS, respectively for the prevalence of each disease among the other group. Patients & Methods: The study aimed to include all male patients attending Urology outpatient clinic with sexual problems without certain complaint or comment of their sleep behavior (Group A) and all patients attending Otorhinolaryngology outpatients clinic with snoring complaints without certain complaint or comment of their sexual function (Group B). Sleep problems assessment was conducted using a sleep questionnaire and subjects were categorized as heavy, moderate and none/mild snorers. Erectile function was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire for a total score of >25 is graded as normal erectile function (EF). Sexual function was assessed using the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI). Results: The study included 494 clinic attendants Group B subjects had significantly higher mean body mass index. Among Group A 37 subjects were normal, 127 had mild, 54 had moderate and 29 had severe ED and according to OSAS questionnaire 116 subjects had low-probability of OSA, 69 had intermediate-probability and 62 had high-probability of OSA. Among Group B 155 subjects had low-probability of OSA, 53 had intermediate-probability of OSA and 39 had high-probability of OSA and according to IIEF questionnaire, 85 subjects were normal, 81 had mild ED, 53 had moderate ED and 28 had severe ED. There was negative significant correlation between OSAS grade and IIEF-5 score in attendants of both clinics. ROC curve analysis of OSAS grades as predictor for presence of ED showed that just presence of OSAS could be used as screening test for presence of ED among subjects not complaining of ED with area under curve of 0.329. Conclusion: OSAS could be considered as an underlying pathogenic factor for later development of ED in male OSAS patients. IIEF-5 is a valid screening tool for ED and must be implemented during evaluation of OSAS patients and sleep disorders evaluation must be considered for patients with ED.

[Mohamed F. Shindy; Ahmed A. Al-Shal and Mohamed Al-Azab A Possible relation between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Erectile Dysfunction: A Double-blinded Screening Observational Study. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 523-528]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, erectile dysfunction, International index of erectile function-5

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Designing and Producing Fabrics Suitable for Being Used as Waterproof Raincoats

 

G. E. Ibrahim

 

Spinning, Weaving and Knitting Dept, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: This research is mainly concerned with producing fabrics suitable for raincoats, which is considered the main protection garment beside hoods, ponchos ….etc. which used to provide protection to the body from rain showers .All samples under study were produced of polyester yarns 50, 70 and 100 denier .Three weft sets were used 60, 80 and 100 picks /cm and three fabric structure (plain weave 1/1, twill 1/4 and satin 5). Samples were coated using P.V.C in order to produce a waterproof, moisture vapor permeable laminated fabrics and having perforation to provide ventilation to the user. Their influence on the performance of the end-use fabric and the achieved properties were studied. On the other hand physic-chemical properties including, tensile strength and elongation, abrasion resistance, water permeability, water repellency, tear resistance, thickness and weight were evaluated according to the final product needs. Some more results were reached concerning structures and materials. Most samples have achieved the expected results.

[G. E. Ibrahim Designing and Producing Fabrics Suitable for Being Used as Waterproof Raincoats. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 529-544].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

                                                                                                                                                                          

Keywords: Waterproof ,Raincoats

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Nurses' Perception Regarding the Use of Technological Equipment in the Critical Care Units

 

Samaher A. Laila1, Nadia T. M. Ahmed2. Mohammad M. A. Mogahed3

 

1Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing. Faculty of Nursing. Tishreen University- Syria

2Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing. Faculty of Nursing. Alexandria University

3Department of Critical Care Medicine. Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria University

samaherlaila@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A critical care unit is a high-technology environment. The use of technological devices can ensure better outcomes for patients’ health and decrease morbidity and mortality. The critical care nurse needs not only to be aware of what benefits the technology holds for the patient, but also what adverse effects. The aim of the study is to assess the nurse's perception regarding the use of technological equipment in Critical Care Units. A descriptive study research design used in this study; this study was conducted in the critical care units of Main University Hospital in Alexandria, A convenient sample of all bed side nurses -102 nurses- who are working in this unit, and were available at the study time. Nurse's perception questionnaire regarding the use of technological equipment in Critical Care Units was used in this study. The results of this study revealed that nurses who work in critical care areas of Main University Hospital in Alexandria identified all positive aspects of using technological equipment and were not aware about most of the negative aspects of using technology. It is recommended courses about contemporary aspects of technology should be added to both pregraduate and continuing education. Further researches needed for investigate effect of the nurses' perception about using technology on patients.

[Samaher A. Laila, Nadia T. M. Ahmed and Mohammad M. A. Mogahed Nurses’ Perception Regarding the Use of Technological Equipment in the Critical Care Units. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):545-552].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Technological equipment, Critical care unit, Nurses' perception

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An Integrated Method for Supplier Selection in a multi-product and quantity discount environment

 

Ali Naimi Sadigh1, Hamed Fallah1, S. Kamal Chaharsooghi1* , Hamid Reza Eskandari1, Fariborz Jolai2

 

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

bIndustrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

a.naimisadigh@modares.ac.ir *skch@modares.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Supplier selection or vendor selection is a complicated multi-criteria decision-making including both quantitative and qualitative factors. In order to select the best suppliers it is important to make a trade-off among these factors, some of them may conflict. The buyer should determine two important variables: the number of best suppliers and the amount of purchasing from each selected supplier. In this paper an integrated approach of Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and Linear Programming (LP) is proposed for supplier selection problems when a buyer needs more than one product. Also, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach is applied in a discount environment to determine the best suppliers and to place the optimal order quantities among them. Both cumulative and incremental discounts are taken into account in this study. Two numerical examples are presented for each discount policy to illustrate the application of the recommended models which in a reasonable time reach to an exact solution.

[Ali Naimi Sadigh, Hamed Fallah, S. Kamal Chaharsooghi, Hamidreza Eskandari, Fariborz Jolai. An Integrated Method for Supplier Selection in a multi-product and quantity discount environment . J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):553-560]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  http://www.americanscience.org.

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Some Occupational Health Problems among Poultry Farm Workers in Sharkia Governorate: An Epidemiological Study

 

Mahmoud E. El-Saadawy, Mohammed M. Nassif, Sahar A. Abou El Magd* and Amany S. Ahmed

 

Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine - Zagazig University

*Sahar_abolmagd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The atmosphere in poultry farms usually contains significant levels of agricultural dust and toxic gases, which put the workers at a health risk. Objectives: 1-To determine the prevalence of some occupational health problems among poultry farm workers and their determinants.2-To study the work environment by assessing dust concentration level and its effect on the health of the exposed workers.3-To propose recommendations for occupational safety at poultry farms. Methods: a comparative cross sectional study was conducted among 222 male workers divided into two groups: The exposed group consisted of 110 poultry farm workers working in 63 poultry farms in Diarb Nigm city and Comparable control group consisted of 112 workers from ready- made clothes factory. Data were collected by a pre-designed questionnaire, clinical examination and laboratory investigation. Results: self–reported health complaints among poultry farm workers were ocular complaints (55.4%), followed by gastrointestinal (48.2%), respiratory (41.8%), and dermatological (38.1%) complaints. The prevalence of  nasal irritation, sneezing, throat irritation and chest tightness were significantly higher among the Poultry farm workers (21.8%, 20.9%, 27.2%, 15.4% respectively) compared to control group. Also, prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma were significantly higher among poultry farm workers (39.09%, 38.18%, 16.3%, 6.3% respectively) compared to control group. Duration of work is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms (chronic and acute), while smoking is a risk factor for chronic respiratory symptoms. The frequency of obstructive and combined ventilatory function impairment among poultry farm workers (26.3%, 14.5%) are significantly compared to control group (8.9%, 5.35%). The prevalence of chronic dermatitis, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are significantly higher among exposed group (15.45%, 18.18% and 20% respectively) compared to in control group (4.46%, 3.57% and 8.03% respectively). The prevalence of eye irritation & lacrimation, discharge and Foreign body is significantly higher among exposed group (22.7%, 14.4% and 54.54%) compared to control group (6.25%, 3.57% and 5.35%). Also The prevalence of Klebsiella and E-coli are significantly higher among exposed group (18.05% and 88.8%) compared to control group (1.755 and 14.03%). The mean concentration of respirable dust at poultry farms was (5.5±1.62). Conclusion: Poultry workers are at greatest risk of developing many health problems as respiratory, ocular, dermatological, gastrointestinal problems, so recommendations: pre-placement and periodic medical examination, health education program, effective exhaust ventilation, and periodic environmental monitoring for better prevention for these health problems.

[Mahmoud E. El-Saadawy, Mohammed M. Nassif, Sahar A. Abou El Magd and Amany S. Ahmed Some Occupational Health Problems among Poultry Farm Workers in Sharkia Governorate: An Epidemiological Study. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):561-567].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Poultry farm workers – dust concentration- respiratory gastrointestinalocular dermatological.

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Assessment of Stomp® (Pendimethalin) toxicity on Oreochromis niloticus

 

Nabela I. El-Sharkawy1; Rasha M. Reda *2 and  Iman E. El-Araby3

 

Departments of 1Forensic Medicine & Toxicology; 2Fish Diseases &Management and 3 Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

*rashareda55@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the toxic effects of stomp® were evaluated by measuring growth performance, biochemichal parameters, histopathological findings and genotoxic effect in a commercially important fish species, Oreochromis niloticus. sixty Oreochromis niloticus with an average body weight (50.43 ± 0.20g.) were used and divided into 3 equal groups, the first group kept as control, while fish of the second and third groups were exposed to 10% and 5% (0.355 mg/l and 0.177 mg/l, respectively) of 96 hrs LC50 . The results revealed a significant decrease in body weight and weight gain while significant increase in serum glucose, aspartate amino transaferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, total protein, cholestrol in fish exposed to 10% then 5% 96 hrs LC50 of stomp in a dose dependent manner compared to control. Stomp® produced genotoxic effects on the exposed fish.

 [Nabela I. El-Sharkawy; Rasha M. Reda and  Iman E. El-Araby Assessment of Stomp® (Pendimethalin) toxicity on Oreochromis niloticus J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):568-576].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keyword: Stomp®, Oreochromis niloticus, genotoxic effects, growth, biochemical parameters.

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An experimental investigation into the effect of polypropylene fibers on mechanical properties of concrete

E. Mollaahmadi1, H. Haji-Kazemi2, M.R. Arefi3,*, M.R. Javaheri3

 

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran

3. Department of Civil Engineering, Taft branch, Islamic Azad University, Taft, Iran

arefi@taftiau.ac.ir

 

 

Abstract: In general, the behavior of most of materials is studied in terms of their mechanical properties like as compressive and tensile strengths; however, to study the behavior of fiber reinforced concrete, these properties is not enough and the flexural strength and the energy absorption capacity of the concrete should also be studied. The effect of polypropylene fibers of different lengths and diameters on the flexural strength of the concrete has been explored in this article. The variables of the experiments include three lengths for fine polypropylene fibers and two lengths for thick polypropylene fibers. Results indicate the flexural strength of the samples increased with increasing the fiber's length. But by addition fine polypropylene fibers, the flexural strength of the samples decreased with increasing the fiber's length. On the other hand, the addition of fibers polypropylene to the concrete can not be effective in enhancing the cracking load of the the concrete, but thick polypropylene fibers can increases the ultimate load after cracking and the energy absorption capacity of the concrete.

[E. Mollaahmadi, H. Haji-Kazemi, M.R. Arefi, M.R. Javaheri. An experimental investigation into the effect of polypropylene fibers on mechanical properties of concrete. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):577-582].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete, Flexural strength, Energy absorption, polypropylene fibers

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Pose-Invariant Multimodal (2D+3D) Face Recognition using Geodesic Distance Map

 

Farshid Hajati 1,2, Abolghasem A. Raie 1, Yongsheng Gao 2,3

 

1. Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914, Iran

2. School of Engineering, Griffith University, QLD 4111, Australia

3. Queensland Research Lab, National ICT Australia, QLD 4207, Australia

hajati@aut.ac.ir, raie@aut.ac.ir, yongsheng.gao@griffith.edu.au

 

Abstract: In this paper, an efficient pose-invariant face recognition method is proposed. This method is multimodal means that it uses 2D (color) and 3D (depth) information of a face for recognition. In the first step, the geodesic distances of all face points from a reference point are computed. Then, the face points are mapped from the 3D space to a new 2D space. The proposed mapping is robust under the in-depth face rotations. Finally, the feature extraction and face classification task is done in the new 2D space. For feature extraction, we use the Patch Pseudo Zernike Moments (PPZM) with a new weighting method to decline the self-occlusion caused by in-depth rotations. For this purpose, a novel approach for self-occlusion detection based on geodesic distances of face points is proposed and a self-occlusion map is created. For evaluation purpose, a large scale 3D face database is used and the various in-depth rotations (vertical and horizontal) are tested. The performance of the proposed method in two scenarios is compared with a classical 3D face recognition method. The results emphasize the performance of the proposed method in the pose-invariant face recognition.

[Farshid Hajati, Abolghasem A. Raie, Yongsheng Gao. Pose-Invariant Multimodal (2D+3D) Face Recognition using Geodesic Distance Map. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):583-590]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Face recognition; geodesic; pose

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Assessment of Nitrogen Levels on Flower yield of Calendula Grown under Different Water deficit Stresses Using Drough Tolerant Indices

 

Tofigh Taherkhani1, Navid Rahmani1, Amin Moradi Aghdam1, Peiman Zandi2

1Young Researchers Club, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

2Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

tofightaherkhani@yahoo.com; amin.moradi.aghdam@gmail.com; z_rice_b@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To understand the impact of water deficit stress and nitrogen application on the evergreen flower yield, the experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement. Soil-water regimes consisted of three levels (irrigation after 40­_normal stress, 80_mild stress, and 120-severe stress mm evaporation from class ‘A’ pan) which allotted to the main plots and Nitrogen rates including 0, 30, 60, and 90 kg N/ha were assigned to subplots. Six drought resistant indices include mean productivity (MP),geometric mean productivity(GMP), stress tolerance index(TOL), susceptible stress index(SSI), stress tolerance index(STI) and harmonic mean(Harm) were applied on the basis of flower yield in normal, mild and sever stress condition. Evaluation of different nitrogen application rates by the means  of drought tolerant indices asserted that, the highest flower yield under mild/severe stress was achieved via treatments which received 90 kg n/ha . 3D scatter plot results were also cleared the superiority of the same rank of nitrogen application as the best level. Correlation coefficients between indices and yield under stress /non-stress conditions showed that GMP, STI, MP, Harm and TOL under mild stress, in addition SSI, Harm, GMP, STI, MP and TOL under severe stress were the most effective level identifying indices.

[Tofigh Taherkhani, Navid Rahmani, Amin Moradi Aghdam, Peiman Zandi. Assessment of Nitrogen Levels on Flower yield of Calendula Grown under Different Water deficit Stress Using Drough Tolerant Indices. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):591-598]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Calendula officinalis L.; water deficit stress; nitrogen fertilizer; tolerance indices; flower yield

Abbreviations: SSI_ stress susceptibility index; STI_ stress tolerance index; TOL_ stress tolerance; MP_ mean productivity; GMP_ geometric mean productivity; Ys_ flower yield under drought condition; Yp_ flower yield under normal condition

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Analysis of various dynamic load balancing strategies used in parallel systems

 

Atul Kumar Singh, Akhil Jain, Mohammad Haroon, Garima Singh

 

Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.), India

Email: er.atul.kumar.singh@gmail.com, toakhiljain@gmail.com, haroonayme@gmail.com, garimasingh.0606@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper the dynamic load balancing strategies are discussed to minimize the execution time of single applications running in parallel on multicomputer systems. Dynamic load balancing is important for the efficient use of parallel systems. Dynamic load balancing schemes are needed to solve non-uniform problems on multiprocessor systems. Distribution of the work load is known as Load Balancing. An appropriate distribution of workloads across the various processing elements is very important as disproportional workloads can eliminate the performance benefit of parallelizing the job. Load balancing on parallel systems is a critical and challenging activity. Load balancing policies may be categorized as static or dynamic. Static load balancing algorithms distribute the tasks to processing elements at compile time and are generally based on the information about average behavior of the system, while dynamic algorithms bind tasks to processing elements at run time and react to the actual current system state in making transfer decisions.

[Atul Kumar Singh, Akhil Jain, Mohammad Haroon, Garima Singh. Analysis of various dynamic load balancing strategies used in parallel systems. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):599-606]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Dynamic Load Balancing, Parallelism, Microprocessors.

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Evaluation of Long-Term Care Based on the Partnership Care Model in Quality-of-Life and Metabolic Control of Diabetic Patients

 

Eesa Mohammadi 1, Rafat Rezapour 2, Fereshteh Sistanehei 3

 

1. PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Nursing, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran

2. PhD Candidate in Nursing, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3. MSc, Midwifery & Nursing Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran

rezapour@razi.tums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This study designed and evaluated a long-term care program based on the Partnership Care Model for quality of life and metabolic control of diabetic patients in two hospitals in Iran. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Long-Term Care Program based on the Partnership Care Model on quality of life and metabolic control of diabetic patients. Research instruments included the Short Form 36 questionnaire and the two Para clinic tests (F.B.S. and B.S.).The data was analyzed with SPSS 15 statistical software. The results indicated that the mean scores of the quality of life after intervention significantly increased in the intervention group.

[Eesa Mohammadi, Rafat Rezapour, Fereshteh Sistanehei. Evaluation of Long-Term Care Based on the Partnership Care Model in Quality-of-Life and Metabolic Control of Diabetic Patients. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):607-616]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Diabetes; Long- term care; Partnership nursing care model

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Assessing the effect of soil texture and slope on sediment yield of Marl units using a portable rainfall simulator

 

A case Study : Qezel-Ozan watershed of Zanjan province, Iran

 

Parviz Abdinejad1, Sadat Feiznia2, Hamid Reza. Pyrowan3, Faraj Olah. Fayazi4  and Amir Ali. Tbakh Shabani5

 

1.Department of Geology, Science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

E- Mail: prz_abdi@yahoo.com

2. Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran

3. Faculty of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute

4. Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Teacher Training in Tehran

5. Faculty of Iranian Geological Institute

Abstract: Fine grained, saline, alkaline and erodible Tertiary marly formations are exposed in many geological zones and they play an important role in the formation of present landform structures. Marly formations as one of the most critical sediment resources, will always pose special problems on watershed management. Due to special mineralogical and geological formulation of these formations, they are intolerant to erosion and their minerals contents affects their behavior from the view point of erosion and sediment production which are important factors on land degradation. Investigating the causes of soil erosion is difficult in natural conditions owing to the presence of other factors. Without simplifying the experimental conditions, studying soil behavior regarding its numerous factors such as vegetation cover, topography, and rainfall is not impossible but difficult. The application of simulation approaches is therefore necessary to simplify the prototype. In this research, the effects of some physical soil factors such as texture along with land slope were evaluated in the Qezel-Ozan watershed of Zanjan province, Iran, using a rainfall simulator and soil erosion plots. For this purpose, a 89 × 120 cm rainfall simulator producing 60 mm/h rainfall intensity of 30 min duration, as a common condition of the study area, was used at 64 locations over soil erosion plots with dimensions of 95 × 125 cm. Plots had slope classes of 5 and 20 percents, and different soil textures. It was found that for 60 mm/h rainfall intensity, the correlation coefficient of 0.047 between sand and sediment yield for 60 mm/h rainfall intensity indicate very low correlation. Percentages of slope, clay and silt content had correlation coefficients of 0.689, 0.329 and -0.233 respectively at the 99% confidence level with sediment yield. The correlation coefficients of 0.861 in equations indicate their high potential in simulating sediment yield.

[Parviz Abdinejad, Sadat Feiznia, Hamid Reza. Pyrowan, Faraj Olah. Fayazi  and Amir Ali, Tbakh Shabani. Assessing the effect of soil texture and slope on sediment yield of Marl units using a portable rainfall simulator.  J Am Sci 2011;7(10):617-624]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

 

Key Words: Rainfall simulator, Soil erosion, Soil physical parameters, Qezel-Ozan watershed, Iran

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 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some compounds Containing Benzimidazole Nucleus

 

A. S. S. Salman

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Girl’s Branch, Al-Azhar University, Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt.

salman_2007_ok@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reaction of ethyl 2-(quinolin-8-yloxy)acetate 1 with   o-phenylenediamine afforded  8-[(1H –benzimidaz- ol-2-yl)methoxy]quinoline 2.The benzimidazole derivative 2 was used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of other N-substituted benzimidazole derivative 3-14.The structures of the new compounds confirmed by elemental analyses,spectroscopic measurements and chemical reactions. Some of the newly synthesized compounds showed interesting antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro.  

[A. S. S. Salman Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some compounds Containing Benzimidazole Nucleus. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 625-630].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: o-Phenylenediamine , Benzimidazole, Oxadiazole,Thiazol , Antibacterial , Antifungal

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Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams Strengthened by External Layers

 

Khaled M. Heiza

 

Civil Engineering Department, Menoufiya University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Repair and strengthening of the existing constructions are very essential in many cases and may be the sole right decision.  A computer program based on the finite element method has been developed and a new compound element was used to simulate the reinforced concrete members strengthened with external layers on the different sides. Each compound element consists of four sub-elements. The sub-elements are two dimensional isoparametric degenerated elements with eight nodes and five degrees of freedom. Each sub element consists of different concrete, steel and strengthening laminates. Seven models from an experimental test program of RC beams strengthened with external layers in different sides were analyzed by the finite elements. The new developed compound element has been proved to be capable to solve any reinforced concrete member strengthened with additional external layers at different sides with accurate representations and acceptable results.

[Khaled M. Heiza. Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams Strengthened by External Layers. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):631-644]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Adiponectin SNP276 , metabolic syndrome , obesity , diabetes mellitus.

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Effect of Intravenous Catheter Placement on Venous Pressure Reading and the Risk of Complications in Critically Ill Patients

 

Shaimaa A. Awad1; Azza H. El-Soussi2; Mohamed A. Sultan3; Mohammed El-Farrash4 and Nayera Tantawy1

 

1Critical Care Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Critical Care & Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

3Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

4Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

shaimaahmed2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Central venous cannulation is associated with many complications. The recent literature suggests that there is a close relationship between peripheral and central venous pressure readings. This prospective comparative study is designed to investigate the agreement between central venous pressure (CVP) and peripheral venous pressure (PVP) and investigate the effect of intravenous catheter placement on the risk of complications in critically ill patients.  Sixty patients were enrolled in the study as soon as they had a central venous catheter in place.  They were cannulated at the antecubital site with a 20- gauge peripheral over- the needle intravenous catheter at the same time of central venous catheter insertion. Assessment of risk of complications of both peripheral and central venous catheters was done using the infiltration scale, observation of exit-site infection, assessment of catheter occlusion as well as bacteriological examination. Peripheral and central venous pressure readings were monitored immediately after insertion of both central and peripheral venous catheters and then every 6 hours for 3 days. Temperature and blood pressure were measured before each measurement.  The results showed that PVP was closely correlated to CVP (r = 0.92 to 0.98). Significant relation was found between CVP and PVP at different times of measurement.  PVP was consistently greater than CVP by an average of 2 mmHg. (P<0.001). Catheter colonization was significantly higher among patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) (P<0.01). Catheter malfunction was higher in CVCs. Infiltration occurred more often with peripheral venous catheters (PVCs).  The findings indicated that peripheral venous catheters can be used instead of central venous catheter for estimation of body volume status and minimize central catheter complications.

[Shaimaa A. Awad; Azza H. El-Soussi; Mohamed A. Sultan; Mohammed El-Farrash and Nayera Tantawy  Effect of Intravenous Catheter Placement on Venous Pressure Reading and the Risk of Complications in Critically Ill Patients. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 645-655].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Central venous pressure, Peripheral venous pressure, Hemodynamic monitoring, Catheter related infection.

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Phylogenetic Relationship between the Fruit Bat (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) and Lesser Tailed Bat (Rhinopoma Hardwickei) Inferred from G-Banded Chromosomes and Electrophoretic Protein Pattern Analysis

 

Nadia H. M. Sayed

 

Department of Zoology, College of Women for Science, Arts and Education, Ain Shams University, Egypt

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work is an attempt to find out both the genetic similarities and the divergences between the Fruit bat (Rousettus aegytiacus) and lesser tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickei) by using G-banding technique for bone marrow metaphase chromosomes and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for liver protein. The diploid chromosome number (2n) for each of these two species is 36 chromosomes and NFa is 68 arms.  The chromosomes of both two species are grouped in 17 pairs, in addition to the sex chromosomes.  The relative lengths of the X chromosome and the Y chromosome are 5.6 % and 6.4 % in the fruit bat respectively and The relative lengths of the X chromosome and the Y chromosome are 0.7 % and 1.2% in the lesser tailed bat respectively. The G-banding displays obvious alternations of white and dark bands; this facilitates ideogram construction.  The sequence of banding pattern of chromosomes of the 2 species display fairly similar and different pictures. SDS-PAGE for soluble muscle protein showed 23 and 19 protein bands in the, Rousettus aegytiacus and Rhinopoma hardwickei respectively.  The two species have 2 common bands. The molecular weight of the bands ranges from 118-26 kDa and from 118-24 kDa in the Rousettus aegytiacus and Rhinopoma hardwickei, respectively.  Bands of molecular weight 70,60,50,42,36,31,29 and 27 kDa are characteristic to the Rousettus aegytiacus and are missed in the Rhinopoma hardwickei. Also, bands of molecular weight 113,105, 65 and 24 KDa are characteristic to the Rhinopoma hardwickei. Moreover, the unique band at molecular weight 113 is characteristic to the Rhinopoma hardwickei. The statistical analysis showed that the degree of similarity between the two species is 0.095(9.5%). As a conclusion, the Fruit bat (Rousettus aegytiacus) and the Lesser tailed bat ( Rhinopoma hardwickei)  are not identical and separated species. 

[Nadia H. M. Sayed Phylogenetic Relationship between the Fruit Bat (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) and Lesser Tailed Bat (Rhinopoma Hardwickei) Inferred from G-Banded Chromosomes and Electrophoretic Protein Pattern Analysis]. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):656-669]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words: the Fruit bat (Rousettus aegytiacus) and the lesser tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickei), Chromosomes,   G-banding, Protein electrophoresis, Phylogenetic relationship.

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Entrepreneurship and Productivity in Private Education

 

                                                                                      Mohammad Ali Jalayer

 

                                       The professor of Islamic Azad University :South Tehran Branch- Iran

                                                                             majalayer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Education in the direction of improvement management cycle (IMC) establishment and being careful about good management methods for upgrading educational system productivity based on free economy, as a big social evolution, with the development of educational market and movement of capital flows and by elimination of shortcomings to the educational realm has provided increased productivity. It has been increased by providing private section investment settings in educational system and took step in the development of private section role in managing schools and expanding private education to entrepreneurship, more occupation, state employees' inflation prevention, and downsizing government. Since the share of public section in global education is something between 20% to 30% and the highest share of Iran private education before Islamic Revolution in 1971 had been 10.4%, in 1388 it was 8.07%. Also, by paying attention to the downward growth rate, which is lower than expected global average, by privatization of education, we can take an important step in promotion of productivity, consistent with improvement management cycle, and access to the synchronized growing with other countries.

[Mohammad Ali Jalayer. Entrepreneurship and Productivity in Private Education.J Am Sci 2011;7(10):670-677].(1545-1003)

http://www.americanscience.org 

 

Key words: Entrepreneur ship-Education-Occupation inflation- Improvement- Productivity

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Molcular Phylogenetic Relationship Between and Within the Fruit Bat (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) and the Lesser Tailed Bat (Rhinopoma Hardwickei) Deduced From RAPD-PCR Analysis

 

Ramadan A. M. Ali

 

Department of Zoology, College for Women, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The RAPD-PCR in the present study was used to determine the genetic variation within and among two Egyptian bat species, Rousettus aegyptiacus and Rhinopoma hardwickei.  The animals were captured from one locality at Giza governorate, Egypt.  A total of 39 bands were amplified by the three primers OPAO2, OPAO8 and OPCO3 with an average 13 bands per primer at molecular weights ranged from 1409 to 107 bp.  The polymorphic loci between both species were 34 with percentage 87.18 %.  The numbers of monomorphic bands in Rousettus aegyptiacus aegyptiacus and Rhinopoma hardwickei arabium were 14 and 9 bands, respectively. The two species are sharing 5 (12.8 %) monomorphic bands. The similarity coefficients value between the two bat species was ranged from 0.353 to 0.500 with an average of 0.404 (40.4%). Dendrogram showed that, the two bats genotypes are separated from each other into two clusters and more variation among members of Rhinopoma hardwickei arabium was observed in comparison to those of Rousettus aegyptiacus aegyptiacus. It is concluded that, the similarity coefficient value between the two bat species indicates that, the two bat species may have the same origin but are not identical and separated into two clusters.  

[Ramadan A. M. Ali Molcular Phylogenetic Relationship Between and Within the Fruit Bat (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) and the Lesser Tailed Bat (Rhinopoma Hardwickei) Deduced From Rapd-Pcr Analysis] J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 678-687].(ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words: Fruit bat (Rousettus aegytiacus); lesser tailed bat (Rhinopoma hardwickei), RAPD-PCR, Phylogenetic Relationship.

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A study on the relationship between professional morality and maturity with organizational commitment

 

Fatemeh Marzban , Ebadollah Ahmadi

 

Department of Management,Islamic Azad University,Marvdasht Branch,Marvdasht,Iran

Marzbanf31@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study has been designed to investigate the relationship between professional morality and maturity with organizational commitment of board members of Azad University in Marv Dasht branch. The main purpose of university includes training and educating expert human forces that are necessary for a society, and providing appropriate grounds for constant development of the country. In this respect, board members of the university are the most effective factors to fulfill this aim. Universities are expected to develop professional morality and maturity of all board members and they should plan everything in order to facilitate the promotion of their board members and it is effective in organizational commitment of them. Professional morality and its subordinate elements have a positive and meaningful relationship with organizational commitment and its aspects. The element of evolution in morality has the strongest constant relationship with organizational commitment and its aspects of emotional commitments. Therefore, in order to increase the organizational commitment, this element of morality should be emphasized more. The positive relationship between professional moral elements and organizational commitment means that as the elements of professional morality increase, the organizational commitments and its aspects increase as well. Investigation on the relationship between maturity and its elements and organizational commitment and its sides shows that of all maturity elements, professional maturity has no meaningful relationship with norm commitment and other elements have a positive relationship with organizational commitment. It means that as maturity and its aspects increase, organizational commitment and its aspects increase as well. Of all maturity elements, organizational maturity has the strongest relationship with organizational commitment of university board members of Marv Dasht Azad University. It illustrates that this cultural path is organizational which build up individuals’ behavior.

 [Fatemeh Marzban , Ebadollah Ahmadi. A study on the relationship between professional morality and maturity with organizational commitment. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):688-695]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org

 

Keywords: professional morality, maturity, organizational commitment

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Effect of 3 types of training on Interleukin 15 and Insulin-like growth factor-1 in Adolescent females

Running Head: Effects of training on IL-15 and IGF-1

 

Maghsoud Peeri 1*, Sara Parsamehr 2, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani3, Hoseyn Fatolahi 4

 

1, 2, 3, 4 Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University,Tehran,Iran

*Corresponding author

Email: mpeeri@iauctb.ac.ir

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on the serum levels of interleukin 15(IL-15) and insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) in adolescent females. Methods: Twenty seven girls randomly were selected from among 150 adolescent girls. Then, they randomly were divided to four groups of resistance (n=7), endurance (n=7), concurrent (n=7) and control (n=6). The training programs of the groups lasted for 8 weeks, three days per week, which were performed from simple to difficult exercises and from low-intensity to high-intensity considering the principle of overload and increase in exercise intensity. Blood samples were taken before, in the middle and after the training program and IGF-1 and IL-15 variables were measured. Statistical analyses used were ANOVA with repeated measures (split-plot or mixed factorial test).  Results: The results showed that eight-week resistance training made no Significant difference of IL -15 in the pre, mid   and end of study protocol into the control, endurance and concurrent training groups. But was found a significant increase in concentration of IL -15 in three stages (pre-mid, and end test) in the resistance group (P=0.029; f = 7.794). Not significant difference in serum IGF-1 levels was observed into and between the four study groups. Conclusions:  The results confirmed that fulfill of different types of physical activity, may improves body composition and VO2max in adolescent girls. Resistance training, especially can improve one of the important immune system indicators (IL-15) in adolescent females.

[Maghsoud Peeri 1*, Sara Parsamehr 2, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani3, Hoseyn Fatolahi. Effect of 3 types of training on Interleukin 15 and Insulin-like growth factor-1 in Adolescent femalesRunning Head: Effects of training on IL-15 and IGF-1. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):696-701]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org

 

Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Concurrent training, IL-15, IGF-1

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   Effects of thymus vulgar extract (0 and 0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) on organic matter ruminal degradability of canola meal using nylon bag technique

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar1, Saeid Najafyar2, Hamed Amini Pour1, Navid Rezaei2

 1- Young Researchers Club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

2- Department of Animal Science, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study were to evaluate of effects tow doses (0 and 0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) of Thymus vulgar extract on organic matter ruminal degradability of canola meal using nylon bag technique. Samples were collected from commercial sources in Iran. Nylon bags filled with 5 g of each of untreated or Thymus vulgar  extract treated canola meal, were suspended in the rumen of three fistulated Gezel rams for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h, and obtained data were fitted to a non-linear degradation model to calculate ruminal degradation characteristics. The results showed that Organic matter disappearance at 8 h incubation, were 57.47 and 50.78 percent for canola meal and Thymus vulgar extract (0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) respectively. Organic matter disappearance at 16 h incubation, were 63.403 and 62.15 percent for canola meal and Thymus vulgar extract (0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) respectively. Organic matter disappearance at 24 h incubation, were 72.59 and 72.14 percent for canola meal and Thymus vulgar extract (0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) respectively. Organic matter disappearance at 48 h incubation, were 78.21 and 77.92 percent for canola meal and Thymus vulgar extract (0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) respectively.

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Saeid Najafyar, Hamed Amini Pour, Navid Rezaei. Effects of thymus vulgar extract (0 and 0.15 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) on organic matter ruminal degradability of canola meal using nylon bag technique. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):702-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Canola meal; Thymus vulgar; nylon bag technique; rumen; organic matter degradation; dry matter; degradability.

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Effects of essential fatty acids on ruminant animal: A Review

 

Hamed AminiPour

 

Young researchers club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Previous work on the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of fatty acids was based on the theory that either the 6-term. (That is, a double bond between the 6th and 7th carbonatom counted from the terminal methyl group) or the 9-term. Double bonds or both were fundamental for essential fatty acid activity. By means of a new quantitative bioassay a number of fatty acids were tested and the results were in favors of the theory that both the 6-term. And the 9-term. Positions are essential. Although essential fatty acids (EFA) are not vitamins by definition, a deficiency disease or condition with dietary insufficiency does result, and in some ways, a similarity to vitamin deficiencies can be seen. The finding that components of fat, other than the fat-soluble vitamins, are dietary essentials is of nutritional and medical importance. Studies are reevaluating the beneficial effects of linolenic acid in species that previously were considered to need only linoleic acid as a dietary essential.

 [Hamed AminiPour.Effects of essential fatty acids on ruminant animal: A Revie. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):707-714]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

 http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keyword: essential fatty acids, on ruminant animal.

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 EFFECTS OF TANNINS IN RUMINANT: A Review

 

Hamed AminiPour

 

Young researchers club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

h.aminipor@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Tannins are very diverse chemically, are widely found in plant material and can have diverse effects on animals which consume them. This mini-review has the aim to investigation and discusses information available in the scientific literature on the effects of condensed tannins on ruminant nutrition. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used in most experiments to deactivate condensed tannins (CT). The effects of dietary CT on nutrition have been studied principally with tannins from temperate legume pastures. At low concentrations, CT appear to increase intake because of a reduced protein degradation in the rumen and better amino acids supply to, and absorption from, the small intestine. CT from Lotus  corniculatus  increased  milk  yield,  protein  and  lactose  percentages,  and  reducing  fat  percentage. Regarding carcass characteristics, CT from temperate plants, at low concentrations, have increased carcass leanness and reduced carcass fatness. This can be due to improved protein nutrition due to an increased flow of protein and essential amino acids to the intestine.  Condensed  tannins  from  Acacia  cyanophylla  had  no significant  effects  on  lamb  tissue  repartition.  Meat quality has been evaluated after lambs received diets containing CT from this shrub species or Ceratonia siliqua pulp with or without PEG. In both cases, lean color appeared to be greatly affected by dietary CT, being darker in the animals that receive PEG supplementation. The effect of CT on meat color could be linked with a reduced myoglobin synthesis although iron absorption seems not to be affected by CT in ruminant.

[Hamed AminiPour1. EFFECTS OF TANNINS IN RUMINANT: A Review. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):715-720]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Tannins, Dietary, Small intestine, Ruminant.

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  Effect of Sowing dates and Irrigation regimes on Agronomic traits of Indian mustard

in semi-arid area of Takestan

 

Somayeh Rafiei1, Amir Hossein Shirani Rad2, Peiman Zandi3

 

1Department of Agronomy, Science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Associate professor, Seed and plant improvement institute, Karaj, Iran

3Department of Agronomy, Takestan branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran

z_rice_b@yahoo.com; Shirani.rad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effect of four irrigation regimes (I1-Irrigation after 70 mm, I2-Irrigation after 100 mm, I3-Irrigation after 130 mm and I4-Irrigation after 160 mm evaporation from class A pan) and two dates of sowing (August 30 and January 27 ) were studied during  growing season of 2009-2010 at I.A. University of Takestan, Iran. Among the irrigation treatments, irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from class A pan, gave significantly highest plant height, seed/siliqua, siliqua/plant, thousand seed weight and seed yield. The highest seed yield of 3034 kg/ha was obtained from August 30th sowing and decreased gradually thereafter. Findings suggest that, further research should be done on planting date of Indian mustard under different environmental conditions.

[Somayeh Rafiei, Amir Hossein Shirani Rad, Peiman Zandi. Effect of Sowing dates and Irrigation regimes on Agronomic traits of Indian mustard in semi-arid area of Takestan. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):721-728]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Brassica juncea; dates of sowing; irrigation regimes; seed yield

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 Effects of Zataria Multiflora Water Extract on Rumen Fermentation Using in Vitro Gas Production Technique

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar1, Saeid Najafyar2, Hamed Amini Pour1, Navid Rezaei2

 

1- Young Researchers Club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

2- Department of Animal Science, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels (0, 1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) of Zataria multiflora water extract (ZMWE) on soybean meal (SBM) degradability were studied by in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three  Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. The results showed that gas volume at 12 h incubation (for 200 mg dry samples), were 46.23 and 40.9 ml/200mg DM for soybean meal and Zataria multiflora water extract (1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid), respectively. Gas volume at 24 h incubation (for 200 mg dry samples), were 56.38 and 43.8 ml/200mg DM for soybean meal and Zataria multiflora water extract (1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid), respectively. Gas volume at 48 h incubation (for 200 mg dry samples), were 62.12 and 45.95 ml/200mg DM for soybean meal and Zataria multiflora water extract (1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid), respectively.

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Saeid Najafyar, Hamed Amini Pour, Navid Rezaei. Effects of Zataria Multiflora Water Extract on rumen fermentation using in Vitro Gas Production Technique. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):729-733]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: zataria multiflora; soybean meal; gas production technique; Taleshi native male cattle

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 Effect of Thyme Water Extract (0, 1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) on Short Chain Fatty Acid, Net Energy For Lactation, Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility of  Soybean Meal Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar1, Saeid Najafyar2, Hamed Amini Pour1, Navid Rezaei2

 1- Young Researchers Club, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

2- Department of Animal Science, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran.

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels (0, 1 ml/30ml buffered rumen fluid) of Thyme water extract on soybean meal (SBM) degradability were studied by in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. Calculated amounts of organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME ), short chain fatty acid (SCFA) of SM (81.21 g/kg DM, 12.67 MJ/kg DM and 1.24 mmol, respectively) were compared to 0.3 Thyme water extract (70.03 g/kg DM, 10.456 MJ/kg DM, and 0.968 mmol, respectively).

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Saeid Najafyar, Hamed Amini Pour, Navid Rezaei. Effect of Thyme Water Extract (0, 1 ml/30 ml buffered rumen fluid) on Short Chain Fatty Acid, Net Energy For Lactation, Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility of  Soybean Meal Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):734-737]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: metabolizable energy; soybean meal; gas production technique; organic matter digestibility

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 Energy Security, Economical Condition, Persian Gulf and Iran

                                

Mostafa Moshiri Tabrizi1 and   Davod Kiany (Ph.D.)2

 

Iranian Central Oil Fields Company(ICOFC)_Tehran Iran

1Mostafa.moshiri@gmail.com  and   2davod_kiany2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A renewed focus on energy security arises from an extremely tight oil market and high prices that are driven by long-term trends in global growth and political-economic rivalries. While global energy markets are well developed, the institutions associated with stable investment and exchange are poorly developed in most energy producing countries. Moreover, many have a history of conflict or are located in regions where conflict is rife. Some leaders of energy producing countries threaten to use energy supplies to achieve geopolitical rather than economic objectives. Yet our theories about the new institutional economics of growth are based on evidence about countries that were developing in a more stable environment.

[Mostafa Moshiri Tabrizi and   Davod Kiany (Ph.D.). Energy Security, Economical Condition, Persian Gulf and Iran.

J Am Sci 2011;7(10):738-748]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Energy Security; Economical condition; foreign policy

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[J Am Sci 2011;7(10):749-755].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity of Some 3, 5-Diaryl and 1, 3, 5-Triaryl-2-Pyrazoline Derivatives

 

Zeinab H. Ismaeil, Fekria M. A. Soliman and Shaimaa H. Abd-El Monem

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science (Girls'), Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt .

Soliman_fekria@yahoo.com                 Sh_Hassan8@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A series of 3,5-diaryl-Δ2-pyrazolines (2a-h) were prepared by the reaction of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (1) with hydrazine hydrate and used as precursor for the preparation of 1-acetyl-2-pyrazolines (3a-d). A series of1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines (6a-h) and (7a-g) were prepared by the reaction of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (1) with phenyl hydrazine and/or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Similarly, 3,5-diaryl isoxazoline derivatives (9a,b) were prepared by the 1,3-cyclocondensation of 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones (1) with hydroxylamine hydro-chloride. Also 1-carbamoyl-, and 1-thiocarbamoyl-2-pyrazoline derivatives (8a-e) and (8f-j) were synthesized. The structures of the new compounds were proved by means of their IR, 1H-,13C-NMR, MS spectroscopic data and microanalysis. All the new compounds were examined for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Some newly synthesized compounds were examined for their in vitro anticancer activity. In the present investigation, we discuss the structure-activity relationships and biological activities of these compounds.

[Zeinab H. Ismaeil, Fekria M. A. Soliman and Shaimaa H. Abd-El Monem Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity of Some 3, 5-Diaryl and 1, 3, 5-Triaryl-2-Pyrazoline Derivatives. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 756-767].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Pyrazolines, Isoxazolines, Antimicrobial activity, Antitumor activity.

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 The Jurisdiction analyses and admissibility challenges of International Court of Justice in diplomatic protection of legal persons with respect to Mr. Diallo case

 

Soheyla Koosha1, S. B. Abbasi2

 

1Department of International Law, Payam-Noor University, Tehran Branch, Iran, (Corresponding author)

kosha_s @yahoo.com

2Associate Prof. of International Law Department, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Diplomatic protection is to be understood as the protection given by a subject of international law to individuals, i.e. natural or legal persons, against a violation of international law by another subject of international law [1]. The essential elements of diplomatic protection which must be considered in any case in international court of justice (ICJ) for stating its Jurisdiction are state hood of parties, Nationality of individual, Home state, Continuity of nationality, and Pre requisite conditions of diplomatic protection. Diplomatic protection can originally be seen as belonging to the study on state responsibility , which is mainly based on customary international law, but has been influenced by some important changes in respect of non – nationals protection specially, " stateless  Persons, refugees and human rights violation". Diplomatic protection dealing with the legal consequences of an internationally wrongful act and responsibility of the states for making full reparation for the injury caused by an international delict, this reparation may take the form of "restitution, compensation or satisfaction", either singly or in combination which is determined by the court.This paper analysis the prerequisite conditions for obtaining court jurisdiction and admissibility in diplomatic protection of legal persons with respect to Mr. Diallo case.

[Soheyla Koosha, S. B. Abbasi The Jurisdiction analyses and admissibility challenges of International Court of Justice in diplomatic protection of legal persons with respect to Mr. Diallo case. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10): 768-779]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: International Court of Justice, jurisdiction, diplomatic protection, individual's protection, Mr. Diallo case.

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Evaluation of Bam Earthquakes impacts (Iran) using remote sensing

 

Farideh shahraki1, Dr. M.Anji reddy, PhD Professor2

 

1. PhD student of remote sensing-JNTU; Hyderabad, India.

Farid.shahraki@gmail.com

2. Professor of Environmental Science and Technology; Director, JNTU; Hyderabad India.

 

Abstract: Earthquakes are a natural hazard that causes extreme damage to property and life. The Bam, Iran earthquake has been considered as one of the largest disasters that ever occurred between 2000-2011. With an estimated loss of $15 billion in property and 26,000 loss of lives, there is no doubt that measures have to be taken by Iran in order to reduce the impacts of natural hazards such as an earthquake risk reduction plan should another earthquake hit the nation. The research employed the Case Study Method wherein the Bam, Iran earthquake was used to identify the possible measures for earthquake impact reduction. Gathering of secondary materials and data from books, magazines, and journals was also employed to acquire additional information on the incident. From the research done, it has been found out that disaster preparedness has to be practiced such as the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) in order to monitor crustal movements that signal the coming of an earthquake a geographical mapping can also be employed in order to identify fault lines and other earthquake-prone areas. There should also be a geophysical investigation of areas in order to pinpoint the kind of soil where the buildings are to be erected. This is important since the strength of the soil to hold the building up during an earthquake can help reduce the impacts of earthquakes. The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) to Unreinforced Masonry (UTM) should also be made imperative. The addition of FRP greatly increases the strength of the buildings.

[Shahraki farideh,  M.Anji reddy.   Evaluation of Bam Earthquakes impacts (Iran) using remote sensing. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):780-784]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  http://www.americanscience.org. 95

 

Keywords: evaluation; earthquake; RS; Bam; Iran. 

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Vertical Facial Dimensions and Indices in Adult Upper Egyptians

 

*Muhammad H. Muhammad and Hazem A. Sayed

 

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt *Moh_abo_elaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background & aim: Facial measurements have been used by numerous researchers to produce standard mean values for skeletal, dental, and soft tissue structures. This has become useful in the classification of different populations. So, the present study was permitted to establish the mean vertical facial dimensions and indices of adults in Upper Egypt represented in Assiut Governorate in Egypt. Also, this study was carried out to establish the sexual differences of some vertical facial dimensions and indices between the adult males and females in the fore- mentioned locality. Subjects and Methods: In the present study, 478 adult subjects were studied for some vertical facial dimensions and indices in Assiut Governorate of Egypt. They were between the ages of 18-69 years, divided into 9 groups (     from I- to - IX) and included 256 males and 222 females. Four parameters and three indices had been carried out in the present study. The parameters included the nasal height or upper facial height (UFH), the nasal width (NW), the lower facial height (LFH) and the total facial height (TFH). All measurements were carried out with the help of a sliding caliper. The three indices included the upper facial index (UFI), the lower facial index (LFI) and the nasal index (NI). Results: In the present study the highest value of  the UFH, NW, LFH and TFH in both males and females was observed in age group V (34-to-37 years of age group) while the lowest was observed in age group IX (50 -to-69 years of age group). The UFI was ranged from 39.41 % to 40.67 % for males and from 39.4 % to 40.55% for females between group I and group IX.  For LFI, the value was 59.41 % for males and 59.16 % for females in group I, while it was 60.71 % for males and 60.66% for females in group IX.  The present study revealed higher values of UFH, LFH, TFH, UFI, LFI and NI for males when compared to that of females. This higher values was significant for UFH, LFH, TFH and NI (P= 0.018, 0.05, 0. 011 &0.048), while it was non significant for UFI and LFI. The results showed that, on the average, the UFH for adult males was found to be 4.8 ± 0.17 cm and 4.01 ± 0.14 for adult females. The LFH of adult males was found to be 7.18 ±0.09 cm while that of adult females was found to be 6.81 ± 0.07 cm. The TFH showed mean values of 11.98 ± 0.41 for males and 11.33 ± 0.18 for females. The average UFI in the present study was 40.09% ± 1.7 for males and 40.0% ± 1.3 for females.  Furthermore the average LFI in the present study was 59.93% ± 2.1 for males and 59.99% ± 2 for females. Statistical analysis of mean and standard deviation indicates sexual dimorphism, with significantly higher value (p ‹ 0.05) of the average UFH, LFH and TFH in males compared to females of the corresponding ages.  Conclusion: This study has been able to establish the mean facial dimensions of adults in Upper Egypt represented in Assiut governorate. It also established that as in other populations facial parameters are sexually dimorphic among the peoples of Upper Egypt and that male facial dimensions are greater than those of females. Knowledge of vertical facial dimensions is important in evaluation of age, sex and racial differences, in clinical applications and in forensic application.

[Muhammad H. Muhammad and Hazem A. Sayed.Vertical Facial Dimensions and Indices in Adult Upper Egyptians. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):785-791]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).  http://www.americanscience.org. 96

 

Keywords: Vertical Facial Dimensions, Indices, Adult, Upper, Egyptians.

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 Maternal Complications and Perinatal Outcomes in Booked and Unbooked Mothers

 

Amina S. Gonied

 

Department of Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt

sl_7829@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics, obstetrical complications and fetal outcomes in delivered booked mothers with those unbooked and to determine the relationships with maternal and perinatal outcomes. In a prospective study over 1 year period outcomes of pregnancies of women booked for antenatal care were compared with those of unbooked women, who delivered in Zagazig University Hospital. A sample of 218 women (booked mothers) and 80 unbooked mothers was selected from labor unit in Zagazig University Hospital. The study tools included a questionnaire sheet, maternal assessment sheet until delivery, post-delivery, and neonatal assessment using newborn weight and gestational age. The data were collected from November 2010 to October 2011. The results revealed that pregnancy complications anemia had a higher prevalence in unbooked mothers and the preeclampsia, unbooked mothers were less likely to deliver by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Unbooked mothers were twice as likely as booked mothers to deliver preterm babies.  Babies of unbooked mothers were twice as likely as booked mothers to have asphyxia as indicated by an Apgar score of <7 at one minute and five minutes. Conclusion: The study showed a positive correlation between unbooked mothers and an increased risk of maternal and fetal adverse outcomes.

[Amina S. Gonied Maternal Complications and Perinatal Outcomes in Booked and Unbooked Mothers. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):792-796]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: antenatal complications, complications during pregnancy, pregnancy outcome

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Photocatalytic Behavior of Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and TiO2/SiO2, Fe2O3/SiO2 Core–Shell Nanoparticles towards Decomposition of Methylene Blue

 

A.M. Ismail1, M.H. Khedr2 and M.F. Abadir*1

 

1Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of science, Beni Suef University

*magdi.abadir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2, Fe2O3/SiO2 core–shell nano particles were used to decompose methylene blue (MB) in a laboratory scale study prior to its use in the treatment of waste containing azo dyes that may potentially pose adverse environmental consequences and health hazard to human. The preparation of TiO2, Fe2O3 cores produced perfectly spherical and smooth surfaces of associated silica shells. The percent degradation of Methylene blue (MB) was measured and found to reach 98% using SiO2 in 300 min. The corresponding percent degradation using TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 reached 95% and 81% respectively for the same time period. The results obtained using Fe2O3 and Fe2O3/SiO2 core–shell particles were not encouraging.

[A.M. Ismail, M.H. Khedr and M.F. Abadir Photocatalytic Behavior of Fe2O3, SiO2, TiO2, and TiO2/SiO2, Fe2O3/SiO2 Core–Shell Nanoparticles towards Decomposition of Methylene Blue. J Am Sci 2011; 7(10):797-803]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: methylene blue – core shell – nanoparticles - catalysts

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Investigation of Novel Mono Quaternary Surface Active Phosphonium Derivatives and Their Metal Complexes as Biocides for Metal Working Petroleum Oils

 

Abdelfattah M. Badawi1, Salwa M.I. Morsy1,2, Osman M. Habib3, Ashraf Y. El-Naggar1,2 and Ashraf M. Abd Elsalam4

 

1Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

3Faculty of Science – Mansoura University

4 Ghamra Research Center, Misr Petroleum Company.

sehamshaban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the surface active phosphonium derivatives and their metal complexes were synthesized and their chemical structures were investigated by elemental analysis, FTIR, H1 NMR and mass spectroscopy. The surface parameters of these compounds were studied to evaluate their surface activity. The biocidal and fungicidal characters of the target compounds and their metal complexes were compared to each others and with another commercial biocides through their effect against some strains of bacteria and fungi which grow in some metal working oils.

[Abdelfattah M. Badawi, Salwa M.I. Morsy, Osman M. Habib, Ashraf Y. El-Naggar and Ashraf M. Abd Elsalam. Investigation of Novel Mono Quaternary Surface Active Phosphonium Derivatives and Their Metal Complexes as Biocides for Metal Working Petroleum Oils. J Am Sci 2011;7(10):804-816]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

 

Keyword: Mono quaternary, metal complexes, metal working oils

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from June 16, 2011. 
 
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