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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 9, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 59, January 25, 2013

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0901

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CONTENTS   

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Characteristics of human intellect in Ibn Sina views

 

Zeinab Sagvand

 

Technical University of Country, Teacher of Girls Technical college of Khoramabad, Khoramabad, Iran.

Email: irajkhan_57@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper it has been attempted to study active intellect, human intellect and characteristics of human intellect in Ibn Sina views. Intellect is a spiritual and subtle essence whereby human soul perceive essential sciences and due to it become knowledgeable, intellect needs to body and physical powers in all of its actions while theoretical intellect doesn’t  need to the body all the time and all sides but it is sometimes self-sufficient by nature.

[Zeinab Sagvand. Characteristics of human intellect in Ibn Sina views. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):1-5]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.01

 

Key Words: active intellect, understood intellect, internalized intellect, human intellect

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2

Psychological distress and Social Support among Substance Abused Patients in a Psychiatric Hospital at Assiut Governorate

 

Naglaa Abd El Megied Mohamed  and Reda Abd El Aal Thabet.

 

Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of nursing. Assiut University

*noga_abdo69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Abstract: Drug abuse remains a critical problem in most countries and is associated with several social and economic consequences. Addiction has grown to such proportions that it has become a priority health problem and a serious threat to the stability of social, political and legal instructions in many countries. The aim of the study: The study aimed to identify the psychological distress and social support among substance abused patients. The study was carried out in the Psychiatric Mental Hospital at Assiut governorate, Egypt. Subjects and methods: The study sample comprised 50 addict patients and 50 persons as a control group. Five tools were used for data collection, namely: Sociodemographic Data sheet, socioeconomic scale, pattern of substance abuse questionnaire, symptom check list- 90 (SCl – 90) and Norbcek Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ). Results: The main results yielded by the study proved that, a higher percentage of married was found among the addict patients than those in control group, the percentage of the manual work (workman) among the addict patients was higher than the control group, the level of secondary education was higher among the addict patients than in the control group, The high social class was observed more frequent among the addict patients, the oral administration was observed more frequently than the other routes, tranquility was the first desired effect for drug abuse, depression was the more frequent symptom among the addict patients, and the addict patients had bad social support compared to control group. Recommendation: healthy productive activities should be provided for youth in the community to keep them away from harmful stimuli.

 [Naglaa Abd El Megied Mohamed  and Reda Abd El Aal Thabet. Psychological distress and Social Support among Substance Abused Patients in a Psychiatric Hospital at Assiut Governorate. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):6-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.02

 

Key Words: Psychological distress, Social Support, Substance Abused, Patients, Psychiatric Hospital

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3

Comparing the laws of adoption in Iran and France

 

1 Siamak Arianpoor, Babak Arianpoor

 

1 PhD student of law, Dushanbe, Tajikistan

 

Abstract: Child adoption is a legal entity based on which there would be a special relationship between the adopted child and the adoptive parents. This phenomenon has a long history throughout the history of law and has always been cared for in various periods of time for different purposes. This legal foundation has been recently accepted in western countries laws in complete, incomplete, or simple forms with different results and after some developments. In spite of accepting this institution in Iran during the Sasanid dynasty and its validity among the Zoroastrians, it was abolished through the influence of Islam; however, due to individual and social benefits, and the crucial need of the society to establish justice and in order to protect the unprotected children and orphans, it was revived under the title of protecting unprotected children with certain legal requirements. In comparison to Iran, child adoption has a long history in other countries and it has different conditions and requirements in various periods of time and in different law systems. With regard to different perspectives and various methods, adopting a child within a family will lead to the creation of some legal relationships in law. Therefore, this paper aims to study child adoptions rights in the laws of Iran and France.

[Siamak Arianpoor, Babak Arianpoor. Comparing the laws of adoption in Iran and France Forests. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):13-16]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.03

 

Keywords: rights, law, child adoption, Iran, France

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4

Women at the Political Elite Level in the U.S.: A Multi-Factor Analysis of Limited Participation

 

Shabnam Dadparvar1, Zou Yixuan2, Liu Chencan3

 

1PHD student of International Relations, CCNU, dadparvar@ut.ac.ir

2 MA in Ethics, Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, Catherine_zouyixuan@hotmail.com

3 PHD students of Constitutionalism and the rule of law, CCNU, acan71@msn.com

 

Abstract: Although women's achievements are considered to prove their desirable conditions in western societies, especially in the United States, women’s presence at political elite level is much lower than men in that country. Attention to the top elective offices in the United States reveals a deep gender disparity: In 112th congress (2011-2013), among 435 representatives, there are only 17 women in Senate and 75 in the House. Considering the success of the “quota system” in European, Latin American, partly African and Asian countries, the author believes that using of this method in the United States in the short term, help the women to be more confident in their abilities and also, people feel the positive effect of their presence and vote them more. On the other hand, since according to the accomplished researches, women have more inclination for peace, their more presence in the congress, can be influential in interior and foreign policies, and hence, in international relations. This article surveys and analyzes the reasons, seeking to understand why in the United States, with an established democracy, women’s presence is lower than men at high political positions and descriptive-analytical method is used to examine factors leading to this lower presence. The factors are: political, economic, and social-cultural.

 [Shabnam Dadparvar, Wang Yonghui. Women at the Political Elite Level in the U.S.: A Multi-Factor Analysis of Limited Participation. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):17-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.04

 

Keywords: women, United States, political; economic and cultural factors, quota system

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5

The comparison between "ideal kingship" in ancient and middle era

 

Zia Khazaei

 

Department of Political Science, Zahedan branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

 

Abstract: Political philosophy is part of philosophy in general sense. A political theory by a philosopher is affected by his philosophical attitude towards the universe, the existence, creation structure, and finally cognition the truth. Therefore, in order to understand the political philosophy, at first the philosophical attitude of a philosopher toward a tribe or nation must be allocated. Since in ancient philosophy capturing does not tolerate possessing entire the world so political philosophy is opposed to the policy based on prepotency and sovereignty. Thus, formulating and developing a desirable society is considered as a goal of political philosophy and realization the utopia is not possible through violence. So the nations and peoples who philosophically contemplate always disagree with the policy based on the prepotency and their political ideals were the basis for criticizing the current policies and paved the way for the opposition to the force and domination policy. Iran's ancient civilization along with the philosophical contemplation composed of political philosophy was the foundation of criticizing the politics in the form of ideal kingship and Persian utopia and continued through the end of the Sassanid dynasty and gradually tended to weakness and decline by dominating Iranian element and gradually lost its ideological and philosophical component so that it turned to justifying the policy based on prepotency and hegemony in middle era.

[Zia Khazaei. The comparison between "ideal kingship" in ancient and middle era. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):29-33]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.05

 

Keywords: Thought, ideal kingship, ancient era, middle era

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6

Dyeing of Nylon 6 and Silk Fabrics with Novel Polyfunctional Disazo Reactive Disperse Dye

 

Mohammed F. A*, Farouk R., Youssef Y. A. and Mousa A. A

 

Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, 12622 Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

fatmaali_611@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The synthesis of a new polyfunctional disazo reactive disperse dye containing bis (sulphatoethylsulphone) /monochlorotriazine reactive system is described. The structure of the synthesized dye was established and confirmed by TLC, elemental analysis and spectral data (IR and 1H-NMR).The dye has been applied to nylon 6 and silk fabrics at a variety of pH. Optimum dye exhaustion and fixation were achieved at pH 8 and 100 C. The introduction of  two temporarily anionic sulphatoethylsulphone and monochlorotriazine reactive groups into the reactive disperse dye molecule was found to promote the fixation and the build up, as a result of the combination between two different reactivity in the dye a complementary behavior achieved to resist variations in dyeing conditions. The results of dyeings on both substrates indicate that the model polyfunctional disazo reactive disperse dye shows a higher degree of exhaustion and fixation on silk than on nylon 6. All the dyed fabrics tested displayed high light fastness and excellent fastness properties.

[Mohammed F. A, Farouk R., Youssef Y. A. and Mousa A. A. Dyeing of Nylon 6 and Silk Fabrics with Novel Polyfunctional Disazo Reactive Disperse Dye. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):34-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.06

 

Keywords: Disazo dyes; Polyfuntional; Dyeing; Sulphatoethylsulphone/ Monochlorotriazine Reactive disperse dye; Silk; Nylon 6.

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7

The Holiness of “Rooster” in Mithraism

 

Mahin Ahbabi

 

PhD Student of "ancient history", Tajikistan Academy of Sciences, Tajikistan

 

Abstract: According to the myths, the rooster was among the first birds, which was introduced to the Iranians by Keyumars, and stayed with the human forever. Since the beginning of domestication, and then at the peak time of the Mithraism among the Aryans, the rooster had holiness, and venerability. It was the partner of Sraosha Yazata, Mithra Yazata, and the Sun, and helped them in repulsing the Satan, demons, and elves. One can find its holiness and cooperation with the Sun and Mithra, in the Greek and Iranian myths. In the Zoroastrian religious books, rooster is one of the holy and good-created creatures of Ahura Mazda. Therefore, among the Iranian, Afghan, and Tajik people, the rooster, owned holiness. Therefore, in the works discovered, in the settlements and myths, one can find the relationship of the rooster with their religion and rituals, because, in the past, the rooster’s vigil and crow at dawns used to be like a warning or alert for the Aryan people. With its crow, people used to get up in the morning and started working, and it was known as the power of gods. The holiness and venerability of the rooster, stayed among the people after Islam as well.

[Mahin Ahbabi. The Holiness of “Rooster” in Mithraism. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):40-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.07

 

Keywords: Mithra, Sraosha, rooster, myths, holiness, legend, Aryans, Badakhshan

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8

Evaluation of capitalism process motivation mechanism in basis of fiscal in Iran’s industrial Companies

 

Hakimi, Farhad

 

National University of Tajikistan

Email: Farhadhakimi650@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: developing and developed countries constantly apply fiscal policies in order to modify level, scheduling, type and structure of various industries’ capital expenses. some fiscal policies which are applied in this base would be such as alteration in fiscal rates, alteration in deductions’ depreciation rate, endowing different exemption, fiscal discount, etc. regarding the point that Iran Islamic republic has reformed fiscal rules in 2001,so present research put an effort to reform the recent rule which have been designed with the purpose of capital rate growth. this research has been accomplished as a case study on observation of capital process stimulus mechanism by Iran industrial companies ‘s fiscal that necessary financial information concluded from 2006-2009 years and using F test and Hausman test, results indicate that new rule hasn’t key role in capital rate regardless of pre-conditions of rule reformation and fiscal exemption and other factors such as bank profit rate, housing enhancing rate, etc would be more effective. the main purpose of this research would be observation of companies ‘s fiscal rates on capital behavior in fixed budget of companies in Tehran’s priced paper stock which is as the Iran ‘s industry representative, also this hypothesis would be mentioned here that capital in fixed budget has significant role in theory of fluctuations and economical growth and also in designing the fiscal policies.

[Hakimi, Farhad. Evaluation of capitalism process motivation mechanism in basis of fiscal in Iran’s industrial Companies. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):45-52]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.08

 

Key words: capital growth, financial and monetary policies, industry and production

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9

Effect of Potassium on Arsenic Accumulation in Two Basil Cultivars

 

Reza Farhadi1 (Corresponding author), Mohammad Rahimi2, MojibSalehi Balashahri3, Iman Ghadiri 4, Kamran Amirinasab5

1-2-3-4. Department of horticulture, Bandar Jask branch, Islamic Azad University, Roodan Branch, Roodan, Iran.

5. Department of Horticultural, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.

 

Abstract: In order to evaluate the effects of potassium fertilizers on arsenic toxicity in two varieties of basil, a factorial experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Block Design. Studied factors included two varieties of keshkeniluvelouand local of Zabol seed as the first factor and triple super phosphate fertilizer at three levels of 50, 150 and 250 mg.kg soil-1 as the second factor. Fixed amount of 15 mg.kg soli -1 arsenic sulphate was added to all pots. Analysis of variance showed no significant effect of variety on aerial parts potassium percentage, while potassium fertilizer levels effect with arsenic and their interactive effect were significant. Interaction between arsenic and potassium showed that highest arsenic content at the aerial parts achieved from lowest applied potassium level.

[Reza Farhadi, Mohammad Rahimi, MojibSalehi Balashahri, Iman Ghadiri, Kamran Amirinasab. Effect of Potassium on Arsenic Accumulation in Two Basil Cultivars. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):53-55]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.09

 

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Heavy Metals, Essential oils, Chemical fertilizers

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10

Evaluation of cardinal temperatures and germination response to temperature in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Medicinal plant

 

MojibSalehi Balashahri1, Reza Farhadi2 (Corresponding author), Rahman mehdizade Dehostai3, Iman Ghadiri4, Mohammad Rahimi5

 

1،2, 5 - Department of horticulture bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, Jask Branch, Jask, Iran

3-Department of biologi bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, jask Branch, jask, Iran

4-PhD student at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Irrigation and Drainage

 

Abstract: Understanding of the seed germination response of cultivated genotypes to low and high temperature is important in agronomical. Those genotypes that germinate in lower temperatures could be useful in temperate areas where temperature is low in germination stage whereas the genotypes tolerant to high temperatures could be sown in the areas with high temperature. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study of the seed germination characteristics to temperature. In this experiment we used 9 genotypes of safflower crop with 7 fixed temperatures (50C , 150C , 200C , 250C , 300C , 320C and 360C ) as factorial experiment in the growth chamber. The results showed that the effect of genotype, temperature and their interactions on germination characteristics were significant and significant reductions in the germination of safflower at temperature less than 50C and upper than 300C . The base (Tb), optimum (TO) and maximum (TC) temperature for germination safflower were obtained 3, 28 and 38 respectively.

[MojibSalehi Balashahri, Reza Farhadi, Rahman mehdizade Dehostai, Iman Ghadiri, Mohammad Rahimi. Evaluation of cardinal temperatures and germination response to temperature in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Medicinal plant. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):56-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.10

 

Keywords: safflower; germination; genotype; temperature

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11

Effect of Growth Hormones on Physiology Characteristics and Essential Oil of Basil under Drought Stress Condition

 

Hosein Gholami1, Reza farhadi2 (Corresponding author), Mohammad rahimi3, Azar zeinalikharaji4, Armin askari5

1, 2 - Department of horticulture bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, jask Branch, jask, Iran

3- Department of horticulture bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, jask Branch, jask, Iran.

4- Islamic Azad University, Roodan Branch, Roodan, Iran.

5-Department of horticulture bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, jask Branch, jask, Iran

 

Abstract: Priming is one of the seed enhancement methods that might be resulted in increased seed performance (germination and emergence), seedling growth and plant yield under stress conditions, such as salinity, temperature and drought stress. In order to evaluate the effect of growth hormones on morphology characteristics and essential oil of basil under drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at plant research center in Islamic Azad University of Gorgan Branch, Iran, in 2011 year. Experiment was factorial conducted based on CRBD design with 3 replicate in greenhouse. Treatments were include 4 levels priming by growth hormones (control, cytokinin (3%), GA3 (200 ppm) and combinations of hormones for 12 h) and 4 levels of drought stress (D1=100, D2=80, D3=60 and D4=40 percentage of field capacity). Results analysis of variance showed that drought stress had negative significant effects on emergence percentage, morphology characteristics, 1000-seed weight and yield of essential oil, chlorophyll contents and antioxidant enzyme (APX, CAT, GR, SOD and POD), but reduced priming by growth hormones these negative effects. Results of comparing means showed that priming by combinations of hormones had positive significant effects on study factors compared to other seed priming treatments (cytokinin and GA3).

[Hosein Gholami, Reza farhadi, Mohammad rahimi, Azar zeinalikharaji, Armin askari. Effect of Growth Hormones on Physiology Characteristics and Essential Oil of Basil under Drought Stress Condition. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):61-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.11

 

Keywords: Basil, cytokinin, GA3, Drought Stress, chlorophyll, antioxidant enzyme

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12

Effect of Phosphorous on Arsenic Accumulation in Two Basil Cultivars

 

Reza Farhadi (Corresponding author), Mohammad Rahimi, Mojib salehibalashahri, Hosein Gholami

 

Department of horticulture bandar jask branch،Islamic Azad University, jask Branch, jask, Iran.

 

Abstract: In order to evaluate the effects of Phosphorous fertilizers on arsenic toxicity in two varieties of basil, a factorial experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Block Design. Studied factors included two varieties of keshkeniluvelouand local of Zabol seed as the first factor and triple super phosphate fertilizer at three levels of 50, 150 and 250 mg (P).kg soil-1 as the second factor. Fixed amount of 15 mg.kg soli -1 arsenic sulphate was added to all pots’ soil. Analysis of variance showed significant effect of variety, P fertilizer with arsenic and their interactive effects on absorbed phosphorous from soil, while effect of P fertilizer level with arsenic and their interactive effect was statistically significant. Evaluation of relationship between P and Asshow that with increase in applied P content in both varieties As concentration in the aerial parts is reduced.

[Reza Farhadi, Mohammad Rahimi, Mojib salehibalashahri, Hosein Gholami. Effect of Phosphorous on Arsenic Accumulation in Two Basil Cultivars. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):64-66]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.12

 

Keywords: Medicinal plants, Heavy metals, Essence, Chemical fertilizers.

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Conjunctivolimbal autograft with and without Fibrin Adhesive in Pterygium Surgery

 

Madeha Abd El-Fatah Kamel, Zinab Sayed Hassan, Mona El-Sayed Ali, Sahar Saad El-Deen

 

Ophthalmology Department Faculty of Medicine (for Girls), Al-Azhar University, Egypt

dr_mona1408@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: To compare between the use of biological fibrin adhesive and the current method of attaching conjunctivo-limbal autograft with simple suturing during primary pterygium surgery. Patients & methods: Twenty-nine patients with thirty primary pterygia had pterygium excision using conjunctivolimbal autograft transplantation. They were classified into two groups regarding the method by which the transplanted conjunctivolimbal autograft was fixed as follows: Group I: Simple suturing was done for 15 eyes. Group II: Fibrin glue was done for 15 eyes. Results: Marked drop in tear production ( around 10 mm) was reported in both groups and there was non  significant statistical difference between both groups as regards the value of Schirmer's test (p-value > 0.05). Re-epithelialization of the corneal defect was complete in all cases of both groups by the end of the second postoperative week. There was marked reduction in the mean duration of surgery in group II (19.75.2minutes) in comparison to 39.7 3.9 minutes in group I.  Conclusion: Fibrin glue is easy, safe and effective in fixing conjunctivolimbal autograft  during  primary pterygium excision. It reduces surgical time and is associated was less complications than simple suturing of the graft.

[Madeha Abd El-Fatah Kamel, Zinab Sayed Hassan, Mona El-Sayed Ali, Sahar Saad El-Deen. Conjunctivolimbal autograft with and without Fibrin Adhesive in Pterygium Surgery. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):67-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.13

 

Keywords: Conjunctivolimbal autograft, Fibrin Adhesive, Pterygium Surgery.

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An analysis of the reasons of Abu Muslim Khorasani’s animosity towards Abbasid veteran Propagandists

 

Ali Akbar Abbasi

 

PhD in History, Department of History, Literature and Human Sciences faculty, University of Isfahan. Iran

aa_abbasi_z@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the Abu Muslim Khorasani’s strange actions was to kill famous and veteran Abbasid Propagandists. Abu Muslim himself was called as the Propagandist and was the leader of Abbasid revolt in Khorasan at the time of its appearance. He was so much clever and took action with organized plans. In this article we intend to analyze and clarify Abu Muslim’s plan and purposes of killing Propagandists who were more experienced than him in Abbasid propaganda and revolt. Abbasid veteran Propagandists did not consider Abu Muslim important even at the pinnacle of his honor and glory, because during his adolescence he was a slave who was bought by Abbasid propagandists and bestowed unto Abbasid imam and this caused their being ruined by Abu Muslim when the leader of black garments reached honor and gained power. Famous and old individuals such as Lahiz Tamimi, Qahtabah Ibn Shabib Tai, Abu Salamah Khalal and Sulayman Ibn Kathir Khuzai were ruined by Abu Muslim’s plan.

[Ali Akbar Abbasi. An analysis of the reasons of Abu Muslim Khorasani’s animosity towards Abbasid veteran Propagandists. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):74-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.14

 

Key words: Abu Muslim Khorasani, Abbasid Propagandists, Lahiz, Sulayman, Qahtabah, Abu Salameh

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Comprehensive Study of the Testing Coverage of Testing Methods for Communications Protocols and Software

 

Dr. Hazem El-Gendy *, Dr. Magdi Amer **

 

* Faculty of CS & IT, Ahram Canadian University, Egypt, h_elgendy@masrawy.com

** Faculty of Eng., OumKorea Uni., Makkua, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Magdi.amer@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The importance of certification/conformance testing the implementations of communications protocols and software systems are fast increasing. Formal methods for the derivation of testing sequences have been developed. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive study of the coverage of these testing methods using a simulator. We also present analytical remarks on the methods and analysis of their scope of applicability.

[Hazem El-Gendy, Magdi Amer. Comprehensive Study of the Testing Coverage of Testing Methods for Communications Protocols and Software. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):79-84]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.15

 

Keywords: Communications Protocols, Conformance/Certification Testing, Formal Methods, Test Derivation Methods, Implementation Under Test (IUT), Finite State Machine (FSM).

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Information Communication Technology for Agriculture Development

 

Abdul Razaque Chhachhar

 

Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Email: razaque_mc@hotmail.com

Md Salleh Hassan   (Corresponding author)

Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages and Communication,

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Email: Mdsalleh@upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: In developing countries information and communication technology has played very important role in the development of education, health, rural development as well as in agriculture development. This technology has brought a significant change in agriculture development in third world countries where farmers directly connected with market, buyers, customers and metrological department to get information regarding weather and price.  Information communication technology has also increased the income of farmers in different countries. Now there is need to provide facilities to farmers and introduce technology in rural areas where farmers are unaware and they do not have knowledge and skills regarding this technology.  It was also indicated by different research that this technology has increased the product of agriculture by adopt information and communication technology tools in agriculture farming. However, farmers are facing major problems and challenges including poor agricultural practices inadequacies in information delivery reconciliation of records among farmers, government and traders similarly lack of information on best practices to farmers.

[Abdul Razaque Chhachhar. Information Communication Technology for Agriculture Development. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):85-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.16

 

Keywords: ICT marketing weather information farmers and agriculture development 

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Approximation of Parametric Functions by Bicubic B-spline Functions

 

Majid Amirfakhrian , Sahar Didab

 

 Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

amirfakhrian@iauctb.ac.ir

 

 Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: In this paper we propose a method to approximate a parametric 3D function by bicubic B-spline functions.

[Majid Amirfakhrian. Approximation of Parametric Functions by Bicubic B-spline Functions. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):92-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  17

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.17

 

Keywords:  partial differential equations, parabolic equations, Radial basis function, collocation method.

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Hangouts in Iranian neighborhoods

 

Vahid Bali Chalandar, Nahid Shangal Nia

 

Abstract: Spread of ties and familiarity of people with new elements led to the emergence of special thoughts. This process resulted in the emergence of intellectuals and their efforts to find a place for meeting and discussing different issues was followed by the establishment of various intellectual hangouts. Hangouts may be assumed independent of location and the location ascribed to the hangout. In fact, it is not the hangout talks that are attributed to a specific location but a specific place can be attributed to a particular group. When there is no interest or meaning as well as it is in the community, mental conditions of people gathered in a place inevitably pulls them toward accepting each other. One of the major tasks of humans in cities is to understand leisure time and how to use it. In addition to human growth and excellence, leisure time has an undeniable role in improving social relations in a society. General use of urban spaces is to create a place for relaxation, entertainment, jaunt, communication, socialization, and traffic. Hangout is a new issue and event and belongs to the modern world; worlds in which free individuals are present in free gatherings and take action to socialize without any specific plan. These components build a new social life. Outdoor urban spaces and public gathering places for social communications are considered as hangouts in the present paper.

[Vahid Bali Chalandar, Nahid Shangal Nia. Hangouts in Iranian neighborhoods. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):97-104]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  18

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.18

 

Keywords: Hangout; Public space; Leisure time; urban spaces

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Applying Logarithmic Fuzzy Preference Programming and VIKOR Methods for Supplier Selection: A Case Study

 

Shayan Atashin Panjeh 1, Ali Sasani 2

 

1M.A. Candidate of Industrial Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

 2 M.A. Candidate of Entrepreneurship Management, University of Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: Supplier selection plays a key role in supply chain management and deals with evaluation, ranking and selection of the best option from a pool of potential suppliers especially in the presence of conflicting criteria. The aim of this study is applying a new integrated method for supplier selection. In this paper, the weights of each criterion are calculated by using of Logarithmic Fuzzy Preference Programming. After that, the VIKOR method is utilized to rank the alternatives. Then we select the best supplier based on these results.

[Shayan Atashin Panjeh, Ali Sasani. Applying Logarithmic Fuzzy Preference Programming and VIKOR Methods for Supplier Selection: A Case Study. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):105-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.19

 

Keywords: Supplier Selection, Logarithmic fuzzy preference programming (LFPP), VIKOR, Fuzzy set.

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Modeling and Simulation of Egyptsat-1 Satellite System Powered by Photovoltaic Module

 

M.B. Eteiba 1, G.M. El-Bayoumi 2 and M.S. El-Negamy1

 

1Electrical Engineering Department, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt

2Aerospace Engineering Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

Mokheman_2020@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The paper presents a method of simulating photovoltaic module by tacking the manufacturer specified data sheet at standard test condition as inputs. A method for estimating the unknown parameters of the general single diode solar cell model using Newton's raphson method is described. The fourth parameters  QUOTE   of the photovoltaic module are calculated with the aim of three remarkable points on the photovoltaic I-V characteristics and make QUOTE  . The developed model allows the predication of photovoltaic module behavior with respect changes on environmental and physical parameters. The main idea of this paper is to make a computer digital model instead of real model for photovoltaic module used in Egyptsat-1 satellite, and explain the relation of  QUOTE  as a function of QUOTE  .

[M.B. Eteiba , G.M. El-Bayoumi and M.S. El-Negamy. Modeling and Simulation of Egyptsat-1 Satellite system powered by Photovoltaic Module. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):110-116]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.20

 

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Photovoltaic system, Egyptsat-1, Low Earthling QUOTE   Orbit satellite, Matlab QUOTE   Code package software.

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Secure Key Management and Verification of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

 

 Nazir Ahmad Zafar1and Ishtiaq Ahmed Choudhry2

 

1,2Department of Computer Science, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

Emails: nazafar.ichoudhry@kfu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configured nodes that are connected to each other without any static infra-structure like conventional wired networks. This attractive technology offers many interesting applications in different areas such as rescue operations, and army war zones. However, MANETs are exposed to many security challenges. The conventional security solutions for wired or wireless networks are ineffective and inefficient due to cooperative nature of MANETs. A significant amount of research is found in the literature to address these security challenges. In this paper, we have reviewed many proposed security solutions. We have proposed modified security architecture to address some security issues. Then we have used formal methods to define the security architecture using Z notation. Finally we have analyzed and verified these specifications using Z/Eves toolset.

[Zafar NA and Ahmed IC. Secure Key Management and Verification of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks J Am Sci 2013;9(1):117-123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.21

 

 Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks, security, Formal methods, Z notation, Z/Eves

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The effect of innovation and initiative on the competitiveness power of Iran industries

 

 Gholamreza Tondpour

 

Department of Management, Dehdasht branch, Islamic Azad University, Dehdasht, Iran

 

Abstract: This assay examines the effect of innovation and initiative on the competitiveness power of industries. Today industries are very important as the industrial structure growth in innovation all over the world and for the Growing countries. Competition is one of the essential issues that there are different criteria to estimate it. The companies need to create the new method and completely different products to be successful to do the best performance and presenting the best product. So being in competitiveness conditions needs to create the essential change in the playing rule. So we can use the   competitiveness to reach to the desired and permanent economical growth.

[Gholamreza Tondpour. The effect of innovation and initiative on the competitiveness power of Iran industries. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):124-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.  22

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.22

 

Keywords: innovation; Competition, Iran industries

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THE RATIONAL VARIABILITY OF ALL EMPTY SPACE BY PRIME NUMBERS

(The new Mathematics of Primordial 1:3 and “Chan” function of prime numbers)

Part 1:     The Curved “Chan” Function of Prime numbers

 

Vinoo Cameron MD,

 

Hope Research, Athens, Wisconsin, USA.

E Mail: Hope9900@frontier.Com

 

ABSTRACT: The author has written this manuscript exclusively for Dr Sophia Wang of JMR and Dr Hong Ma, editor of JAS for their brilliant humility and creative understanding of science, for understanding function over form. All of this mathematics is due the exclusive grace of my personal Lord Jesus Christ. This paragraph is absolute, in that we all perform our best by inspiration and not by intellect, which itself is relative. Mathematics is absolute. The author wishes to make it clear that there is absolute proof by theorem in this manuscript to tie the modulation of Prime numbers exclusively to the proportions 5:6:7, with the proportion 6 being the equalization factor representing the half-line of the variable coordinates of empty space. Without doubt the proportion prime 19 with its1:3 expression in empty space and inverse 19 (for trigonometry at 1:3), is the actual measuring compass of the entire mathematical continuum that unifies mathematics. The published papers are exact in delineating the curved function of Prime numbers and the half line that modulates this function. Likewise we have a superior sieve for prime numbers at 6 that however is not relevant here, as we are here to prove the new discovery of “Chan Point”, and Modulation of the prime numbers curved function ( Chan Function. Section 11, will deal with the unification of prime numbers to a corrected new trigonometry and the correct mathematical value (3.14159292035), which is long overdue due in mathematics. Current mathematics has not yet proven the correct Pi value by mathematics. Caution:  since the mathematics is curved, kindly, if you seek to understand it, take the curves very slowly. The proof of the 5:6:7 is absolute here, and is “Ipso Facto”.

[Vinoo Cameron. THE RATIONAL VARIABILITY OF ALL EMPTY SPACE BY PRIME NUMBERS (The new Mathematics of Primordial 1:3 and “Chan” function of prime numbers) Part 1: The Curved “Chan” Function of Prime numbers. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):129-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.23

 

Key words: Prime numbers variability, Half-line of prime numbers “Chan Function”, prime number theorem

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A Survey on The Relationship of Managerial Roles Whit Expertise And Capabilities, And Their Impact on Organizations 

 

Ali Bagherifar (corresponding Author)1, Alireza Askarpour2 

 

1.Department of Managment, Ahvaz Branch,Islamic Azad UniversityAhvaz, Iran

2.Department of Managment, Shoushtar Branch,Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran 

 

Abstract: The Purpose of This Research is to Investigate The Relationship Between Three Variables Including Skills, Capabilities Managerial Roles, And Their Impact on the Organization. The Research Wethod is Scaling _ Correlation. Statistical Community of This Research Includes 157 Managers in Ahvaz.Sampling Was Not Considered And all Individuals Were Studied Through Census. To Collect Data, Three Groups of Standard Questionnaires Were Used. Questionnaires Were Also Obtained According to Experts. The Obtained Data Was Investigated For Independent Group Using Statistical Methods Such as Pearson`s correlation test, Multiple Regression, Single _ Way Variance Analysis, And Test (t). The Obtained Results Suggested That Investigated With Human, Technical, Communication Skills And Intellectual _Mental, Academic Capabilities And Have a Larger Share in Success of Organizational Systems.

[Ali Bagherifar, Alireza Askarpour. A Survey on The Relationship of Managerial Roles Whit Expertise And Capabilities, And Their Impact on Organizations. J Am Sci 2013;9(1):150-156]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas090113.24

 

keywords: Expertise, Capabilities. Role, Organization.

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