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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 2, Cumulated No. 48, February 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover Page (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0802

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Benefits of ZnO2 nanoparticles on improving damage resistance of concrete specimens

 

Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha1 and Farzad Soleymani*,2

 

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

2. Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

* E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Flexural of concrete containing ZnO2 nanoparticles which were cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. ZnO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of Portland cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as nano-fillers. The specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting and then their strength was evaluated by flexural strength test. The results showed that replacement of Portland cement with ZnO2 nanoparticles up to 1.0 weight percent for the specimens cured in water and 2.0% for the specimens cured in saturated limewater produces concrete with the best strength. It has been obtained that curing the specimens in saturated limewater for 28 days and then in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened concrete than those cured only in saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days, when the specimens cured in limewater, reduces the effect of strengthening gels which form until the 90 days hence reduces the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more strengthening gel results in a concrete with higher strength. The pore structure of different mixtures was studied. The addition of nanoparticles improves the pore structure of concretes, the refined extent of pore structure increase with decreasing nanoparticles’ content. The pore structure of concretes which were cured in saturated limewater is better than that of concretes cured in water.

[Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha and Farzad Soleymani. Benefits of ZnO2 nanoparticles on improving damage resistance of concrete specimens. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.01

 

Key words: ZnO2 nanoparticles; flexural strength; optimized properties; pore structure; concrete.

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Antibacterial activities of gallic acid and gallic acid methyl ester on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 

Salha H.M. Al-Zahrani
 

Biology Department, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted by maceration in ethanol for 2 days at room temperature. The total ethanolic extracts were then successively partitioned to three parts to extract in a Soxhlet extractor with methyl acetate, -hexane and dichloromethane. The dried extracts were used to determine their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA). All the peel extracts exhibited marked antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of methyl acetate extract inhibited the growth of all tested isolates, while dichloromethane extracts had no antimicrobial activity. Gallic acid (3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a naturally occurring polyphenol comprising the major hydrolytic product of tannic acid. Gallic acid (GA) and gallic acid methyl ester have been identified in pomegranate peels by the use of Nuclear magnetic resonance NMR (1H, 13C NMR). The ethanolic methyl acetate extract of pomegranate peels contained 100 and 10 mg/1g of GA and gallic acid methyl ester respectively. The overall results showed that the pure compounds of pomegranate peel extracts (Gallic acid (GA) and gallic acid methyl ester) have antibacterial activity.Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of Gallic acid and gallic acid methyl ester were demonstrated.

[Salha H.M. Al-Zahrani. Antibacterial activities of gallic acid and gallic acid methyl ester on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):7-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.02

Keywords: Gallic acid; Punica granatum, pomegranate peel, antibacterial, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA

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Acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement by alveolar corticotomy using piezosurgery

 

Islam T. Abbas* and Gamal M. Moutamed**

 

*Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

** Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Corresponding authors: itarek@msn.com, gamalmoutamed@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to: (1) Identify the effect of the corticotomy-facilitated (CF) orthodontics technique on orthodontic tooth movement compared with the non surgical standard orthodontics technique. (2) Evaluate pain and discomfort levels and the levels of satisfaction of the patients during the treatment about CF orthodontics technique performed with piezosurgery versus non- surgical standard orthodontics technique. Eight patients with minor to moderate mandibular crowding with normal skeletal class I pattern were treated with corticotomy-facilitated (CF) orthodontic technique. Patients were randomly divided to two groups; group I (corticotomy group) in which Alveolar Corticotomies (ACS) were performed using PES and group II (non surgical group) in which non- surgical standard orthodontics technique was done. The desired tooth movement for mandibular de-crowding was achieved in (74.57.7) days in corticotomy group (group I) and (141.721.3) in non -surgical group (group II). Compared to conventional orthodontic approaches, the average duration of mandibular de-crowding treatment was reduced by about 50 % in group I. The total treatment time was estimated from the beginning of active orthodontic treatment till the completion of de-crowding of the lower mandibular teeth. In conclusion, this study showed that the CF increases orthodontic tooth movement with accepted degrees of pain and discomfort. Orthodontic microsurgery is associated with minimal morbidity. CF orthodontics reduces the duration of treatment compared to the non- surgical standard orthodontic techniques. Surgical control for PES was easier than conventional surgical burs for selective alveolar corticotomies. The force necessary to produce a cut was much less compared to surgical burs. Increased temperature during bone cutting with PES was avoided which reduces the risk of bone damage as a result of overheating.

[Islam T. Abbas and Gamal M. Moutamed. Acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement by alveolar corticotomy using piezosurgery. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):13-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.03

 

Key words: Orthodontic tooth movements, alveolar corticotomies, piezoelectric surgery.

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Color Stability Of Different Restoratives After Exposure To Coloring Agents

 

YOUSEF M. and ABO EL NAGA A.

 

Associate Professor of Operative Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate color stability of three different restoratives and efficacy of sonic-brushing in preventing color changes of these restoratives when subjected to coloring agent. Methods: 70 discs (5mm diameter x 2mm thick) made of each tested restorative [Ketak N100 (KN), 3M/ESPE, Beautifil II (BII), Shofu and Filtek Supreme Ultra (FS), 3M/ESPE]. Ten specimens were used as control while other 60 specimens were subdivided into six subgroups (n=10); First, second and third subgroups immersed in cola, coffee and tea respectively for 10 min. 3-times daily. Fourth, fifth and sixth subgroups immersed in cola, coffee and tea respectively for 10 min. 3-times daily and brushed with sonic-brush for 1min. after each exposure. Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva between staining and brushing challenges. After a month, all specimens tested for quantitative color changes using Quanta-Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope. Data statistically analyzed using Three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (P≤0.05). Results: The mean color change of non-brush-cycled subgroups (124.1pixel) showed statistically significantly higher values than brush-cycled subgroups (118pixel). BII showed the highest mean color change values (126.4pixel), whereas, no significant difference found between FS (117.4pixel) and KN (120.7pixel). Conclusions: The tested nanoionomer and nanocomposite performed similarly under the test conditions. Brushing specimens after staining improved the color changes of the tested materials.

[YOUSEF M., ABO EL NAGA A. Color Stability Of Different Restoratives After Exposure To Coloring Agents. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):20-26]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.04

 

Key words: nanoionomer, restorative dentistry

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Nanoleakage Of Giomer Resin Bonded With Either Total- Or Self-Etch Adhesives

 

Abo El Naga A.

 

 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdul Aziz University.

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the effect of lateral-load and thermal cycling on the nanoleakage along tooth/restoration interface of giomer resin restorations bonded with two different adhesives. Methods: A giomer self-etch adhesive system (FLBond II, Shofu) and a total-etch adhesive system (Prime & Bond NT, DENTSPLY) were used with Beautifil II (nano-hybrid resin-based giomer material, Shofu). Wedge-shaped cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of eighty extracted human premolars. Cavities were then divided randomly into two groups according to the used adhesive. Each group was further divided into four subgroups (n=10): A; control, B; subjected to lateral-load cycling (90N at 45 degrees for 5000 cycles), C; subjected to thermo-cycling (5-55C for 500 cycles) and D; subjected to both lateral-load and thermo-cycling (90N at 45 degrees for 5000 cycles/5-55C for 500 cycles). Nanoleakage was then tested using Quanta Environmental SEM and EDAX. Data were statistically-analyzed using Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests. Results: The adhesive type and the combination of lateral-load and thermal cycling had a statistically significant effect on the nanoleakage (P≤0.05). Meanwhile, no significant differences observed between A, B and C subgroups for both tested adhesive systems. Conclusions: The type of the adhesive system affected the seal ability of the giomer restorations. Combining both lateral load and thermal cycling, in an attempt to simulate oral conditions, had a dramatic effect on nanoleakage.

[Abo El Naga A. Nanoleakage Of Giomer Resin Bonded With Either Total- Or Self-Etch Adhesives. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):27-34]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.05

 

Keywords: Nanoleakage, Adhesive

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Health and Lifestyle Assessment among Medical Students of El Kasr El Aini, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

 

Shaimaa B. Abdelaziz and Arwa M. El-Shafei

 

Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

shaimaabaher@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Medical students represent a significant community investment and promoting their health preserves this investment. The study aim is to assess health status and detect life style risky behaviors among Egyptians’ medical students in order to contribute to the development of health promotion programs designed specifically for them. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students at Faculty of medicine, Cairo University, from February to May, 2011. The study sample was stratified according to undergraduate grades of education a random sample of 440 students was chosen. Data was collected via a self-administered anonymous questionnaire consisted of students’ demographic characteristics and three main domains used to assess health of the study participants. The index of adiposity used in the study was the body mass index (BMI). A scoring mechanism was built for every question and a mean of the total scores was calculated for each domain. The computer package SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis. The results indicated that, out of the 440 university students studied, 151 (34.3%) were males and 289 (65.7%) were females. The mean age of males was (19.8+1.25) years, while that of females was (19.2+1.17) years. Mean BMI for male was 25.5 kg/m2, compared with 23.8 kg/m2 for female students. Students in the fifth year were more likely to be obese than students in other years of graduation (13.3% vs 11.7%). Male were almost likely to be more obese than female students (59.5% vs 40.5%). The majority believed their activity levels were insufficient (78.6%) and (62.9%) had poor sleep behavior. Fifth year students were significantly less likely to eat meals regularly (p 0.03). Consumption of fatty food > 5 times/week was significantly associated with being over weight and obese, as compared to those who consumed fatty food less than 5 times per week (p 0.007). Frequencies revealed that anxiety and depression was significantly higher among 1st year students as compared to the 3rd and 5th years (p 0.05). Most of them (68.9%) suffered from poor time management affecting their academic performance. Examination and academic related stresses constituted the highest percentage (91.8%) among the causes of stress. The over all total score of the three health domains was significantly higher among fifth year students (p<0.01). Health risk behaviors score (life style and dietary habits) and the mental social well-being mean score did not show any statistical significant difference between medical students in the three years of education. This study identified significant health promotion opportunities for these students that can be carried out during medical school in order to establish a healthier physician population. It is recommended to develop health and nutritional education, behavioral modifications and intervention studies for better health promotion of medical students.

[Shaimaa B. Abdelaziz and Arwa M. El-Shafei. Health and Lifestyle Assessment among Medical Students of El Kasr El Aini, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 35-45]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.06

 

Keywords: College students-Health-related risk behaviors-Life style

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Use of GIS for Studying the Spatial Distribution of Pollutants around Safaniya Power Plant (KSA)

 

F. A. Al-Seroury

 

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul- Aziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. falseroury@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aims to use the Geographic Information System (GIS) for studying the spatial distribution of pollutants emitted from Safaniya Power Plant, KSA. To fulfill this objective the concentrations of Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Methane and Ethane were calculated at different distances from the Power Plant stack using the widespread Gaussian Plume Model (GPM). A digital data base of the plant was established using Arc-GIS 9.2 software. The concentration of pollutants and climatic data were attached to the database. The spatial analyst was used to map the spatial distribution of the pollutants around the stack. The areas affected by the high concentrations of pollutants were defined and the changes of pollutants concentration were discussed in detail. The results indicate that the areas affected by the high concentration are located to the distance of 10 – 750 meter from the stack. The impact of pollutants can be found at the distance of 1450 meter where it includes land surfaces and the water bodies of Arabian Gulf.

[F. A. Al-Seroury. Use of GIS for Studying the Spatial Distribution of Pollutants around Safaniya Power Plant (KSA). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 46-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.07

 

Keywords: Pollutants, GIS, spatial analyses, Safaniya Power Plant, KSA.

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Managing Energy Technologies by Exploring Criteria for Technology Portfolio Selection – A Case in Petroleum Industry

 

Sayyed Farhang Fassihi Langroudi, Mir Mahdi Sayyed Esfahani, Hamid Davoudpour

 

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424, Hafez Ave, Tehran, Iran. farhang@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Technology is a key element in the process of service and product development in energy sector. Therefore it is considered as an infrastructure for achieving organizational objectives and for supporting strategies. Selecting a technology portfolio which is a set of interdependent technologies to invest on can support a prompt and cost efficient achievement to objectives of energy plans. Such a selection in turn requires a set of reliable criteria to enable a portfolio management process which can guarantee a maximum return on investment having the minimum risk. In this paper after reviewing previous researches on criteria for technology portfolio selection and introducing a comprehensive list of such criteria, a new model based on a factor structure is introduced. The model is based on a set of criteria extracted from views of experts in some energy sector (i.e. Iranian petroleum industry) and classified into two groups namely values and risks. The validity of the proposed model is tested by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results of the analysis of the data gathered by questionnaires show that the proposed criteria can serve as a reliable tool to assist technological investment decision makers particularly in petroleum industry.

[S. Farhang Fassihi Langroudi, Mir Mahdi Sayyed Esfahani, Hamid Davoudpour. Managing Energy Technologies by Exploring Criteria for Technology Portfolio Selection – A Case in Petroleum Industry. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):50-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.08

 

Keywords: technology portfolio; technology management; technology acquisition; research and development; petroleum industry

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Three Dimensional Assessment of Midface Asymmetry in Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

 

Marwa AW El-Kassaby1, Eman HD El-Abbassy2, Dina H El-Ghoul2 and Noha E Sabet2

 

1Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain-Shams University, Egypt

2Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain-Shams University, Egypt

marwaelkassaby@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Patients with unilateral clefts (UCLP) at the mixed dentition stage exhibit remarkable facial asymmetries that affect orthodontic and surgical decisions as well as treatment outcomes. Exact delineation of the extent and location of this asymmetry is critical for successful management. Cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) offers detailed three dimensional (3D) assessment of the maxillofacial skeleton. However, a comprehensive 3D analysis of patients at the orthodontic age prior to alveolar cleft grafting has not been described using CBCT. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze midface asymmetry in 3D planes of postero-anterior (PA) and axial views in patients with complete UCLP in mixed dentition stage, prior to orthodontic preparation for alveolar cleft grafting using CBCT. CBCT scans of 20 non-syndromic children (13 boys, 7 girls; mean age, 9.8 years +1.5 years) with repaired complete UCLP were collected. Specific landmarks applicable for PA and submentovertex radiography, as well as to conventional CT were selected to conduct 3D analysis of the midface. Numerous vertical, horizontal, transverse and sagittal measurements were made on PA and axial views respectively. Images were digitized on screen by the same investigator; points were set with respect to constructed reference lines. Obtained values were mainly compared using Paired t-test. Errors of the method and intra-observer reliability were measured. Obtained results revealed that there was significant intra-observer agreement denoting high reliability of measurements. In PA view; there were significant differences between nasal cavity, maxillary dento-alveolar vertical and horizontal measurements and molar point vertical measurments. In axial views; there were significant differences between pyriforme, maxilloalveolare and maxillary sinus total length sagittal measurements as well as difference in means of malare, pyriforme, maxilloalveolare and nasal chamber width transverse measurements. The ANS and nasal tip were shifted to the non-cleft side in 80% and 70% of cases respectively; the nasal septum was shifted towards the cleft side in 75% of cases. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that CBCT is an excellent method for 3D assessment of midfacial structures. Most asymmetries and deformities in the eight to 12-year-old patients with repaired complete UCLP were in the nasal chamber, maxillary dento-alveolar complex, maxillary sinus and malar prominence regions. Those results are of clinical importance to the maxillofacial surgeon and the orthodontist to develop a customized treatment plan for each patient in order to achieve successful outcomes.

[Marwa AW El-Kassaby, Eman HD El-Abbassy, Dina H El-Ghoul and Noha E Sabet. Three Dimensional Assessment of Midface Asymmetry in Patients with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):58-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.09

 

Keywords: Unilateral cleft lip and palate, asymmetry, midface, cone beam computerized tomography, three dimensional, treatment planning

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Fuzzy image retrieval systems using intuitionistic fuzzy sets

 

Mohammad Masoud Javidi, Monireh Azimihemat

 

Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

 javidi@mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets are a generalization of fuzzy sets. These sets have a greater ability for displaying uncertainty and are therefore more suitable for representing the content of color images. In this paper we first present methods for converting fuzzy sets into intuitionistic fuzzy sets. We then show how intuitionistic fuzzy sets may be used to improve precision and recall of fuzzy image retrieval systems. For a verification of the method we test it on a database containing 1000 images.

[Mohammad Masoud Javidi, Monireh Azimihemat. Fuzzy image retrieval systems using intuitionistic fuzzy sets. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):67-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.10

 

Keywords: Content-based retrieval; color image database; fuzzy number; intuitionistic fuzzy set

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Knowledge, Attitude and Lifestyle Changes among Chronic Hepatitis C Patients in Alexandria, Egypt: A Fear-Appeal Intervention

 

Sherine Gaber Hassan 1, Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany 2,* and Wafaa El-Sheikh3 

 

1 Dept. of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

2 Dept. of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

3 Dept. of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health threat particularly in Egypt. The current knowledge, attitude and behavior especially of chronically infected patients would determine the areas of defect to be targeted. Counseling and education about epidemiological and medical aspects of the disease would probably improve knowledge and attitude. To control infection, efforts should be spent to enhance perception and encourage healthy and safe behavior. Objectives: To assess HCV-related knowledge, attitude, risk behavior and changes of lifestyle in a sample of Egyptian chronic HCV patients and to evaluate the effect of a health education intervention program on these factors. Study Design: A randomized pre-post test was used in the study. Methods: Knowledge and attitude of 148 chronic HCV patients were assessed using specific scoring system set by the authors through a self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire included questions about risky behaviors adopted by the patient before diagnosis and the changes encountered thereafter. Health education session was held using a fear-appeal method and posttest was done 6 months later to 46 subjects who continued the study. Results: participants showed poor knowledge and negative attitude. The most frequent potential risk factors were; repeated dentist visits (71.6%), hospitalization (66.9%), and using common sharp objects (48.6%). Diet control was the most prominent change following diagnosis. Counseling improved knowledge dramatically but had no effect on attitude and had improved behaviors although most of them did not reach a statistically significant degree. Conclusions: Chronic HCV patients have low standard body of knowledge and negative attitude about their disease. Corrections of malpractices following diagnosis were documented, but also unnecessary restrictions were adopted. Although health education evidently improved knowledge, the satisfactory changes in attitude and behaviors need to be further studied using more intense, frequent or various health education techniques.

[Sherine Gaber Hassan, Engy Mohamed El-Ghitany and Wafaa El-Sheikh. Knowledge, Attitude and Lifestyle Changes among Chronic Hepatitis C Patients in Alexandria, Egypt: A Fear-Appeal Intervention. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 73-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.11

 

Keywords: Hepatitis C, Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, Health education, Fear-appeal

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A Phase II Study of Concurrent Preoperative Chemotheray and Radiotherapy on Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

 

Mohammed A.Mikkawy1; SamirS.Eid1, Hesham M.Hamza*2; Ashraf Farrag1 and Marwa I. Khalaf1

 

1Clinical Oncology Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt

2Surgical Oncology Department Cancer Institute, South Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Colo-rectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the Western world; rectal cancer comprises about one-third of these cases. The increasing life expectancy in this population adds to the importance of evaluating long-term results of curative treatment. Purpose: Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiation is the current standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer. Preoperative chemo-radiotherapy can lead to pathologic complete response. This study was designed to determine clinical response rate in locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative regimen followed by surgical resection. Also it studies the effect of this regimen on the possibility of performing colo-anal pull-through as a new technique of sphincter preserving surgery and on increasing the resectability rates in those patients. Secondary Objectives: To determine the toxicity of this preoperative regimen. Methods: Clinicopathological data from 2008 to 2011 of a prospectively maintained 33 patients of locally advanced rectal cancer database were examined. Inclusion criteria were patients with previously untreated either inoperable or locally advanced rectal cancer not suitable for primary sphincter sparing surgery, investigated by sigmoidoscopy and /or colonscopy. These patients received preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy by using Oral flouropyramidines(Capecitabine). Results: Thirty-three patients were identified (54.5% male, median age, 40 y (range, 17–80 y)). Data regarding preoperative chemoradiotherapy were available for 33 patients (100%). The dose of radiotherapy was 5040 cGy/28ttt, and Capecitabine chemotherapy scheduale is 850mg/m2 daily concurrent with radiotherapy. Linear accelerator Conventional radiotherapy was used. Trans-anal abdominally assisted Colo-anal pull-through was performed in 27 patients (81.82%), and those underwent abdomino-perineal resection are 6 patients (18.18%). About the toxicity in this study, for the chemotherapy used 5 patients (15.15%) develop deep venous thrombosis, 7 patients (21.2%) develop hand and foot syndrome. For the radiotherapy used, 19 patients (57.5%) develop wet desquamation. The median overall survival 9.5 months, the morbidity consisted mainly of postoperative sequalae (21.21%), regressive mass (12.12%) and residual mass (6.06%). Also about CEA were (164.5156.68, 11872.32 and 105.8859.14) before, after and follow up treatment respectively with significant difference. Response By using Capecitabine was 18(54.5%) patients out of 33 achieved Complete response which meant that they were completely down staged and 8 patients (24.2%)achieved partial response. Conclusion: Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy by using Capecitabine improves Down staging and median survival in locally advanced rectal cancers. It is safe, effective, convenient and well tolerated as it is via oral route of administration. Pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy allowed sphincter preservation in 67% of patients requiring an APR without increase in the incidence of local recurrence.

[Mohammed A. Mikkawy; Samir S. Eid, Hesham M. Hamza; Ashraf Farrag and Marwa I. Khalaf. A Phase II Study of Concurrent Preoperative Chemotheray and Radiotherapy on Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 80-86]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.12

 

Key Words: Rectal neoplasms, Combined modality therapy, Capecitabine, Locally advanced rectal cancer, Sphincter-sparing surgery.

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Synthesis of some new (E)-2-arylidine-4-oxo-4-arylaminobutanoic acids and (E)-3-arylidine-1-arylpyrrolidine-2,5-diones of possible medicinal applications and biological activities

 

Boshra Awad*, Shadia Abdallah, Halima Hefny, Mervat Abdou, Fatehya Abdelmonem, and Noura Abdelmonem

 

Chemistry Department, University College of Women for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University, Asma Fahmy Street, Heliopolis-11341, Cairo, EGYPT. boshra_awad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Synthesis of compounds 3-32 of possible medicinal and biological activities have been carried out by reaction of (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)dihydrofuran-2,5-dione (1) and (E)-3-(benzo[d] [1,3] dioxol-5-ylmethylene)dihydrofuran-2,5-dione (2) with aromatic amines (a-h) using microwave and conventional thermal heating to study the structural effect of reactants and techniques used. The microwave irradiation of compound 1 gave (E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidine)-4-oxo-4-arylaminobutanoic acids 3-5 and (E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-arylpyrrolidine-2,5-diones 11-17. Also compound 2 gave (E)-2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethylene)-4-oxo-4-arylaminobutanoic acids 18-23, and (E)-3-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethylene)-1-arylpyrrolidine-2,5-diones 26-32. In all reactions, microwave irradiation technique, showed enhancement in yields, selectivity, cleaner reactions with reduction in reaction time, and easier working up than in the conventional thermal heating technique. On the other hand, reaction of compounds 1 or 2 with amines a-h using the conventional thermal heating technique yielded only the corresponding (E)-2-arylidine-4-oxo-4-arylaminobutanoic acid derivatives 3-10, or 18-25, respectively. The structural formulas of the products obtained were assigned by their spectral data. Some prepared compounds were found to have cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

[Boshra Awad, Shadia Abdallah, Halima Hefny, Mervat Abdou, Fatehya Abdelmonem, and Noura Abdelmonem. Synthesis of some new (E)-2-arylidine-4-oxo-4-arylaminobutanoic acids and (E)-3-arylidine-1-arylpyrrolidine-2,5-diones of possible medicinal applications and biological activities. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):87-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.13

 

Key Words: Cytotoxic, antimicrobial, microwave irradiation, butanoic acids, pyrrolidine-2,5-diones

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A genetic algorithm for truck scheduling in cross docking systems

 

Hamid Davoudpour, Pedram Hooshangi-Tabrizi, and Pooya Hoseinpour*

 

Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

p.hoseinpour@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Cross docking is a kind of warehousing systems in which products are unloaded from inbound trucks and loaded into outbound ones. In order to minimize total operation time of the system, this research finds the best scheduling of both inbound and outbound trucks by considering a temporary storage, and also variable product moving time from inbound to outbound which has been ignored in the previous proposed models. This problem is in the class of NP-hard problems. Therefore, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to handle the complexity. To evaluate the efficiency of the results a lower bound is developed for the problem.

[Hamid Davoudpour, Pedram Hooshangi-Tabrizi, and Pooya Hoseinpour. A genetic algorithm for truck scheduling in cross docking systems. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):96-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.14

 

Keywords: Cross docking; Truck scheduling; Genetic Algorithm (GA).

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The Effective of Cognitive Behavioral Counseling on Degree of Women with Sexual DYSFUNCTION

 

Peimaneh Nemati

 

The Ph.D student of National Academy Science University, Yerevan, Armenia. p.nemati99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is high. According to published epidemiological studies, approximately 40% of adult women have at least one sexual dysfunction, it is complex and affected by physical, psychological and social factors. There are different methods for treatment. Cognitive behavioral counseling is as a psychological therapy; in cognitive therapy, counselors consider the cognitive processing of information, more important than physiologic factors; negative thought about sexual activities will worsen and prolong the symptoms. Therefore discovering those negative self-inductions will help to successfully analyze the sexual disorders. The goal of the present research is to study the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on the level of women sexual dysfunction. Method and Materials: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) during 8 individual weekly sessions and 4 group therapy weekly sessions used for subjects group and it focused on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques. Golombok-Rust sexual satisfaction questionnaire was used as the pre-test and post- test for subject group, and Chi-Square test together with T-test were used to analyze the data. Data analysis showed that the cognitive behavior therapy has significantly effect on reduction of sexual dysfunction. The mean scores of sexual dysfunction in post-test of subject group was significantly lower than mean scores in pre-test Conclusion: Cognitive counseling as a therapeutic method can have a significant role in improvement of women suffering from sexual dysfunction.

[Peimaneh Nemati. The Effective of Cognitive Behavioral Counseling on Degree of Women with Sexual DYSFUNCTION. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):100-104]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.15

 

Keyword: Sexual Dysfunction, Cognitive Behavior Counseling, Women

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The Effect of CO2 Emission on Tourism in Iran; an Ecotourism Approach in Zagros Area

 

Masoumeh Momeni

 

Researcher, Tehran, Iran. m.momeni89@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sustainable tourism has been a key concept for tourism researchers and tourist industry alike since the early 1990s. The aim of this paper is considering the impact of CO2 emissions on International tourism in Iran at 1960-2009 period. Estimation results indicate that CO2 emission has a negative effect on international tourism in Iran. Also, Dummy variable for political instability has a negative effect on international tourism in Iran at 1980-2009 period. Also, in this paper, the Zagros Area has considered as an ecotourism location in Iran.

[Masoumeh Momeni. The Effect of CO2 Emission on Tourism in Iran; an Ecotourism Approach in Zagros Area. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):105-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.16

 

Keywords: CO2 Emission, Tourism, Ecotourism, Zagros Area, Iran

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The Role of Action Research in On-the-job Teacher Training Programs

 

Masumeh Alinejad

 

Assistant of Nassibe College, Tehran,Iran

Alinejad15@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Increased research in teacher thinking, together with, increased attention to theories proposed on teacher actions during last two decades have led to the proposed "thoughtful agent" as a new idea in teacher training. An outcome of this idea has been the use of such other phrases like "action research", "thoughtful teaching", "think about action", and "teacher as researcher". These changes have resulted into research approaches taking a dominating rule in teacher training all over the world. Action research has been successfully applied in research activities and curriculum planning in teacher education. Action research has been progressively instrumental in introducing higher quality and improved effectiveness in teacher training activities because of its special properties and advantages. Teacher training programs can be designed with the emphasis on action research in preparatory and on-the-job training programs to encourage thoughtful actions among teachers.

[Masumeh Alinejad. The Role of Action Research inOn-the-job Teacher Training Programs. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):109-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.17

 

Keywords: Action reasech,TeacherTraining,Toughtful teaching,Emphasis,Instrumental.

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Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Quest for the Moral Right Path

 

Mohsen Mahmoud Rowshanzamir

 

Islamic Azad University- Mashhad Branch, English Department

Roshanzamir_mohsen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: American literature is much in debt to Nathaniel Hawthorne who helped American literature flourish a great deal. Through his works, he presented his specific narration style, which contained the new genre of romance and tales, through which he tried to make the world familiar with his personal line of thought and belief. What he did was the presentation of his social and individualistic concerns in the form of themes he fulfilled. One of the themes which were of prime importance for him was morality as a basis on which social and individualistic foundations of the society would stand. His presentation of moral matters was specific and considerable. He presented morality of his characters as a result of the decisions they made at the critical decision points. As a puritan descendant, Hawthorne wanted to illustrate his experiences and thoughts through letting his characters play normally and choose at the moral critical decision points. At the end of his stories, the reader comes to a moral, which is a result of his characters’ struggles as they chose in difficult moral dilemmas and through bearing the consequence of their actions. This article tries to examine one of the most important themes, Hawthorne had in his mind: the hardship of decision making regarding the right path to morality and the consequences of moral decision making.

[Mohsen Mahmoud Rowshanzamir. Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Quest for the Moral Right Path. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):112-115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.18

 

Key Words: morality, alienation, dilemma, novel, tale, faith, sin

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Gut Morphology of Developing Malaysian River Catfish Mystus Nemurus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) Larvae

 

Ghada Ahmed El Hag1, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin2, Che Roos Saad2 and Siti Khalijah Daud3

 

1Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agricultura Technology and Fisheries Science, University of Alneelain, Khartoum, Sudan.P.O.Box:12702.

2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Aquaculture, University Putra Malaysia

3Faculty of Sciences Universitiy Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

ghahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to monitor ontogenetic changes in the gut morphology of Malaysian river catfish, Mystus nemurus during larval development. Fish larvae were reared in three 1 ton fiberglass tanks. During the study, the larvae were fed on Artemia nauplii at 5 organisms ml feeding-1 from the start of exogenous feeding (4 DAH). The morphological development of the gut in M. nemurus larvae was observed using a profile projector and a light microscope for a 21 days period. At hatching and during the yolk absorption period, the gut was a simple, straight, undifferentiated tube throughout its length. By 4-5 DAH, the gut differentiated to the esophagus, stomach, and intestine which coincided to the commencement of exogenous feeding. Strong (GL = 0.3179TL-0.1412, R2 = 0.9284) relationship was found between gut length (GL) and total length (TL) of fish.

[Ghada Ahmed El Hag, Mohd Salleh Kamarudin, Che Roos Saad and Siti Khalijah Daud. Gut Morphology of Developing Malaysian River Catfish Mystus Nemurus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) Larvae. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 116-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.19

 

Key words: Malaysian river catfish; larvae; gut morphology; Mystus nemurus

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Isolation of Bovine Herpesvirus-2 (Bhv-2) from a Case of Pseudo-Lumpy Skin Disease in Egypt

 

Iman, M. Bastawecy

 

Dept. of Virology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: A bovine herpes viru-2 (BHV-2) was recently isolated for the first time from a cow with generalized BHV-2 infection which is called pseudo-lumpy skin disease. The isolated virus was identified with negative staining electron microscope (EM), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis for the PCR product. Further serological investigations are recommended to differentiate carriers from susceptible cattle because the latency of herpesvirus infections is consistently characterized by a positive serologic status. Nucleotidesequence data must be submitted to GenBank to certain the strain isolated and described in the current study.

[Iman, M. Bastawecy. Isolation of Bovine Herpesvirus-2 (Bhv-2) from a Case of Pseudo-Lumpy Skin Disease in Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):122-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.20

 

Key words: BHV-2; isolation; EM; PCR; sequence analysis.

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Field Evaluation of Different Pesticides against Cotton Bollworms and Sucking Insects and Their Side Effects

 

Nour El-Hoda A. Zidan*1; Jehan B. El-Naggar2; Safwat A. Aref2 and Madeha E. El-Dewy2

 

1Pesticides Dept., Fac. of Agric., Kafrelsheikh Univ., Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

2 Plant protections Research Institute, Agric. Research Center, Doki, Giza, Egypt

*nourelhoda_az@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during 2010 and 2011 cotton growing seasons at Sakha Agricultural Research Station Farm to evaluate the efficacy of five insecticides, i.e., two synthetic pyrethroids (-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), two organophosphorus (profenophos, chlropyrifos) and one carbamate (methomyl), against both pink bollworm (PBW), pectinophora gossypiella (saund) and spiny bollworm (SPW), Earias insulana (Boisd) and their effects against sucking insects; cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Golv), whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) and Jassid, Empoasca spp. and their associated natural enemies,(chrysopa sp., Paederus alfierii, Orius spp, Scymnus spp. and True spider). Biochemical studies on bollworms larvae were conducted as well. The obtained results indicated that the tested synthetic pyrethroids were the most efficient compounds during the two seasons. The treatments could be arranged descendingly according to the average of the two seasons as follows; -cypermethrin (81.45%), lambda-cyhalothrin (71.91%), methomyl (68.33%), profenophos (66.75%) and chlorpyrifos (62.58%) against PBW; and were -cypermethrin (83.00%), lambda-cyhalothrin (81.61%), methomyl (81.15%), profenophos (78.87%) and chlorpyrifs (70.05%) against SPW. Regarding sucking insects, -cypermethrin was efficient against aphid followed by profenophos, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and methomyl meanwhile in case of whitefly (mature and immature stages) and Jassid all the tested insecticides induced a weak to moderate effect. In addition, -cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and profenophos were more toxic against predators than chlorpyrifos and methomyl which induced a moderate effect. As for biochemical assays in PBW larvae, data indicated that both chlorpyrifos and profenophos-treated strains, expressed higher levels of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity than the reference (Lab-susceptible) strain. As respects SPW larvae, data showed that chlorpyrifos-treated strains expressed higher levels of AChE activity than the reference (Lab- strain). Data also revealed that, relatively higher activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) has been observed in chlorpyrifos and profenophos- treated strains, over that of the lab-strain of PBW larvae. The same trend of data was obtained for SPW larvae.

[Nour El-Hoda A. Zidan; Jehan B. El-Naggar; Safwat A. Aref and Madeha E. El-Dewy. Field Evaluation of Different Pesticides against Cotton Bollworms and Sucking Insects and Their Side Effects. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 128-136].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.21

 

Keywords: pesticides – cotton bollworms – sucking insects – predators – AChE – GST

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Protective Effects of L-Carnitine on Cisplatin Induced Toxicity In rat Parotid Salivary Glands

 

1,2Rabab Mubarak and 1Zoba H. Ali

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Nahda University, Beni Sueif, Egypt

rababmubarak2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. However, it has severe side effects that limit its use. Acetyl L- Carnitine is a well known neuroprotective agent. It also has antioxidative as well as powerful antiapoptotic properties on various cell types. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of acetyl L-Carnitine on Cisplatin induced cytotoxicity on rat parotid salivary glands. Methods: Thirty male albino rats (250-300 grams) were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control group) was administrated saline. Group II (Cisplatin group) received cisplatin injection. Group III (Cisplatin & L- Carnitine group) was administrated L- Carnitine prior to cisplatin injection. Rats were sacrificed after 3 days of cisplatin/ saline administration. The parotid salivary glands were dissected out and prepared for histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Results: Light microscopic examination of cisplatin group revealed enlargement and deformity of the secretory portions with numerous intracellular vacuoles. Secretory cells revealed deeply stained atrophied nuclei. The excretory ducts appeared dilated with degenerated epithelial lining. Widening of the connective tissue septa with chronic inflammatory cells infiltration was also detected. Some secretory cells and intralobular ducts were completely degenerated leaving large vacuoles. While L- Carnitine treated group revealed well defined serous acini having distinct outline and lined by pyramidal cells with rounded basophilic nuclei. Well formed striated ducts were also detected. There were numerous dilated blood vessels engorged with red blood cells. Immunohistochemical examination of Bax protein expression of cisplatin group showed significant increase in Bax positive immunoreactivity indicating apoptotic changes while L- Carnitine treated group revealed expression of Bax protein that statistically having no significant difference with control group. Conclusion: Administration of acetyle L- Carnitine produced a protective effect against cytotoxic and apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin treatment in rat parotid salivary glands.

[Rabab Mubarak and Zoba H. Ali. Protective Effects of L-Carnitine on Cisplatin Induced Toxicity In rat Parotid Salivary Glands. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):137-144].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.22

 

Keywords: L-Carnitine; Cisplatin; salivary glands; histological changes; apoptosis.

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The role of the texture and floor in the architecture desirable for the blinds (with an environmental perception approach)

 

Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari 1, Asghar Panahzadeh 2

 

1Department of Architecture, Payam Noor University, Tabriz

2Department of Art, Payam Noor University, Tabriz

arch_khojasteh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human being and the surrounding environment are agents, dependant on each other. On the one hand human being as a living thing is threatened by agents and different diseases from the early minutes of birth until death and sometimes this causes disabilities. Blindness is one of these defects which results in the low level of eyesight or a complete blindness. Eyesight is the fundamental sense in environment perception. Thus, regarding the weakness or lack of this sense in a blind person, utilizing and reinforcing other senses by using suitable tools can help human being perceive the surrounding environment. In this research paper first we will describe blindness and the perception types of the blinds of the environment and then will describe the role of floor as one of the useful elements of building a space around the blinds. And then we will emphasize on the importance of this issue as one of the elements of spatial perception of the blinds by expressing the related rules and standards.

[Mohammad Amin Khojasteh Ghamari, Asghar Panahzadeh. The role of the texture and floor in the architecture desirable for the blinds (with an environmental perception approach). J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):145-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.23

 

Keywords: Environment; blind; perception; texture; floor.

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Nursing Workload and the Cost of Nursing Care at Mansoura Emergency Hospital

 

Wessam A. Elsayed1, Wafaa F. Sleem1 and Neamat M. Elsayed2

 

1Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University, Egypt

 Wessam pasiony@yahoo.com, dr_wafaasleem@yahoo.com, neamat_mohmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nursing workload and cost of nursing care are considered two important concepts of management. The art of decreasing nursing workload and the cost of nursing care requires creative ways to make nurses use their time effectively and provide effective nursing care with less cost. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the nursing workload and the cost of nursing care at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Design: Cross-sectional analytical design was conducted at all general surgical and all general orthopedic units at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Methods: The data was collected from 46 nurses working at the studied units and 143 patients already hospitalized at the studied units during the time of the study. Three types of tools were used for data collection include: Patient Assessment Sheet, Nursing Activity Observation Study Sheet, and Personal Monetary Sheet. Results: indicates that there is a highly significant positive correlation between nursing workload and cost of nursing care. That means the highly the workload is the highly the cost of nursing care.

[Wessam A. Elsayed, Wafaa F. Sleem and Neamat M. Elsayed. Nursing Workload and the Cost of Nursing Care at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):152-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.24

 

Key words: Nursing workload - cost of nursing care.

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Significance of Serum and Ascitic Fluid Bacterial DNA in Culture Negative Non-Neutrocytic Ascites

 

Mohamed A Rady1, Nashwa Sheble1, Mona M Hassouna2, Mona A El Shafie3,

and Ghada R El Hendawy4, Doa Zkaria 5

 

Departments of Hepatology1 & Clinical Pathology2, National Liver Institute-Menoufyia University, Clinical Pathology3 and Microbiology4- Menoufiya Faculty of Medicine and Internal Medicine5 - Al Azhar Faculty of Medicine for Girls. aklrady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe complication of liver disease. A significant proportion of patients have culture-negative ascites, despite having similar signs, symptoms and mortality to those with SBP. A high index of suspicion should exist for SBP in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Bacterial translocation (BT) from intestinal wall to blood and other extra-intestinal sites is considered the key step in the pathogenesis of SBP in liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to identify bacterial DNA and its significance as a marker of bacterial translocation in patients with advanced cirrhosis and culture-negative non-neutrocytic ascites (CNNA). Sixty three patients with cirrhosis and CNNA were included in the study. The corresponding bacterial DNA (BactDNA) was identified in blood and ascitic fluid (AF) samples using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The BactDNA was detected in AF and/or blood samples in 39.6% of patients (25/63). It was found in blood sample of 48% of patients (12/25), AF sample in 6/25 patients (24%), and in simultaneously both blood and AF samples in 7/25 patients (28%). Escherichia coli is the main bacterial species detected in 72% of samples, Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected in 16%, Staphylococcus aureus in 8% and diphteroid in 4% of BactDNA positive cases. No, significant differences were detected between both BactDNA positive and negative groups as regard serum or AF biochemical parameters, except for creatinine. Also, the clinical data were not statistically different between groups, except for previous episodes of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy and band ligation. After 12 months of follow up, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), gastrointestinal bleeding and death were more frequent in BactDNA positive group. In conclusion: the detected BactDNA in our patients with CNNA might be an alternative diagnostic tool for early diagnosis and prompt treatment of AF infection to ameliorate the serious complications and poor prognosis of such patients.

[Mohamed A Rady, Nashwa Sheble, Mona M Hassouna, Mona A El Shafie and Ghada Hendawy, Doa Zkaria. Significance of Serum and Ascitic Fluid Bacterial DNA in Culture Negative Non-Neutrocytic Ascites. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 160-167]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.25

 

Keywords: Liver cirrhosis,spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), culture negative non-neutrocytic ascites (CNNA), serum and ascitic fluid bact DNA in SBP

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Uncovering the Pyramids-Giza Plateau in a Search for Archaeological Relics-

By Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

 

Abbas M. Abbas 1, Fathy Shaaban 1&2, El-said A. El-Sayed 1 and Tarek Abdel Hafez 1

 

1.National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, 11421 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt.

2.Physics dept., Faulty of science, King Khaled Univ., Saudi Arabia.

Shaaban_F@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The Pyramids-Giza plateau still has a universe of unrevealed secrets. The eons passed since the building of the Pyramids, makes this area unique. These huge structures reflect the passion and the discipline of the old Egyptians. The size and effort involved, makes one question: Is that all? Is there still more hidden and unrevealed? The answers to these questions can be easily achieved using scientific approaches. One of the most powerful techniques available nowadays is the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) geophysical technique. GPR is a fast, cheap and non-destructive inspecting technology. The strength of this technique is its capability to delineate clearly any anomalous feature (wall, pipe, cave etc) within the subsurface soil. So, the implementation of this technique for archaeological inspection is significant and timely. In the present work, the GPR technique has been applied to selected areas over the Pyramids plateau. As most of the previous work done in this area was so shallow, the present work has been planned using a multi-frequency antenna with a chosen frequency of 16 MHz and 100 MHz. This frequencies allows for greater depth penetration and therefore, the possibility of locating any possible deeper targets. The following interpretations of the collected GPR profiles show some interesting features which are probably a location for archaeological relics in three areas: close to the southern side of the first Pyramid (Khufu), around the causeway of the second Pyramid (Khafre) and the location of the sun boat south of the third pyramid. Some other features of less mass have been delineated close to the eastern side of the second Pyramid and close to the entrance door to the northern side of the Sphinx.

[Abbas M. Abbas, Fathy Shaaban, El-said A. El-Sayed and Tarek Abdel Hafez. Uncovering the Pyramids-Giza Plateau in a Search for Archaeological Relics By Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):168 -174].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.26

 

Key words: Pyramids, Archaeological prospection, GPR

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Study of the Effect of Irradiation on Structural and Electrical Properties of (Bi2Te3) Thin Films

 

Fatmah Salem Bahabri and Shoroog Wasel Al-raddadi

 

Physics Department, Science Faculty for Girls, King AbdulAziz University- KSA

f_s_bahabri@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The object of this paper was devoted to study the crystal structure of Bismuth Telluride thin films. The X-ray diffraction patterns of powder Bi2Te3 showed polycrystalline structure of Hexagonal phase with lattice constants of: a = 4.45 , c = 30.47 . The X-ray diffraction patterns on Bi2Te3 thin films shows that the crystal structure of Hexagonal system and they have prefer orientation (015) and (006). The annealing effect shows an increase in the degree of crystallinity. The effect of gamma irradiation on Bi2Te3 thin film was studied at doses of 50,200,500 kGy. The X-ray diffraction patterns of Bi2Te3 thin films shows that the degree of crystallization increases as the doses increase. The electrical transport properties such as electrical resistivity ρ was studied for films of different thickness as deposited and annealed samples.

[Fatmah Salem Bahabri and Shoroog Wasel Al-raddadi. Study of the Effect of Irradiation on Structural and Electrical Properties of (Bi2Te3) Thin Films. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):175-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.27

 

Keywords: Bismuth Telluride, irradiation, gamma rays, electrical transport properties, energy gap

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Histological and Ultrastructural Changes in Gills of Tilapia Fish from Wadi Hanifah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

 

’ Jehan M.Sorour and 3Dalal Al Harbey
 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science for Girls, Umm Al-Qura University, Mekkah, KSA

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharam Bey, Alexandria 2151, Egypt

Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, KSA

jehansorour@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Tilapia fish Oreochromis sp. were collected from polluted and unpolluted areas of Wadi Hanifah stream in Riyadh to study the histopathological and ultrastructural effects of pollution on fish gills. Light microscopic observations showed several pathological changes of fish gills collected from polluted area including disorganization of the secondary lamellae structure as well as cellular hyperplasia. The tips of the secondary lamellae exhibited abnormal malformations and partial fusion of some of them. Epithelial lifting of the respiratory lamellae accompanied by edema and lamellar aneurism were also observed. On the other hand, electron microscopic observations revealed accurate alterations in the polluted fish gills. Distinct degeneration, necrosis of pillar cells and damage of the capillary walls of the secondary gill lamellae have been noted. There was also congestion of blood spaces by erythrocytes with presence of different leucocytes and the pavement cells appeared irregular with a considerable loss of microridges. The Chloride cells appeared with dilated vesicles and damaged mitochondria while the mucous cells were completely filled with electron – dense vacuoles. The present study indicates that histopathological and ultrastructural alterations are good biomarkers for field assessment in areas that are subject to a multiplicity of environmental variations.

[Jehan M.Sorour and Dalal Al Harbey. Histological and Ultrastructural Changes in Gills of Tilapia Fish from Wadi Hanifah Stream, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):180-186]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.28

 

Keywords: Environmental pollution, Tilapia fish, gills, histopathology, ultrastructure

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The Comparison of Critical Thinking, Hard effort, Advancement Motive and Creativity of Male and Female Students of Islamic Azad University Andimeshk Unit

 

Alireza Heidari 1, Habib Hadian fard 2, Samira SeyedAsiaban3, Amin Zamiri4, Sara Saeedi5

 

1- Instructor of psychology, Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2- InstAssistant professor, Department of psychology, shiraz university, Iran

3- M.A in Psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Iran

Corresponding Author: Samira.seyedasiaban@gmail.com

4- M.A in clinical Psychology shiraz university, Iran

5- M.A in Psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Iran

 

Abstract: Purpose of present research was the comparison of critical thinking, hardiness, advancement motivation and creativity in male and female students of Islamic Azad University Andimeshk Unit. Mass of under study sample was 354 individuals (188 girls & 166 boys student of university) that were selected classically & rondomically. For collecting data, four questionnaire were of thinking skills test of California (B form) (cctst), hardiness questionnaire, Advancement Motive questionnaire of Hermanz and Abbedy creativity questionnaire was used. This research was from kind fox pos facto and multivariable variance analysis (MANOVA) was used for statistical analysis of data. Results of this research analysis showed that there was a significant difference between critical thinking ski, hardiness in the level of (p<0.01) and creativity in the level of (p<0.05) in male and female students, but there wasn't a significant difference by viewpoint of advancement motive at the level of(P<0/05) between male and female students.

[Alireza Heidari, Habib Hadian fard, Samira SeyedAsiaban, Amin Zamiri, Sara Saeedi. The Comparison of Critical Thinking, Hard effort, Advancement Motive and Creativity of Male and Female Students of Islamic Azad University Andimeshk Unit. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):187-193]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.29

 

Key terms: Critical Thinking, hard effort, advancement Motive and Creativity

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Relation of some demographic factors with marital commitment, sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction in women.

 

Ail Reza Hedari1, Parviz Asskary2, Maryam Azarkish3

 

1- Instructor of psychology, Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2- Instructor of psychology, Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

3- M.A in Psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Iran

Corresponding Author: My.m.azarkish@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose of present research was investigating the relation of some population-cognition and marital commitment with sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction in DEZFUL city married women. Under investigation sample contained 300 women that were selected based on clustering random sampling procedure. Tools of research are marital commitment questionnaire (DCI), sexual satisfaction questionnaire and life satisfaction questionnaire (SWIS). For satisfaction analysis stage-regression procedure was used. Results showed that number of children and age of testable has relation with marital commitment and there is a negative relation between age and time-length of marriage of testable and sexual satisfaction and there is a positive relation between level of education and life satisfaction.

[Ail Reza Hedari1, Parviz Asskary, Maryam Azarkish. Relation of some demographic factors with marital commitment, sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction in women. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):194-199]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.30

 

Key words: factors of population cognition, sexual satisfaction and life satisfaction.

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The Influence of Cooperative Learning on Academic Performance

 

1Davod Eslamian, 2Kobra Aref & 3Khadijeh Aref

 

 Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

davodeslamian@yahoo.com; kobra.aref@yahoo.com; banafsheharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Cooperative learning may be an important component for academic success. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of cooperative learning on academic performance of students in a secondary school in social studies class. Two hypotheses were tested in this study. The data supports both of the hypotheses. The findings revealed that cooperative learning strategy is more effective than other learning strategy. According to the findings, posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores and lower achieving students found cooperative learning to be more beneficial than higher achieving students. Based on the findings, cooperative learning strategy should be introduced in our secondary schools in Iran.

[Davod Eslamian, Kobra Aref & Khadijeh Aref. The Influence of Cooperative Learning on Academic Performance. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):200-203]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.31

 

Keywords: cooperative learning, academic performance, collaboration

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Gap Analysis of Human Resource Situation with EFQM Requirements in Iranian Automotive Industries (Case Study: SAIPA Co.)

 

Davood Barzegari Valikandi, Mohammad Zare

 

Logistic department, Saipa Company, Tehran, Iran.

davood_barzegari@yahoo.com, banadkoki@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Iranian Agents have to compete with strong competitors to present in global market and even to survive in domestic markets; so only the organizations can keep their lives who meet the needs and expectations of their customers and shareholders by developing the human resources. The main objective of this research is to find the strengths and weaknesses of human resources in Iranian auto industries and to assess the existing gap in the situation of the human resources by Organizational Excellence Model. Using such models, the organizations can evaluate their success in implementing their improving programs in different times on one hand, and compare their own performance with other –and best- organizations on the other hand. This study is an applied research in terms of its objectives and it is a descriptive-analytical one in terms of its data gathering. The findings show that the most highlighted weaknesses are customer results, and employees and human resource leadership.

[Davood Barzegari Valikandi, Mohammad Zare. Gap Analysis of Human Resource Situation with EFQM Requirements in Iranian Automotive Industries (Case Study: SAIPA Co.). J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):204-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.32

 

Key Words: Excellence Model, Human Resource, Strengths, Improvement-Needed points

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Conflict Resolution Strategies Used By Nursing Educators: Students’ Perspective

 

1Ghada M. Hamouda, 2Eman El-Sayed Taha, 1Ebtsam Aly Abou Hashish

 

1 Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

2Nursing Education Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Egypt

ebtsam_ss@hotmail.com, eman_said303@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study aims to determine conflict resolution strategies used by nursing educators from students’ perspective. The study conducted in Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. 50% of nursing students (n = 435) enrolled in the four academic years of the faculty was selected randomly. Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory–II (ROCI–II) questionnaire used in this study to determine conflict management styles educators use to handle conflict with students. Results: Nursing students perceived that avoiding style of conflict resolution was the highest style used by their nursing educators. While, integrating style was the lowest one.The findings highlighted the importance of providing Appropriate training programs for conflict management and resolution frequently to nursing educators in order to teach them how to deal with student’ conflict more effectively.

[Ghada M. Hamouda, Eman El-Sayed Taha, Ebtsam Aly Abou Hashish. Conflict Resolution Strategies Used By Nursing Educators: Students’ Perspective. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):209-216].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.33

 

Keywords: Conflict, conflict resolution strategies, nursing students, nurse educators

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Emotional Intelligence among Physicians and Nurses in Intensive Care Units in Yrevan’s Hospitals

 

Nooryan Kh.a Gasparian Khb., Sharif F.c, Zoladl M.d

 

aPh.D Student, Medical Psychology department, Yerevan State Medical University and faculty member at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

bMedical Psychology department, Yerevan State Medical University

c Professor and faculty member at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences /Email: fsharif@sums.ac.ir

d Assistant Professor and faculty member at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences/Email: zoladl@yahoo.com

a Corresponding AUTHOR: KHEIROLLAH Nooryan e-mail: noorian20@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while other claim it is an inborn characteristic. Emotional intelligence, an essential factor responsible for determining success in life and psychological well-being, seems to play an important role in shaping the interaction between individuals and their work environment. It is also necessary physicians and nurses learn how to view and understand peoples, behavior, attitudes, interpersonal skills and potential. Individuals who have these characteristics are said to be "emotionally intelligent. To determine specificity of surviving emotional intelligence physicians and nurses who working in intensive care units wards in Yerevan Hospitals. A cross-sectional study and inferential study design was implemented, with 106 registered physicians and nurses in Hospitals Yerevan, who were widely distributed throughout, The study was performing in 2010. At the time of the study 106 nurses and physicians are working in 10 intensive care unit hospitals in Yerevan 4 hospitals were select to participate in this research. The total number of nurses and physicians the permission of study 76 nurses and 30 physicians were aim to recruit into the study. A sample of 106 participants physicians and nurses 11 (10.3%) men and 94 (49.7%)women, the mean age of the participants was 38.75 years and the employment period was 8.2years (SD = 7.34). Mean scores emotional intelligence in men 38.75 (SD=9.50) and in women 39.70 (SD=10.04) representing various human service professions (physicians, nurses) was eligible for the study. The mean age of the participants was 38.75 years and the employment period was 8.2years (SD = 7.34). Finding showed that mean scores emotional intelligence in all of participants in physicians and nurses approximately the same, but mean scores E.I in nurses were higher that they were comparison with physicians. In conclusion this study showed that Emotional intelligence, an essential factor responsible for determining success in life and psychological wellbeing, seems to play an important role in shaping the interaction between individuals and their work environment.

[Nooryan Kh. Gasparian Kh., Sharif F., Zoladl M. Emotional Intelligence among Physicians and Nurses in Intensive Care Units in Yrevan’s Hospitals. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):217-220].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.34

 

Key Words: emotional intelligence, physician, nurses, intensive care unites

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Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Heat Exchanger for Turbulent Pulsating Water Flow with Different Amplitudes

 

A. E. Zohir

 

Mechanical Eng. Dept., Tabbin Institute for Metallurgical Studies, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The effect of pulsation on the heat transfer rates, for turbulent water stream with upstream pulsation of different amplitudes, in a double-pipe heat exchanger for both parallel and counter flows, with cold water on the shell side, was investigated. Pulsation frequencies, with using a reciprocating device, ranged up to 260 cycles per minute (up to 4.3 Hz) and 5 different displacement amplitudes were used, (Stroke length of the reciprocating piston was varied from 60 to 185 mm), at different Reynolds numbers 3855-11570. The experimental results indicate that the heat exchanger with a reciprocating piston inserting upstream the flow provides a considerable improvement of the heat transfer rate. The heat transfer coefficient was found to increase with pulsation, with the highest enhancement observed in the transition flow regime. The convective heat transfer coefficient for the turbulent flow was found to increase with pulsation for all pulsation frequencies and amplitudes with the highest enhancement of about 10 times. The maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for the parallel flow was about 8 times while it was about 10 times for the counter one. The improvement in Nusselt number was peaked with the amplitude for both parallel and counter flows.

 [A. E. Zohir. Heat Transfer Characteristics in a Heat Exchanger for Turbulent Pulsating Water Flow with Different Amplitudes. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):241-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.37

 

Keywords: pulsated flow; turbulent pipe flow; heat exchanger

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The Effect of Hatha, Pranayama, and Raja yoga on the Feeling of Fatigue of Women Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

 

Nooryan kh1, Najafi sh2*, Mohebi Nobandegani Z.3

 

1 Department of Psychology and Mental health Nursing, Yasuj university of Medical Sciences

noorian20@yahoo.com, 2 Department of Medical & Surgical Nursing, Yasuj university of Medical Sciences. shahlaiss@yahoo.com

3 Department of Medical & Surgical Nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Mohebbi04@yahoo.com

*Correspond Authors: Shahla Najafi Dolat Abad.

 

Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most significant diseases that change people's lives and causes many side effects for the patients. Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms reported in those who are suffering from MS. This study aims to investigate the effect of Hatha, Pranayama, and Raja yoga techniques on the feeling of fatigue in women suffering from MS. This research is a clinical trialed study, conducted on 60 MS patients in Kohgilooyeh and Boyrahmad province in 2009. The method for collecting data was a questionnaire including the demographical information of the patients as well as the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Patients were randomly divided into two control and study groups, each having 30 members. The fatigue of both groups was assessed before intermediation. The study group was treated with eight 1-1.5-hour sessions per month, for three months while no intermediation was done on the control group. The patients' fatigue was assessed again 12 weeks after beginning yoga techniques and one month after finishing with the techniques. Patients' fatigue was assessing again and compared with one another. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tests, paired t-test, independent t-test, and variance analysis with repeated measurement. The average age of the samples was 31.6 8 and the range of age was between 18 and 45. Among the people in the samples, 42 people (70%) were married and 18 people (30%) were single. 44 people (73.3%) had high school education, 16people (26.6%) had university education. The majority of them (63.3%) were housewives. Concerning the effect of yoga techniques on the feeling of fatigue in the patients, the results gained from statistical tests indicated that there was not a significant difference in the amount of fatigue in the control group and the study group before the intervention, while this difference became significant after the intervention (p<0.05).Doing yoga techniques decreases the amount of fatigue in the patients suffering from MS who took part in this study. Therefore, due to their low cost, accessibility, and rapid learning of these techniques, teaching and recommending them to MS infected patients could be effective in regard to improving their situation.

[Nooryan kh, Najafi sh, Mohebi Nobandegani Z. The Effect of Hatha, Pranayama, and Raja yoga on the Feeling of Fatigue of Women Suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):251-254]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.38

 

Keywords: Yoga, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), fatigue, quality of life

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The effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Behaviors of Juvenile Delinquents Resident in Correctional Institutions in Alexandria

 

Faten Fikry1; Manal A. S. Oueda1; Mervat W. Abo Nazel2; Amina Ahmed1 and Rasha Abed El.Hakim1

 

 1 Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria

2Department of Mental Health, Department of Mental Health, High Institute of Public Health

 

Abstract: Juvenile delinquency is a social problem that has grown immensely in scope and depth in the past decade on both national and community level. Innovative interventions need to be implemented to help in reduce juvenile delinquency as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which used to treat behavioral problems or to assist in enhancing existing thinking skills. Therefore the aim of this research was to identify the effect of CBT on juvenile delinquents' behaviors resident in correctional institutions in Alexandria. The present study was carried out in 2 correctional institutions in Alexandria on 40 juvenile delinquents (20 boys, 20 girls). The data were collected using a structured interview schedule and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) which was used as pre and post test. The results of the present study showed that CBT was very effective in reducing mental and behavioral problems of juvenile delinquents residents in correctional institutions in Alexandria. It was recommended to shift the approach to juvenile offenders from legalistic to preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

[Faten Fikry; Manal A. S. Oueda; Mervat W. Abo Nazel; Amina Ahmed and Rasha Abed El.Hakim. The effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Behaviors of Juvenile Delinquents Resident in Correctional Institutions in Alexandria. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):255-264].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.39

 

Keyword: Cognitive, Behavioral, Therapy, Juvenile Delinquents, Correctional Institutions

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Impact of a Guideline Application on the Prevention of Occupational Overuse Syndrome for Computer Users

 

Zakia Toama, Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Naglaa Kamel Abdullah Hussein

 

Community Health Nursing, Department Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

 

Abstract: Following ergonomic principles helps in reduce work stress and eliminate many potential injuries and disorders. Hence, the aim of the present study is to assess the impact of guideline application on the prevention of Occupational Overuse Syndrome (OOS) for computer users. Quasi experimental study design was adopted to carry out this study. The study was carried out in commercial computer offices in Alexandria; using a convenient sampling method 300 of computer users who are using computer continuously for 6 hours and more per day were selected. Three tools were developed by the researcher for data collection. The findings of the present study reveled hat, 33.7% of the sample had correct knowledge about safe computing practices before guideline this was significantly improved to 85.4% after guideline distribution. Only 8.7% of computer users were practicing exercises before guideline significantly increased to 73.7% after guideline distribution. And 8% of computer users’ practices was scored as good practices before guideline distribution. Their practices were significantly improved to 36.1% after guideline distribution. The study concluded that the applying of the ergonomic principles guideline led to significant improvement in the computer users practices regarding safe computing as, the guideline had a positive effect on their knowledge, practices, workstation adjustment, and healthstatus. The study recommended that the health awareness 'of the community should be raised through ' mass media campaigns regarding the risk factors, signs and symptoms, and ergonomic principles for prevention of occupational overuse syndrome among computer users.

[Zakia Toama, Amina Ahmed Mohamed and Naglaa Kamel Abdullah Hussein. Impact of a Guideline Application on the Prevention of Occupational Overuse Syndrome for Computer Users. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 265-282].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.40

 

Key words: Guideline, Prevention, Occupational Overuse Syndrome, Computer Users

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Improving Health Education Skills for Nurses Working in MCH Centers in Egypt to Enhance Women Awareness Regarding Family Planning

 

Fathia A. Mersal(1) and Lamiaa Ismail Keshk (2)

 

1Department of Community Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Ain-Shams University

2Department of f Nursing Administration Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University

keshk_lamiaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Both availability and quality of family planning services are believed to have contributed to increasing contraceptive use and declining fertility rates in developing countries. Family planning is an integral component of family welfare. It saved the lives of women and children. Women education about family planning is essential to good health. Nurses play a key role in the promotion of women’s reproductive health. Aim:The aim of this study was to improve Health Education Skills for Nurses working in MCH centers to enhance women awareness regarding family planning.Subject and methods A quasi experimental study was used, and conducted in 6 MCH centers in North of Cairo zone. Purposive sample of 29 nurses (total number of nurses 106) and 192 married women were taken. A self-administered questionnaire for nurses were used to assess socio-demographic data and nurse's knowledge related to health education and observational checklist to assess nurses' performance. For women; an interviewing questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic data and knowledge about family planning. Data were collected at pre-post program. Results:The results showed that at post test, an improvement in nurses' knowledge and nurses' performance regarding health education. Also it illustrated that an improvement in women' knowledge about family planning post intervention with a highly significant difference post intervention program related to women and nurses. Conclusions:Health education program was successful improving health education skills for nurses and family planning knowledge for women.

[Fathia A. Mersal and Lamiaa Ismail Keshk. Improving Health Education Skills for Nurses Working in MCH Centers in Egypt to Enhance Women Awareness Regarding Family Planning. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):283 -290]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.41

 

Keywords: Health Education, Nurses, Skills, awareness, family planning

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Effect Of Some Yeast And Minerals On The Productive And Reproductive Performance In Ruminants

 

Mousa, Kh. M.1; El-Malky*, O. M.1; Komonna, O.F.1 and Rashwan, S. E.2

 

1-Effect of Live Dried Yeast Supplementation on Digestion Coefficients, Some Rumen Fermentation, Blood Constituents and Some Reproductive and Productive Parameters in Rahmani Sheep

1Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2Anim. Prod. Dept.. Fac. Of Agric., Ain-Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

dromam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was performed to evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of live dried yeast (Yea-Sacc 1026) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on digestion coefficients, some rumen fermentation, blood constituents and some productive and reproductive parameters in Rahmani sheep. Twenty one Rahmani ewes 2-4 years of age, 47.451.75 Kg average body weight and 2-3 parities were selected randomly and divided into three similar groups according to their body weight (7 ewes in each) with a completely randomized design. The experiment was conducted 60 days before lambing and 60 days after lambing (suckling period). Experimental groups as follows:1-The control group fed the basal ration without any supplementation., 2- The 1st treated group fed on control ration supplemented with 5g/h/d live dried yeast (Yea-Sacc 1026) and 3- The 2nd treated group fed on control ration supplemented with 7.5g/h/d live dry yeast (Yea-Sacc 1026). The basal ration composed of concentrate feed mixture: roughage (berseem 2 nd cut + rice straw) (60:40%). Digestibility trial was carried out using nine male yearling Rahmani lambs with average weight 31.60 0.72 kg and aged 14 months. Obtained results revealed that the digestibility of DM, CP and CF was higher with 5 and 7.5g/h/d live dried yeast supplemented groups than control group (P<0.05). Dried yeast supplementation improved nutritive value as total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP). Ruminal pH was higher for all groups before morning feeding then decreased at 3hrs-post feeding. Ruminal ammonia-N was lower in DY-supplemented groups than control group (P<0.05). Total VFA followed an opposite pattern (P<0.05). Total VFA had inversely relationship with ruminal pH. Concentrations of blood plasma albumin, glucose, cholesterol and AST and ALT activities were significantly different (P<0.05) during late pregnancy among the three groups. During suckling period blood plasma total protein, glucose, urea and AST concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in supplemented groups than control one. Live dried yeast supplementation had no effect on reproductive parameters. In addition 4% fat corrected milk yield, total solids(%), protein (%),avg. fat yield, avg. protein yield and avg. lactose yield were significantly higher (P<0.05) in live DY-supplemented groups than control one. Lambs weaning weight and daily gain were higher in live DY-supplemented groups than control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of live dried yeast (Yea - Sacc 1026) to diets of sheep at levels (5 or 7.5 g/h/d) had positive and beneficial effects on enhance digestion and nutritive values, rumen fermentation, blood constituents consequently enhance milk yield and composition as well as daily weight gain for lambs.

[Mousa, Kh. M.; El-Malky, O. M.; Komonna, O.F. and Rashwan, S. E. Effect of Live Dried Yeast Supplementation on Digestion Coefficients, Some Rumen Fermentation, Blood Constituents and Some Reproductive and Productive Parameters in Rahmani Sheep. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):291 -303].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.42

 

Keywords: Dried yeast, Rahmani sheep, digestibility, rumen fermentation blood constituents and milk composition.

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Simulation of Self-propulsive Phenomenon, Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

 

M. Beigzadeh-Abbassi

 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran

m.r.beigzadeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Many human inventions are inspired by nature, such as fish swimming, bird/insect flight, etc. A basic consideration for the design of swimming machines is the design of propulsors. A creative design of propulsors can be inspired by fish locomotion. The term locomotion means that thrust is generated by undulation of fish body. Thus, there is no need to have an external propulsor. In this study, sub-carangiform motion, which is a well known locomotion and which is practiced by most fish, is simulated numerically using Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). To simulate the geometry of fishlike body, the profile of a flexible NACA 0012 airfoil was used. Note, we deal here with an incompressible unsteady flow. Also, the results show that lattice Boltzmann method, accompany with modified boundary conditions for curved solid boundaries, can accurately simulate the variation of drag coefficient with time. The velocity profiles and vortex structures are shown to be close to other reliable numerical results. The results show vortex pairs in the wake of the oscillating flexible airfoil, which are very similar to Von-Krmn vortices. Also, the results show that lattice Boltzmann method, accompany with modified boundary conditions for curved solid boundaries, can accurately simulate the variation of drag coefficient with time.

[M. Beigzadeh-Abbassi. Simulation of Self-propulsive Phenomenon, Using Lattice Boltzmann Method. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):304-309]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.43

 

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method; Curved Boundary Condition; Bounce-back Boundary Condition; Unsteady Flow

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Indirect Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Compressible Flow past a Joukowski Aerofoil with Constant Element Approach

 

Muhammad Mushtaq* & Nawazish Ali Shah

 

Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan

Corresponding Author, e-mail: mushtaqmalik2004@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, an indirect boundary element method is applied to calculate the compressible flow past a Joukowski aerofoil. The velocity distribution for the flow over the surface of the Joukowski aerofoil has been calculated using constant boundary element approach. To check the accuracy of the method, the computed flow velocity is compared with the exact velocity. It is found that the computed results are in good agreement with the analytical results.

[Muhammad Mushtaq & Nawazish Ali Shah. Indirect Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Compressible Flow past a Joukowski Aerofoil with Constant Element Approach. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):310-317]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.44

 

Keywords: Indirect boundary element method, Compressible flow, Velocity distribution, Joukowski aerofoil, Constant element.

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Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizer: Effect on growth of Lycopersicum esculentus

 

Ibiene AA1, Agogbua JU2, Okonko IO1 and Nwachi GN1

 

1Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, PMB 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

ibieneaa@yahoo.com; iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng

2Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt, East-West Road, PMB 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; josyokoro@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are bacteria that colonize plant roots and encourage plant growth by a wide variety of mechanisms such as phosphate solubilization, phytohormone production, antifungal activity, etc. In this present study, effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on Lycoperscium esculentus was examined. Azotobacter species, Nitrobacter species, and Nitrosomonas species were isolated and identified using standard methods. In-vitro screening of these PGPR was carried out to test their ability to produce phytohormones (siderophore, phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid). Seed germination and seedling growth test were also conducted to evaluate the effect of PGPR on the germination of tomato seeds. The growth parameters (plant height, stem width, root length and the internode length of the plant) were monitored at 5 DAP (days after planting) interval from the day of sprouting. The findings of the study showed that the ability to solubilize phosphate was exhibited by Nitrobacter species and Nitrosomonas species while Azotobacter species produce indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderphore. It also showed that the consortium of the three isolates gave the best performance in terms of growth parameters (plant height = 15.8 cm, stem width = 1.0 cm, root length = 10.0 cm and the internode length = 3.8 cm) than the control (plant height = 11.0 cm, stem width = 0.5 cm, root length = 6.1 cm and the internode length = 2.5 cm). Thus, the use of combined biofertilizers is advocated for excellent growth performance of plants.

[Ibiene AA, Agogbua JU, Okonko IO and Nwachi GN. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) as biofertilizer: Effect on growth of Lycopersicum esculentus. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):318-324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.45

 

Keywords: Azotobacter species, Nitrobacter species, Nitrosomonas species, siderophore, phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid, DAP, PGPR

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The Moderating Role of Gender on the Relationship between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence

 

Fataneh Naghavi1, Ma’rof Redzuan2

 

1School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra, Malaysia.

 1E-mail: ahlo_1359@yahoo.com, 2E-mail: Marof@putra.upm.edu.my

 

 Abstract: Although a bulk of literature indicates that family environment influence emotional intelligence, the gender of early adolescents as one of the important determinants which buffers this effect received little empirical attention. The current study investigated the moderating role of gender on the relationships between family environment and emotional intelligence among 234 early adolescents (female and male) in grades 2 and 3 of guidance schools of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (Bar- on EQ-i; YV, 2000) and the Moos & Moos Family Environment Scale. Results revealed that family environment fostered emotional intelligence in their early adolescents. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that gender moderated the relationship between family environment and emotional intelligence. Specifically, male respondents had tended to indicate more emotional intelligence than female respondents at higher levels of family environment. These findings underscore the need for continued focus on the role of parenting style when assessing the links between family environment and early adolescent’s emotional intelligence.

 [Fataneh Naghavi, Ma’rof Redzuan. The Moderating Role of Gender on the Relationship between Family Environment and Emotional Intelligence. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):325-330 ]. (ISSN:1545-1003) http://www.americanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.46

 

 Key Words: Early Adolescent, Family environment, Emotional intelligence, Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version, Gender, Gender moderated, Moderating factor

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Vibration analysis for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings

 

Ebrahim Ebrahimi

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad

University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran. e.ebrahimi57@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Bearing failure is often attributed to be one of the major causes of breakdown in industrial rotating machines that operate at high and low speeds. In this work we have used some of the modern techniques of vibration analysis included today in some commercial vibration analyzers. For the experimental study, good shape ball bearings and localized defect in the outer race ball bearings, were tested under different levels of fault severity and various load and speed conditions. Normal spectral analysis, demodulation, PeakVue and real zoom analysis were the techniques used for the analysis.

[Ebrahim Ebrahimi. Vibration analysis for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):331-336]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.47

 

Key Words: Condition Monitoring - Low Speed Machinery - Rolling Element Bearings - Vibration Measurements

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The Impact of Organizational Justice on Knowledge Sharing Intention

 

Samad Ranjbar Ardakani

 

Department of Management, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran

Maghjour11@gmail.com

 

Abstract:The current study investigated the relationship between organizational justice and intention to share knowledge in Fars Petrochemical Company (FPC), Iran. Using stratified random sampling method, a sample of 242 employees selected for further analysis. The analysis of the data showed that the perception of organizational justice has a positive impact on intention to share knowledge. The results also indicated that dimensions of organizational justice (distributive justice, informational justice, interpersonal justice and procedural justice) have significant and positive impacts on intention to share knowledge.

[Samad Ranjbar Ardakani. The Impact of Organizational Justice on Knowledge Sharing Intention. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):337-340]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.48

 

Keywords: Organizational justice, Knowledge, Knowledge Sharing, Climate

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Removal of Acid Dye (AR37) by Adsorption onto Potatoes and Egg Husk: A Comparative Study

 

Nora M. Hilal*1, I.A. Ahmed 2 and E.E.Badr1

 

1 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

2 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

aliata1966@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adsorption of Acid Red 37 from aqueous solution on potatoes (POH) and egg (EGH) husk have been studied comparatively. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such, solution pH (2.01- 9.02), initial concentration of dye (10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/l), adsorbent dose (0.2 - 1 g/l) and contact time. As initial pH of dye solution increased, the percentage of the removal increased, reached a maximum pH = 5.30.5 and the final solution pH after adsorption decreases. Inhibition of the dye sorption onto raw POH and EGH at low acidic and high basic pH ranges may be attributed to the increase of hydroxyl and hydrogen ions leading to formation of aqua complexes that retards the dye sorption. Therefore, it is suggested that the optimum pH for the removal of AR37 is 5.30.5. Adsorption isotherms of the studied dye on adsorbent were determined and compared with the Langmiur, Fruendlich and Temkin modles. The adsorption capacity (Qm) obtained from the Langmiur isotherm plot was 23.53 and 20.85 mg /g for POH and EGH respectively at initial pH= 5.30.5, initial concentration of dye 50 mg/l and adsorbent dose 1g/l. Adsorption kinetics were verified by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Results indicated that, two selected adsorbents could be employed as low cost adsorbent for removal of AR37 from aqueous solution. The removal of dye solution by potatoes husk (POH) is found to be more efficiency than egg husk powder (EGH).

[Nora M. Hilal, I.A. Ahmed and E.E.Badr Removal of Acid Dye (AR37) by Adsorption onto Potatoes and Egg Husk: A Comparative Study. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):341-348].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.49

 

Keywords: Acid dye, low cost adsorbent, Potatoes husk, Egg husk powder, Adsorption isotherms, kinetics.

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The effect of degree of saturation and consolidation pressure on monotonic behavior of reinforced earth seawalls

 

Farzad Daliri 1, Ali Karami Khaniki 2

 

1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

2. Department of Coastal Protection, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center, Tehran, Iran

fdaliri@connect.carleton.ca

 

Abstract: Reinforced earth structures are usually in contact with water, especially if these structures are designed as waterfront structures such as a riverbank protection structure, an earth dam or a marine wall. In these cases, the effects of saturation must be considered in the design and analysis stages. For reinforced earth seawalls, which are located in a tidal environment and subjected to the dynamic loading of sea waves, the effects of saturation are of particular concern. From the early 1960’s when reinforced earth was introduced by Henri Vidal, much research has been carried out with the aim of estimating the improvement in shear strength of reinforced earth compared to that of unreinforced soil. In these investigations the researchers tried to determine the ultimate shear strength of reinforced earth. This paper aims to examine the behavior of a saturated reinforced sand element (e.g. a reinforced sample in triaxial test) in an undrained fully saturated condition. In addition an analytical approach to The results of this study will be used later to describe the behavior of a fully saturated reinforced earth seawall under the effect of rapid impact loading due to sea wave or ship impact. Initially, triaxial tests were performed on dry and fully saturated reinforced and unreinforced beach sand. The results of saturated reinforced and unreinforced samples were compared with those of dry samples. In this comparison, different features such as the stress-strain relationship, failure mode and strength parameters  and c were considered.

[Farzad Daliri, Ali Karami Khaniki. The effect of degree of saturation and consolidation pressure on monotonic behavior of reinforced earth seawalls. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):349-356]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.50

 

Keywords: Earth seawalls, Reinforced soil, Triaxial test

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Reading Body Posture:The Action Mechanism to Achieve Lively Urban Public Spaces The Lived Experience on Alexandria Corniche

 

Doaa Kamal El-din Kamel Hassan

 

Architecture Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. dooohatem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Urban open spaces help to improve air and water quality, improve public health, afford recreation and respite, in addition to enhancing cities’ economy and vitality. In urban open spaces, planning and designing of physical facilities that include sitting, food, retailing and toilets have a great impact on the workability and appeal of such spaces. Refuge symbols, or more clearly benches and other sitting and resting elements, are the most vital aspects that encourage people to use urban open spaces. The issue of how to design and locate refuge symbols is inherent in focusing on people, understanding their posture and positioning. Therefore, this paper aims at interpreting body posture and positioning in relation to demographic variety; consequently, it suggests quality criteria for sitting elements in order to create lively urban spaces.

[Doaa Kamal El-din Kamel Hassan. Reading Body Posture: The Action Mechanism to Achieve Lively Urban Public Spaces the Lived Experience on Alexandria Corniche. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):357-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.51

 

Key Words: Urban Public Spaces- Social Interaction- Body Posture- Preferences in Open Spaces- Prospect

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Women' perspectives regarding the quality of postpartum nursing care in Ain Shams Maternity Hospital–Cairo, Egypt

 

Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed1,4, Nahed El Ngger 2,4 and Sahar Mansour Lamadah3,4

 

1Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, El Minia University, El Minia, Egypt

2Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

3Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

4 Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm Al Qura University

hodaazim@yahoo.comdr.saharlamadah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Health services provided to mothers during post partum period constitute an essential component of the package of maternal and child health services in any population. A woman's body undergoes several changes after delivery. This includes: the shrinking of the uterus, shedding of the uterine lining, closing of the cervix, returning of the vagina to it normal size, etc. Mothers are also prone to psychological changes during the postpartum period. The newborn baby also undergoes changes in general appearance, reflexes and weight. For most mothers (particularly first time mothers), these changes can be a source of considerable concern and may contribute to a number of adverse health conditions. For these reasons, postpartum care services are of utmost importance in preventing adverse health outcomes for mothers and their newborn babies. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify women's perspectives regarding the quality of postpartum nursing care in Ain Shams Maternity Hospital – Cairo, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at the post partum ward at Ain Shams Maternity Hospital – Cairo, Egypt. A simple random sample of one hundred and four postpartum women and their neonates were recruited for this study according to the inclusion criteria. An Interviewing Assessment Sheet was designed by the researcher to collect data. Results: On asking the mothers about their opinions regarding the quality of received postpartum nursing care, more than three quarters of the mothers (87.5%, 82.7%) and (83.7%) were not satisfied as they received very brief information, they did not participate in decision about care of their baby & themselves, and lack of advices respectively, in addition, (73.1%) of them didn't prepared for discharge. Also more than two thirds of the mothers (69.2%) said that there were no opportunities to ask questions while (63.5%) mentioned that the nurse didn't listen to their complains. Conclusion: The study concluded that special attention should be focused on quality post partum health examinations and advices related to both mothers and their neonates. Post partum women still required and needed guidance, more support and assistance with baby care and her personal care.

[Hoda Abed El-Azim Mohamed, Nahed El Ngger and Sahar Mansour Lamadah. Women' perspectives regarding the quality of postpartum nursing care in Ain Shams Maternity Hospital–Cairo, Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):366 -377]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.52

 

Key Words: Women' perspectives; quality of post partum nursing care.

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Pre-retirement Education Program for Faculty of Nursing Employees in El-Minia University

 

Soheir Bader El-din1, Gehan R. Mohamed2 and Manal H. Abo El Maged3

 

1Community Health, Cairo University, 2Geriatric Nursing, El-Minia University 3Psychiatric Nursing, El-Minia University, Egypt. Gehan.Hefnawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, there is rising interest in retirement preparation programs that integrate personal, lifestyle and financial factors. A new model of retirement readiness takes a total balanced approach for planning that covers networking & engagement, overall health and wealth. The retirement well-being basic dimensions are Bio-Medical, Geo-financial, and Psychosocial dimension. This study aimed to assess, plan, & implement a pre-retirement education program, and evaluate its impact on employees' knowledge, skills and coping mechanisms for healthy, happy and financial confidence retirement. Methodology: It is a quasi experimental study design, the studied sample included all permanent employees (n= 55) of Faculty of Nursing in El-Minia University. A pilot study was done on 10 employees. The remaining (n= 45) were categories randomly into six groups. The study-strategy included pre-test, and one month follow-up post-test. This study was conducted around one and half year and the data were collected through; (1) an interviewing questionnaire sheet which covered, Socio-demographic characteristics, employees' health, and financial readiness for retirement.(2) "Retirement Readiness Test for Cops" scale. (3) An observational Check list for practices of Psycho-physical health promotion. Result: results denoted that the socio-demographic characteristics of employees, more than half (57.8%) were between 35 to less than 50 years old, and (60%) from them were male. Also, more than half (55.6%) graduated from secondary school and (77.8%) works as administrators while the rest of them (22.2%) are workers. More than one third (37.8%) doing periodic examinations and laboratory investigations after the program. There are significant differences between pre-test and follow-up test, in doing regular exercise and in saving money on a regular basis (P ≤ 0.05). There are highly significant differences in performance of psycho-physical health promotion procedures (P = 0.00), except in Kegel exercise (P ˃ 0.05). There are significant differences in employees' cops for satisfactory retirement in between pretest and follow-up test (P ≤ 0.05). There are significant differences also, in relation between employee's age and their cops for satisfactory retirement (P ≤ 0.05) in follow-up post test, while there aren't significant differences in relation between cops and employee's level of education (P ˃ 0.05). Conclusion: All employees have poor knowledge, and skills for health, happy and financial confidence retirement before the program, while significance improvement was detected after the program. Also the employee's actions were slightly improved, so they need additional pre-retirement education and counseling/guidance, the study suggests the increasing nursing role in health education programs.

[Soheir Bader El-din, Gehan R. Mohamed and Manal H. Abo El Maged. Pre-retirement Education Program for Faculty of Nursing Employees in El-Minia University. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):378-385]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.53

 

Key words: Retirement Planning-Readiness-Health promotion-Financial confidence.

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54

Collection and Examination of Significant Clue- Blood from the Crime Scene

 

1Sahib Singh Chandna, 2Parveen Chandna, 3Surjeet Kumar, 4Ravi Soni and 5Neha Passi

 

1,3,5Forensic Science Laboratory (Serology division), Madhuban, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India)

2MBBS Intern, Government Hospital, Karnal-132001, Haryana (India)

4Research fellow, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136119, Haryana (India)

 

Abstract: Studies have been conducted on collection of blood samples from the crime scene. It has been critically observed that collection of blood stained soil has not been found to be very much useful but soaking blood in cotton wool swab /cotton thread and cotton gauze pieces have given better result during serological analysis of these blood stained exhibits, if these samples were found to be air dried before packing. Removing of semi clotted blood from the crime scene has been found to be hazardous associated with non significant non relevant result of serological nature. Scratching of dried blood from the crime scene has also been found to be far- far better with regards to determination of blood origin was concerned but better output was achieved by soaking the blood into cotton wool swabs moistened with normal physiological saline duly drying them at room temperature and their proper packing in porous containers. Sanguivorous arthropods breakdown the blood for digestion and edaphic factor with mortal remains of these creatures yield non-reliability of result during analysis.

[Sahib Singh Chandna, Parveen Chandna, Surjeet Kumar, Ravi Soni and Neha Passi. Collection and Examination of Significant Clue- Blood from the Crime Scene. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):386-391]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.54

 

Keywords: Hemoglobin, Gauze piece, Cotton wool swab, Mitochondria, Chlorophyll, Microscope, Viscosity, Luminal.

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Comparison of Freshwater and Wastewater Medium for Microalgae Growth and Oil Production

 

Zlatan Zuka, Brian McConnell, Ihab Farag

 

Chemical Engineering Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824-3591, USA. ihab.farag@unh.edu

 

Abstract: Biodiesel, a renewable energy source, has the potential to satisfy our energy needs. It is made from the transesterification of oils and alcohol. Oils from soybean and rapeseed food-crops are common feedstock used to produce biodiesel in the US and Europe, respectively. Microalgae oil is an alternative non-food feedstock for biodiesel. Algae can generate 15 times more oil per acre than other plants which reduces the land footprint. Algae can potentially grow in nutrient-containing wastewater effluents. This is important because of the growing worldwide scarcity of fresh water. This research aimed to evaluate the viability of algae growth in wastewater. The main objective is to compare microalgae growth and oil production in fresh water versus municipal wastewater and the use of less expensive urea to supply nitrogen nutrient instead of KNO3. Experiments included bench-top to pilot size photobioreactors, various water and nitrogen sources for algae growth, and various oil extraction techniques, and solvents. The results showed that urea is a cost effective source of nitrogen for algae growth and that wastewater is a viable option for growing lipid-rich microalgae with an average algae production rate in wastewater is 0.08 g/liter-day and an average lipids yield is 1.07 g /100 g of dry algae grown in wastewater.

[Zlatan Zuka, Brian McConnell, Ihab Farag. Comparison of Freshwater and Wastewater Medium for Microalgae Growth and Oil Production. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):392-398]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.55

 

Keywords: Biodiesel; Microalgae; Wastewater; Nitrogen nutrient; Lipid yield

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The Effect of Cognitive Reconstruction Training on Sexual Problems of couples

 

Mahshid Sasanpour 1, Gayane Shahverdyan 2

 

1. Department of Psychology, PhD student Psychology Yerevan State University, Armenia Email: m_sasan49@yahoo.com, mobile: 00374 (55861631)

2. Head of department of Social Psychology in Yerevan State University, Armenia

 

Abstract: Incorrect beliefs and inaccurate actions as stressor factor can affection entire marital relationship. Insufficient or incorrect information, adverse thoughts and beliefs about sexual matters and anxiety are some of popular sexual problem. Remedy of these problems can help couples to reach ideal intercourse. The aim of research is to determine the effect of cognitive – behavioral training on sexual problems of couples in Isfahan.In this research experimental methods with preparing pretest and posttest with control group were used. The samples of this research were 40 couples (80 men and women) that were selected randomly from the research community and were classified in two groups of test and control. Evaluation tool of Questionnaire was sexual problems and Cognitive Reconstruction training. Before starting training both groups answered the questionnaire of sexual problems and then experimental group was trained for 10 sessions, each session 2 hours, and at the end of this term, again the questionnaire was completed by both groups. And by using T-test and analysis of data variance, were analyzed. Data showed that Cognitive Reconstruction trainings can reduce sexual problems of couples. And doing these trainings has helped raising quality of marital life of experimental group. Concerning the improvement of behavior and correct attitude to sexual affairs, there is necessity of public training in this respect. Having correct information and necessary trainings help continuance and satisfaction of marital life.

[Mahshid Sasanpour, Gayane Shahverdyan. The Effect of Cognitive Reconstruction Training on Sexual Problems of couples. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):399-403]. (ISSN: 1545-1003, http://www.americanscience.org/journals). 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.56

 

Key words: Sexual problems – Sexual Satisfaction- Cognitive Reconstruction – couples

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Surveying the influence of teaching active patterns (innovative and memorizing) on students studying progress, KohkiloyevaBoyerahmad province, 2010

 

Yousef Rasoli, Seyed Ali Moosavinoor, Hassan Bigonah

 

Corresponding author: University of Izadpanah, Yasoj, Iran

E-mail: scientificgroup@mail.ru

 

Abstract: purpose of this research is, surveying the influence of teaching active patterns (innovative and memorizing) on students studying progress. Research method was experimental and was done by pre-test and post-test pattern with control group by using cluster random sampling method, three classes were selected among different regions as samples. Control and experiment are divided according to simple random method, after four month holding classes by using memorizing and innovative methods for experimental groups analyzing data with T-test, results shows that there was significance difference between pre-test and post-test in two groups. It means that memorizing method and innovative method are effective in students studying progress with using T-test, Control group it was identified that there wasn’t any statistical significance difference between pre-test and post-test group. But between control group and experiment groups, there was statistical significance difference. It means that active memorizing and innovative methods were more influential in studying progress rather than traditional method.

[Yousef Rasoli. Surveying the influence of teaching active patterns (innovative and memorizing) on students studying progress, KohkiloyevaBoyerahmad province, 2010. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):404-412]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.57

 

Keywords: teaching active patterns, innovation, and memorizing, studying progress.

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Study of the “Unculi” of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) fish of Kumaun Himalaya.

 

S.C. Joshi 1, Ila Bisht 2 and S.K. Agarwal 2

 

1 Department of Zoology, Surjmal Agarwal Private Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Kumaun University, Nainital, India.

2Department of Zoology, S.S.J. Campus, Almora Kumaun University, Nainital – 263 601, India.

Joshi.drsuresh301@gmail.com sureshjoshi2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Different type of unculi in the general body epidermis, snout epidermis, lip epidermis, adhesive apparatus epidermis and paired fin epidermis of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) have been characterized by using scanning electron microscopy techniques in an attempt to understand their functional significance in relation to friction. The epidermis is differentiated into rough and smooth P. sulcatus. The rough epidermis consists of the epithelial cells. The smooth epidermis in addition to these cells type also possesses mucous cells. The surface of rough epidermis and smooth epidermis of P. sulcatus are keratinized in nature, in the rough epidermis, the epithelial cell surfaces are modifying into epidermal growth the unculi. The present investigation shows that, P. sulcatus GBE, snout and lips are non-papilliated with uncular surface and the adhesive apparatus and fin epidermis are papilliated.

[S.C. Joshi, Ila Bisht and S.K. Agarwal. Study of the “Unculi” of Pseudocheneis sulcatus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) fish of Kumaun Himalaya. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):413-418]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.58

 

Key word: Epidermal unculi, Kumaun Himalaya, Hill-stream fish, P. sulcatus and SEM.

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Reengineering the hospitals and Staff Working Conditions Emphasizing Nurses

 

Samad Ranjbar Ardakani

 

Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN. Journali2012@gmail.com


Abstract: The world health care sector, as the industrialized organizations, has undergone dramatic restructuring and downsizing during the past decades, which incurred serious changes of conditions in which nurses deliver healthcare. As human resources management strategies seemed to have had a positive effect on the similar problems beard by other industries, it appears that the public healthcare sector as failed to endeavor in the same way and is still struggling to design and implement effective schemes. This issue is becoming more and more urgent. Indeed, as governments focus on improving quality and cost effectiveness of patient care, the public healthcare sector has fallen into a vicious circle caused by: "overall workforce shortage, increasingly high and complex workloads, difficult working conditions, a feeling of continuous change and a feeling that the profession is less valued." (Review Body 1999; NHS, 1999, DoH, 1998b; 1999). This paper will resume the major impacts restructuring brought out on nurses working conditions, and thus on quality of care. We will then look at the solutions to take up in order to maintain and improve quality of service.

[Samad Ranjbar Ardakani. Reengineering the hospitals and Staff Working Conditions Emphasizing Nurses. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):419-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.59

 

Keywords: reengineering, restructuring, health care, hospital, nurses

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Adoption and Economics of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) Among Rice Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

 

V.E.T. Ojehomon1, M. O. Adewumi2, O.A. Omotesho2, K. Ayinde3, A. Diagne4

 

1.National Cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Niger State, Nigeria.

2.University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

3.Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B.4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

4. Africa Rice Centre, 01 BP 21031, Cotonu, Benin Republic.

bayoayinde@yahoo.com, kayinde@lautech.edu.ng

 

Abstract: Using cross sectional data collected from randomly selected three hundred and fifteen (315) rice farmers from twenty one (21) locations in Ekiti State of Nigeria, this study examined the exposure, potential population adoption rate, determinants of adoption and the returns to farmers' labour and management in Economics of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) production. The data were analyzed using descriptive tools, average treatment effect estimation model and farm budget technique. Education, family size, contact with extension agents and residence in a Participatory Varietal Selection (PVS) hosting village activities were found to be significant variables that determined farmers’ exposure to NERICA. The observed sample adoption rate was 40% while the average treatment effect was 71%. Residence in a PVS hosting village was the significant factor determining adoption of NERICA in the study area. NERICA attracted a higher average return per hectare than other varieties. The study suggests that stake holders in Nigeria agriculture need to scale up the activities of PVS as a means of disseminating NERICA to other parts of the country using extension agents. The findings of this study may be applicable to other similar states and countries.

[V.E.T. Ojehomon, M. O. Adewumi, O.A. Omotesho, K. Ayinde, A. Diagne. Adoption and Economics of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) Among Rice Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):423-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.60

 

Keywords: NERICA; Average Treatment Effect (ATE); exposure; adoption.

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61

Conflict in Afghanistan: Ethnicity and Religion

 
Hadi Goudarzi

 Ethnic Studies Report, Vol. XVII, No. 1, January 1999

 

Abstract: This article surveys the current situation in Afghanistan against the developments of the last decade after the winding down of the Cold War. The Afghan people have paid a heavy price for their successful resistance to the strategic aims in the region of the former Soviet Union. The Afghan civil war has not merely grown more complex in time, but has also accumulated all the elements of a deadly mix—ethnicity, sectarianism, religious extremism and external intervention. Afghanistan has also lost all its vital institutions, the structure of the state and the historical consensus that the country once had. The rise and success of the Taliban which is dealt with in great detail here has added to the complexity of the Afghan civil war. While the regional powers such as Iran, Pakistan and some of the Central Asian states share some of the responsibility for the destruction of the Afghan state, the major powers particularly the western countries have not fulfilled their part of the responsibility to the people of Afghanistan in the wake of the end of the Cold War.

[Hadi Goudarzi. Conflict in Afghanistan: Ethnicity and Religion. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):430-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.61

 

Keywords: Conflict in Afghanistan: Ethnicity and Religion

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Effect of Pushover Load Pattern on Seismic Responses of RC Frame Buildings

 

Mohammed H. Serror1, Nayer A. El-Esnawy2, and Rania F. Abo-Dagher3

 

1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

3 M.Sc. Graduate, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

mhassanien@cosmos-eng.com

 

Abstract: Recently, attention has been paid to the performance-based seismic design that requires designing the building for several expected performance levels. This is achievable through a design procedure based on the inelastic responses. In order to estimate the inelastic seismic responses of a building, the pushover analysis is used, for its simplicity compared with the nonlinear time-history analysis. In pushover analysis, however, the first step is to select a particular lateral load pattern, which affects the resulting capacity curve that may over- or under-estimate building seismic capacity. Therefore, the selection of a reasonable lateral load pattern is particularly important in pushover analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of lateral load patterns on the seismic performance of low-to-mid-rise Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings. The RC frame buildings, which consist of 6, 9, and 12 stories, are designed according to Egyptian codes ECP-201 and ECP-203. The lateral load patterns for pushover analysis are selected as uniform, inverted triangle, first mode, IBC (k=2), and weighted-load vector patterns. Pushover analysis has been performed according to FEMA-356 guidelines. The effect of the selected lateral load patterns on the seismic responses of the RC frame buildings is illustrated. In particular, the top drift of the building, the base shear, and the peak inter-story drift are analyzed.

[Mohammed H. Serror, Nayer A. El-Esnawy, and Rania F. Abo-Dagher. Effect of Pushover Load Pattern on Seismic Responses of RC Frame Buildings. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):438-447]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.62

 

Keywords: pushover analysis; lateral load pattern; inelastic seismic responses; performance-based design

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Comparative Studies of Rumen pH, Total Protozoa Count, Generic and Species Composition of Ciliates in Camel, Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat in Egypt

 

Baraka, T. A 

 

Dept. Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

drtaherbaraka@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rumen liquor samples were collected from 180 domestic ruminants (30 camels, 35 buffaloes, 48 cattle, 32 sheep and 35 goats) belonging to private farms in Egypt and examined for determination of rumen pH, total protozoa count (TPC), generic and species composition, identification, description and measurement of rumen ciliates dimensions. Rumen pH of camels, buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats were 6.840.08, 6.650.34, 6.820.12, 6.060.05 and 6.250.07, respectively; while total protozoa count (104/ml) were 14.1817.9, 16.023.41, 11.352.53, 28.134.13 and 13.382.26, respectively. The exclusive diverse species of protozoa were 4 in camels, 7 in buffaloes, 10 in cattle, 1in sheep and 1 in goats. The common species presented in all ruminants were Dasytricha ruminatum, Entodinium caudatum f. caudatum, Ent. exiguum, Epidinium caudatum and Epid. Bicaudatum. In camels, buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats the number of recognized genera was 9, 9, 12, 6 and 7; while the number of species was 25, 22, 38, 14 and 19 respectively. Fifty four recognized ciliates were morphologically described; their dimensions were measured and illustrated in figures. Each breed of ruminants has its own unique ciliates and others which are common; and in each breed the individual animal has its ciliates population type which varies according to the generic and species composition. Obtained results should be considered in diagnostic panel for evaluation of rumen function, detection of rumen ciliates population types; and rumen juice transplantation therapeutic process for digestive disorders in ruminants in Egypt.

[Baraka, T. A. Comparative Studies of Rumen pH, Total Protozoa Count, Generic and Species Composition of Ciliates in Camel, Buffalo, Cattle, Sheep and Goat in Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 448-462].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.63

 

Key words: Ruminants, rumen pH, TPC, ciliates.

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Evaluation of Rapid Molecular Identification of Clinically Important Candida Spp Isolated From Immuno-Compromised Patients Using RF-PCR

 

Ayman A. Allam1 and Ihab M. Salem2

 

Microbiology and Immunology and Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University. egyayman66@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Candida species have become an important cause of nosocomial infection espicially in immunocompromised patients. Current phenotypic identification methods are time consuming so molecular methods were used for rapid identification of candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate restriction fragment polymerase chain reaction as a rapid and accurate method for identification of Candida spp isolated from immunocompromised patients. 170 different specimens collected from 120 immuno-compromised patients were subjected to standard fungal methods to isolate Candida spp. All candida isolates were subjected to API AUX to confirm phenotypic identification. DNA was extracted from all candida isolates and subjected to amplification using the ITS1 and ITS4 primer pairs. All amplicons were subjected to digestion directly and individually by the restriction enzyme MspI. The restriction products were checked using agarose gel electrophoresis. 52 (30.6%) out of 170 specimen were positive for Candida spp. The highest percentage of Candida spp were isolated from oral swabs (60%), followed by peritoneal dialysate (34%), urine (24%), sputum (23%) and the lowest percentage was from pus (10%). by the use of API 20 C AUX, the highest percentage of Candida spp isolated was C albicans {23 isolates (44.2%)}, followed by C tropicalis {13(25%)}, then C glabrata {6 (11.5%)}. One (1.9%) of each of C krusei, C stellatoidae, and C kefyr was isolated. C albicans was the most frequently Candidda spp isolated from every specimen type. The intergenic spacer region was successfully amplified from all Candida isolates tested giving amplification product 510-871 bp. In all Candida isolates, Identification by RF PCR shows 86.5% agreement with API. Identification by RF PCR shows 100 % agreement with API identification in case of C trobicalis, C glabrata, C krusei and C guilliermondi. In case of C albicans, 96% (22 out of 23) agreement of RF PCR is shown in comparison to API. RF-PCR fails to identify isolates of C kefyr, C lusitaniae and C parapslosis to species level. This study concluded that Candida albicans still the most important Candida spp affecting immunocompromised patients and Non candida albicans spp are emerging important pathogens. It also concludes that PCR RFLP using the restriction enzyme MpsI is a good rapid identification method that identifies the most important Candida spp isolated from immunocompromised patients and recommends further studies to develop new methods using different restriction enzymes to increase the range of identified candida spp.

[Ayman A. Allam and Ihab M. Salem. Evaluation of Rapid Molecular Identification of Clinically Important Candida Spp Isolated From Immuno-Compromised Patients Using RF-PCR. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 463-468]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.64

 

Key words: Candida spp, RF-PCR, Immuno-compromised patients, Molecular identification, Phenotypic identification)

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Natamycin Antibiotic Produced By Streptomyces sp.: Fermentation, Purification And Biological Activities

 

Houssam M. Atta 1, Sh. M. Selim. 2 and Mona S. Zayed3

 

*1. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The present address: Biotechnology Department. Faculty of Science and Education- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA.

2. Unit of Biofertilizers, Dept. of. Microbiology, Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ. The present address: Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Science and Education- Al-Khurmah, Taif University; KSA. 3. Unit of Biofertilizers, Dept. of. Microbiology., Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ.

houssamatta@yahoo.com and houssamatta@hotmail.com; Tel: 00966506917966

 

Abstract: This work was carried out for the biosynthesis of antifungal substance that demonstrated inhibitory effects against pathogenic fungi from Streptomyces sp. It is active in vitro against some fungal pathogenic viz: S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763; Candida albicans, IMRU 3669; Asp. flavus, IMI 111023; Aspergillus niger IMI 31276; Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 16424; Aspergillus flavus IMI 111023; Fusarium oxysporum; Rhizoctonia solani; Alternaria alternata; Botrytis fabae and Penicillium chrysogenium. The active metabolite was extracted using n-Butanol (1:1, v/v) at pH 7.0. The separation of the active ingredient of the antifungal agent and its purification was performed using both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC) techniques. The physico-chemical characteristics of the purified antibiotic viz. color, melting point, solubility, elemental analysis (C, H, N, O & S) and spectroscopic characteristics (UV absorbance and IR, Mass & NMR spectra) have been investigated. This analysis indicates a suggested empirical formula of C33H47NO13. The minimum inhibition concentrations "MICs" of the purified antifungal agent were also determined. The purified antifungal agent was suggestive of being belonging to Natamycin "polyene" antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp.

[Houssam M. Atta; Sh. M. Selim and Mona S. Zayed. Natamycin Antibiotic Produced By Streptomyces sp.: Fermentation, Purification And Biological Activities. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):469-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.65

 

Keywords: Antifungal polyene; Streptomyces sp.; Fermentation and Biological Activities

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Impact of a Designed Nursing Rehabilitation Program on incidence of complication and length of hospital stay After Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction El-Manial University Hospital

 

Samah Saad Salem1, Shadia Sharaf1, Manal M. Mostafa1 and Mohammed Abd- Elhaliem Kaddah2

 

1Medical- Surgical Nursing Dep.-Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

2Orthopedic surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

Samahss75@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a serious injury often resulting in hospital admission for ACL reconstruction. Rehabilitation is a major factor in the success of such surgery. Rehabilitation nurses are challenged to rehabilitate individuals who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to ensure optimal outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to design nursing rehabilitation program for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, to implement the designed program, and to evaluate the impact of the program on incidence of complication and length of hospital stay. To fulfill this aim the following research hypotheses were formulated: H1) - Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction who will be exposed to a designed rehabilitation program will have fewer complications than those who will receive routine nursing care only. H2) - Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction who will be exposed to a designed rehabilitation program will have less hospital stay than patients who will receive the routine nursing care only. Quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study. A convenience sample of 60 adult male and female patients was randomly divided into two equal and matched groups (control & study). two tools were utilized for data collections; 1) Socio-demographic and biomedical data sheet, 2) Complications monitoring sheet. The study results revealed significant fewer complication throughout the study periods among the study group as compared with the control group subjects (p= 0.004) as well shorter length of stay with the following p values(0.01). In conclusion nursing rehabilitation program seemed to have a positive impact on decreasing the number and severity of complication as well as the length of hospital stay for ACL reconstruction patients. Therefore, replication of this study on a larger probability sample would be of great beneficence to patients and health professionals.

[Samah Saad Salem, Shadia Sharaf, Manal M. Mostafa and Mohammed Abd- Elhaliem Kaddah. Impact of a Designed Nursing Rehabilitation Program on incidence of complication and length of hospital stay After Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction El-Manial University Hospital. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):476-488]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.66

 

Keywords: Anterior Cruciate Ligament, rehabilitation program, Patient outcomes.

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Rotavirus and adenovirus in human and animals in Southwest of Saudi Arabia

 

Abuelyazeed A. Elsheik1, Walid A. Azab2, Abdulrahman M Al-Qurashi3 and Shimaa M.G. Mansour4

 

1Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia. Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2Institut fr Virologie, Freie Universitt Berlin, Philippstrasse 13, Haus 18, D-10115 Berlin, Germany. Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

3Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia

4Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

eaa000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Enteric viruses are important agents threaten both human and animal health. These viruses are usually transmitted via the fecal-oral route and are shed in extremely high numbers in the feces of infected individuals. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus and adenovirus infections among humans and animals in Najran region (a province located at the southwest of Saudi Arabia) and to identify the source of infection. A total of 92 and 88 stool samples were collected from children and lambs suffering from diarrhea, respectively. All stool samples were tested with two antigen detection techniques; (ELISA) and RIDA QUICK Rotavirus/Adenovirus Combi for detection of rotavirus and adenovirus. The positive results were further confirmed by PCR. To identify the source of infection, five potable water samples were tested for both viruses by PCR technique. In children, the results showed that 8 samples were positive for rotavirus (8.69%), while 3 samples were positive for adenovirus (3.26%). In lambs, there were 4 positive samples for rotavirus (4.54%) while the adenovirus could not be detected in any of the samples. The viruses could not be detected in any water sample. This is the first study that shows the presence of enteric viruses in humans and animals in Najran and further investigations are needed to identify the source of infection.

[Abuelyazeed A. Elsheik, Walid A. Azab, Abdulrahman M Al-Qurashi and Shimaa M.G. Mansour Rotavirus and adenovirus in human and animals in Southwest of Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):489-493]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.67

 

Key words: Rotavirus, Adenovirus, ELISA, Saudi Arabia

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Enhancingthe Efficiency of Primary Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment Plants with the Application of MoringaOliefera Seeds and Quicklime

 

Ashmawy, M.A1, Moussa, M.S.1, Ghoneim, A.K.1, and Tammam, A.2

 

1Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering – Mataria, Helwan University, Cairo; 2National Water Research Center; mashmawy95@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research investigates the enhancement of wastewater primary sedimentation using Quicklime and Moringaoliefera seeds as primary coagulants. Samples of municipal wastewater from Abu-Rawash wastewater treatment plant, Egypt were treated by coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation. The quality of the treated wastewater samples was analyzed. Experiments were conducted at various doses of the coagulants using jar-test equipment. Parameters of wastewater quality were measured before and after treatment to evaluate the removal efficiencies of suspended solids (TSS), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and microorganisms. Results showed that, application of Quicklime and Moringaoliefera seeds improved the primary effluent quality. Application of 500 mg/l of Quicklime caused increase in the removal efficiency of TSS to reach 97.8%, both total and fecal coli forms to 99.9%, while BOD and COD removal efficiencies reached up to 78.9% and 78.2% respectively. Application of 10ml/l of water extract of dry Moringaoleifera seeds 5% (wt/v) caused increase in the removal efficiency of TSS to reach 92%, Total and fecal coli forms to reach 89.6% and 89.1% respectively, while BOD and COD removal efficiencies were limited to 32% and 48% respectively.

[Ashmawy, M.A, Moussa, M.S., Ghoneim, A.K.andTammam, A. Enhancingthe Efficiency of Primary Sedimentation in Wastewater Treatment Plants with the Application of Moringa Oliefera Seeds and Quicklime. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):494-502]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.68

 

Keyword:Wastewater Treatment, Coagulation, Flocculation, Sedimentation and Quicklime, Moringaoliefera seeds

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Temporal Changes of Air Pollutants and Land Surface Temperature around Jeddah Desalination Power Plant, K S A

 

F. A. Al-Seroury

 

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdul- Aziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. falseroury@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Air pollution is a Global issue which has unlimited action on multiple scales, the main objective of this study is to investigate the temporal changes of air pollutants and land surface temperature around Jeddah desalination power plant. The mean monthly concentrations of Hydro-carbons, Carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide during the year 2007 were estimated at different distances from the plant using the standard Gaussian plume model. The thermal bands of Landsat ETM+ were used to elaborate the land surface temperature (LST) at three dates (i.e. January, April, and August of 2007). Then the correlation between air pollutants and LST was implemented. The results indicate that the maximum concentration of Hydro-carbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxides reach 1.76, 9.14, 182.20, and 963.32 g/m3 respectively. In general, it is noticed that these concentrations were obtained in August at a distance of 1300 – 1700 meter from the power plant. The results indicate the high correlation between LST and Hydro-carbons (0.9866), Carbon monoxide (0.9171), Nitrogen oxides (0.9338) and sulfur dioxides (0.9540).

[F. A. Al-Seroury. Temporal Changes of Air Pollutants and Land Surface Temperature around Jeddah Desalination Power Plant, K S A. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):503-508]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.69

 

Keywords: air pollutants, Landsat thermal band, Jeddah power plant, KSA.

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Inorganic Fertilization of Cotton Field-Plants In Relation To Sucking Insects and Yield Production Components of Cotton Plants

 

El-Zahi, E.S.; Arif, S.A.; Jehan, B.A. El-Naggar and Madeha, E.H. El-Dewy

 

Plant Prot. Res. Inst., Agric. Res. Cent., Giza, Egypt. midosafwat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In modern agriculture, the most critical problem for increasing yield and developing sustainable agriculture is sufficient fertilizers supply and successful crop protection against herbivores and pathogens. Field experiments were conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Egypt to investigate the influence of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers at their recommended rates per feddan (NPK units ratio of 66:30:24) on the population densities of jassid, Impoasca spp.; cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius infesting cotton plants cv. Giza 89 during 2009 and 2010 seasons. Also, the effect of tested fertilizers on cotton plants growth was studied. Seven fertilizer treatments i.e. N, P, K, NP, NK, PK and NPK were evaluated. Obtained results indicated that nitrogen fertilizer significantly reduced the population density of Impoasca spp. whereas, it enhanced the population densities of both A. gossypii and B. tabaci in the two seasons of study. Plants fertilized with potassium either alone or in combinations with others were significantly infested with the lowest population densities of Impoasca spp. and A. gossypii and were infested with moderate numbers of B. tabaci. Phosphorus fertilizer proved to be very effective in lowering the incidence of B. tabaci on treated plants, but it increased the density of Impoasca spp. significantly. Plants treated with NPK in combination were infested with moderate population densities of the three insects. In both seasons of our study, the highest average numbers of squares and green bolls per cotton plant were observed on plants treated with NPK. On the contrary, plants which fertilized with K only significantly fruited the lowest means of squares and green bolls per plant. Further studies should be done to limit the adequate combination of N, P and K for cotton maximum production and minimum insects infestation under Egyptian agricultural conditions.

[El-Zahi, E.S.; Arif, S.A.; Jehan, B.A. El-Naggar and Madeha, E.H. El-Dewy. Inorganic Fertilization of Cotton Field-Plants In Relation To Sucking Insects and Yield Production Components of Cotton Plants. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):509-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.70

 

Keywords: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Impoasca spp., Aphis gossypii, Bemisia tabaci, squares, greenbolls, cotton.

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Customer Retention Strategies on INTERNET (e-CRM); Features and Principles

 

Kazem Hashemi

MA Student of Management, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Journali2012@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Technology has helped fuel the growth of CRM strategies. The evolution of CRM is moving forward with e - business evolutions. eCRM is the new strategy of customer relationship management in the Internet era. This paper addresses the basics of CRM and what is eCRM, explains the relationship between technology and eCRM and introduces the 4 principles of eCRM. 

[Kazem Hashemi. Customer Retention Strategies on INTERNET (e-CRM); Features and Principles. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):518-522]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.71

 

Keywords: Customer; Retention; INTERNET (e-CRM)

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The Effect of Maternal Employment on Breast Feeding Practice among Egyptian Children

 

Fayed S1, Almorsy E1, Fathi N1 and Wahby I*2

 

1Pediatric Department,2 Community and Occupational medicine department. Faculty of medicine for girls Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. e.almorsy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Breast feeding is a fundamental right of mothers and infants, but it has also known that everywhere women entering the workforce in greater numbers and the decision to return to work may be the result of women’s lifestyle, financial circumstances, or professional preparation. Maternal employment has been reported as a significant problem that affects breast feeding and influence early weaning, despite many mother’s intention to continue breastfeeding after returning to work. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal employment on breast feeding practice, and to find a solution of this problem.The study was conducted on 200 working mother and their infants (111 males and 89 females) compared to 200 none working mothers and their infants (91 males and 109 females). Infants of both groups aged from 6-24 months. All of the studied mothers and their infants were subjected to an interview questionnaire.The results revealed that, breastfeeding on cue was practiced in (8.0%) of working mothers compared to (93.0%) in non working groups (p<0.000). As regard exclusive breast feeding, (11.0%) of working mothers continued exclusive breast feeding to six month compared to (20.5%) of non working group (p<0.000). Most of working mothers start complementary feeding earlier than non working group (p<0.00) No significant statistical difference between both groups as regard onset of suckling and anthropometric measurements. Breast feeding rates in the studied groups were below the recommended level in both working and non working groups. Conclusion: maternal employment may affect the practice of breastfeeding especially exclusive breast feeding, the pattern of breastfeeding, and age of weaning. But it has no significant effect on the growth of their infants. We Recommended: A six months paid maternal leave for working mother, Milk expression and proper storage and the presence of nurseries in mother’s workplace can be a solution for working mothers.

[Fayed S, Almorsy E, Fathi N and Wahby I. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Breast Feeding Practice among Egyptian Children. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):523-528]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.72

 

Keywords: maternal employment, breast feeding, egyptian

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Permeability Prediction of Carbonate Reservoir by Combining Neural Network and Shuffled Frog-Leaping

 

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi1*, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh2

 

1) Department of Petroleum Engineering, Ahwaz Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran; 2) Department of Petroleum Engineering, Abadan Faculty of Petroleum Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran. ahmadi6776@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Permeability is one of the most important rock parameters in reservoir engineering that affects fluids flow in reservoir. In most reservoirs, permeability measurements are rare and Permeability is determined from rock sample or well testing data. Core analysis and well test data are expensive and time consuming. In the present paper, the soft sensor based on a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate permeability of the reservoir is proposed. After that, ANN-based Soft-Sensor was optimized by Shuffled Frog-Leaping Algorithm (SFLA). SFLA is used to decide the initial weights of the neural network. The SFLA-ANN based soft sensor is applied to predict permeability in one of the northern Persian Gulf oil fields of Iran reservoir located in Ahwaz, Iran utilizing available geophysical well log data. The performance of the SFLA-ANN based soft sensor is compared with ANN based soft sensor. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SFLA-ANN based soft sensor.

[Mohammad Ali Ahmadi, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh. Permeability Prediction of Carbonate Reservoir by Combining Neural Network and Shuffled Frog-Leaping. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):529-533]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.73

 

Keywords: Neural Network; Shuffled Frog-leaping Algorithm; Permeability; Well log data; Prediction

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Predictor occupational stress with use of personality type such as introversion, extroversion, sensing, Intuitions, feeling, thinking, perceiving and judging among of the Bank staff in Iran.

 

Maryam khodabakhshi; Gayane Shaverdian; Dr. Abolfazl Karami

Khodabakhshi23@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current research is aimed to analyze the relationship between Myers - Briggs personality types and occupational stress among the statistical society including all the bank staff in Iran from the Tehran City bank that working in the year 2011. For this purpose, by the help of multistage cluster sampling, 300 individuals were randomly chosen. This research is of solidarity type and for gathering the data, responds from Myers - Briggs and Philip L. Rice tests were used to evaluate the level of occupational stress of employees. For statically analysis of data, descriptive statistics including setting the data table, calculating the mean value, standard deviation, etc. and for hypothesis tests, inferential statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient. Findings demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between Myers - Briggs personality types and occupational stress and by a %99 certainty this assumption is proved.

[Maryam khodabakhshi. Predictor occupational stress with use of personality type such as introversion, extroversion, sensing, Intuitions, feeling, thinking, perceiving and judging among of the Bank staff in Iran. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):534-541]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.74

 

Key words personality types, occupational stress, Bank staff

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The Effect Of Cognitive-Behavioral Couneseling On The Level Of Anxiety In Woman With Sexual Dysfunction

 

Peymaneh Nemati 1*, Karapetyan V. 2, Seyedreza Haghi3

 

1. Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of Pedagogy, Professor of Psychology, Armenian State University, Yerevan, Armenia

3-Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

p.nemati99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. It is the displeasing feeling of fear and concern. The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either presence or absence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness, and dread. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is high and it may significantly affect self-esteem and quality of life. Even sexual dysfunction of short duration can create frustration and anguish. When chronic, it may lead to anxiety and depression, harm relationships, and cause problems in other aspects of life. The goal of the present research is to study the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on the level of anxiety in women with sexual dysfunction. Method and materials for this research study are Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) that focused on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques. Data analysis showed that the cognitive behavior therapy has significantly effect on reduction of anxiety. Cognitive counseling as a therapeutic method can have a significant role in improvement of women suffering from anxiety which is resulted from sexual dysfunction.

[Peymaneh Nemati, Karapetyan V., Seyedreza Haghi. The Effect Of Cognitive-Behavioral Couneseling On The Level Of Anxiety In Woman With Sexual Dysfunction. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):542-545]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.75

 

Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Cognitive Behavior Counseling, Women

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A New Method for Measurement of Harmonic Groups Using Wavelet-Packet-Transform

 

R. Eslami, H. Askarian, A. Mahmoudi and S. H. Hosseinian

 

Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

rezaeslami67@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper presents a new method based on the wavelet-packet transform for analysis of harmonics in power systems. The proposed method decomposes the voltage/current waveforms into the uniform frequency bands corresponding to the odd and even harmonic components of the signal. It also uses a filter to reduce the spectral leakage being due to the imperfect frequency response of the used wavelet filter banks so that the spectral leakage becomes almost zero. In addition to measure odd-harmonic components, even-harmonic components are also measured which are not clearly considered by previous methods. The accuracy of the method is considerable and it can be adjusted through utilizing an iterative algorithm. To compare the performance of the proposed method with previous methods especially the IEC method, two examples are served.

[R. Eslami, H. Askarian, A. Mahmoudi and S. H. Hosseinian. A New Method for Measurement of Harmonic Groups Using Wavelet-Packet-Transform. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):546-550]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.76

 

Key words: Harmonics; Measurement of harmonics; International Electro technical Commission (IEC) standards; Wavelet-Packet Transform (WPT).

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Key Strategic Steps in Setting a Business; a Review of Some Basic Entrepreneurial Facts

 

Kazem Hashemi

 

MA Student of Management, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Msmsc86@gmail.com

 

 Abstract: 21st century - a highly dynamic and uncertain business environment, globalization, hyper-competition and new technologies that change existing market into a brand new form – shorter product life cycle, advanced communication model, transparent market information, rivalry between SME and corporation, online marketing channel, etc. These make the entrepreneur could not survive easily without a thoughtful strategic plan, strategic management provide them a systematic and comprehensive means for analyzing the environment, and identifying opportunities that could allow them develop and exploit competitive advantages. This paper discusses on the key success factors when establishing a business.

[Kazem Hashemi. Key Strategic Steps in Setting a Business; a Review of Some Basic Entrepreneurial Facts. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):551-553]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 77 

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.77

 

Keywords: Business Start, Set Up, Enterprise, SWOT

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Impact of Team Decision making approach towards organizational performance

 

Ngamije Jean1*, Mupenzi Jean de la Paix1,2

 

1. Independent Institute of Lay Adventists of Kigali (INILAK), P O Box 6392 Kigali-Rwanda

2. State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Science, 818 Beijing Road south, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011, China.

jeanngamije@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The impacts of decision making will take place in various aspects and different scales of organization. The main goal of this study was to analysis the Impact of Team Decision making approach towards organizational performance. The methods of Participative decision making and Team Concept have been applied. Results indicated that participation of employees in decision making on matters important to organizations has many benefits. Also team decision making increases staff ownership of decisions made, gives them a voice in the organization policy and management, and maximizes use of employees’ expertise. However, One way to judge a successful manager in today business environment is his or her ability to determine which decisions should be made by the group and which should be made individually

[Ngamije Jean, Mupenzi Jean de la Paix. Impact of Team Decision making approach towards organizational performance. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):554-560]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.78

 

Key words: Decision making, management, Organization, Team concept

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Effects of Interferon Alpha 2b (Inf-Α2b) on the Development and Growth of Teeth in Mice (Histological and Electron Microscopic Study)

 

Ali Shamaaa, b and Mohamed Taha Shredaha

 

a Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, El-Minia University, Egypt.

b Basic Oral and Clinical Science Department, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, KSA.

Lshamaa@yahoo.com; Shredahmohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Tooth development is a complex process results from epithelial-mesenchymal interaction, cellular proliferation, differentiation and apposition. Interferon is now widely used for the treatment of various malignant diseases, chronic viral hepatitis and have diverse effects as immune stimulation, tumor inhibition, reduced cell multiplication, and may be involved in the events leading directly to defective enamel formation. Aim: is to study the effects of interferon alpha 2b on the tooth germ of developing teeth in mice. Material and method: Twenty adult female mice and ten adult male mice (CD-1) were divided into two groups; control and experimental group, 10 females and 5 males mice for each group, the control group injected subcutaneously by 0.1 ml of sterile water and the experimental group injected subcutaneously by recombinant human interferon alpha 2b (Rhuifn-a2b) 10.000 i.u in 0.1 ml sterile water, three times per week, two weeks before breeding and continued until the end of pregnancy, The Neonates from 5 pregnant mice were obtained immediately at birth (subgroup A) and 2 weeks after birth (subgroup B), samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine H&E stain for histological interpretation and others were kept in gluteraldehyde for the electron microscopic study of the inner enamel epithelium cells. Results: by light microscope there were indistinct cell boundaries, degenerated ameloblast, destruction of the underlying basement membrane. Areas of cystic degeneration of the underlying dental papilla, increase intercellular spaces between the cells accompanied with areas of degeneration of the cytoplasm, and by electron microscope there were decreased number of mitochondria, and decreased rough endoplasmic reticulum, pychnotic nucleus showing high signs of degeneration, increased vacuoles within the cells even areas of empty cytoplasm. Conclusion: interferon -α2b has adverse effects and interfere with tooth development and represents a threat that affects the developing tooth and should be avoided at least, during pregnancy.

[Ali Shamaa and Mohamed Taha Shredah. Effects of Interferon Alpha 2b (Inf-Α2b) on the Development and Growth of Teeth in Mice (Histological and Electron Microscopic Study). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 561-567]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.79

 

Keywords: interferon -α2b, development, growth, teeth and mice.

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Occupational health: Health Promotion Program to Improve Health Workers in Tourah Cement Factory

 

Sahar Ahmed Shafik and Afaf Salah Abd El-Mohsen

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. dsahar100@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Workers in the cement sector are exposed to many occupational hazards which may contribute to diseases and work injuries. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of health promotion program to improve health workers in Tourah cement factory. Study design: A quasi –experimental design was used.. The study sample comprised 350 workers selected randomly in Tourah cement factory. Two tools were used for data collection: 1) Interviewing questionnaire sheet and 2) Observational checklist. Results: showed that two thirds of the studied workers were exposed to skin disorders and sinusitis (65.7% & 62.8%).More than half of the studied workers were exposed to hearing disorders (50.5%), more than two fifths were complaining from chronic cough (42.8%), nearly two thirds of the studied workers were had poor knowledge about different types of personal protective equipment and occupational diseases in cement factory, almost two thirds of the studied workers (67.1%) complained from musculoskeletal disorders; 56.1% from hypertension. There were statistically significant difference between before and after program implementation concerning workers health (P = <0.001). The study concluded that according to the findings and research hypothesis health promotion program will improve the workers knowledge, attitude and practices regarding safety measures This was obvious In table 5,6,7 that showed statistical significant improvement before a and after implementation of the health promotion program regarding knowledge, attitude and practice. The study recommended the need for stressing on the application of International Standard Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, in field work to improve occupational health and safety performance for workers, periodic check up for workers for early detection of occupational hazards to monitor the health status and early case finding, periodic educational training for all workers in cement factory about the occupational hazards, emphasizing on the importance and usefulness of personal protective equipment to be used in the right way and first aid for promotion of personal fitness of the workers by healthy promotion programs.

[Sahar Ahmed Shafik and Afaf Salah Abd El-Mohsen Occupational health: Health Promotion Program to Improve Health Workers in Tourah Cement Factory. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 568-579]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.80

 

Key word: Cement factory, occupational hazards, personal protective equipment, international standard organization.

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Relationship between Thoracic Kyphosis and Trunk Length in Adolescence Females

 

Mohamed A. Awad 1 and Abdel Hamid A. Atta Allah 2

 

1 Department of Physical Therapy for Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt.

2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (Girls), Al Azhar University, Egypt.

Awad18111972@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between thoracic kyphosis and trunk length in adolescence females. Ninety adolescence females complained from postural kyphosis (diagnosed by orthopedist) from preparatory and secondary schools in Cairo and Giza Governate, participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 13 to 18 and their thoracic kyphosis angle was more than 40 degrees and less than 60 degrees. They were evaluated by the Formetric II instrument in spinal shape analysis laboratory at the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Duration of the study was from January 2011 to March 2011. The obtained results showed a strong positive correlation was found between thoracic kyphosis angle and the trunk length (r= 0.960; p< 0.01). On conclusion; there is a strong positive correlation between thoracic kyphosis angle and the trunk length in adolescence females.

[Mohamed A. Awad and Abdel Hamid A. Ata Ala. Relationship between Thoracic Kyphosis and Trunk Length in Adolescence Females. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 580-583]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.81

 

Key words: Thoracic Kyphosis, Trunk length, Adolescence, Formetric II.

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Home Care: Nursing Intervention for Family Caregivers of Alzheimer Clients

 

1Naglaa M. Girgis, 2Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed and 3Hemat Abd Elmoneem Elsayied

 

1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University

2 Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, 3 Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

Mohamed.hemat@yahoo.com

Abstract: The aim: of the study was to evaluate the effect of nursing intervention on daily living activities (DLAs) for family caregivers (FCGs) of Alzheimer clients. Design: This study is a quasi-experimental research design. Setting: This study was conducted at the Geriatric Outpatient Clinic and Alzheimer Outpatient Clinic at Ahmed Okasha Center in Ain-Shams University Hospitals Sample: A purposive sample of 60 Alzheimer clients and their family caregivers;32 from Alzheimer Outpatient Clinic at Ahmed Okasha Center; and 28 from Geriatric Outpatient Clinic. Tools: Data were collected using two tools. 1): An interviewing questionnaire, consisting of socio-demographic characteristics of FCGs of the Alzheimer clients, their needs for knowledge about Alzheimer disease (used pre/post program), their activities of daily living, toward their Alzheimer clients (used pre/post program), and their as physical, psychosocial, emotional and strain problems. 2): An observational checklist for assessing the Alzheimer clients' home environment. Results: The main results revealed that most of FCGs had physical and psychosocial strain problems, followed by emotional strain, and more than half of them had safe environment. There was a highly statistically significant difference between family caregivers' total knowledge, and providing DLAs towards their Alzheimer clients pre / post implementation of the program. As well there was a positive correlation with highly statistically significant difference between FCGs according to home environment and providing DLAs towards their Alzheimer clients pre / post program. Recommendations: Counseling and nursing intervention for FCGs of Alzheimer clients about knowledge of Alzheimer disease, DLAs, as well as emotional support and relieving stress, and prevention of environmental hazards.

[Naglaa M. Girgis, Hanan Ibrahim Ahmed and Hemat Abd Elmoneem Elsayied. Home Care: Nursing Intervention for Family Caregivers of Alzheimer Clients. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):584-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.82

 

Key: Family care givers (FCGs), Alzheimer disease, Daily living activities (DLAs)

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Diagnostic Utility of Flexible SigmoidoscopyAs An Aid In Diagnosis of Colorectal Disease

 

Fathia M AbdElmonem,Salwa M El-taher, Wafaa M El-Zefzafy,  Hagag H M*

 

Tropical Medicine, General Pathology* Departments Faculty of Medicine for Girls Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

wafaa_elzefzafy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Colorectal disease is one of the main areas of research interest. Several benign colorectal and anorectal conditions may be precancerous, or may warrant evaluation to rule out cancer as a cause of symptoms. Sigmoidoscopy is highly sensitive and specific for detection of lesions within reach of the instrument. The effectiveness of combined screening strategy in reducing colorectal disease mortality has not been studied directly, it is likely that the combination of screening methods is more effective than the use of any method alone. Aim of the work: Study the utility of flexible sigmoidoscopy with other parameters (fecal occult blood testing (FOB), Iron profile, CBC, ESR, clinicopathological findings) for early diagnosis of colorectal lesions. Patients and methods: This study included 160 patients who were clinically suspected to have colorectal disease. Iron profile, CBC, ESR, FOBT, liver and kidney function tests were done. Also Flexible sigmoidoscopy and abdominal US were done. Patients were divided into 2 groups Group I: comprised 100 patients with +ve FOBT, Group II: comprised 60 patients with -ve FOBT. Results:: There was significant increase of ESR in group I in comparison to group II and positive correlation of histopathological findings in relation to ESR. The sensitivity of FOBT was 78.5% and specifity was 55% with a total accuracy 67.5%. The sigmoidoscopy reveled findings in 52.5% of patients (polyps, CRC, inflammation, infection, internal piles, rectal ulcer). Also the pathological changes showed highly significant difference in group I compared to group II. Conclusion: Flexible sigmoidoscopy equipment is easy to acquire; therefore the procedure may be offered in small, remote communities in which colonoscopy may not be readily available. Combined flexible sigmoidoscopy, FOBT, and ESR are important in the diagnosis of rectal disease especially in patients with anorexia and weight loss. They play a role in decreasing incidence and early diagnosis of colorectal cancer as they detect precancerous lesions before turning malignant.

[Fathia M AbdElmonem, Salwa M El-taher, Wafaa M El-Zefzafy, Hagag H M. Diagnostic Utility of Flexible Sigmoidoscopy As An Aid In Diagnosis of Colorectal Disease. J Am Sci., 2012;8(2):596-602] http://www.americanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.83

 

Keywords:Sigmoidoscopy, Fecal occult blood test,Colorectal disease.

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Comparative Histological and Ultrastructural Study of the Tongue in Ptyodactylus guttatus and Stenodactylus petrii (Lacertilia, Gekkonidae)

 

Samah T. Darwish

 

Biological & geological department, Arish Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt

samaah_darwish@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study deals with examined the gross structure and lingual surface at light and ultrastructural level of two Gekkonidae species; Ptyodactylus guttatus and Stenodactylus petrii collected from different regions of Sinai. Bifurcation is more detected in Stenodactylus petrii.. The distribution pattern of the mechanical filiform papillae varied between both species, being more abundant in Ptyodactylus guttatus in the lingual apex and similar in the lingual body. The examined lingual papillae are of flattened and conical filiform types. The distal margin of the root possessed serrated lingual surface in Stenodactylus petrii and pattern of scutate semi-like papillae in Ptyodactylus guttatus. In addition, the distal margin showed abundant glandular distribution associated with dense distribution of microvilli and microridges on lingual papillae facilitated for feeding habits.

[Samah T. Darwish. Comparative Histological and Ultrastructural Study of the Tongue in Ptyodactylus guttatus and Stenodactylus petrii (Lacertilia, Gekkonidae). J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):603-612] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.84

 

Keywords: Ptyodactylus guttatus, Stenodactylus petrii, Sinai, filiform papillae

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Microorganisms in the Air over a Bio-solid Waste Landfill in Egypt

 

Mansour F.A1., El Dohlob S. M1., Abdel Hameed A.A2, Kamel M.M3 and El-Gendy S.A*2

 

1Botany Dept., Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Air Pollution Dept. and 3Water Pollution Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

safaaelgendy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate microbial air quality (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) in adjacent and at different downwind distances at a municipal biosolid waste landfill (Shoubramant landfill). Airborne microbial composition was studied using a liquid impinge sampler during the period from June 2006 to June 2007. Air quality was evaluated using two microbiological contamination indices: the global index of microbiological contamination per m3 (GIMC per m3) and the amplification index (AI). Airborne microbial concentrations were usually higher downwind than upwind. The maximum downwind concentrations were 8.55.4x105 colony forming unit per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) for bacteria, 7.38x105 CFU/m3 for actinomycetes and 1.088x104 for fungi. AI demonstrates that concentrations at downwind distances always superior to those of the upwind. There were no distinct correlation patterns found between air-microorganisms and weather conditions; the correlations differed according to the type of organism. The downwind microbial concentrations did not reach to the background ones, which raise the question about health risk. Human activity, type of organisms and meteorological factors were the main criteria controlling the temporal variations of microorganisms in the air. It is important to monitor microbial air quality near potential sources of bioaerosol emissions. In Egypt, detailed and systematic data is lacking on airborne microorganisms associated with waste application facilities.

[Mansour, F. A, El Dohlob S. M, Abdel Hameed A.A, Kamel M.M. and El-Gendy S.A. Microorganisms in the Air over a Bio-solid Waste Landfill in Egypt. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):613-619]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.85

 

Keywords: biosolid landfill, bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, air quality, weather conditions.

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Effect of Bacteriocin Extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Shelf-life of Pasteurized Milk

 

*Ekbal M. A. Ibrahim and Hend A. Elbarbary

 

Department of Food Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

*ekbal_adel_2200 @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Bacteriocins are natural metabolites produced by many strains of Lactic acid bacteria that used in food bioprocessing. They have potential healthy role in suppressing the growth of some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus strain was extracted and inoculated into freshly pasteurized milk at concentrations of 320, 160, 80 & 40 IU/mL, then the milk samples were examined for T.A% & microbiological examination at the time of preparation and at 3 days intervals till sings of spoilage were detected. Obtained results revealed that pasteurized milk samples with bacteriocin at concentration 160 and 320 IU/mL showed the lowest T.A% & highly significant inhibitory effect on total bacterial count, aerobic spore formers and psychrotrophic count, as well as it could extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk up to 12 days during refrigerator storage. While, for those samples with 80 IU/mL showed no effect on both total bacterial count & psychrotrophic count with slight reduction for aerobic spore formers. While, those with 40 IU/mL & control ones (without bacteriocin) could not control the bacterial contaminant counts and the signs of spoilage appeared at the 9th day of storage.

[Ekbal M. A. Ibrahim and Hend A. Elbarbary. Effect of Bacteriocin Extracted from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the Shelf-life of Pasteurized Milk. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):620-626]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.86

 

Keywords: Lactobacillus acidophilus; Bacteriocin; Pasteurized milk; Refrigerated storage

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Impact of Clinical Placement on Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Psychiatry

 

Eman Dawood 1,2

 

1Mental Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menofyia University, Egypt

2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

dawoode@ksau-hs.edu.sa

 

Abstract Research lacks studies concerning nursing students’ attitude toward psychiatry. The objective of this study aimed to determine the nursing students’ attitude toward psychiatric and mental health nursing and their intentions to pursue psychiatry as a future career. One hundred and fourteen nursing students, College of Nursing, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences – Riyadh, undertaking the Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing course during the academic year 2009 – 2010 were invited to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete the modified Burra et al. Attitude toward Psychiatry-30 (1982) questionnaire on the first day of their clinical placement and the same questionnaire again on the last day of their clinical placement. Students’ participation was voluntary and confidential. Results showed that after the clinical placement, students showed more positive attitude toward psychiatry as evidenced by the mean total scores pre and post-clinical placement (89.5, 104.1 respectively). Only fourteen students (13.7) reported that they would choose psychiatric nursing as a future career, while the majority of the participants 88 (86.3%) would not choose psychiatric nursing as a future career. Positive clinical experience has impact on the students’ attitude toward psychiatry. Manipulating the clinical experience might encourage nurse students to choose psychiatric nursing as their future career which in turn would help on recruitment and retention of psychiatric nurses worldwide.

[Eman Dawood. Impact of Clinical Placement on Nursing Students’ Attitudes towards Psychiatry. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 627-632]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org 87.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.87

 

Keywords: Attitude, mental health, psychiatric nursing, clinical experience, nursing education

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 Treatment with folic acid ameliorated the histological and immunohistochemical alterations caused by propylthiouracil –induced hypothyroid rat aorta

 

Wafaa Ibrahim1; Maha Abo Gazia2; Afaf El-Atrash3; Ahmed Massoud3; Ehab Tousson3٭; and Heba Abou-Harga3

 

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Fayoum University, Egypt

3Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Thyroid status is an important determinant of cardiovascular function. We studied the changes in the aorta of hypothyroid rat at the post-pubertal stage, in addition to the ameliorating role of folic acid. Fifty male albino rats were equally divided into five groups; the first and second groups were the control and folic acid groups, respectively while the third group was the hypothyroid group in which rats received 6-n-propyl thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 6 weeks to induce hypothyroidism. The fourth and fifth groups were co – and post hypothyroid rats treated with folic acid for four weeks. Aorta in hypothyroid rats revealed normal histological structure except the layer of tunica media where compressed with elongated nuclei and less in thickens than that of the control groups. The eNOS label index was significantly decreased in hypothyroid rats and their levels were significantly increased in co- and post treated hypothyroid rats when compared with hypothyroid rats. The current study indicated that, folic acid as a treatment was better if it is administered as an adjuvant after returning to the euthyroid state. Treatment of hypothyroidism with folic acid improved the histopathological alternation and depresses the intensity of eNOS immunoreactive cells demonstrating the recovery of some injury.

[Wafaa Ibrahim; Maha Abo Gazia; Afaf El-Atrash; Ahmed Massoud; Ehab Tousson; and Heba Abou-Harga. Ameliorative effect of folic acid on propylthiouracil-induced histological and immunohistochemical alterations in aorta of albino rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):633-638].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.88

 

Keywords: Hypothyroidism; PTU; aorta; eNOS; Immunohistochemistry

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An examination of the competencies need by human resource management

 

Mohsen Jajarmizadeh1, Mahnaz Taghipour2

 

1. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN. E-mail: Mjajarmizadeh@yahoo.co.uk

2. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN. E-mail: Taghipour2261@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In a new outlook to human resources management, human is the key resource of organizations. At the centre of organizations, human beings play a significant role; therefore, identifying and improving their skills, knowledge, and competencies is essential for their performance. This study aims at investigating skills and competencies necessary for human resources management. The model proposed in this study includes four dimensions i.e. individual, group-inter personal-leadership, managerial-strategic and specialty dimensions. The research method is descriptive-survey. The results show that human resources managers in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services have skills and competencies necessary to do their jobs.

[Mohsen Jajarmizadeh, Mahnaz Taghipour. An examination of the competencies need by human resource management. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 639-643]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.89

 

Key words: Skill; competency; human resources management

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Reforms and Reorganizations in Iran under

 

Hadji Mirza Agassi Yerevantsi 

 

 1Research Institute for Education, Ministry of Education, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Social History, University of Applied Scienc, Tehran, Iran

Dr.alizadeh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:A new era of social, political, and economic development began in Iran after Qjar Dynasty came to power in 1786. This era witnessed changes in government, agriculture, military, politics, and socio-culture under the influence of super powers, namely, Britain, France, and Russia. Iran sought to maintain foreign influence by balancing super powers' interests and using them against each other with Ali Hadji Mirza Agassi making great contribution to this end.Ali Hadji Mirza Agassi was born in 1783 in Yerevan in a wealthy and respected religious family. He began his education under his father until age 14 and continued with Abdul-Samad Hamadani who introduced him to Sufism. He setup a theological school in Khoy after Hadj pilgrimage. His anchoritic and sagacious life earned him fame and respect in northern part of Iran attracting young students to his school. He later moved to Tabriz to educate notable students, including crown prince Abbas Mirza. Mirza Agassi's associations with Qjar crown princes earned him Chancellorship for nearly 13 years to play an important role in domestic political life of Iranian state during a turbulent period. Shah Mohammad gave Agassi free hand in running state during this period, which was marked with Qjar's internal rivalry, tribal insurgence, foreign meddling, and neighborly conflicts. Mirza Agassi sent the second wave of students to attend European universities; reduced government spending by lowering salaries and benefit buying displeasure and animosity from many; obtained duty free transit from Russia for goods imported from Europe and Caucasus; gained agreement from Russia to guard Iranian ports and sea lines against smuggling and rubbery; built water supply channels for Tehran, Kerman, Yazd, Gorgan, and Khozestan; hired foreign specialist for land explorations; and imported print presses and established print shops for printing newspapers and books. Mirza Agassi had to confront insurgence by Qashgai, Kurd, Turkmen, Baluchi, and Arab Tribes who raided and looted cities by meddling of super powers or neighboring countries. Mirza Agassi approached insurgent tribes in different ways including negotiations and army operations. Many unresolved issues ignited several wars between Iran and Turkey without conclusion. Another major conflict became eminent after Turkish army took over Karbala and massacred Shiite. Russia offered to mediate and Iranian side invited Britain to the table to balance them. Negotiations started in Erzurum and lasted four years. Negotiations broke up and resumed several times with threat of armed conflicts from one or the other side. Iran and Turkey finally made a settlement that included several demands made from Iran with Russia and Britain acting as guarantors. Erzurum conference was a diplomatic victory for Iran, a result that an armed conflict could not have produced.

[Mirza Hadji Agassi Yerevantsi. Reforms and Reorganizations in Iran under. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):644-649].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscien ce.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.90

 

Keywords: Qjar Dynasty, Super Powers, Internal Rivalry, Tribal Insurgence, Foreign Meddling, Neighborly Conflict, Erzurum Conference

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Counseling at Workplace: An Emerging Human Resource Management Practice

 

Hassan Danial Aslam1, Muhammad Badar Habib2, Syed Usman Ali Gillani3, Anum Siddique4, Mehrdad Jalalian 5

 

1, 3 Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Lecturer, Department of Physical Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4 Research Associate, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society

5Editor-in-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

E.mail: Hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Employees are the strongest pillars of any organization. They can play an effective role in building any organization. However, sometimes antagonistic views, alleged reluctance, and angry protestations of the workers / employees may lead to the destruction of the whole infrastructure of any organization. There are no doubt many reasons of workers of not being able to perform up to the mark on personal, social, psychological, professional and interpersonal grounds. However, immediate and consistent counseling, guidance and mentoring can attract the anticipated attention of the employees. The present study throws lights on the concept, importance and the theoretical framework of counseling. It is an axiomatic truth that workers, if interested and motivated well, can bring forth prosperity and integrity in any organization. And, counseling is the very effective tool to invoke interest and motivation among employees.

[Hassan Danial Aslam, Muhammad Badar Habib, Syed Usman Ali Gillani, Anum Siddique, Mehrdad Jalalian. Counseling at Workplace: An emerging Human Resource Management Practice. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):650-654]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.91

 

Keywords: Workplace Counseling; Human Resource Management

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[J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 655-669]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

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Reaction of Some Alkyl Phosphite and Wittig – Horner Reagents with Derivatives of 5- Bromo-3-Cyano-Pyridone and Camphorquione

 

Hoda A. Abdel - Malek1* and Marwa Salem 2

 

1Department of Organometallic and Organometalliod Chemistry, National Research Centre, Giza, 12622, Egypt

2Synthetic Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abasia, Cairo, Egypt.

*hodanwar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: 5-bromo-3-cyano-4,6-dimethyl-2-(1H)-pyridone(1) reacts with trialkyl phosphites 4a,b to give the dialkyl phospates 7a,b and the alkylated product 6. On the other hand, Wittig-Horner reagent, diethyl (cyanomethyl) phosphonate 5a reacts, with 1 to give product 8. Moreover, camphorquinone 2 reacts with triethyl phosphonate 5b to give the coupling product of type 9 and camphorquinon monoxime 3 reacts with diethyl (cyanomethyl) phosphonate 5a to give phosphonate addnct 10.

[Hoda A. Abdel - Malek and Marwa S. Salem. Reaction of Some Alkyl Phosphite and Wittig – Horner Reagents with Derivatives of 5- Bromo-3-Cyano-Pyridone and Camphorquione. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 670-676]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.93

 

Keywords: Bromo pyridone, camphorquinone, camporquinone monoxime, phosphate, coupling product, nicotinonitrile, phosphonate.

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The primary field of a vertical Hertizan dipole in free space 

 

Adel A. S. Abo Seliem1 and F2

 

1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah21412, KSA

adel_atta60@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The paper presents a method which allows the calculation of the atmospheric distortion of radar pulses. Two integrals transformation of the wave equations of Hertizan vector-a Laplace transform in time and a two dimensional Fourier transform in the horizontal coordinates in space are applied. The integral representation determines the electromagnetic field anywhere in the ionosphere; and calculates the primary field of a vertical Hertizan dipole in free Space.

[Adel A. S. Abo Seliem and F. The primary field of a vertical Hertizan dipole in free space. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2): 677-679. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.94

 

Key word: Hertizan; Electromagnetic field; Wave equation

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Protective Effect of Captopril against 5- Fluorouracil-Induced Hepato and Nephrotoxicity in Male Albino Rats

 

Nora El-Hoseany M. Ali

 

Department of Zoology - College for Women (Art, Science & Education) Ain Shams University

nor_shahin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a potent anticancer agent; its clinical use is limited for its marked hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, on 5-FU-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats. 5-FU 20mg/kg b.wt injected i.p. caused a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, corteisol, and glucose levels, respectively. Also, a marked elevation in potassium (K), bilirubin, α AFP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartat aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA). 5-FU caused a significant decrease in Sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), glutathione (GSH), protein and albumin. Captopril 20mg/kg b.wt. administered 1h before 5-FU ameliorated the biochemical toxicity induced by 5-FU, in the kidney and liver. This was evidenced by a significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, corteisol, glucose levels, K, bilirubin, α AFP,ALT and AST, respectively, and a significant restoration in Na, Mg, GSH, protein and albumin. These results indicate that captopril, an Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE activity, has a protective effect against 5-FU-induced damage to kidney and liver. This reflects the beneficial role of captopril in treatment of renovascular hypertention and congestive liver failure.

[Nora El-Hoseany M. Ali. Protective Effect Of Captopril Against 5- Fluorouracil-Induced Hepato And Nephrotoxicity In Male Albino Rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):680-685]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.95

 

Keywords: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), captopril, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, creatinine,, α AFP & MDA.

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Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Effect of Developing and Implementing Postoperative Nursing Care Standards on Nurses Performance for Reduction or Prevention Postoperative Complications.

 

Hala M. Ghanem1 and Roshdy Abd El-Aziz El-khayat2

 

1 Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Egypt

2 Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common clinical entities in daily neurosurgical practice. It has been reported to be 1-5 cases per 10,000 of American people per year. Nurses should develop their own standards of care in reducing postoperative complications.The Aim of the study is 3 folds:1. To assess nurses` knowledge and practice regarding patients who had drainage of CSDH 2. Develop postoperative care standards for nurses dealing with patients who had drainage of CSDH 3. Evaluate the effect of implementing postoperative care standards on nurses` performance and patient complications. Quasi experimental research design was utilized in this study. This study was conducted in the neurosurgery department at Assiut University Hospital.A convenient sample of 30 nurses and 73 patients who had drainage of CSDH pre and post implementation of postoperative care standards aged from 18-65 years from both sexes. Four tools utilized for data collection were:1. Nurses performance Regards Care of patients Undergoing CSDH Questionnaire sheet to assess nurses knowledge in addition to some sociodemographic data. 2. Nurses performance Regards Care of patients Undergoing CSDH Observation checklist sheet to assess nurses skills. 3. Patient assessment sheet for CSDH to assess postoperative complications that might develop among all patients admitted to neurosurgery department. 4. Construction of developed postoperative care standards. The results can be concluded as a sharp improvement in the mean knowledge and practice scores were found after implementation of the developed postoperative care standards. As postoperative complications were reduced after implementation of the developed postoperative care standards As a positive relationship was found between nurses` knowledge and practice scores immediately after implementation of the developed postoperative care standards. Conclusion: patients who had drainage of CSDH exposed to several complications. Improving nurses` knowledge and practice can favorable affect the incidence of these complications. Recommendations: Nurses in need for in-service training programs and refreshing courses to improve their knowledge which will reflect into their practice while working with patients.

[Hala M. Ghanem and Roshdy Abd El-Aziz El-khayat Chronic Subdural Hematoma. Effect of Developing and Implementing Postoperative Nursing Care Standards on Nurses Performance for Reduction or Prevention Postoperative Complications. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):686-697]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.96

 

Key word: Chronic Subdural Hematoma is a common type of intracranial hemorrhage and is predominantly seen in the old age.

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97

The Research and Development of Anti-Aging

 

Huaijie Zhu*, 1, Yucui Zhu 1, Ludwika E. Delatorre 1, Yan Yang 2, Hongbao Ma 2

 

1. Columbia University, Medical Centre, 630 West 168th Street New York, NY 10032, USA; 2. Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11212, USA

* hz42@columbia.edu, jacksun689@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Humankind is living things which characterize like any living thing to own a same period of born and death. The human lust of extending life. Lengthening and lifespan increased which make the humankind summarizing a novel conception of longevity and current theories of aging level, in which two themes were generally revolved. Aging is a physiology phenomenon that is controlled by genomic, life habit and Environment factor. The environment factor are included the radiation, noises etc. That was not described about the environment factor that is related the Environment healthy of the social security. What described above are the important several factors to affect aging only that were knew by people self. It would be great benefits for the long life in human to study the several affecting human aging factors above.

[Huaijie Zhu, Yucui Zhu, Ludwika E. Delatorre, Yan Yang, Hongbao Ma. The Research and Development of Anti-Aging. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):698-702]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.97

 

Keywrods: Humankind; living things; lifespan; physiology; people

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Determining the Underlying Constructs of the English Language Teacher Prejudice Scale

 

Purya Baghaei 1, Reza Pishghadam 2, Shoorangiz Ghaviandam 2, Elahe Bazri2

 

1. Department of English, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of English Language, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to examine the construct validity of English Language Teacher prejudice scale (ELTPS) designed by Pishghadam, Baghaei, Bazri, and Ghaviandam (2012). To this end, the questionnaire was distributed to 100 English language teachers in private language institutes in Mashhad. To substantiate the construct validity of the test; Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was utilized. Two tests were employed to measure the factorability of the inter-correlation matrix: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test of Sampling Adequacy (KMO) and Bartletts Test of Sphericity. The results of the two tests demonstrated that the factor model was appropriate. The results of rotated component matrix indicated that there are five underlying factors of the test. Finally, statistical results were discussed and implications were provided in the context of English language teaching.

[Purya Baghaei, Reza Pishghadam, Shoorangiz Ghaviandam, Elahe Bazri. Determining the Underlying Constructs of the English Language Teacher Prejudice Scale. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(2):703-708] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.98

 

Keywords: Teacher prejudice, Construct validity, Factor Analysis, English language teachers

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99

Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Compressive strength of SiO2 nanoparticle blended cementitious composite cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. SiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. To determine the strength of cement pastes, the specimens were cured in two different media (water and saturated limewater) for 7, 28 and 90 days. The results showed that SiO2 nanoparticles could improve the mechanical properties of concrete. It has been obtained that curing in saturated limewater for 28 days and afterwards in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened cementitious composite than those cured only in water or saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days when the specimens cured limewater reduces the effect of C-S-H gels which form until the 90 days hence negatively impacts the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more C-S-H gel results in a cementitious composite with higher strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Optimum content of SiO2 nanoparticles in concrete specimens. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):709-714]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.99

 

Key words: SiO2 nanoparticle; compressive strength; cementitious composite; curing medium; optimal strength

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Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing split tensile strength of limestone aggregate-based concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of limewater on split tensile strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved split tensile strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on increasing split tensile strength of limestone aggregate-based concrete. J Am Sci. 2012;8(2):715-718]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.100

 

Key words: TiO2 nanoparticle; split tensile strength; concrete

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Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy: Effect of Educational Nursing Guidelines on Knowledge and Post Ablation Syndrome for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Manal Salah, Soheir Tawfeek and Howyda Ahmed

 

Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

Drmaasa@yahoo.com, soheir2010@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has emerged as a safe and predictable technology for treating certain patients with cancer who otherwise have few treatment options. Patients need to be familiar with all phases of the RFA procedure to decrease post ablation syndrome. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of educational nursing guidelines on knowledge and post ablation syndrome for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma under radiofrequency ablation therapy. Design: A quasi experimental design was used. Setting: This study was conducted at the Interventional Radiology Unit, affiliated to Ain Shams University Hospital Sample: A purposive sample included 80 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma; 40 randomly allocated to study group, and 40 allocated to the control group. Tools: 1) Patients' interview radiofrequency ablation sheet. (pre/post tests), (2 Post ablation syndrome questionnaire (post test), and 3) Patient’s satisfaction scale (post test). Results: there were statistically significant differences between the study and control groups as regards their knowledge about radiofrequency ablation therapy. As well, there are statistically significant differences between both groups regarding decrease post ablation syndrome post educational nursing guidelines. In addition, there statistical significance differences were detected between both groups as regards patients' satisfaction and length resume of normal activity. Conclusion: The radiofrequency nursing guidelines were helpful on the improvement knowledge of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma which leading to decreasing post ablation syndrome. Recommendations: There is a need for sustained patients' educational sessions; Radiofrequency ablation guidelines should be available for all patients with hepatocelullar carcinoma. Further studies should be done on a large number of subjects for evidence of results and generalization.

[Manal Salah, Soheir Tawfeek and Howyda Ahmed. Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy: Effect of Educational Nursing Guidelines on Knowledge and Post Ablation Syndrome for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Journal of American Science 2012;8(2):719-729]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.101

 

Key words: Radiofrequency ablation, hepatocelullar carcinoma, post ablation syndrome, nursing guidelines

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Improving the Care Provided to Hemiplegics Cerebral Palsy Children by Their Family Caregivers: An Intervention Study

 

Eman Shokry Abd Allah1, Samah El Awady2 and Howyida S. Abd EL Hameed 3

 

1-3Community Health Nursing and 2Pediatric Nursing Departments, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University; 3Faculty of Nursing Benha University. emanshokry2012@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a form of brain damage that constitutes a leading cause of physical disability in childhood. Caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s needs are likely to have substantial impact on the success of rehabilitative management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a health teaching intervention to family caregivers in improving their knowledge and practices towards care of their children suffering from hemiplegic CP. Design: A single group quasi-experimental design was utilized for this study (pre-post test format. Setting: This study was conducted at homes of the study sample that was selected from all institutions for social rehabilitation at Zagazig Governorate (3 institutions). Subjects: The sample consisted of (50) all family caregivers and their children aged from 3 to less than 6 years. Tools An interview questionnaire and an observation checklist were used for data collection before and after implementation of a health teaching program developed by the researchers based on collected data and related literature. The study lasted from January to June 2011. Results showed many areas of deficient knowledge among family caregivers at the pretest, with 9 (18%) caregivers having satisfactory knowledge. This increased to 88% at the posttest (p<0.001). Caregivers' adequate reported and observed practices increased from 22% and 26% to 60% and 84%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion The improved knowledge was an independent positive predictor of the scores of practice. Thus, the educational program was effective in improving the knowledge and practices of CP children's parents. It is recommended to implement this program in many settings to support its effectiveness, and to test it in a randomized clinical trial to confirm the findings.

[Eman Shokry Abd Allah, Samah El Awady and Howyida S. Abd EL Hameed. Improving the Care Provided to Hemiplegics Cerebral Palsy Children by Their Family Caregivers: An Intervention Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(2):730-737]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas080212.102

 

Key Words: Cerebral Palsy, Caregivers, Knowledge, Practice, Educational program

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 The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from December 11, 2011. 
 
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