Loading

 

 

Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 11, Cumulated No. 32, November 1, 2010

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0611

For Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

 

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

 

1

Indirect Boundary Element Method for Calculation of Compressible Flow past a Symmetric Aerofoil with Linear Element Approach Using Doublet Distribution Alone

Muhammad Mushtaq* & Nawazish Ali Shah

Department of Mathematics, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore – 54890, Pakistan

Corresponding Author, e-mail: mushtaqmalik2004@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: In this paper, an indirect boundary element method is applied to calculate the compressible flow past a symmetric aerofoil. The velocity distribution for the flow over the surface of the symmetric aerofoil has been calculated with linear boundary element approach using doublet distribution alone. To check the accuracy of the method, the computed flow velocity is compared with the exact velocity. The comparison of these results has been given in the tables and graphs. It is found that the computed results are in good agreement with the analytical results. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):1-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.01

Keywords: Indirect boundary element method, Compressible flow, Velocity distribution, Symmetric aerofoil, linear element.

Full Text

1

2

Use of Long Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) as Soil Amendment for the Growth, Leaf Chemical Composition and Yield of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata L)

Emmanuel Ibikunoluwa Moyin-Jesu1 and Francis Omotayo Adekayode2

1Agronomy Department, Federal College of Agriculture Akure, Nigeria

moyinjesu2004@yahoo.com

2Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

adekay98@yahoo.com

Abstract: An experiment was carried out to investigate the use of long yam bean (Sphenostilies sternocarpa) as soil amendment for the growth and yield of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata L) between 1999 and 2003 at Akure in the rain forest zone of Nigeria. There were four treatment namely; NPK 15 – 15 – 15 fertilizer applied at 250kg/ha, poultry manure at 6 t/ha, long yam beans planted at two seeds per hole at a spacing of 1m x 0.5m between rows of yam plots (soil amendment) and a control (no fertilizer). The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCB) and replicated five times. The soil analyses before planting and after harvesting were carried out. Each plot size is 4m x 4m (16m2). The growth parameters measured for the yam were vine length (cm), leaf population and stem girth (cm). At harvest, yam tuber weight (kg), tuber length (cm) tuber girth; root length and seed yield of long yam bean plants were determined. The leaf and soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH and organic matter contents were also analysed at end of the experiment. The results showed that there were significant (p<0.05) increases in the vine length, leaf population, stem girth, tuber weight, tuber length, tuber girth, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg; pH and organic matter of white yam cultivated under the different fertilizer treatments compared to the control treatment. Long yam bean plants used as soil amendment increased the yam vine length, stem girth, leaf population, tuber weight, tuber length and tuber girth by 81% 88.4%, 69.5%, 88.97%, 76% and 94% compared to the control. The same treatment (long yam bean plants) also increased the leaf population, tuber weight, tuber length and tuber girth of yam by 11%, 31%, 30% and 55% respectively compared to NPK fertilizer treatment. Long yam plants also increased the soil pH, O.M, K, Ca and Mg by 29%, 92%, 97%, 86%, 96%, 97% and 89% respectively compared to the control treatment. It increased soil pH, organic matter, K Ca and Mg by 31%, 87%, 1.42, 98% and 98.5% compared to NPK fertilizer. Long yam plants gave seed yield of 2.3 t/ha and produced yam tuber yield of 4900kg/ha amounting to $6,050 compared to $3453.00 and $3,380.00 estimated on yam yields alone under poultry manure and NPK fertilizer treatments. Finally, the use of long yam bean plants as biological fertilizer source for yam production could substitute for 250kg/ha NPK fertilizer and 6t/ha poultry manure. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):10-17]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.02

Keywords: Long yam bean, soil amendment, white yam performance

Full Text

2

3

Biochemical and Molecular Profiles of Gibberellic Acid Exposed Albino Rats

Hanan A.E.Soliman1; Mona M. Mantawy2 and Hany M. Hassan3

1Chemistry Departement, Biochemistry Branch, Faculty of Science, Beni suef University, Egypt. 2; Department of Medicinal chemistry, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt and 3 Immunobiology and immunopharmacology unit, Animal Reproduction Research Inst., Giza, Egypt

Abstract: The present study casts the light on the influence of the plant growth regulator, Gibberellic acid (GA3), on antioxidant defense systems [glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde = MDA), AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, total protein, albumin globulin, total lipids, total cholesterol, calcium and glucose. Moreover, histopathological examination of kidney and liver was done. On the molecular level, the DNA damage was determined. The rats were received 75 ppm of GA3 in drinking water ad libitum for 50 days. Gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments caused different effects on the estimated parameters compared to control. Gibberellic acid exposure induced significant elevations of plasma AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and malondialdehyde. However, Gibberellic acid produced non significant alterations in plasma total protein, albumin globulin, total lipids, total cholesterol, calcium and glucose. On the other hand, exposure elucidate significant reductions of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison to control group. The histopathological findings revealed that Kidney sections of Gibberellic acid treated rats suffered from areas of interstitial fibrosis which appear as segmental and global glomerular sclerosis tubulointerstitial injury. On the similar ground, liver section of Gibberellic acid treated rats revealed that Gibberellic acid induced liver fibrosis; fatty metamorphosis and necrosis. The total genomic DNA electrophoretic pattern of lymphocytes deprived from Gibberellic acid treated rats revealed strong and obvious DNA damage as represented by a lot of fragments migrated from the wells. As a conclusion, Gibberellic acid (75 ppm) produce hepatonephrotoxicity, subsequently has oxidative stress role and DNA damage in albino rats 50 days post treatment. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):18-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.03

Keywords: plant growth regulator; Gibberellic acid (GA3); antioxidant defense systems; superoxide dismutase (SOD); catalase (CAT); lipid peroxidation

Full Text

3

4

An Efficient Algorithm for Transforming XML Schema into Relational Schema

1 Abad Shah, 2Amjad Farooq, 3Syed Ahsan

1,3 Al-Khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

2 Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

Amjadfarooquet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: The Web and XML have influenced all walks of life especially those that involve business activities over the Internet. People like to do their business activities and transactions from their homes to save time and money. Many business and commercial companies such as insurance companies and banks maintain their records using relational database management systems. But the traditional relational database technology is unable to provide all these new facilities to the users. To enable the traditional relational database technology to cope with the new challenges of the Web and XML technologies, we need a transformation between the XML technology and the relational database technology as a middleware. To achieve this objective, we already proposed and reported an algorithm. In this paper, we extend our previous work and present automation details, testing, and performance report of our proposed algorithm. The result shows that the implementation of the algorithm is more efficient than the existing algorithms for the same purpose [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):24-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.04

Keywords: XML, web, rational database, transforming algorithm

Full Text

4

5

Effect of injector types, irrigation and nitrogen levels on II-Garlic yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency

Tayel, M.Y.,*Shaaban, S.M., Ebtisam I. El-Dardiry and Sabreen Kh.

Water Relations and Field Irrigation Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*shaabansm@yahoo.com

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive growing seasons in split split plot design on a clay loam soil at Shalaquan, Qalubia Governorate, Egypt. Experiments investigated the effect of three injectors types by-bass pressurized mixing tank (J1), venturi (J2) and piston pump (J3); three rates of irrigation 50, 75; 100% of ETc (I1, I2; I3); three nitrogen levels 60, 90; 120 kg fed-1 (N1, N2; N3) on garlic yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The main results could be summarized as follows; the maximum and minimum garlic yields (6.34, 2.38 ton fed-1) were obtained with treatment J3 I2 N3 and J1 I1 N1, respectively. Maximum value of WUE was 3.29 kg garlic m-3 of irrigation water as recorded with the treatment J3 I1 N3, while the minimum value was 1.30 kg garlic m-3 of irrigation water as recorded with the treatment J1 I3 N1. The maximum and minimum values of NUE in kg garlic kg-1 N were 83.22 and 29.17 for J2 I2 N1 and J1 I1 N3, respectively. A positive linear relationship was found between WUE and NUE. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):38-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.05

Keywords: Field experiments; clay loam soil; water use efficiency (WUE); nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

Full Text

5

6

Software Cost Estimation through Entity Relationship Model

Arshid Ali 1, Salman Qadri 2, Syed Shah Muhammad 2, Jalil Abbas 3, Muhammad TariqPervaiz 2,

Sarfaraz Awan 2

1. Department of Computer Science, GCU Faisalabad, Pakistan

2. Department of Computer Science, Virtual University of Pakistan, Lahore, Pakistan

3. Department of Computer Science, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

sayyed_qadri@hotmai.com

Abstract: Software Cost Estimation is essential for efficient control and management of the whole software development process. Today, Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO 11) is very popular for estimating software cost. In Constructive Cost Model lines of code and function, points are used to calculate the software size. Actually, this work represents the implementation stages but in early stages in software development, it was not easy to estimate software cost. The entity relationship model (ER Model) is very useful in requirement analysis for data concentrated systems. This paper highlights the use of Entity Relationship Model for software cost estimation. Pathway Density is ushered in. By using the Pathway Density and other factors, many regression models are built for estimating the software cost. So in this paper, Entity Relationship Model is based on estimated cost of software. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):47-51]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.06

Keywords: ER Model, Cost Estimation, Entity

Full Text

6

7

Web-Ontology Design Quality Metrics

 1Amjad Farooq, 2Syed Ahsan, 2Abad Shah

2 Al-khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering

University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

amjadfarooq@uet.edu.pk

Abstract: Semantic Web is an extension of current web in which the web resources are equipped with formal semantics about their interpretation for the machines. These web resources are integrated in the form of web information systems, and their formal semantics are normally represented in the form of web-ontologies. Using the database terminology, we can say that web-ontology of a semantic web system is schema of that system. Since web-ontology is an integral element of semantic web systems, therefore, design quality of a semantic web system can be measured by measuring the quality of its web-ontology. The key consideration is that after completing design of a web-ontology, it is appropriate time to assess its quality so that in case, the design is of low quality, it can be improved before its instantiation. This can save a considerable amount of cost and effort for developing high quality semantic web systems. Metrics are considered as suitable tools for evaluating quality. In this paper, we propose certain metrics for web-ontology quality evaluation. These metrics may contribute in developing a high quality semantic web system. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):52-58]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.07

Keywords: Semantic web; Ontology metrics; quality measurement

Full Text

7

8

Determining Regression Models of Almond and its Kernel Mass Based on Geometric Properties (Shahrud 12 and Mama'e Varieties)

A.Mohamadi1, M.A.Ghazavi2, B.Hosseinzadeh2

1Payame-noor university, Farsan, Iran

2 Department of mechanical farm machinery, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord 115 Iran

bahram_hs@yahoo.com

Abstract: Almond (Prunus amygdalus) belongs to Rosaceae family and sub-family of Pronoideae. Physical traits of agricultural products are main parameters in designing of grading, conveying, processing, and packing systems. In this study the physical traits such as dimensions, mass, volume, sphericity, geometric average of Mama'e and Shahrud 12 almonds and their kernels were measured and calculated. The average amounts of length, width, and thickness for both almond varieties were 37.41, 23.21, and 16.63 mm, respectively, and for almonds' kernel were 28.05, 13.4, and 7.82 mm, respectively. Results from modeling of almond and its kernel masses based on dimensions and volume showed that there exists a great correlation coefficient between the samples actual volumes and masses, but since determining actual volume of almond and its kernel is a time-taking task, it was suggested to use calculated volume and presuming that the cross-sectional area of the almond is oval. Also the mass model based on the thickness had the highest determination coefficient and lowest regression error which was the best option for industrial and economical applications. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):59-64]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.08

Keywords: Almonds, Physical Properties, Mass Modeling, Dimensional Models, Volumetric Models

Full Text

8

9

Regional assessment of groundwater vulnerability in Tamtsag basin, Mongolia using drastic model

Fanomezantsoa Hasiniaina1, Jianwei Zhou, Luo Guoyi

1School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan)

Lumo Road 388, Wuhan City, 430074 Hubei Province, P.R. China.

hasiniainaf@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Groundwater is one of the most valuable natural resources and for that reason, its protection and management is vital for human evolution, socio-economic development and ecological diversity. Because of the known health and economic impacts associated with groundwater contamination, steps to assess groundwater vulnerability must be taken. This study aimed to assess groundwater pollution potentials of the north-eastern part of the deep confined aquifer of block XIX, Tamtsag basin, Mongolia. The normal DRASTIC model was applied to the study area with the help of GIS. DRASTIC parameters were calculated from geological data, soil and elevation contour maps, and groundwater level data of the study area. ArcInfo/GIS was used to demarcate vulnerable zones based on their vulnerability index. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters constituting the model was performed in order to evaluate the relative importance of the each DRASTIC model parameters. The aquifer vulnerability map revealed that only 2% of the study area is under moderate vulnerability to contamination, the remaining zone was determined to be in a low risk category. GIS greatly facilitated the implementation of the sensitivity analysis applied on the DRASTIC vulnerability index which otherwise could have been impractical. Appropriate methods for keeping groundwater resource sustainability in the study area have been suggested. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):65-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.09

Keywords: Groundwater vulnerability / DRASTIC / Tamtsag basin

Full Text

9

10

Structure Of Whey Protein Concequence For Dairy Industry (Review)

Khorshid, M.A. and Fatma, A.M.

Dairy Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 khorshid88@hotmail.com

Abstract: Milk proteins play a range of roles which make dairy products and products containing dairy components are valuable. Theses include nutrition, physical functionality and breakdown under controlled condition to produce nutritional, functional or flavour full products. This article reviews the structure of whey protein concequence for dairy industry. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):79-84]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.10

Keywords: Milk proteins; dairy components; nutrition; review; dairy industry

Full Text

10

11

The Application Of Micro-Relief Meter For Soil Tillage Studies

M.A. Ghazavi1, A.Yosufvand­­1, B. Hosseinzadeh1

1 Department of mechanical farm machinery, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord 115 Iran

Bahram_hs@yahoo.com

Abstract: Measuring the physical properties of soil provides a good opportunity for careful study of processes such as evaporation from the soil surface, formation of water runoff, sediments and erosion. In this research, the change of some soil hydrological properties was studied in four kinds of primary soil cultivation activities by using a mechanical micro-relief meter. This study was conducted in a randomized complete block design. Data was collected in frames with 9025 cm2 area and 400 data height were collected for every frame. Measured soil properties were: Root Mean Square (RMS) of height data, superficial Profile Length Ratio (RZ) of soil roughness, Infiltration Recession Factor (RECS), plough depth, the volume of displaced soil, comparison of the area change in relation to superficial evaporation of soil. The RMS of height data was higher (p<0.05) with moldboard plow and modified disk plow than chisel and traditional ploughshares. The analysis of height data collected from plots showed that surface evaporation of soil moisture didn't differ by plowing with moldboard plow or traditional ploughshares, compared with two other ploughshares. This statistic was less than the recorded value of developed dish-like ploughshare (p<0.01). Also displaced soil mass by these two ploughshares was much more than chisel and traditional ones (p<0.01). The developed ploughshare prevents more evaporation. Therefore, plowing surface with this instrument provides high pot-hole store and penetration coefficient compared with other ploughshares. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):85-89]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.11

Keywords: RMS of height data, RZ, plough, height data, surface evaporation, pot-hole store

Full Text

11

12

Variations in some heavy metal concentrations in soil and Manihot esculanta tuber from the East and North eastern part of Nigeria

S. T. Garba,1* J. T., Barminas, 2 and A. H. Santuraki,1

1Department of Chemistry, University of Maiduguri, Borno state. P. M. B. 1069. Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology Yola (FUTY), P. M. B. 2076. Adamawa state. Nigeria. stelagarba@yahoo.com

 Abstract: The levels of the heavy metals: Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn were determined in Manihot esculanta tubers and the soil used for its cultivation. This was done to asses the pollution level of the farmland and hence the safety status of Manihot esculanta tubers produced. Samples were collected from Konduga local government area of Borno state in the North East and from Umuahia local government area of Abia state in the East, all in Nigeria. These were treated and digested and the heavy metal concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The result obtained shows that, the samples from the North East had the highest levels of the elements Pb 30.14, Zn 88.65, Cd 3.15, Cu 16.00, Cr 6.74, and Mn 13.00 ppm in the soil sample while 5.47, 9.09, 5.05, 2.60, 3.37 ppm for the elements Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Mn respectively were observed in manihot esculanta tubers sample. All these were found higher than what was observed in the soil and manihot esculanta samples collected from the East. Cr, was however, found below detection limits in manihot esculanta tuber samples from both the regions. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):90-94]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.12

Keywords: Health, Safety, Environment, Development, Borno State, Abia State, Nigeria

Full Text

12

13

Exploitation of palms wine in the municipality of Ze (Benin): socio-economic and physical impacts

Ade Romaric Herman1*, Bio Bigou Bani Leon2, Luo Zhaohui3

1. School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Hubei province, 388 lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan, P.R China,, 008613797056028

2. University of Benin, (Abomey-Calavi), General Secretary of university Box: 526- Abomey- Calavi- Benin

3. China University of Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan City, Hubei province, 430074, P.R. China

Abstract: The exploitation of palm wine is one of activities which many people from southern Benin particularly the municipality of Ze have engaged. This study aims to analyze the socio-economic and environmental impacts of the exploitation of palm wine in the municipality. The methodology consisted of collecting demographic, agricultural, socio economic data, processing and analysis of data collected in real area based on components of the Leopold matrix. The exploitation of palm wine has changed the agricultural landscape of the municipality of Ze. The soil is becoming unproductive for food crops after a long fallow palm wine causing impoverished land due to overuse. The vegetation is endangered because of the rarity of certain plant species like Acacia sp (acacia), Antiaris africana, sapadi Blighia (bligia tasty), Chloroophora excelsa, Cola nitida, etc. But, in other aspect this activity is contributing to improve the living conditions of farmers and reduce the production of oil palm in this area. The production of alcohol provides employment to about 42% of the active population in the municipality of Ze, (municipality of Ze, 2007). At various levels of production that is from felling to alcohol distillation there are large numbers of people being employed. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):95-102]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.13

Key words: palm wine; sodabi; socio- economic and physical impact; municipality of Ze

Full Text

13

14

Sorption characteristics of copper in some calcareous soils of western Iran

A. R. Hosseinpur1 and F. Dandanmozd2

1.Soil Sci. Dep. Shahrekord Univ. Shahrekord, Iran

2.Soil Sci. Dep. Bu-Ali Sina Univ. Hamadan, Iran.

E-mail: hosseinpur-a@agr.sku.ac.ir

Abstract: The environmental impact of metal additions to soil depends on its sorption ability. To evaluate the sorption of copper (Cu) on to some soils an experiment was conducted with ten calcareous soils of Hamadan province in the west of Iran. Half g soil samples were equilibrated at 25±1 and 45±1°C with 25 ml of 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 0 to 30 mgL-1 Cu as CuSO4. Suspensions were centrifuged, filtered and concentration of Cu in the clear extract solution was calculated. The thermodynamic parameters viz. K, ∆G, ∆Hand ∆S were determined by using sorption data and concentration of Cu in equilibrium solution at two different temperature. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that Cu sorption increased as the values of K and ∆G increased with rise in temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The ΔGo values at 25 and 45°C were negative and ranged from -18.39 to -24.10 and -21.167 to -26.267 kJ mol-1 respectively. The values of enthalpy (ΔHo) and antropy (∆S) were positive and ranged from 8.184 to 42.852 kJ mol-1 and 102.457 to 206.184 J mol-1 K-1. The results showed that Cu sorption is a spontaneous process and endothermic reaction. The results also showed that calcareous soils can sorb high amounts of Cu and that thermodynamic parameters are useful in describing Cu sorption. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):103-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.14

Keywords: Sorption isotherm; Calcareous soils; Thermodynamic parameter; Copper

Full Text

14

15

Association between Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Gallinacin genes and resistance to Marek's disease in White Leghorn chicken

yacoub, H. A*1, Galal, A2, El Fiky, S.A1 and Fathi, M. M 2,

1Cell Biology Department, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

 2 Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*Haitham_yakoub@yahoo.com

Abstract: Gallinacins are antimicrobial peptides that play a significant role in innate immunity in chicken. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between candidate genes of innate immunity and resistance to Marek's disease and to predict whether the amino acids substitutions lead to produce new phenotypes. We used in current study two inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens, line 6 which selected for resistant to Marek's disease and line 7 which selected to susceptible to Marek's disease from ADOL, ARS, USDA. We examined Gal-1 and Gal-2 in current study by sequenced a 1.38 kb in two directions from two inbred lines (6 and 7). A total of 6 SNPs were identified within the sequenced regions. This equates to an SNP rate of 4.34 SNPs/kb, nearly to the previously reported 5 SNPs/kb across the entire chicken genome. The current study showed that the gallinacin genes are polymorphic because there are many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens and some of these SNPs are nonsynonymous and others are synonymous and some of them are located in intronic region and the rest are in exonic region. All identified SNPs were intronic; except for Gal-1 was exonic resulting in amino acids changes which have a non-synonymous SNP resulting in amino acids alterations of asparagine to serine, histidine to tyrosine and tyrosine to serine, respectively. From SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from tolerant) program which used to predict whether an amino acids substitutions can affect protein function resulting in phenotypic effect, that is may be made the inbred line 7 of White Leghorn chickens are susceptible to Marek's disease rather than line 6. We are concluded that a new chromosomal region with effects on the response to Marek's disease in chickens was characterized in this study. Within this region, the SNPs in the gallinacin candidate genes could potentially be used in a marker assisted selection program to enhance the response to Marek's disease. Analysis of the gallinacin genes in the protective pathways of disease resistance has also opened the possibilities for therapeutic strategies using endogenous antimicrobial peptides. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):109-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.15

Keywords: single nucleotide polymorphisms, Gallinacin, genes, Marek's disease, resistance

Full Text

15

16

Endometrial Cytology and Bacteriological Isolates From Buffaloes With Retained Fetal Membranes and Their Effects on the Reproductive Efficiency

 

Amer H. A.1*, AbouZeid N. Z.2 and Barakat T. M.1

Department of Theriogenology1 and Infectious Diseases2, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

samarmed84@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to determine if the buffaloes with retained fetal membranes (RFM) and without systemic involvement had an effect on the subsequent reproductive efficiency. One hundred buffaloes with or without placental retention were allocated into 4 groups, including 25 buffaloes at day 15 post-calving had RFM (1st group), 25 buffaloes at 45 days post-calving had RFM (2nd group), 25 buffaloes without RFM at day 15 post-calving as control (3rd group) and 25 buffaloes without RFM at day 45 post-calving as control (4th group). The intrauterine perfusion fluid (10ml) was collected and examined bacteriologically and cytologically to evaluate the intrauterine environment. The reproductive parameters were determined in both buffaloes with or without retained fetal membranes. The detection rate of bacterial spp. was significantly (P<0.05) higher in buffaloes with RFM collected at day 15 after parturition than those in other groups. All 25 buffaloes with RFM at 15 days post-partum (100.0 %) showed positive results. From 22 of them (88.0%), more than one bacterial species was isolated. An Archanobacterium pyogenes (A. pyogenes) was isolated from 56.0% of buffaloes with RFM after 15 days post-calving. On the other hand, 5 (20.0%) out of 25 buffaloes with RFM at 45 days post-partum showed positive results. Nine out of 25 (36.0%) buffaloes without RFM at 15 days post-partum showed positive results. Moreover, 4 out of 25 (16.0%) control buffaloes at 45 days post-partum showed positive results. The bacterial species most frequently isolated was Lactobacillus spp. The number of buffaloes with ≥70% PMNs or ≤ 40% lymphocytes cells was higher (24/25, 96%) in the 1st group (RFM) at 15 days than those in 2nd group (RFM) at 45 days post-calving. The number of buffaloes with ≥70% PMNs or ≤ 40% lymphocytes cells was also significantly (P<0.01) higher in control group (17/25, 65%) at 15 days than those in control group (6/25, 24%) at 45 days. There were no significant variations among the groups of the buffaloes with retained placenta and the control groups at 15 and 45 days post-calving in postpartum uterine involution, the number of days from parturition to initial insemination, the number of days to conception and the number of services per conception. The overall conception rate was 15(60%) and 16(64%) in the RFM group, meanwhile, it was 19(76%) and 20(80%) in the control groups. It could be concluded that, in most buffaloes, the retained fetal membranes without systemic involvement had no major effect on the postpartum reproductive performance. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):115-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.16

 

Keywords: Buffaloes, Bacteriologically, Cytologically, Insemination, Conception.

Full Text

16

17

Toxoplasmosis in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Goats

 

Abou Zeid N.Z.1, Amer H.A.2*, T.M. Barakat2, Selim A.M.1 and El-Balkemey F.A.1

Department of Infectious Diseases1, Theriogenology2, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt

*samarmed84@yahoo.com

Abstract: One hundred slaughtered goats (2-3 years old) were used for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in naturally infected goats, and 12 healthy pregnant and nonpregnant goats were used to study the pattern of toxoplasmosis as experimental study. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 100 slaughtered goats revealed that 29 (29%) and 27 (27%) were seropositive by LAT and IHA tests, respectively. There were agreement between LAT and IHA 97.3% in seronegative and 93.1% in seropositive sera in goats. There were complete concordance between LAT and bioassay in cats and mice. While the agreement between IHA result and bioassay in cat and mice was 93.1% in goats. Clinical examination of experimentally infected goats revealed that all goats had slight rise of body temperature; depression, anorexia, cough, muscular hyperthesia and diarrhea by day 5 and returned to normal by day 11. The age of fetus at the time of T. gondii infection is one of the known causes for the variability in clinical response. As infection of goats in early stage of pregnancy result in fetal reabsorption, while infection in mid pregnancy lead to abortion in one goat at 28 days post-infection and the other was aborted at 40 days post-infection. Moreover infections in late pregnancy resulted in delivery of viable kids. On the other hand controls goats were clinically normal and pregnant does were birth viable kids. LAT showed rapid response after 14 days post-infection, while IHA detected antibodies after 3 weeks post-infection. The antibody titers of both tests remained high until the end of experiment (48 weeks), while the titers were decreased around abortion or parturition and increased again after one week. Both LAT and IHA tests were insensitive in the pre-suckling kids from infected goats, whereas PCR gave positive results. In conclusion, PCR considered the most reliable tool for diagnosis of prenatal infection of toxoplasmosis, while LAT and IHA were considered unreliable tools for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis if they applied one week before or after kidding. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):122-129]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.17

Keywords: Prevalence, Toxoplasmosis, Goats, Abortion, Parturition.

Full Text

17

18

Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes in Wastewater on Nanometer-Sized TiO2

S.A. Abo-Farha

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Naser City, Cairo, Egypt

samiaelhosieny@yahoo.com

Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proved very effective in treatment of the various hazardous organic pollutants in water. The photocatalytic degradation of two azo dyes, monoazo dye Acid Orange 10(AO10) and diazo dye Acid Red114(AR114) present in wastewater were studied. Homogeneous photocatalytic degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/H2O2 process was investigated. The rates of disappearance of the two azo dyes were monitored spectrophotometrically at the visible maximum absorption wavelengths. It was found that the rate of decolorization rises by increasing the initial dosage of H2O2 up to a “critical” value at which it is maximum and beyond which it is inhibited. The rates of reactions follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Also heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of the two azo dyes with UV/TiO2 (titanium dioxide) interface was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation rate depends on dye structure, dye concentration, TiO2 concentration and pH of the medium. The mechanism of the photodegradation process under UV-visible light illumination involves an electron excitation into the conduction band of the TiO2 semiconductor leading to the generation of very active oxygenated species that attack the dye molecules leading to photodegradation. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was examined by focusing on its enhancement by electron scavengers in the photocatalytic decomposition of the two azo dyes. The electron scavengers employed was inorganic oxidant such as H2O2, adequate dose of H2O2 led to a faster degradation of the two azo dyes in the TiO2 photocatalytic system. The fast decolorization of monoazo dye (AO10) than diazo dye (AR114) is an indication that, the number of azo and sulphonate groups in the dye molecule may be a determining factor for increasing the degradation rates. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):130-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.18

Keywords: Azo dyes; UV/H2O2 oxidation, Titanium dioxide; Photodegradation; Semiconductor.

Full Text

18

19

Phenotypic and genetic trends for milk production in Egyptian buffaloes

Fooda, T. A.; Kawthar A. Mourad and Gebreel, I. A

Animal Production Research Institute-Buffalo Breeding Research Department- Dooki- Giza - Egypt

Abstract: A total of 3495 records collected from 904 buffalo cows progeny of 174 sires and 470 dams through period from 1990 to 2008 in all Stations belonging to Animal Production Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture were used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic trends for total milk yield. LSM for total milk at different year of calving ranged between 1334 kg and 1692 kg, 1028 kg and 1561 kg, 1209 kg and 1633 kg, 1355 kg and 1415 kg and 1137 kg and 1355 kg for El-Nattafe El-Gidid (NG), El-Nattafe El-Kadim (NK), Mahalet Mousa (MM), Gemiza (G) and Sids (S) stations, respectively. Estimates of the positive breeding value (BV, %) at different year of calving ranged between 40 % and 52 %, 31 % and 52 %, 40 % and 56 %, 37 % and 55 % and 45 % and 59 % for NG, NK, MM, G and S stations, respectively. Annual phenotypic trend for milk production ranged between -11.7 kg and +36.7 kg for S and NK stations, respectively. While, the annual genetic trend ranged between -0.16 kg and +0.6 kg for G and NG stations, respectively. The results of the present study showed that there are increased of improvement of phenotypic and genetic trend in all MM farms from 1990 until now. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):143-147]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.19

Keywords: buffalo, phenotypic trend, genetic trend, breeding value and milk production

Full Text

19

20

Computer Aided Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Acridine Derivatives a Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

Gamil Mahmoud El Taliawi1, Enayat Ibrahim Ali1, Gehan Hegazy Hegazy*1, Nasser S. M. Ismail2 and Walaa Ramadan1

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Cairo University, 2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Ain Shams University, Egypt.

*gehan_hegazy@yahoo.com

Abstract: A series of novel 9- anilinoacridines was designed and their molecular docking studies into the active site were examined as topoisomerase I inhibitor. Several compounds showed significant high simulation docking score. The designed compounds were synthesized and biologically evaluated against mammary carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), where compounds 8,11e,11f,13b,14b,14e and 14f showed significant inhibitory activity at a concentration 10μg/mL). It appears that the in vitro activity of compounds 8,11e,11f,13b,14b,14e and 14f were consistent with their molecular modeling results, and compound 14b showed the highest activity with IC50 value of 7.8 µg. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):148-158]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.20

Keywords: Molecular docking, Acridine derivatives, Antitumor

Full Text

20

21

Effect of Probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Adding to Diets on Intestinal Microflora and Performance of Hy-Line Layers Hens

Saadia M. Hassanein1 and Nagla K. Soliman2

1Microbiology Dept, Faculty of Science, 2Poultry Production Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: As experiment was conducted to evaluate the affect of adding various levels of a live yeast to laying hen diets on their laying and feeding performance, egg shell, egg components and some blood constituents, as well as the intestinal microflora make-up. This were studied to validate the mode of a live yeast action in improving laying hens performance. For this purpose 75 Hy line (W-36) white layers were sited from 70 to 79 week of age in individual cages and randomly distributed into five experimental groups of 15 layers each. The individual hen was represented as an experimental unit. The five experimental groups were fed on five graded levels of a live yeast as 0.0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6%. The main results indicated an increase in egg production percentage of layers fed with 0.4% and 0.8% a live yeast which recorded 83.4% and 80.6% respectively compared with 74% of control which was similar to the groups of layers fed 1.2% (74.9%) and 1.6% (74.6%). Average egg weight was not influenced by adding yeast into diets. Egg mass results were parallel to these of egg production where the values of 46.7, 51.0, 50.2, 48.3 and 46.1 g egg/hen/day were recorded for the group of birds fed with 0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2% and 1.6% a live yeast respectively. Egg albumen and egg yolk were affected significantly. There was a slight improvement in egg shell thickness and percentage. Feed intake values were approximately similar within the different treatments. Feed conversion ratios (g feed/g egg) of layers fed yeast levels of 0.4% (2.08) and 0.8% (2.07) were better than the control group (2.27). Blood total protein levels of birds fed 0.4% (3.82), 0.8% (3.65) and 1.2% (3.97) yeast were lower than the control (4.16), while the value of 1.6% yeast (4.16) was slightly higher than control. Blood albumen levels were parallel to those of blood protein while blood globulin values were not affected. Blood cholesterol levels of layers fed yeast-supplemented diets were lower than the control. Blood total lipids were not affected by treatments. Ileal content pH of layers fed 0.8% and 1.2% yeast levels was lower than the control. Microbiological examination of ileal content indicated an obvious reduction in bacterial total count. While Lactobacilli bacterial count was increased. There were reductions in bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (E.coli), Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sp., Campylobacter sp., and Closterdium perfringers of layers fed various yeast levels. The results of this study suggest adding live yeast at 0.4% or 0.8% into laying hen diets can enhance the productive performance and nutrients utilization via the inhibitory effect of yeast against pathogenic bacteria. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):159-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.21

Keywords: yeast level, laying hen, egg production, ileal microflora, blood constituents.

Full Text

21

22

Properties of enterotoxigenic S. aureus Isolated from mastitic cattle and buffaloes in Egypt

Jakeen Kamal Abdel Haleem El-Jakee1, Emad Rizkalla Zaki2, Randa Samy Farag2

1-Microbiology Department Faculty of Vet. Medicine Cairo University

2-Buffaloes Diseases Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Doki, Giza.

jeljakee@yahoo.com

Abstract: Enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk posses a potential health hazard to consumers. In this paper 106 S. aureus isolated from cow and buffalo milk samples were investigated for production of enterotoxins. RPLA results showed high incidence of type C enterotoxin followed by type A and type B with incidence of 34 (32.1%), 19 (17.9%) and 15 (14.2%) respectively. Toxigenic S. aureus isolates produced golden yellow, creamy and white colonies on agar in percent of 69.11%, 27.94% and 2.94% respectively. Regarding to hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar, 92.65% of toxigenic S. aureus isolated from bovine milk samples were hemolytic. A correlation exists between toxigenic isolates and coagulase and DNase production. On crystal violet agar medium. 23.53% of the S. aureus isolates yielded yellow colonies, 64.71% yielded violet colonies, while 11.76% yielded white colonies from the toxigenic S. aureus isolates. It is clear that most of bovine isolates yielded violet colonies on the medium. Out of 68 isolates of toxigenic S. aureus isolates 51 (75%) showed SpA by agglutination test positive. Results obtained showed 100% agreement between RPLA and PCR techniques. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):170-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.22

Keywords: S. aureus, mastitis, enterotoxins, RPLA, PC

Full Text

22

23

Hydro-Thermal Safety Control of Karun-1 Dam under Unusual Reservoir Level Reduction

Mojtaba Labibzadeh 1

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

Labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir

Abstract: Karun-1 dam safety was examined through carrying over a 3D finite elements analysis. The dam as well as its foundation and abutments have been modeled in a relatively exact manner. Furthermore, the vertical contraction joints were simulated in calculations. Hydrostatic, gravity and thermal effects have been taken into account as the load collections. 10m reduction of reservoir level from normal water level of the dam reservoir was applied in the modeling and the possibility of initiate and development of cracks in dam body was investigated by means of monitoring of principal stresses. The obtained results showed that mentioned possibility existed and the downstream face of the dam in vicinity of the abutments near to crest level probably experiences the tensile cracks. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):179-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.23

Keywords: Arch dam, Thermal, Contraction joints, Cracks, Dam safety

Full Text

23

24

Prevalence of HBV Genotypes in Egypt among Hepatitis Patients

Iman A. El Aziz Khaled *1, Ola M. Mahmoud1, Abeya F.Saleh1, and Emad A. Baioumi2

1Haematology & Blood Bank, 2Tropical Medicine, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI). Cairo, Egypt; *iman_khaled@yahoo.com

Abstract: Phylogenetic analysis has led to the classification of hepatitis B virus into eight genotypes, designated A to H. The genotypes have differences in biological properties and show heterogeneity in their global distribution. These attributes of the genotypes may account not only for differences in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus mutants in various geographic regions, but also makes them responsible for differences in the clinical outcome and response to antiviral treatment in different population groups. Africa is one of the highly endemic regions of HBV with five genotypes (A-E) identified. Almost all patients in the Mediterranean area are infected with genotype D. However, there is little information of genotype distribution in Egypt. A total of 140 Egyptian patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive were enrolled in this study. Of the 140 patients, only100 patients were HBV DNA positive and only these were included in the study. They were classified in to 20 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 75 patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and 5 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. HBV genotypes were determined using INNO-LiPA methodology which is based on the reversed hybridization principle. Results: This study showed that genotype D constituted 87% of the total infections (75% CAH, 7% AH & 5% HCC). The other 13% showed mixed infections of D/F. Conclusion: These findings show that the most prevalent genotype in Egypt is genotype D especially in CAH and HCC patients while the mixed type D/F is mostly encountered in AH. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):185-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.24

 Keywords: Phylogenetic, Genotypes, Hepatocellular

Full Text

24

25

Cytogenetic Study of the Effect of Schistosoma mansoni Infection on Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and the Role of β-Carotene and Vitamin E in Modulating this Effect.

Mervat S. El-Ansary1, Imam A. Khaled2, Abeya F. Saleh2, Ola M. Mahmoud2, Emad A. Baioumi3, Heba A.Bakr4

1Immunology (Cairo University), 2Haematology (TBRI), 3Hepatology (TBRI), 4Science (Ain Shams University), Cairo Egypt, iman_khaled@yahoo.com

Abstract: Aim: This study has been made to determine the potential genotoxicity of Schistosoma mansoni on lymphocytes of infected patients using different mutagenic end points. The protective role of antioxidants pro vitamin β-carotene and vitamin E in minimizing these genotoxic effect was also studied. The study focused on the effect of schistosomiasis on the induction of sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) and other chromosomal aberrations. Patients and Methods: This work was conducted on 24 Schistosoma mansoni infected patients and 10 healthy adults as a control group. Lymphocytes from peripheral blood of patients and control group were used for culture and subsequent cytogenetic studies. Results: The results indicated that schistosomiasis was genotoxic in all examined tests. It induced a significant increase in the percentage of structural chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of SCEs. It also inhibited cell division and caused cell cycle delay. Lymphocyte cultures of S. mansoni patients treated with 10 mg/ml β-carotene or 20 mg/ml vitamin E showed a significant decrease in the percentage of structural chromosomal aberrations and the frequency of SCEs. Conclusion: schistosomiasis has a genotoxic effect on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The use of the antioxidants β-carotene and vitamin E can be considered a promising approach not only toward inhibiting the genetic damage of schistosomiasis but also as prophylactic agents against infection with S mansoni. Furthermore, higher doses of antioxidant drugs, β-carotene and vitamin E, should be tried as an adjuvants to conventional therapy in a trial to improve treatment of schistosomiasis. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):191-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.25

Key words: Schistosomiasis, β-carotene, vitamin E, chromosomal aberration

Full Text

25

26

BIOCHEMICAL PATTERN FOR HEPATITIS C AND ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA IN HUMAN SERA 

Abulyazid1, I., Mohga S. Abdallah2, Hayate I. Sharada3 and Sama H. Okasha4 

1, Molecular Biology Department, Atomic Energy Authority

2, 3, 4 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan university 

 

Abstract: Present experimental work aimed to show role of the molecular biology in diagnosis of hepatitis C liver disease (HCV) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) which occur as a result of the disturbances of protein and enzymes fractions at the molecular level. The study carried out using vertical slab gel electrophoresis for detection of the protein pattern, catalase and peroxidase. Protein fractionation of the control samples produced 13 bands with Rf ranged between 0.17 and 0.96 and (amount, 3.14 - 7.24). Comparing hepatitis C with control one out of these 13 bands are completely disappeared at Rf 0.86 (amount 9.34). Ten bands appeared to be common bands in all HCV samples except one sample only nine common bands were produced while the band number ten was disappeared. The data showed that 5 characteristic bands were produced. One from these five bands determined at Rf 0.7 in all HCV sera samples except the first sample. Comparing leukemia samples with control only two were considered as common bands. These bands completely appeared in all sera samples. On the other side one band was completely disappeared in all leukemia samples. The rest bands distributed between different leukemia samples. 15 bands produced as characteristic bands. Electrophoresis pattern for catalase mentioned that six bands were produced in control samples. When hepatitis C compared with the control showed that two out these six bands were completely disappeared and other all HCV four bands considered as common bands. The amount of catalase enzyme completely decreased in all bands. In leukemia five common bands were produced with the appearance of one characteristic band, from the other side one band was disappeared. A documentation of peroxidase pattern data showed that tow common bands were appeared with Rf 0.1 and 0.33, the amount of these two bands were decreased when the amount of HCV compared with control in the same rows. In leukemia there is only one common band was produced with appearance of a three characteristic bands. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):203-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.26

Keywords: HCV, Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Protein electrophoresis, catalase, peroxidase

Full Text

26

27

Serum resistin levels and haemostatic changes in experimentally induced diabetic and high fat fed rats 

Mohammad I. Hoseen, Mai M. Hassan, Dalia I. Abd-Alaleem and Eman M. Faragallah. 

Department of physiology, Faculty of medicine, Zagazig University. 

Abstract: Adipose tissue is considered as an active endocrine gland that affects many aspects of body homeostasis. Adipose tissue derived molecules ‘‘adipokines” regulate energy homeostasis, dietary behavior, as well as insulin sensitivity and immunity; it refers to leptin, adiponectin, resistin, apelin, visfatin and omentin. Resistin is a cysteine-rich adipokine that is released by adipocytes and macrophages and has been involved in the development of insulin resistance in rodents. Moreover a strong link between diabetes, hypercoagulability and thrombogenesis, had been recognized for decades. Aim: In a trial to identify any possible relationship between resistin levels and some haemostatic changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic and high fat diet-fed rats (HFD); the present work had been carried out. Design: A total number of 40 adult male albino rats were divided into 2 main groups: Group I (n= 24): To study the effect of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and was further divided into 3 equal subgroups (n= 8 in each) and survived for 30 days: Ia: (control group), Ib: (experimental diabetic non-treated group (by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (65mg/Kg B.W), Ic (experimental diabetic group treated with insulin). Group II (n= 16): To study the effect of high fat diet and was further divided into 2 equal subgroups (n= 8 in each) and survived for 7 weeks: IIa: (control group), IIb (high fat diet fed (58% fat). In all groups, serum levels of glucose, insulin, resistin, total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL, BT, WBCT, PT, aPTT, plasma fibrinogen level, plasma D-dimmers level and platelet count were measured. Results: The results of this study showed a significant decrease in serum resistin levels (p<0.001) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic group in comparison with its control group and insulin-treated group. Moreover, no significant correlation could be detected between resistin levels and any of measured parameters in these groups except the significant positive correlation with body weight at the end of experimental period. In addition, our study revealed a significant increase in serum resistin levels (p<0.001) in HFD-fed group in comparison with its controls, which was correlated positively and significantly with body weight, serum glucose levels, insulin levels and HOMA-IR index (p<0.001), atherogenic lipid profile and markers of hyper-coagulability (except for platelet count). Conclusion: No role for resistin in metabolic and haemostatic changes in type 1 diabetic rats was detected. Although, hyperresistinemia may represent a link between metabolic signals, atherogenesis, and hypercoagulability in type 2 diabetic rats. However, further studies are needed to clarify this relationship in human cardiovascular diseases. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):217-227]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.27

Keywords: Resistin, Streptozotocin, high fat, diabetes, heamostasis

Full Text

27

28

Analytic Investigation and Numeric Prediction for Biodynamic Response of the Seated Human Body

Mostafa A. M. Abdeena, W. Abbasb

a Dept. of Eng. Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Eng. Cairo University, Egypt

bEng. Physics and Mathematics Dept., Faculty of Eng. (Mataria), Helwan University, Egypt

msotafa_a_m_abdeen@hotmail.com; wael_abass@hotmail.com

Abstract: The biodynamic response behaviors of seated human body subject to whole-body vibration have been widely investigated. The biodynamic response characteristics of seated human subjects have been extensively reported in terms of apparent mass and driving-point mechanical impedance while seat-to-head vibration transmissibility has been widely used to characterize response behavior of the seated subjects exposed to vibration. These functions (apparent mass, driving-point mechanical impedance) describe to-the-body” force–motion relationship at the human–seat interface, while the transmissibility function describes “through-the-body” vibration transmission properties. The current study proposed a 4-DOF analytic biomechanical model of the human body in a sitting posture without backrest in vertical vibration direction to investigate the biodynamic responses of different masses and stiffness. Following the analytical approach, numerical technique developed in the present paper to facilitate and rapid the analysis. The numerical analysis used here applies one of the artificial intelligence technique to simulate and predict the response behaviors of seated human body for different masses and stiffness without the need to go through the analytic solution every time. The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique is introduced in the current study to predict the response behaviors for different masses and stiffness rather than those used in the analytic solution. The results of the numerical study showed that the ANN method with less effort was very efficiently capable of simulating and predicting the response behaviors of seated human body subject to whole-body vibration. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):228-239]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.28

Keywords: Biodynamic response, Analytic seated human body model, Numerical simulation model, Artificial Neural Network.

Full Text

28

29

Design Synthesis of New Peptide Derivatives and Evaluated DNA Binding Activity, Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activity.

A. A. EL-HENAWY

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo-Egypt.

Abstract: Recently, sulfonamides have been reported to show significant antitumor activity in vitro and/or in vivo. There are a variety of mechanisms for the anticancer activity. The present work reports the synthesis some novel peptide sulfadiazine derivatives, this may play a role in their anticancer activity. All the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for DNA binding activity and antimicrobial activity, some synthesized compounds showed high DNA binding activity and antimicrobial activity. Some selected compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) in vitro. All selected compounds showed interesting cytotoxic activities compared to a reference drug. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):240-249]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.29

Keywords: Peptide; Anticancer; Antimicrobial; DNA Binding

Full Text

29

30

Amelioration Productivity of Sandy Soil by using Amino Acids, Sulphur and Micronutrients for Sesame Production

Salwa, A.I. Eisa; Mohsen. M. Abass and S.S. Behary
Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, ARC, Egypt
 

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out at Ismailia Agricultural Research Station, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt or two successive summer seasons 2008 and 2009 using sesame (Giza 32) to study the effect of elemental sulphur as soil application, amino acids and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn) as foliar spray and their interactions by concentration (A0) zero and (A1) 2 g/l, for amino acids, micronutrients Fe, Zn and Mn were added as mixture at rates of zero (T0) & 450, 225, 225 µg g-1 (T1) and 900, 450, 450 µg g-1 (T2). While elemental sulphur was added at the ates of zero (S0) & 0.5 Mg S/fed (S1) and 1.0 Mg S/fed (S2), on sesame yield, its components and seed quality. Data indicated that, plant height (cm) significantly affected by all applied treatments. The tallest plant height (213.3 cm) achieved upon treating by A1 + 1.0 Mg S/fed + 900, 450, 450 µg g-1 Fe, Zn, Mn by rate of increases 48.0% over control. Data also show that there were significantly increases in the whole plant weight with increasing application of sulphur as soil application and micronutrients as foliar spray. The highest plant weight were achieved upon reating by A1 + 1.0 Mg S/fed + 900, 450, 450 µg g-1 (Fe, Zn, Mn) by rate of increases 50.04% over control. A significantly increase in the seed sesame yields, the highest seed yields were achieved upon treating by A0 + 1.0 Mg S/fed + 900, 450, 450 µg g-1 (Fe, Zn, Mn) by rate of increases 89.80% over control. For seed quality data show that an increases in P and K%, Fe, Zn and Mn µg g-1,oil and protein%, oil and protein yield upon treating by A1 + 1.0 Mg S/fed + 900, 450, 450 µg g-1 (Fe, Zn, Mn). Generally, a combined application of amino acid with micronutrient Fe, Zn, Mn in the presence of elemental sulphur significantly increased the sesame yield; improved nutrition and ncreased seed quality; except the seeds yield whither the highest amount for seeds yield occurred in absence of amino acids; it was probably related to the physiological actions of amino acids and micronutrients. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):250-257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.30


Key words: Amino acids- sulphur-micronutrients-sesame-sandy soil.

Full Text

30

31

Comparative Study of Software Engineering Processes in Egyptian Cmmi Companies

 

Alaa El-Din Hamouda and Mohammad Abdrabo Elwahsh

Computers & Systems Engineering Dept., Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.

Alaa_ham@gega.net, eng.md.elwahsh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Egyptian government has paid special attention to the software industry as Egypt to provide it with a competitive advantage that makes this emerging industry promising. Thus, the State has supported the Egyptian companies to make use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Since 2009, more than thirty companies obtained the CMMI at different levels. However, these companies suffer from lack of a mechanism to exchange experience and information among themselves although they could be similar in the culture of their engineers and perhaps in the nature and size of their software projects. So, we provide in this research a survey to gauge the quality of methods, tools and processes used in these Egyptian companies winning the CMMI. Then we analyzed the results to reach the recommendations aimed at enriching the software industry in Egypt. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):258-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.31

 

Keywords: CMMI in Egypt, software engineering processes, survey.

Full Text

31

32

Margin Assessment and Fracture Resistance of Adhesively Luted Ceramic Crowns

Jylan F. ElGuindy1, Dina H. Mostafa*2 and Mona A. El Agroudi1

1Fixed Prosthodontics Department and 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different adhesive systems on the vertical marginal gap distance and the fracture resistance of lithium disilicate based crowns. Methods: Forty premolars were prepared to receive forty e-max crowns. The crowns were divided into 4 groups (N=10 each) according to the adhesive luting systems. Group (U): using RelyX Unicem resin cement (self-adhesive system). Group (V): Variolink II (total-etch system). Group (GU) and group (GV): application of G-bond (self-etch) on dentin preceded previously used adhesive systems. A stereomicroscope was used to record the vertical marginal gap distance before and after cementation. The crowns were subjected to cyclic loading and fracture resistance test. Data were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) SPSS 15.0. A scanning electron microscope was used to qualitatively examine the dentin/resin interface. Results: Groups (GU) (67.6 ± 5.8 µm) and (GV) (68 ± 6.4 µm) recorded the significantly lowest vertical marginal gap, followed by group (V) (82 ± 6.8 µm). Group (U) showed the highest marginal inaccuracy (114 ± 6.4 µm). Group (GU) recorded the significantly highest fracture resistance (2840.5 ± 3.8 N), followed by group (GV) (2411.3 ± 3.3 N) and group (V) (2365.8 ± 3.6 N). Group (U) showed the lowest results (2270.9 ± 3.4 N). Conclusions: Ceramic restorations luted with total-etch system offer better vertical marginal gap distance and fracture resistance than restorations luted with self-adhesive system. Treatment of the dentin surface prior to the application of the bonding system is efficient. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):264-273]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.32

 Keywords: Adhesives, marginal gap, fracture resistance, all-ceramics

Full Text

32

33

Do Desensitizers Affect the Retention of Questionable Preparations?

Jylan F. ElGuindy1, Dina H. Mostafa*2 and Mona A. El Agroudi1

1Fixed Prosthodontics Department and 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of different desensitizers on the retention of short and over-converged preparations. Methods: Eighty molars were prepared with 3mm occluso-cervical height and 24 degrees convergence angle. Nickel-chromium copings were cast with a loop at the occlusal surface for tensile loading after cementation. The copings were assigned to two groups (N=40 each) according to the cement used. Group 1: resin cement (Duolink). Group 2: glass-ionomer (Ketac-Cem). Each group was assigned to four subgroups (N=10 each) according to desensitizers used prior each cement. Subgroup I: control (untreated), subgroup II: Gluma Comfort + Desensitizer, subgroup III: Oxalate (Bisblock) and subgroup IV: Fluoride varnish (Flor-Opal). The retention was determined by uniaxial tensile mode of force. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) SPSS 16.0 was used to assess cements, desensitizers and their interactions on copings retention. Results: Resin group: Oxalate (212.10±7.41N) showed the significant highest mean of retention, followed by Gluma (201.52±6.93N), then control (177.52±6.14N). Fluoride (153.80±6.03N) recorded the lowest mean. Glass-ionomer group: control (135.54±4.58N) and Oxalate (132.62±4.84N) recorded the significant highest mean, followed by Gluma (126.84±4.75N). Fluoride (101.96±6.34N) recorded the lowest mean values. Conclusions: With questionable preparations, fluoride desensitizer drastically affected the retention of both cements. Oxalate and Gluma enhanced the retention with resin cement. Oxalate desensitizer can be efficiently used with glass-ionomer. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):274-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.33

Keywords: retention; Nickel-chromium coping; occlusal surface; Fluoride varnish

Full Text

33

34

Accuracy of working casts and dies produced by fast-setting polyvinyl siloxane impressions

Mona El-Agroudi MD DDS1 and Eman Essam, MD DDS2

 Assistant professor of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University., Egypt.

2 Lecturer of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Al Azhar University., Egypt.

Abstract: Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spacer on the accuracy of working casts and dies produced from fast-setting polyvinyl siloxane impressions. Materials and Methods: Twenty Impressions of the mandibular arch of a modified Dentoform master model incorporating a stainless steel circular crown preparation were made, using a fast-set Polyvinyl siloxane (Affinis perfect impressions Coltene/Whaladent AG) using 2/step impression technique with and without a spacer. Gypsum working casts and dies were produced from the poured impressions. Measurements of the master model and working casts were carried out including anteroposterior (AP) and cross-arch (CA) dimensions. The stainless steel circular crown preparation incorporated within the master model was also measured in buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), and occlusogingival (OG) dimensions and compared to measurements from recovered gypsum dies. Linear measurements were made using a measuring stereomicroscope. Results: Double impression technique without spacer showed statistically significant higher mean percent relative change than double impression technique with spacer. With each technique, the means percent relative change in die measurements showed statistically significant higher mean values than cast measurements. There was no statistically significant difference between means percent relative change in the BL and MD dimensions which showed the statistically significant highest mean values. The means percent relative change in the OG dimension showed the statistically significant lowest mean value. Conclusion: Accuracy of fast-setting polyvinyl siloxane impression material was favorably affected with the use of spacer, as the space resulted from contraction of the putty material was not enough to produce accurate detail reproduction by the light material. The working dies; from the fast- setting polyvinyl siloxane impression material without spacer demonstrated an increase in (mesio-distal and bucco-lingual) dimensions, while for cast dimensions, there was no difference between the two techniques. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):284-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.34

Keywords: dies; fast-setting; polyvinyl siloxane

Full Text

34

35

Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha Curcas in Aqueous Acidic Hexane Solutions

Sh. K. Amin, S. Hawash, G. El Diwani*, and S. El Rafei

Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

*geldiwani@yahoo.com

Abstract: Jatropha oil curcas (JOC) extraction was performed in aqueous HCl, H2SO4, and H3PO4 solutions with n–hexane (C6H14) at 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C using 10 gm of Jatropha seeds over 1 hours with 10 minutes sampling intervals. The optimum acid concentration was 15 % by weight for each acid, and the highest oil yield was obtained in the extraction procedure with n–hexane containing HCl. The extraction process was observed with regard to the percent oil yield versus time, and the reaction order was found to be first–order kinetics by the differential method. The activation energy for the oil extraction kinetics of Jatropha seeds with 15 % HCl was Ea = 26.6763 kJ/mol, and the activation thermodynamic parameters at 60 °C were ΔH = 23.908 kJ/mol, ΔS = - 239.927 J/mol.K, and ΔG = 103.803 kJ/mol. The enthalpy value was ΔH = 0.1586 kJ/mol, and the other thermodynamic parameters at 60 °C were calculated to be ΔS = 15.275 J/mol.K, and ΔG = - 4.928 kJ/mol. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):293-300]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.35

Key words: kinetics, thermodynamics, oil extraction, Jatropha curcas

Full Text

35

36

Methodology for Selective Adsorption of Lithium Ions onto Polymeric Aluminium (III) Hydroxide

S. Hawash, E. Abd El Kader and G. El Diwani*

Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. *geldiwani@yahoo.com

Abstract: The recovery of lithium as lithium aluminate from Egyptian bitterns was investigated. Studies were performed on synthetic Li+ solution and on three high – salinity end brines which contain Li+ of concentrations varying between 5.5- 19.5 ppm. Pretreatment with a mixture of Na2SO4- Na2CO3 is achieved to precipitate BaSO4, SrCO3, CaCO3 and possibly MgCO3. A co-precipitation method was employed using aluminum salt as (AlCl3.6H2O). Lithium ion is adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide, which is freshly produced by adding AlCl3.6H2O and Na OH to the brines at Al3+ / Li+ molar ratio≈ 5-7. Results obtained indicate that high Li+ adsorption was performed at pH = 6-7 for Alexandria-Arish and Emissal salines, even for small concentration of aluminum salt added. Also, Lithium ions uptake decreased with increasing adsorption temperature from 10ºC to 30ºC but over 30ºC increase in temperature does not affect lithium uptake on Al(OH)3, which proved that the process is physical adsorption. Equilibrium isotherms have been determined for the adsorption of Li+ onto Al (OH)3 at 30ºC and pH= values (5 to 9), the maximum adsorption capacity of Al(OH)3 at 30ºC and pH = 9 is 123 mg/gm. The results indicated that applied isotherms were shown to be "favorable" and were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Li+ desorption from Al(OH)3 was investigated using hydrofluoric acid (HF) or sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with different concentrations, and results obtained showed that HF is more efficient than H2SO4 concerning Li+ desorption. From the obtained results, Li ion can be recovered successfully from bittern and saline solutions. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):301-309]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.36

Keywords: lithium; lithium aluminate; hydrofluoric acid (HF); sulphuric acid (H2SO4; saline solution

Full Text

36

37

The Effects of Dietary Egyptian Propolis and Bee Pollen Supplementation against Toxicity if Sodium Fluoride in Rats

Fatma A. Khalil and Nora M. El-Sheikh

Biochemistry and Nutrition Department, Women's College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: Propolis and bee pollen are substances produced by honey bees its components are strong antioxidant and free radical scavengers. The present study aimed to study the protective effects of propolis and bee pollen supplementation against toxicity of sodium fluoride in rats. After the end of experimental period, the rats sacrified and biochemical analysis were carried out. The results showed that the administration of fluoride (F) alone causes significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and significant decrease of antioxidant system as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in blood and brain. Also F causes significant increase alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium levels. And significant decrease total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels as compared to control group (P < 0.05). Whereas administration of propolis or bee pollen with F led to significant decrease in MDA level and significant increase in SOD activity, GSH levels in blood and brain. And significant decrease ALP activity, urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium levels in serum. The propolis or bee pollen enhanced total protein, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus levels in serum as compared to F group alone.

In conclusion; supplementation of natural antioxidant (propolis or bee pollen) during Fluoride administration, facilitate reduction of the toxic effects and enhanced the antioxidant system, the levels of minerals is serum. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):310-316]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.37

Keywords: Propolis, bee pollen, sodium fluoride, rats, antioxidant system minerals.

Full Text

37

38

Diet Selection, Feed Intake Capacity and Performance of Growing Female Camels: Effects of Type of Roughage and Level of Concentrates Offered

M.F.A. Farid, A.M. Abdel-Wahed, Safinaz M. Shawket* and N.I. Hassan

Animal Nutrition Department, Desert Research Centre, Al-Matareya, Cairo, Egypt.

drsafinazshawket@hotmail.com*

Abstract: The feeding trials were intended to investigate diet selection, feed intake capacity (FIC) and animal performance when concentrates (corn grains and commercial concentrates mixture) and roughages (Atriplex, clover hay or rice straw) were fed ad lib free-choice in a cafeteria feeding system, and also the effect of restricting concentrates offered. The roughages were selected to represent different grazing conditions prevailing in arid rangelands. Eighteen growing she-camels were randomly allotted to three groups. Each group was assigned one of the three roughages offered ad lib for the duration of the whole experiment. Results indicated that type of roughage and concentrate levels, and their interaction, affected (P<0.05) FIC and diet selection, and consequently live weight gain. Average total and roughage DMI were 78.9 and 16.1, 83.9 and 22.5, 96.4 and 33.4 g DM/day/Kg0.75 for straw, hay and atriplex groups, respectively. Irrespective of the roughage fed, growing camels consumed three-times as much corn grains as that from the cottonseed meal. Limiting concentrates offered to 75% or 50% of ad lib intake, decreased FIC, while the proportion of roughages in DMI increased significantly, total OMI and total protein decreased and crude fibres intake increased, more so in the straw fed camels. The Atriplex fed camels recorded the higher ADG, followed by the hay fed ones and the straw fed mates grew the least, 516, 429 and 240 g/d, respectively. Restricting the level of concentrates offered decreased significantly (P<0.05) the ADG (691, 305 and 189 g/d in camels fed 100, 75 and 50% of ad lib concentrate intake. These results tend to indicate that growing camels having free choice to select their diets from both concentrates and roughages were capable of regulating their voluntary food intake predominantly through physiological mechanisms to satisfy energy requirements. This was true for the atriplex and hay groups but not for the straw group or when concentrates offered was limited. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):317-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.38

Key words: camels, diet selection, feed intake capacity, weight gain

Full Text

38

39

Application of Proposed Distribution Network Planning Rules on Fast Developing Countries

Salem M. Elkhodary1, and M. Khafagy2

1 Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University,, Cairo, Egypt,2 Saudi Electricity Company, KSA.

Abstract: With the ever increasing need to electric energy and the fast development of loads in many countries especially in the fast developing ones such as the GULF countries, the load growth as well as the forecasted loads, are highly increased depending on new and arising factors and conditions. In turn, Electricity Companies build rapidly generating plants, transmission and distribution networks to meet the rapid load demand. Usually, power system expansion follows the load growth which may exist at random locations. This adds to the absence of prior proper planning, especially medium and long term planning, resulting in network configurations that do not match with optimum siting and sizing planning rules. Operation of such networks faces several problems that may sacrifice the power quality. Thus, proper planning of new networks, expansion or rehabilitation of existing ones should be based on most accurate and proper planning rules. This calls for the investigation of a new exact cost function for optimum sizing and siting of network substations, and hence the H.V. feeds (incoming) and the M.V. distribution (outgoing) feeders. Therefore, this paper presents a newly proposed methodology that takes into consideration the capital costs of all electrical components, losses in these components, operation and maintenance costs. The inflation rate can be also taken into consideration. This methodology gives important results, which conclude that the optimum distance between substations and hence the optimum number of substations, greatly depends on different factors that were not taken into consideration before, for example: the kWh price, cost of the HV incoming feeders (66-110 kV feeders) besides the cost of the MV outgoing feeders (6.6-22 kV feeders), cost of the distribution substations (MV/LV), cost of losses in transformers, cost of losses in all feeders, incoming and outgoing, Operation and maintenance costs ….etc. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):327-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.39

Keywords: Cost function. Objective function., Distribution network planning. Optimum siting and sizing of substation

Full Text

39

40

New Proposed Method of Damping Temporary Overvoltages on Power System Interconnections

Salem M. Elkhodary1, and Ali S. Abd El-Munem2

1 Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, 2 Egyptian Electricity Holding Company, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The interconnection between countries links different networks. These interconnections may be exposed to several disturbances. These disturbances (such as transient and temporary overvoltages phenomena, faults …etc.) threaten the interconnection security and reliability. This paper presents actual field measurements of transient and temporary overvoltages appearing on the Egyptian – Libyan system interconnection as an example. These overvoltages were recorded for different cases of operation. These cases were modeled and simulated using the most recent version of Alternative Transient Program (ATP) computer package to compare the results of the computational method with the actual field measurements. The comparison between the ATP output results and the actual field measurements were found less than ± 4%. Within the research activities of the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC) temporary overvoltage phenomena on the Egyptian – Libyan interconnection network were detected. EEHC carried field measurements of the temporary overvoltage by using a special transient mobile test laboratory. This detected temporary overvoltage was due to the generated reactive power along the line on switching, in spite of this leading reactive power was compensated by connecting number of reactors at different nodes. The economical aspect has been taken into consideration to reduce the number of reactors to the network, which showed the best effect on damping the temporary overvoltage. This paper, thus, presents a proposed technique to damp the temporary overvoltage and keep the system voltage within the permissible limits by estimating the optimum number and location of reactors that must be connected to the network. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):336-342]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.40

Keywords: interconnection; networks; disturbances; Alternative Transient Program (ATP); Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC)

Full Text

40

41

Evaluation of Corynebacterium variabilis Sh42 as a degrader for different poly aromatic compounds

Yasser M. Moustafa1, Nour Sh. El-Gendy1, Salem A. Habib2, Sherif Ali1*

1Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo, P.O. 11727, Egypt.

2Mansoura University, Faculty of Science, Damietta, Egypt.

Abstract: Corynebacterium variabilis sp. Sh42 is used to investigate the biodegradation potentials and metabolic pathways of different poly aromatic compounds (PACs) in batch flasks. Effects of PACs size, molecular weight, alkylation and their presence individually or in mixture on biodegradation potentials of Sh42 were studied; Naphthalene (Nap) as a model compound for di-aromatic ring; Antheracene (Ant) and Phenantherene (Phe) as model compounds for tri-aromatic ring; while Pyrene (Pyr) as a model compound for four-aromatic ring compounds were used as representatives for different PAHs. Dibenzothiophene (DBT), 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) were taken as representative models for PASHs compounds. While, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) and 2, 2'-bihydroxybiphenyl (2, 2'-BHBP) were taken as models for phenolic compounds. The experimental results show that biodegradation rate decrease with increase ring size, alkylation’s group within homologous series and Sh42 has the highest capability to biodegradation of toxic phenolic compounds either in single (BD% ≈ 90%) or mixed substrates cultures (BD% ≈ 48%). To ensure detoxification and mineralization of these toxic PACs; metabolic pathways of representative model compounds (Pyr, DBT and 2,2'-BHBP) were elucidated by GC/MS analysis which confirmed that, Sh42 completely metabolized all representative compounds to CO2 and H2O. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):343-356]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.41

Keywords: Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Biodegradation, Metabolic pathways.

Full Text

41

42

In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of potentially probiotic Lactobacilli

Kawther, EL-Shafei, N.F. Tawfik, Nadia, M.A. Dabiza, O.M. Sharaf, and B.A. Effat

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of four probiotic lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus johnsonii B-2178, Lactobacillus gasseri B-14168 and Lactobacillus salivarius B-1950 in human upper gastrointestinal tract in vitro and evaluate the effect of milk proteins addition on viability of these strains in simulated gastric juices and in yoghurt during storage for 15 days at 4°C. The viability of lactobacilli strains in simulated gastric transit conditions (pH 2.0, pH 3.0 and pH 4.0) gastric juices with or without milk proteins singly or in combination with starch was tested. All the treatments were determined with three replicates. The simulated gastric transit tolerance of L. johnsonii, L. gasseri and L. salivarius strains was pH-dependent and correspondingly showed lower viability at pH 2.0 after 180 min compared with pH 3.0 and pH 4.0. The addition of milk proteins singly or in combination with starch enhanced the survival of probiotic lactobacilli strains in simulated gastric juices different tested pH values. Results showed that addition of milk proteins in combination with starch improved the viability of L.johnsonii B-2178, L. gasseri B-14168 and L. salivarius B-1950 in yoghurt during storage. Sensory evaluation showed that yoghurt fortified with milk proteins plus starch recorded the highest score for and overall acceptability than the other treatments. However, yoghurt manufactured with L. johnsonii and L. gasseri and fortified with sodium caseinate plus starch showed the highest organoleptic score. It is suggested that the yoghurt of acceptable quality and high total probiotic bacterial count during storage can be made from milk supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) starch plus 0.5% (w/v) sodium caseinate. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):357-367. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.42

Keywords: Probiotics, Gastric tolerance, L. johnsonii, L. gasseri, L. salivarius

Full Text

42

43

Extraction of oil from canola seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide: Experimental and Modeling 

Soroush Zarinabadi1*, Riyaz Kharrat2, Ali Vaziri Yazdi3

1, 3-Islamic Azad University- Science & Research Branch – Tehran, Iran

2-Petroleum University of Technology - Tehran, Iran

1-zarinabadi@yahoo.com, 2-kharrat@put.ac.ir, 3- avy123@behta.com

 ABSTRACT: In this work extraction oil from canola (Brassica Napus) seed with supercritical CO2 extraction at pressure of 1500 to 2750 Psi, temperature of 308 to 333 k, and particles size 0.08 to 0.2 mm in flow rate 5 Lit/hr was investigated in a bench scale apparatus, The extraction was modeled by the sovova extended lack’s model. The fluid phase mass transfer coefficient (kf), solid phase mass transfer coefficient (ks), and hardly accessible solute (xk) were a just able parameter of Models. The broken and intact cells model fit the experimental data, quite well, showing the applicability of the model to the supercritical extraction system studied here. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(11):368-373. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.43

Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction, canola oil, mathematical modeling, sovova model

Full Text

43

44

Biochemical Significance of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Psoriasis vulgaris among Egyptian Patients

 Halla M. Ragab*, Nabila Abd El Maksoud* and Mohamed M. Farid Roaiah** 

*Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. ** Dermatology & Andrology and S. T. D.S, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university. hmragab@yahoo.com 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis has been characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by acanthosis and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. Several growth factors and cytokines, are assumed to be important. Recent studies indicate that various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor - α (TNF - α), IL - 2R and IL - 6 play an essential role in the induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. Objectives: To analyse relevant inflammatory mediators in the serum of patients with active psoriasis (Psoriasis vulgaris) of mild-to-moderate and severe psoriasis compared to healthy controls. Patients / Methods: Forty psoriasis patients were recruited from the dermatology outpatient clinic of Cairo University Hospital. Patients body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and psoriasis area and severity index. (PASI) were recorded. Fasting serum samples were obtained on enrolment. All the patients did not receive any treatment (locally or systemically), for at least four weeks before enrolment. Age, sex and (BMI) matched with forty healthy controls were also recruited. Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 levels were estimated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) technique. The patients group were subdivided to two groups according to the diseases severity, PASI, into, mild-to-moderate psoriasis group and severe psoriasis group. Results: Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 were all statistically significant elevated in the patients group compared to healthy controls (p < 0.05). Also they were all statistically significant increased in severe psoriasis compared to mild-to-moderate psoriasis (p <0.05). Conclusions: These data support the view that serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, possibly by induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. We recommend a use of an array of these cytokines as a useful follow-up marker for monitoring of psoriatic patients and optimizing therapeutic strategies. Also we suggest the study of antisense therapy using the antibody of these cytokines in psoriatic patients. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):374-380]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.44

Keywords: Psoriasis vulgaris, Cytokines, TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6

Full Text

44

45

Antihepatotoxic Effect of Eruca Sativa Extracts on Alcohol Induced Liver Injury in Rats

Jihan Hussein1, Azza Salah 2, Fatma Oraby 1, Amany Nour El-Deen 2 and Zakarya El-Khayat1

1 Medical Biochemistry Department, National Research Center,Doki,Giza, 12311, Egypt

2 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, 12311, Egypt

jihan_husein@yahoo.com

Abstract: Food derived antioxidants have a strong potential for long term use as chemopreventive agents in disease states involving oxidative stress, such as hepatitis and alcoholic liver diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different extracts of Eruca Sativa in ethanol induced liver injury in rats. Eighty eight male albino rats were divided into 3 main groups included control, prophylactic and treated groups using different extracts of Eruca sativa. Serum liver functions tests, lipid profile and oxidants/antioxidants profile were estimated. The results showed that Eruca Sativa extracts improved liver functions, Lipid profile and antioxidants parameters. We concluded that, Eruca sativa extracts may exert their prophylactic and treatment role against oxidative stress produced by ethanol by increasing/maintaining the levels of antioxidant molecules and antioxidant enzymes. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):381-389]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.45

Key words: Eruca sativa, Ethanol, Liver, Ethanolic extract, Antioxidants, Oxidative stress

Full text

45

46

In vivo and in vitro studies on Thevetia Species Growing in Egypt

I: Isolation, Identification, and Quantification of cardiac glycosides in in vivo and in vitro cultures of immature seeds.

Taha H. S.1*, Farag H.S.2, Shams A. K.2, Abdel-Azim S.N.2, Hanna G. A.3 Ewais E. E.4, Seif El-Nasr M. M.2

1 Plant Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2Phytochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

3 Chemistry of Natural Compounds Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

4 Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University,Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding author hussein.taha2@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: In vivo and in vitro extracted cardiac glycosides of immature seeds (IS) cultures of Thevetia neriifolia Jussieu. and T. thevetioides Kunth. were chemically identified. Calli were grown on modified Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) +3mg/l kinetin (Kin). The content of cardiac glycosides in IS cultures of T. neriifolia and T. thevetioides were monitored by HPLC. Two major compounds were detected and isolated from IS extracts i.e. digitoxigenin and thevetin B. The different structures of the in vivo and in vitro isolated compounds were verified by means of MS and NMR spectral analysis, as well as those compounds were identified and determined using HPLC technique. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):390-395]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.46

Key words: Cardiac glycosides, callus, Thevetia spp., HPLC, MS medium, immature seed cultures

Full text

46

47

Comparative Analysis Of Resource Use Efficiency In Rice Production Systems In Abia State Of Nigeria

Nwaru, J. C. and O. R. Iheke

Department of Agricultural Economics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, PMB 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

E- mail: nwaruj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Arresting the observed low productivity and continued decline in the output of rice especially in the face of rising population and the concomitant escalating increases demand has been a lingering socioeconomic problem. Continued increase in rice production through a number of options including expansion into high potential areas especially the inland valleys has been proposed. This study was designed to examine resource use efficiency in rice production systems in Abia State of Nigeria. Primary data collected from a sample of 142 farmers consisting of 46 inland valley, 41 upland and 55 swamp rice farmers were analysed by the ordinary least squares multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicate that the upland rice farmers are technically more efficient than the swamp and inland rice farmers and that there is no difference in technical efficiency between the swamp and inland rice farmers. None of the farmer groups achieved absolute allocative efficiency. The upland rice farmers achieved least allocative efficiency (Wij is farther from unity), underutilized all farm resources (Wij >1) while both the inland valley and the swamp rice farmers under utilized farmland, other inputs and capital and over utilised (Wij < 1) family labour and hired labour. There was no significant difference in the mean output of rice from the production systems; upland, inland valley and swamp while each operated in region one on the production surface indicating that overall, resource levels could be increased to achieve higher levels of productivity in each system. Economic policies and programmes that could encourage the reallocation and if possible the redistribution of farm production inputs for increased farm productivity and efficiency were recommended. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):396-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.47

Key words: Resource use efficiency, rice production systems, Nigeria

Full text

47

48

Knowledge Discovery In Al-Hadith Using Text Classification Algorithm

 Khitam Jbara

Jordan University, King Abdullah II School for Information Technology. ktjlc2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Machine Learning and Data Mining are applied to language datasets in order to discover patterns for English and other European languages, but Arabic language belongs to the Semitic family of languages, which differs from European languages in syntax, semantic and morphology. One of the difficulties in Arabic language is that it has a complex morphological structure and orthographic variations. This study is conducted to examine knowledge discovery from AL-Hadith through classification algorithm in order to classify AL-Hadith to one of predefined classes (books), where AL-Hadith is the saying of Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (PBUH)) and the second religious source for all Muslims, so because of its importance for Muslims all over the word knowledge discovery from AL-Hadith will make AL-Hadith more understandable for both muslims and nonmuslims. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):409-419]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.48

Keywords: AL-Hadith, Classification, Stem, feature, Class, Expansion, Training set

Full text

48

49

Organic amendment effect on soil properties and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under irrigated condition: a case study from Kombolcha, Eastern Harergie, Ethiopia

Eyasu Mekkonen1, Fassil Kebede 2,3, * and Nurhussien Taha2

1Kombolcha Agricultural TVET College, Kombolcha, Eastern Harrargie; 2 Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Ethiopia

* Corresponding Author: Address: E-mail- fyimamu@gmail.com

Abstract: Field experiment was conducted in 2005/06 cropping season in Kombolcha to understand the comparative effect of organic and inorganic sources of soil ameliorant for managing surface soil crust under basin and furrow irrigation practices to boost potato production. A factorial experiment was conducted on plots of 12 m2 (4 m x 3 m) and arranged in RCBD with three replicates, which combine irrigation methods and soil amendments. The treatments were the control (no amendment), FYM, chat residue (decayed leaves of Chata edulis) and sediment (sub surface inorganic material locally known as ‘decay dimma’). Results have, therefore, revealed that FYM and chat made compost significantly (p < 0.05) improved moisture content, bulk density, porosity and infiltration rate over the sediment amended plot and the control. However, yield harvested from plots, which were amended with chat-made compost was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than FYM under furrow irrigation practice. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):420-425]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.49

Keywords: Chata edulis, decay dimma, organic amendment, potatoes, soil properties, irrigation

Full text

49

50

The Effect of Women’s Socio-demographic Variables on their Empowerment

Hedayat Allah Nikkhah

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, hnik2003@yahoo.com

Ma’rof Redzuan (Corresponding author)

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia. marof@putra.upm.edu,my

Asnarulkhadi Abu-Samah

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia. asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my

Abstract: Social scientists and development agencies have long been interested in the conditions that empower women. Since the empowerment could give women freedom of choice, equal access to domestic and community resources, opportunities and powers, thus, empowerment of women and the improvement of their status, particularly in respect of education, health and economic opportunities (occupation), are highly important ends in themselves. However, there are many factors which stop women benefiting from such development and contribute to women’s powerlessness such as inequality in economic opportunity, lack of knowledge, skills, and lack of access to education. This study elucidates the relationship between socio-demographic variable of women and their empowerment in Shiraz, Iran. Indeed, this study discovered the effect of respondents’ background i.e., age, education, occupation, family income and marital status on their empowerment. Data was collected from 195 women who participated in empowerment process which organized by NGOs in the whole city of Shiraz. The result of study showed that among the socio-demographic variables, only education and marital status had effect on empowerment. It can be concluded that access to education and knowledge play an important role increasing women empowerment. The result of study also showed that the divorced women have high level of empowerment compare to married and widow women. This is might due to that married women couldn’t get their husband permission to participate in empowerment process.

[Hedayat Allah Nikkhah. The Effect of Women’s Socio-demographic Variables on their Empowerment. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):426-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.50

Key words: empowerment, socio-demographic variables, women, Iran

Full text

50

51

Nutritive Aspects of Oxalis corniculata L. Used by Tribals of Central India During Scarcity of Food.
 
Ashok k. Jain1, Preeti Tiwari Barua2 and Mudasir Bashir3

1Professor, School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University Gwalior -474011, Madhya Pradesh, India; E- mail: asokjain2003@yahoo.co.in

2Assistant Professor, Deptartment of Biotechnology, IPS Academy Indore-452012, Madhya Pradesh, India; E- mail: preetibarua26@gmail.com;

3Research Scholar, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University Gwalior-474011, Madhya Pradesh, India; E-mail: mudasirbot@gmail.com

Abstract: Reports on ethnobotanical surveys reveal that a good number of plant species are being used by various tribal communities as emergency food. The present work deals with some parameters regarding nutritive value of leaves of Oxalis corniculata. L. used as alternative vegetable during emergency by some tribes of central India. The leaves have been found to be rich in moisture (82.42±0.5%), total carbohydrate (24.67±0.4%), crude protein (22.28± 0.5%), crude lipid (23.7±0.5%), sodium (1.12±0.02%), potassium (2.17± 0.31%), calcium (2.5± 0.08%), nitrogen (3.56±0.70 %) and magnesium (0.25±0.03%). [Ashok k. Jain, Preeti Tiwari Barua and Mudasir Bashir. Nutritive Aspects of Oxalis corniculata L. Used by Tribals of Central India During Scarcity of Food. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):435-437]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.51

Key words: Nutritive status;Oxalis cornicula; Tribes; Scarcity of food

Full text

51

52

Effects of sports participation on psychological stress in female students in region 3 of Kermanshah

Ali Feyzkhademi1, Saadat Hajipoor1, Shahram Azimi2, Mehrdad Jalalian3, 4, 5

1Faculty Member of Izeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Izeh, Iran

2Lecturer, Sama Branch (Kermanshah), Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

3Research Center of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Khorasan-e Razavi Blood Center, Mashhad, Iran

4Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia

5Editorial Office, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

khademisport@gmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sports participation on the psychological stress levels of female students 15-18 years old. Psychological stress is defined as a collection of nonspecific reactions against organisms in reflections and exposure to any factor that should be faced. Stress control includes several factors, and, in particular, sports participation is thought to be effective. This quasi-experimental research was performed using pre-test plan–test, after-test, and control groups. Research subjects for the control group were 30 people chosen randomly. The subjects of stress were tested by a 40-item stress questionnaire and then tested in step independent variable “Sports participation” included volleyball education and skills training for three months and three weekly sessions of 75-90 minutes. This was carried out to investigate its effect on the dependent variable "stress." We did not observe any statistically meaningful difference between the mean scores of stress-control group and experiment group scores at pre-test in p<0.05; however, statistically meaningful differences were observed between the mean scores of stress control group and experiment group scores on the post test stage (p<0.05) and between the mean scores of stress in the control group pre-test and post-test in (p<0.05). In addition, A statistically meaningful difference was observed statistically meaningful differences were observed between the mean scores of stress in the experiment group pre-test and post-test (p<0.05). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):438-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.52

Keywords: Sports Participation; Psychological stress; Students

Full text

52

53

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):442-448]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

Full text

53

54

Hepatoprotective and Therapeutic Activity of Origanum syriacum Aqueous Extract in Paracetmol Induced cell Damage in Albino Mice

Abeer Y. Ibrahim1, Nermeen M. Shaffie2 and Hemaia M. Motawa3

1Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Dept., Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Division, National Research Centre.

2 Pathology Department, Medical researches Division, National Research Centre, Egypt.

3,Pharmacognosy Department, Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Division, National Research Centre, 12622, Cairo, Egypt.

abeeryousry@yahoo.com

 Abstract: Ethnomedically genus Origanum L. is one of the most commonly used herb in many countries as a stimulant, analgesic, antitussive, expectorant, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antihelminthic agent. The hepatoprotective and therapeutic effects of Origanum syriacum aqueous methanolic extract on paracetamol induced liver cell damage in mice with respect to antioxidant status was investigated. Mice were treated with extract and sylimarin in recommended dose after or before paracetamol administration (400mg/ kg/ day). Lipid peroxides concentration was considerably decreased due to the elevation of reduced glutathione concentration(GSH) and enhancing of glutathione reductase(GR), glutathione transferase(GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities as compared to paracetamol or sylimarin treated mice. Liver function parameters are still in the normal levels in extract treated mice as compared to control. Using extract as a treating agent after subjecting mice to paracetamol gave better results, the liver tissue showing a nearly normal liver tissue except for a little cellular infiltrate around main blood vessels while sylimarin showing a noticeable dilatation of blood vessels that are surrounded by fibrosis and cellular infiltration. Liver tissue from mouse received Origanum extract and then paracetamol showing mild dilatation of blood sinusoids and cellular infiltration around main blood vessels while sylimarin treated mice showed marked dilatation of blood sinusoids, vacuolar degeneration in many of the hepatocytes and focal necrotic areas among the hepatocytes. In conclusion, Origanum syriacum extract has potent therapeutic activity than hepatoprotective activity and it is more effective than sylimarin in two cases. The plant extract was screened for its phytochemical constitutions.

[Abeer Y. Ibrahim, Nermeen M. Shaffie and Hemaia M. Motawa. Hepatoprotective and Therapeutic Activity of Origanum syriacum Aqueous Extract in Paracetmol Induced cell Damage in Albino Mice. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):449-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.54

Key words: Hepatoprotective, Antioxidant, Oregano, Paracetamol, Therapeutic

Full text

54

55

Water quality status of Golden Key Lake in Clement Town, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Avnish Chauhan*, Mayank Pawar* and Showkat Ahmad Lone

* Department of Applied Sciences, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad-244001

Department of Environmental Science, Uttaranchal College of Science and Technology, Dehradun-248001

Abstract: An attempt has been made to understand to provide information on the physico-chemical characteristics of Golden Key Lake which is being used for aquaculture, were studied between Nov 2008 to Feb 2009. All the parameters has been correlated with each other and each parameters has shown correlation matrix with different parameters at selected sites.

[Avnish Chauhan, Mayank Pawar and Showkat Ahmad Lone. Water quality status of Golden Key Lake in Clement Town, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):459-464]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.55

Keywords: TDS, TSS, pH, DO, COD, Ca, Mg, K, Golden Key Lake

Full text

55

56

Influence of freeze-shocked mesophilic lactic starter bacteria and adjunct lactobacilli on the rate of ripening Gouda cheese and flavor development

El-Sayed El-Tanboly, Mahmoud El-Hofi, Y. B. Youssef,*Wahed El-Desoki, and **Reda A. Jalil

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*Dairy Science Department, Al-Azhar Univ., Agriculture Faculty, Assuet Branch, **Chamber of Food Industries, 1195 Cornish El-Nil, Beaulac, Cairo, Egypt.

tanboly1951@yahoo.com

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the sensory attributes, ripening time, and composition of Gouda cheese and to investigate the survival of L. acidophilus during ripening. Five types of Gouda cheeses, control cheese (Tc), made with with mesophilic lactic starter bacteria, Ta1, Ta2, Tb1 and Tb2 cheeses made using modified mesophilic lactic starter bacteria by freezeshocked at -10oC/-20oC for 24, 96 hrs and probiotic Lactobacillus, as adjunct culture. Cheese samples were assessed for microbiological and compositional properties, proteolysis, and sensory evaluation at different ripening stages. The composition and the pH value were almost identical between control and experimental vats within a single trial cheese. Characterization of proteolysis of gel electrophoresis of cheese samples at various stages of ripening showed that the extent of casein degradation varied between samples in all cheeses, αS1-Casein was more extensively degraded than ß-casein. However, levels of soluble nitrogen (SN/TN) increased with ripening period for all cheeses, only moderate enhancement of proteolysis as in amino acid N in all trials. The formation of non protein nitrogen (NPN/TN) was slightly increased compared to control at the end of ripening. Organoleptic evaluation showed that probiotic cheese had higher sensory evaluation than control cheese, without probiotic strain. The population of Lactobacillus survived to numbers > 107 cfu/g, which is necessary for positive effects on health. These results showed that the contribution of modified mesophilic lactic starter bacteria by freezeshocked and probiotic strain as adjunct culture can be successfully used in production of Gouda cheese.

[El-Sayed El-Tanboly, Mahmoud El-Hofi, Y. B. Youssef, Wahed El-Desoki, and Reda A. Jalil. Influence of freeze-shocked mesophilic lactic starter bacteria and adjunct lactobacilli on the rate of ripening Gouda cheese and flavor development. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):465-471]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.56

Keywords: Physically freeze-shock mesophilic starter, probiotic bacteria, proteolysis Gouda cheese

Full text

56

57

Gap Analysis for Protected Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India for conserving biodiversity

C. Sudhakar Reddy

Forestry and Ecology Division, National Remote Sensing Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Balanagar, Hyderabad -500 625, India. drsudhakarreddy@gmail.com

Abstract: A gap analysis was carried out to assess the Protected Area (PA) network system in Andhra Pradesh, India. The decisive factors of vegetation type distribution, elevation and endemism was used to determine the representativeness of PA system. In Andhra Pradesh, vegetation cover occupies 23.03% of geographical area and distributed in Coastal Plains, Deccan Plateau and Eastern Ghats. There are 27 PAs for conservation in Andhra Pradesh. The total area protected for biodiversity is about 12,555 km2 or 4.56% of geographical area of Andhra Pradesh. Of the three physiographic regions, Eastern Ghats represents very high area under PAs which was estimated as 7811.38 km2 followed by Deccan plateau of 3526.89 km2. Three main forest types (semi evergreen forests, thorn forests and dry evergreen forests) missing in the existing PA network were identified. Moist deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats of northern Andhra Pradesh were under-represented in PAs. The land area in an elevation range of 900m-1527m was not included in PA network. Of the 103 species of endemics, 64 species were not included in PA system. Many PAs are experiencing threat from invasive species, forest fires, grazing pressure etc. There is a need to consider for possible ways for effective conservation and to extend the present PA network system in India.

[C. Sudhakar Reddy. Gap Analysis for Protected Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India for conserving biodiversity. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):472-484]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.57

Keywords: gap area; vegetation; protected area; semi evergreen forests; Andhra Pradesh; India

Full text

57

58

­Knowledge Discovery in Al-Hadith Using Text Classification Algorithm

Khitam Jbara

 Department of Computer Science, King Abdullah II School for Information Technology, The University Of Jordan, P.O. Box 710481 Amman 11171 Jordan. ktjlc2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Machine Learning and Data Mining are applied to language datasets in order to discover patterns for English and other European languages, Arabic language belongs to the Semitic family of languages, which differs from European languages in syntax, semantic and morphology. One of the difficulties in Arabic language is that it has a complex morphological structure and orthographic variations. This study is conducted to examine knowledge discovery from AL-Hadith through classification algorithm in order to classify AL-Hadith to one of predefined classes (books), where AL-Hadith is the saying of Prophet Mohammed (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him (PBUH)) and the second religious source for all Muslims, and because of its importance for Muslims all over the word knowledge discovery from AL-Hadith will make AL-Hadith more understandable for both Muslims and nonmuslims.

[Khitam Jbara. ­Knowledge Discovery in Al-Hadith Using Text Classification Algorithm. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):485-494]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.58

Keywords: AL-Hadith, classification, stem, feature, class, expansion, training set

Full text

58

59

Efficacy of some Biocontrol Agents on Reproduction and Development of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Tomato

Moussa Lobna* and Hanaa Zawam**

 *Soils, Water & Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Giza, Egypt,

** Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre (ARC), Giza, Egypt

mlobnamy@yahoo.com, hn_zawam@yahoo.com

Abstract: Three rhizobacteria and two yeasts isolates were used as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita in laboratory and greenhouse. The used biocontrol agents were identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Brevibacterium otitidis, Sanguibacter inulinus, Candida incommunis and Wicherhamiella domercqiae. They inhibited the egg-masses hatching in vitro and exhibited strong nematicidal activity by killing the second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita to various degrees in greenhouse. The most effective treatment was the complete culture of the four biocontrol agents (propagules and filterate) suppressed galls and egg-masses formation by 100% Br. otitidis reduced galls and egg-masses by 43.7 and 52.19 %, respectivily compared with the untreated control. The microorganisms used in greenhouse test reduced nematode populations in the rhizosphere and promoted the growth of tomato plants over the control treatment.

[Moussa Lobna and Hanaa Zawam. Efficacy of some Biocontrol Agents on Reproduction and Development of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Tomato. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):495-509]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.59

Key words: Biocontrol; Meloidogyne incognita; tomato; Rhizobacteria; yeast

Full text

59

60

Phytochemical and Elemental Analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaf

*Madziga, H. A.1, Sanni S.2 and Sandabe U. K.1

1Department of Veterinary Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. 2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, University of Abuja, Nigeria.

hannamadziga@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Phytochemical and Elemental determination of Acalyphy wilkesiana was conducted. The result of the Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana revealed a high presence of carbohydrates, Tannins and Flavonoid, a moderate presence of Phlobatannins, Saponins. Alkaloids and Cardiac glycosides and minute quanity of Terpenes and Steroids. Anthraquinone derivatives was not present. The Elemental analysis showed presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc copper and mangenese in moderate quantity while cadmium and lead were not detected. It is therefore concluded that the aqueous leaf extract of A. wilkesiana contains Pharmacologically useful active principles elements. Thus the aqueous leaf extract of the plant could play a vital roles in health and disease.

[Madziga, H. A., Sanni S. and Sandabe U. K. Phytochemical and Elemental Analysis of Acalypha wilkesiana Leaf. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):510-514]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.60

Key words: Acalyphy wilkesiana, aqueous leaf extract, Phytochemical analysis, Elemental analysis

Full text

60

61

Nutritional studies on some different sources of iodine on productive performance, ruminal fermentation and blood constituents of Buffalo. 1 – Effect of two different iodine levels on productive and reproductive performance of buffalo cows.

Kh. I. I. Zeedan1, O. M. El-Malky2, Kh. M. M. Mousa1, A. A. El.Giziry1 and K. E.I. Etman1

1- Department of Animal Nutrition Research.

2- Department of Buffalo Research.

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

khzeedan@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding buffalo cows on ration supplemented with two levels from iodine (I) during late pregnancy (three months before parturition) and postpartum period (six months after parturition) on nutrients digestibility, some blood constituent, birth weight of their offspring, Concentrations of immunoglobulin in colostrums, milk (yield and composition) and reproductive parameters. Eighteen buffalo cows (2-4 lactations) in late pregnancy period were selected to carry out the experimental work. The animals were divided into three similar groups (6 female buffaloes in each). Concentrate feed mixture (CFM), berseem hay (BH) and rice straw (RS) were given to animals as a control ration (I0) without supplementation, while the other groups I1 and I2 received the control ration with iodine at levels of 0.3 and 0.5 mg I per kg DM intake /h/d, respectively. Results indicated that supplementation ration of buffalo cows with different levels of I had improved the digestibility of all nutrients, TDN, DCP at pre and post partum, feed efficiency, increased milk yield, 7% fat correct milk yield and its composition. Birth and weaning weight of calves in treated groups were higher than that control group. Immunoglobulin concentration in colostrums indicated higher values with animals feed supplemented rations than those fed the control. Moreover, addition of I improved RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, plasma total protein, globulin, glucose, T3 and T4. Supplemented rations of buffalo cows with 0. 5 mg I/ h/ d tend to significantly (P< 0.05) higher in actual milk yield, 7% FCM yield, fat %, protein %, lactose %, SNF % and TS %, while supplemented with 0. 3 mg I/ h/ d appeared to the same higher trend with no significantly differences. Moreover, better feed efficiency was observed with animals fed supplemented rations. The periods required for fetal membrane expulsion was significantly reduced in I2 group when compared to I1 or control groups. Moreover, only control group showed a case of abortion and still birth, while treated dams delivered 100% healthy calves. Buffaloes of group I2 had the least (P < 0.05) calving interval due to the shorter intervals for uterine involution, onset of the 1st postpartum heat and days open. Iodine supplementation showed significant differences among groups in studied parameters such as NSPC and CI. Mean period elapsed from calving until placenta drop significantly decreased I2 than the control group. Generally, it concluded that I supplementation for ration of buffalo cows improved immunity, nutrients digestibility, calves birth weight and increased milk (yield and composition) and showed better feed efficiency as well as higher some traits of reproductive performance.

[Kh. I. I. Zeedan, O. M. El-Malky, Kh. M. M. Mousa, A. A. El. Giziry and K. E.I. Etman. Nutritional studies on some different sources of iodine on productive performance, ruminal fermentation and blood constituents of Buffalo. 1 – Effect of two different iodine levels on productive and reproductive performance of buffalo cows. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):515-530]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.61

Keywords: buffalo cows, iodine, performance, reproductive parameters, blood components, milk yield, digestibility, immunity

Full text

61

62

Integrated theoretical model to enhance neonatal screening for sickle hemoglobinopathies in the wake of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine

E. William Ebomoyi, Ph.D., Professor

Department of Health Studies, College of Health Sciences, Chicago State University, Chicago Illinois and he serves as a Consultant in International Health for the American Public Health Association, 9501 South King Drive, Douglas Hall 127, Chicago, Illinois 60628-1598, USA

eebomoyi@csu.edu, 773-995-2527

ABSTRACT: This study utilized the integrated theoretical model (ITM) to assess strategies to ameliorate screening for sickle hemoglobinopathies in the age of genomic medicine. Also discussed, is the relevance of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory interventions. Comparison was made between universal and targeted screening. The international guidelines for neonatal screening were reiterated. The self-efficacy and empowerment of mothers is crucial in ensuring that they effectively participate in the treatment and follow-up of their new-born babies. We emphasized the compliance with the ethical, legal and social implications of newborn screening for genetic diseases.

[E. William Ebomoyi. Integrated theoretical model to enhance neonatal screening for sickle hemoglobinopathies in the wake of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):531-537]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.62

Keywords: integrated theoretical model (ITM); ameliorate; sickle hemoglobinopathies; genomic medicine; neonatal screening; ethical; legal; social; genetic diseases

Full text

62

63

Mixed Infection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Mycoplasma Species and Mannheimia Haemolytica in Calves Showed Chronic Pneumonia with Reference to the Histopathological Findings of the Affected Lungs

Hanaa, A. Ghoneim*, Naglaa, I. Hassan, Hanaa, A. Elhalawany and A.M.Nabih

Animal Reproduction Research institute (ARRI) Giza, Egypt

*hanaeg2002@yahoo.com

Abstract: A total of 100 nasal swabs as well as blood samples were collected from 75 diseased calves suffered from respiratory manifestations and 25 apparently healthy calves of ages ranges from 2-12 month old from three herds. Also 80 clinically pneumonic lung specimens of slaughtered calves were collected from El-warak and El- moneeb abattoir. All were examined to establish the extent of involvement of Bovine Viral Diarrheia (BVDV), Mycoplasma species (M. spp.) and Mannheimia. haemolytica (M. haemolytica) in cases of chronic calf pneumonia. On virological studies, AGPT and commercial ELISA kits were rapid and accurate tests for detection of BVDV antigen. BVDV was isolated on MDBK cell line from Buffy coat, nasal swabs collected from diseased calves and lung specimens. The isolated virus was identified by IFAT using reference antisera. Also 100 serum samples collected from diseased and apparently healthy calves were tested by VNT for the detection of neutralizing antibodies against BVDV. Moreover, on bacteriological investigation. M. haemolytica were recovered from lung specimens of slaughtered calves as well as nasal swabs of diseased ones and apparently healthy ones. The isolated strains were biotyped as biotype A (56 isolates, 80 %) and biotype T (14 isolates, 20 %). The resistance of the isolates to most antimicrobial agents was high to ceftiofur, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, oxyteteracycline, and cephalexin. While they were highly sensitive to norfloxacin, ampicillin and erythromycin. Athough, Mycoplasma species recovery rate from the examined nasal swabs of pneumonic calves was (46.67%) relatively higher than that recovered from apparently healthy calves (32.00%), the isolation rate from the examined lung tissues reached to (25.0%). The most prevalent isolated species was M.bovis followed by M.dispar, then glucose positive, arginine negative species. Considering the mixed infection, results showed that, simultaneous isolation of the three pathogens from nasopharyngeal swabs of the examined pneumonic calves was relatively high (12.00%), followed by simultaneous isolation of BVDV& Mycoplasma sp as well as M.haemolytica & Mycoplasma sp. (9.33%). On the other hand, there was simultaneous isolation of both BVDV and M.haemolytica from nasopharyngeal swabs of (8.00%) out of the examined pneumonic calves. Examination of 80 clinically pneumonic lung tissues of slaughtered calves that were collected from abattoirs revealed that, a high percentage (17.50%) of examined lung tissues colonized both Mycoplasma sp. and M.haemolytica together. On the other hand, simultaneous isolation of the three pathogens was detected in (3.75%). However, simultaneous isolation of both BVDV and Mycoplasma sp. as well as BVDV and M.haemolytica was recorded in (2.50%) of examined lung tissues. Regarding histological studies of lung tissue specimens,,there were five types of pneumonia distinguished according to types of necrosis, and cellular infiltrations in relation to microbial isolation, Caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia, 3.75%, Fibrino-necrotizing bronchopneumonia12.5%,Acute and chronic fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia 13.75%. In conclusion M. bovis showed two necrotic patterns, where an original focus of coagulative necrosis evolves with time into caseous necrosis ended by fibrosis.

[Hanaa, A. Ghoneim, Naglaa, I. Hassan, Hanaa, A. Elhalawany and A.M. Nabih. Mixed Infection of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, Mycoplasma Species and Mannheimia Haemolytica in Calves Showed Chronic Pneumonia with Reference to the Histopathological Findings of the Affected Lungs. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):538-555]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.63

Keywords: Infection; Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus; Mycoplasma Species; Mannheimia Haemolytica; Calves; Chronic Pneumonia; Lungs

Full text

63

64

Comparative Study between Different Denture Adhesives in Improving Phonation in Complete Denture Wearers

Essam Adel Aziz1, Azza Adel Aziz2 Dina Essam Eldeen Ibrahim 1 and Ali Eldeen Mohammed Ahmed 1

1Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo Egypt

2Phoniatric Unit, ENT Department, Cairo University, Cairo Egypt.

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: Objectives: the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of denture adhesives in improving phonation in complete denture wearers and to compare the efficacy of three different types of denture adhesives. Methodology: Fifteen completely edentulous patients with flat mandibular ridge shared in this study, complete denture was constructed for each patient according to the conventional method. Phonetic analysis was performed in the Phoniatric Unit via both Perceptual and Acoustic techniques to compare the efficacy of three chemically different denture adhesives (Super corega, Fittydent and Fixodent) on Arabic phonemic production. Results: a marked improvement in patients' articulation after application of the denture adhesives was reported, perceptually and acoustically, where the Fixodent denture adhesive gave the highest values. Conclusion: Whenever possible, denture adhesives should be used to improve retention and articulation. The polymethylvinyl ether malate-based adhesives (Fixodent) are strongly recommended as a highly reliable type of denture adhesives.

[Essam Adel Aziz, Azza Adel Aziz Dina Essam Eldeen Ibrahim and Ali Eldeen Mohammed Ahmed. Comparative Study between Different Denture Adhesives in Improving Phonation in Complete Denture Wearers. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):556-561]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.64

Keywords: Different Denture; Adhesives; Improving Phonation; Complete Denture Wearer

Full text

64

65

Assessment of Working Memory in Normal Children and Children Who Stutter

Hazem Aboul Oyoun1; Hossam El Dessouky2; Sahar Shohdi*2 and Aisha Fawzy2

1Otorhinolaryngology, ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. Cairo, Egypt

2Phoniatrics, Phoniatric Unit, ENT Department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo University. Cairo, Egypt

*sshohdi@hotmail.com

Abstract: The aim of this study is to assess working memory (WM) abilities in normal children and Children Who Stutter (CWS) then to compare the results in order to detect if WM deficits have a role in the development of stuttering. 30 normal children and 30 children who stutter were subjected to WM recall abilities tests and nonword repetition tasks. The WM recall tests included recall of word sets different in length and rhyming, digit span, letter sequences and picture-number test. The nonword repetition test was used to assess phonological encoding through measuring number of phonological errors produced on repeating the task, and to measure the reaction time. The children who stutter (CWS) had performed poorly on some working memory tests compared to the control group. Conclusion: Children who stutter may have diminished ability to recall nonwords and some of working memory abilities and that further investigation into this possibility may shed light on the emergence and characteristics of childhood stuttering.

[Hazem Aboul Oyoun; Hossam El Dessouky; Sahar Shohdi and Aisha Fawzy. Assessment of Working Memory in Normal Children and Children Who Stutter. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):562-569]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.65

Key words: working memory; children; stutter nonword repetition; phonological encoding, phonological errors, reaction time

Full text

65

66

Chemical studies on 3,6-dichloropyridazine

Mohamed H. Sherif, Gamal A. Ahmed, Adel A. Elbahnasawy and Eman O. Helal

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

ABSTRACT: Reaction of 3,6-dichloropyridazine (1) with acid hydrazides, p-toluene sulfonylhydrazine, anthranilic acid derivatives and ammonium hydroxide afforded the compounds (2a,b), (3), (4a,b) and (5) respectively. Compound (5) reacted with aromatic aldehydes yielded the Shiff's bases (6) and (7). Compound (6) reacted with anthranilic acid derivatives and gave (8). Also, compound (1) easily reacted with 2-chlorobenzylamine, sodium azide and thiosemicarbazide afforded the compounds (9), (10) and (11) respectively.

[Mohamed H. Sherif, Gamal A. Ahmed, Adel A. Elbahnasawy and Eman O. Helal. Chemical studies on 3,6-dichloropyridazine. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):570-574]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.66

Keywords: 3,6-dichloropyridazine; acid hydrazides; p-toluene sulfonylhydrazine; anthranilic acid derivative; ammonium hydroxide

Full text

66

67

Citizens’ Attitude toward’s Local Government and Citizen’s Participation in Local Government

Seyed Hamid Mohammadi

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia. Tel: 60-17-2118806; Email: hmd_mohamadi@yahoo.com

Sharifah Norazizan

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia. Email: sharifah@putra.upm.edu.my

Nobaya Ahmad

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia. Email: nobaya@putra.upm.edu.my

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe the citizen’s attitude toward local government and its relationship with level of participation. Participation in local government issues, requires a favorable attitude towards local government, councilors and councils’ performance in terms of efficiency. The paper is based on the study of citizens' attitude towards local government, which was carried out in Torbat Hedarieh city, Iran. The analysis of data uses Pearson correlation to determine the relationship between variables involved. The findings revealed that two level of ladder participation (Tokenism and Citizen-power) have positive and significant relationship with attitude, while Non-participation level of ladder participation has negatively significant relationship with attitude. The findings of the study imply that those respondents who have positive attitude toward local government, councilors and council performance, would have the higher tendency to be actively involved in higher levels of participation, whereas who have negative attitude toward local government, would put less effort in higher levels of participation.

[Seyed Hamid Mohammadi. Citizens’ Attitude toward’s Local Government and Citizen’s Participation in Local Government. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):575-583]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.67

Keywords: Citizen attitude, Citizen participation, Local government, social exchange

Full text

67

68

Algal Abundances and Growth Performances of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Affected by Different Fertilizer Sources

M.A. Elnady*, H.A. Hassanien, M.A. Salem and H. Marian Samir

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. *melnadyahmed@yahoo.com

Abstract: The experiment was designed to study the effect of different fertilizer sources (chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer or combined chemical +organic fertilization) on plankton abundances, growth performances of Nile tilapia juveniles and water quality parameters in concrete tanks compared to feeding fish at satiation. The average secchi disk readings were shallower in the chemical and combined fertilizer treatments compared to those of the ration and organic fertilizer treatments as a result of increased algal density and abundances. Ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations in the chemical and combined fertilizer treatments were higher with an increase in algal growth, abundance. Within fertilizer treatments, the daily weight gains of Nile tilapia reared in the chemical and combined fertilizer treatments (0.43 and 0.5 g/fish/day, respectively) were significantly higher than those reared in the organic fertilizer treatment (0.32g/ fish/ day). This indicated that the use of chemical fertilizer in a fertilization program is superior in increasing fish growth compared to that of the organic fertilizer. It can be concluded that Nile tilapia juveniles can obtain major nutritional requirements for growth(48% of its total feed requirements) from feeding only on algae during this stage of growth. Results of the current experiment recommended that organic fertilizer should not be used as sole source in fertilizer programs and should be combined with chemical fertilizer in order to produce good algal growth necessary for the nourishment of farmed fish.

[M.A. Elnady, H.A. Hassanien, M.A. Salem and H. Marian Samir. Algal Abundances and Growth Performances of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Affected by Different Fertilizer Sources. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):584-393]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.68

Key words: Fertilizers, manure, algae, plankton, Nile tilapia

Full text

68

69

Age as Moderated Influence on the Link of Spiritual and Emotional Intelligence with Mental Health in High School Students

Jafar Shabani*, Siti Aishah Hassan, Aminah Ahmad, Maznah Baba

Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

jshabani@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study examined whether, spiritual intelligence (SI) and emotional intelligence (EI) can be considered as predictor for mental health. The present investigation was also to test the moderating effects of age on the relationship of SI and EI with mental health among high school students. The participants in the study were 247 High school students (124 male and 123 female) in the age range of 14-17 years old, at the Gorgan City, north of Iran. Three valid and reliable instruments were used to assess SI, EI and mental health. Descriptive statistics, multiple and moderated regression analysis were used to analyses the data. The result demonstrated that mental health can be influences by SI and EI. In addition, the moderated effect of age on the relationship of SI and EI with mental health was not found.

[Jafar Shabani, Siti Aishah Hassan, Aminah Ahmad, Maznah Baba. Age as Moderated Influence on the Link of Spiritual and Emotional Intelligence with Mental Health in High School Students. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):394-400]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.69

Keywords: Psychology, education, high school students, spiritual and emotional intelligence, mental health

Full text

69

70

Morphometrical, Histopathological, and Cytogenetical ameliorating Effects of Green tea Extract on Nicotine Toxicity of the Testis of Rats

 

¹*Azza M. Gawish, 2Aliaa M. Issa, ³Aziza M. A., and Sherin Ramadan

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Cell biology Department, National Research Centre,. Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

3 National Organization for Drug control and Research Dokki – Giza, Cairo, Egypt

*azzagawish@ymail.com

Abstract: Nicotine is a major toxic component of cigarette smoke and it is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorder of several organ systems. The natural diet contains a variety of compounds that exhibit protective effects towards different toxicities of nicotine as green tea. Four groups of male Swiss albino mice were divided: untreated control group; Nicotine–treated group (2.5 mg/kg/day); Green tea-treated group (40 mg/kg./day); and Nicotine and green tea treated group interperitoneal administration for successive 28 days. Results showed that disorganization of the seminiferous tubules associated with reduction of spermatogenic cells, leading to widening of lumen of tubules upon nicotine toxicity. Many of seminiferous tubules exhibited degenerative phases of spermatocytes and spermatides as well as missing of sperms and hypo-spermatogenesis. The recorded data in nicotine intoxicated group showed significant and gradual decrease of number of leydig cells throughout all intervals of experiment. In the last, cytogenetically examination demonstrated significant increased in the number of nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCE) and decreased in number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) in bone marrow of nicotine-treated animals using micronucleus assay. Green tea treatment reduced number of nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCE) and restored number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to nearly normal. In conclusions, intake of green tea might suppress the toxicity and mutagenic activity of nicotine.

[Azza M. Gawish, Aliaa M. Issa, Aziza M. A., and Sherin Ramadan. Morphometrical, Histopathological, and Cytogenetical ameliorating Effects of Green tea Extract on Nicotine Toxicity of the Testis of Rats. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):401-411]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.70

Keywords: Smoking - Nicotine – Fertility – Antioxidants – Green tea

Full text

70

71

Tourism as an Economic Development Tool

Mohammad Taleghani

Assistant professor, Islamic Azad University - Rasht Branch, IRAN. Taleghani@iaurasht.ac.it

ABSTRACT - Probably, the greatest single deterrent to tourism development is the lack of appreciation and enthusiasm for tourism by civic and business leaders. When tourism is not understood and its benefits are unclear, planning and implementation of measures to improve the industry are often lacking. Notably, global tourism has become the largest industry in the world, with nearly 500 million consumers of tourism services per year spending hundreds of billions of dollars. The industry provides employment to over 100 million people worldwide. Thus, in view of tourism's increasing role in economic activity, the factors affecting its performance should be analyzed. An understanding of these factors is crucial to determine the ways in which national and international financial institutions, NGOs and other entities can play the most value-adding role. This paper provides a brief profile of key factors and trends in tourism and their economic effects at the global, national and regional levels.

[Mohammad Taleghani. Tourism as an Economic Development Tool. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):412-416]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.71

Keywords: Tourism, Economic Development, Supply and Demand, GDP

Full text

71

72

Impact of Metformin on Immunity and Male Fertility in Rabbits with Alloxan- Induced Diabetes

Naglaa, Z.H. Eleiwa*; Hesham, A.M.; Hosny Abdel Fadil and Abdel Motal, S.M.

Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

Abstract: A study was designed to explore the possible side effects of metformin on immunity and fertility of male rabbits with alloxan- induced diabetes. Sixteen adult male rabbits were used in this study, they were classified into four equal groups as follows: the first group received neither alloxan nor metformin and remained as control group. Rabbits in the 2nd group were orally treated with metformin at a dose of 120 mg/kg b.wt once a day for 3 months. Rabbits in the 3rd group were administered alloxan, I/V, at a single dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt.Rabbits in the 4th group were administered alloxan (100 mg/kg b.wt, single I/Vdose) then treated orally with metformin (120 mg/kg b.wt.) once daily for 3 months. Rabbits in all groups were subcutaneously injected with 2 ml polyvalent rabbit pasteurellosis vaccine after two months from the beginning of experiment for studying the immunological profile of the drug. Treatment of diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits with metformin evoked a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in nitric oxide production on the 1st and the 2nd day post vaccination. In response to treatment with metformin, rabbits demonstrated a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in serum lysozyme activity on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd day and in the 1st week post vaccination while diabetic rabbits treated with metformin showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in serum lysozyme activity on the 3rd day and on the 1st, 3rd and 4th week post vaccination. In addition, treatment with metformin of diabetic and non-diabetic rabbits resulted in a significant decrease(P< 0.05) in testicular weight, sperm cell count, sperm motility and serum testosterone with a significant increase in sperm abnormalities and dead sperm %. Summing up our observations, the present study calls into question the justification for the use of metformin in a frame of a therapeutic strategy for diabetes due to its resulting negative impact on immunity and male fertility.

[Naglaa, Z.H. Eleiwa; Hesham, A.M.; Hosny Abdel Fadil and Abdel Motal, S.M. Impact of Metformin on Immunity and Male Fertility in Rabbits with Alloxan- Induced Diabetes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):417-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.72

Key words: Metformin – alloxan – diabetes - rabbits

Full text

72

73

Amniotic Membrane Extract for Acute Ocular Chemical Burns

Hosam Sheha, Hisham Hashem, Lingyi Liang, Mohamed Ramzy,, Ahmed ZaKi

Abstract: Background: Ocular chemical burns induce devastating and permanent damage to the ocular surface. Rapid intervention is required for maximal visual rehabilitation. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) may save the ocular surface, however it introduces a potentially unnecessary surgical trauma in such compromised eyes. Amniotic membrane extracts (AME) could be a practical substitute of AMT in acute chemical burn. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of topical AME in the management of acute ocular chemical burn. Methods: Non-comparative interventional case series. Six eyes of 4 consecutive patients with mild to moderate acute chemical burn, exhibiting persistent epithelial defect, inflammation and haze despite extensive conventional therapy were recruited. Topical AME was prepared and added to the conventional treatment within 2 days of the injury. Pain relief, inflammation, haze, and corneal epithelial healing were monitored. Results: Pain was significantly relieved, and inflammation was markedly reduced in all cases. The corneal epithelial defects rapidly healed while visual acuity improved within 11 (range 4-23) days. During an average follow-up period of 6 months (range, 3-8 months), all eyes retained stable surface with improved corneal clarity without neovascularization or symblepharon. Conclusions: Topical application of AME could be an effective adjunct in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute chemical burns. It allows non-traumatic and economic early intervention to promote epithelialization, reduce pain, haze and inflammation in acute phase, and prevent cicatricial complications in chronic phase. This result justifies additional large series controlled studies in the future.

[Hosam Sheha, Hisham Hashem, Lingyi Liang, Mohamed Ramzy, Ahmed ZaKi. Amniotic Membrane Extract for Acute Ocular Chemical Burns. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):427-433]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.73

Key words: Acute chemical burn, amniotic membrane extract, corneal epithelial defect

Full text

73

74

Phylogenetic Diversity and Relationships of Some Tomato Varieties by Electrophoretic Protein and RAPD analysis

Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady*, Atef A. A. Haiba, Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid, and Aida A. Rizkalla

Department of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. *elhamabdelhady@hotmail.com

Abstract: Biochemical and molecular characterization of eight tomato varieties were carried out based on seed storage proteins electrophoresis and RAPD markers. The electrophoretic pattern of water soluble protein produced 4 monomorphic bands, 6 polymorphic band and 3 unique bands. The pattern of non soluble protein produced 9 bands, one band is unique and considered a positive specific band of tomaten cartago variety and the others are polymorphic bands. RAPD results revealed a high level of polymorphism among the studied genotypes. All of the seven randome primers screened gave reproducible polymorphic DNA bands. A total number of 81 amplified DNA bands were generated across the studied genotypes with average of 11.57 bands /primer. 37 bands out of the total number were polymorphic and 19 were unique. Combination of the all data derived from the SDS-protein markers of both water soluble and non soluble proteins produced a dendrogram almost similar to that obtained by the RAPD analysis. It could be concluded that, both of SDS-Protein and RAPD markers are equally important for genetic analysis and indicate a considerable amount of genetic diversity between the different studied varieties of Lycopersicon esculentum L.

[Elham A. A. Abd El-Hady*, Atef A. A. Haiba, Nagwa R. Abd El-Hamid, and Aida A. Rizkalla. Phylogenetic Diversity and Relationships of Some Tomato Varieties by Electrophoretic Protein and RAPD analysis. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):434-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.74

Keywords: Tomato, Genetic diversity, SDS-protein, RAPD-PCR

Full text

74

75

Protective effect of three different fluoride treatments on dental erosion in primary and permanent teeth

Sherine B Y Badr1, Mohamed A Ibrahim2

1 Pediatric dentistry Dept., Cairo University

 2 Restorative Dentistry Dept., Misr University for Science and Technology

Shbadr5@hotmail.com

Abstract: Objective: To assess the effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF), sodium fluoride varnish (NaF) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste (CPP-ACPF) on the dental erosion produced by coca cola in primary and permanent teeth. Design: Sixty extracted human primary molars (n = 30) and young permanent premolars (n = 30) were used in this study. The coronal portion of each tooth was removed and transversely sectioned from the mesial to distal surface using a diamond coated saw blade. The crown sections were embedded in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The enamel surfaces were ground and polished. Test specimens were randomly assigned to one of three groups each of 10 according to the protective agent used: APF gel (1.23% F), NaF varnish (2.26%F), and CPP-ACPF paste (0.2%F). Half of the exposed enamel surface was protected with adhesive tape during the treatment of the remaining surface according to their group. Fluoride gel and CPP-ACPF paste were applied for 4 minutes and fluoride varnish for 24 hours. Six daily demineralisation–remineralization cycles of 5 minutes of immersion in a cola drink (pH 2.3) and 30 minutes in artificial saliva were conducted for 14 days. All specimens were stored in artificial saliva between and after cycles. Surface Vickers Micro-hardness readings were recorded at baseline and 14 days later for both halves. Percentage surface microhardness reduction (%SMHR) was then calculated. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results: For primary enamel, the mean (+SD) % surface microhardness reduction (SMHR) for treated and untreated half was, respectively: gel (18.6 +3.3 and 29.6 + 6.7), varnish (29.3 +9.6 and 33.9 +12.2), and CPP-ACPF paste (29.8 + 15.4 and 34.8+12.2. For permanent enamel, such values were: gel (28.7+16.3 and 35+ 16), varnish (42.9 +2and 49.6+ 1.6) and CPP-ACPF paste (23.6 +8.8 and 36.7+16.3). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between means of the three groups at P ≤ 0.05. Conclusions: All of the tested fluoride treatments were able to reduce erosive enamel loss in both primary and permanent groups but both CPP-ACPF paste and APF gel showed significantly higher protective anti-erosive effect in permanent teeth. In primary teeth only APF gel showed significantly higher anti-erosive effect. Primary and permanent enamel substrates reacted differently to different fluoridated compounds.

[Sherine B Y Badr1, Mohamed A Ibrahim. Protective effect of three different fluoride treatments on dental erosion in primary and permanent teeth. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):442-451]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.75

Keywords: dental erosion, fluoride, CPP-ACPF paste, microhardness, Primary, permanent

Full text

75

76

Diatoms of Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon

1Paul. Chuks. Onuoha, 2Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo and 3Vyverman, Wim

1Department of Fisheries and Marine Biology, Federal College of Fisheries and Marine Technology, Bar-beach Victoria Island, Lagos Nigeria.

2Department of Marine Sciences University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Protistology and Aquatic Ecology Research Laboratory, University of Ghent, Belgium

hydro_vision@yahoo.com

Abstract: The diatoms of Ologe lagoon for the first time were studied at monthly intervals for two years (February 2002-January 2004). A total of forty-eight species belonging to eighteen genera was found in diatoms, with pennate forms being more diverse and less abundance than the centric forms. Aulacoseira granulata, A. granulata var.angustissima, A. granulata var. angustissima f.spiralis, A.granulata var. angustissima f. curvata), A. granulata var. muzzaensis, A. islandica and Cyclotella meneghiniana were the more abundant and frequently occurring centric species throughout the study period. More frequently occurring pennate diatoms include: Synedra ulna, Nitzschia closterium, Pinnularia major, Navicula oblonga, Cymbella minuta, Nitzschia palea, Surirella elegans and Gomphonema parvulum. Rarely occurring diatoms at this station included Biddulphia laevis, Melosira varians, Nitzschia accicularis, Pinnularia laevis, Cocconeis placentula and Eunotia gracilis. In this study, six new diatoms species were recorded for Lagos lagoon complex. Community structure analysis shows a highly diverse environment.

[Paul Chuks Onuoha, Dike Ikeagwu Nwankwo and Vyverman, Wim. Diatoms of Tropical Eutrophic Lagoon. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):452-456]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.76

Keywords: diatom; Ologe lagoon; genera; Lagos lagoon complex; diverse environment

Full text

76

77

Can Dermatoglyphics be used as an Anatomical Marker in Egyptian Rheumatoid Patients?

Hanan M. Elsaadany1, Elham Kassem 1, Mervat El-Sergany*1 and Abdel -Razek A. Sheta2,

1Rheumatology & Rehabilitation, 2Anatomy Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Abstract: Background/aim: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is supposed to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors and so also dermatoglyphics. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out a possible correlation of some quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphic variables with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its radiological grading. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on 60 clinically confirmed RA patients and an equal number of controls. Different qualitative dermatoglyphic patterns (ulnar& radial loops, whorls and arches) and quantitative dermatoglyphic measures (total finger ridge count, pattern intensity and a-b ridge count) in addition to palmar creases were studied on rheumatoid arthritis patients and controls. Comparison between patients and controls in both sexes was done and recorded. Also, correlation between significant dermatoglyphic changes in RA patients and radiological changes were studied. Results: Loops were the most common type of the qualitative dermatoglyphic patterns of the fingers, followed by whorls then arches. In both male and female patients, there was significant marked decrease in ulnar loops and significant increase in arches. Total ridge count and pattern intensity of patients were decreased in both hands of both sexes; however, this decrease was significant in the left hand of males and right hand of females. Moreover, the a-b ridge count was significantly decreased in both hands of female and left hand of male patients. Regarding the unusual palmer flexion creases, there was significant increase only in the Sydney line in female right hands. Significant inverse correlation was noted between total ridge count of the fingers and the radiological erosion in both males and females. Conclusion: The findings of the present work demonstrate the association between some dermatoglyphic patterns and RA suggesting that dermatoglyphics can represent an anatomical, non-invasive, inexpensive tool for screening high-risk population, and thus facilitate early detection and management. Also the relationship between total ridge count and the aggressive type of RA indicate that this dermatoglyphic variable might play a significant role not only for screening but also for studying the behavior of the disease.

[Hanan M. Elsaadany, Elham Kassem, Mervat El-Sergany and Abdel-Razek A. Sheta. Can Dermatoglyphics be used as an Anatomical Marker in Egyptian Rheumatoid Patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):457-466]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.77

Keywords: dermatoglyphics, fingerprints, rheumatoid arthritis

Full text

77

78

High Efficiency Production of Mosquitocidal Toxin by a novel Bacillus sphaericus isolate from Egyptian Soils on Local Agroindustrial Byproducts

M.S.Foda,1* Fawkia M. El-Beih,2 Maysa E. Moharam.1 Nora N.A.El-Gamal1

1* Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. *foda302002@yahoo.com

Abstract: Eighty six cultures were isolated from soil of different Egyptian Governorates including Quina, El-Menofeya, El-Gharbia, El-Sharkia, El-Behera and Kafr EL-Sheikh Governorates. Investigations on the mosquitocidal Egyptian isolates have revealed that isolate No.1 have the ability to form more toxin than the international reference strain Bacillus sphaericus 2362(Bs 2362). The selected isolate No.1 exhibited a lower LC50 and LC 90values than the International strain B.s 2362 upon bioassay against second instars’ larvae of Culex pipiens. The Egyptian isolate No.1was identified morphologically and biochemically as Bacillus sphaericus. Physiological factors affecting growth and toxin formation in B. sphaericus No 1 in comparison to B.s 2362 were carried out. THE organism grown on modified Nutrient broth medium yielded the highest larval toxicity against the second instars’ of Culex pipiens for both Bacillus sphaericus isolate No 1 and the international strain Bacillus sphaericus. The Optimum air: medium ratio were 9:1 and 4:1 of the flask volume for 4 and 3 days incubation periods using 2%and 3% sizes of inocula for B. sphaericus 2362 and the Egyptian isolate B. sphaericusNo.1, respectively. Sodium acetate was the suitable carbon source for the isolate B. sphaericus No.1, while B.s 2362 was capable to utilize both sodium acetate and sodium succinate as carbon sources.The Egyptian isolate B. sphaericus No.1exhibited the highest mosquitocidal activity upon growth on kidney beans seeds and sesame meal as nutrient substrates at 3% final concentration, while B.s 2362 exhibited the highest mosquitocidal activity by utilizing soy beans, lentils and sesame meal as complete media for growth and mosquitocidal toxin production.

[M.S. Foda, Fawkia M. El-Beih, Maysa E. Moharam, Nora N.A.El-Gamal. High Efficiency Production of Mosquitocidal Toxin by a novel Bacillus sphaericus isolate from Egyptian Soils on Local Agroindustrial Byproducts. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):467-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.78

Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, isolation, characterization, mosquitocidal toxin, physiology, agroindustrial byproducts

Full text

78

79

Novel Validated Chromatographic Method for Determination of Some Anti-hypertensive Drugs

M. Farouk1, O. Abd ELAziz1, A. Hemdan*2, M. Shehata2

1 Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. 2 Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department. Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahram Canadian University, 6th October, Egypt. *hemmdan@yahoo.com

Abstract: Accurate, precise and reproducible isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and subsequent validated for the analysis of Torasemide (I), Irbesartan (II) and Olmesartan medoxomil (III) at ambient temperature, using Atlantis 4.6 mm x 250 mm RP-C18 Column, with a flow rate of 1.5 ml.min-1, and UV. detector at 288 nm and 260 nm for (I) and (II and III), respectively. By adopting the mentioned chromatographic technique, (I) and (III) were determined in the presence of their acidic and alkaline-degradates separately as stability-indicating methods utilizing phosphate buffer pH = 3:acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), phosphate buffer pH = 3.2:acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) as a mobile phase, respectively, while (II) was determined in presence of Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), using phosphate buffer pH = 4:acetonitrile (70:30, v/v). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and successfully applied to determine the mentioned studied drugs in pure form, in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations. The obtained results were statistically compared to the reference methods of analysis [for I and "II and III", respectively] and no significant differences were found.

[M. Farouk, O. Abd EL Aziz, A. Hemdan, M. Shehata. Novel Validated Chromatographic Method for Determination of Some Anti-hypertensive Drugs. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):476-486]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.79

Keywords: Torasemide, Irbesartan, Olmesartan medoxomil, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Stability Indicating method

Full text

79

80

Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Human and Bovine Estimated by PCR - Gene Analysis

1J.El-Jakee, 2Ata S. Nagwa, 1 Gad El-Said, W.A., 2Bakry,M.A., 2Samy, A.A., 2Khairy E.A., 2 Elgabry, E.A.

1 Department of Microbiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

2 Department of Microbiology & Immunology National Research Center, Cairo Egypt

Abstract: The present investigation studied the diversity of 19 S. aureus isolates (9 from bovine and 10 from human sources) in comparison with the standard Cowan I strain by conventional methods and by PCR technology. The latter uses primers targeted to species-specific parts of genes encoding coagulase (coa), enterotoxin A (sea) and B (seb), mec A gene encoding mecthillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus protein A (spa) gene. S. aureus isolates (19) as well as the Cowan 1 strain were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with 15 antibiotics by disk diffusion method and classified as susceptible, intermediate and resistant. 57.9% of isolates had a relatively high molecular weight plasmid. The mec A gene among the chosen MRSA S. aureus isolates recovered from human and bovine sources was discussed. Polymorphisms of coa and spa genes were detected among S. aureus isolates. The examined isolates had coagulase gene ranging from 423 bp to 658 bp and the Cowan -1 strain had amplified fragment at 642 bp. All examined S. aureus isolates gave an amplified spa gene product at approximately from 396-464 bp. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes sea and seb were determined and the diversity among the chosen isolates was recorded.

[J.El-Jakee, Ata S. Nagwa, Gad El-Said, W.A., Bakry, M.A., Samy, A.A., Khairy E.A., Elgabry, E.A. Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Human and Bovine Estimated by PCR - Gene Analysis. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):487-498]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.80

Keywords: S. aureus, antibiogram sensitivity, MRSA, Enterotoxins, coagulase gene, spa gene

Full text

80

81

Implementation of a rapid procedure for distinguishing enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens

1J. El-Jakee, 2Ata S. Nagwa, 2Bakry,M.A., 2Sohier, M. Syame, 2Samy A.A., 2Khairy E.A.

1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Microbiology and Immunology National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The objective of the present study is to develop an easy method for detection of toxigenic C. perfringens isolates. 4 C. perfringens isolates (type A, B, C & D) were collected from chickens and reconfirmed on the basis of conventional tests and multiplex PCR. Antisera were prepared from C. perfringens types A, B, C & D separately in different groups of rabbits. The titres of the prepared hyperimmune sera were estimated by ELISA & staphylococci protein A (SpA) agglutination test. An attempt was carried out to detect C. perfringens toxins in infected fecal samples. The fecal samples were infected by 20 &40 µg /ml C. perfringens toxins (A, B, C & D) and examined by double sandwich ELISA & SpA agglutination methods. In addition the sensitivity of PCR for detection of C. perfringens types were compared with conventional culture technique among fecal samples contaminated with C. perfringens types and the results were discussed.

[J. El-Jakee, Ata S. Nagwa, Bakry, M.A., Sohier, M. Syame, Samy A.A., Khairy E.A. Implementation of a rapid procedure for distinguishing enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):499-508]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.81

Keywords: C. perfringens, ELISA, SpA agglutination, PCR

Full text

81

82

Comparative Study of Software Engineering Processes in Egyptian Cmmi Companies

Alaa El-Din Hamouda and Mohammad Abdrabo Elwahsh

Computers & Systems Engineering Dept.,Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.

Alaa_ham@gega.net, eng.md.elwahsh@gmail.com; www.elwahsh.com

Abstract: The Egyptian government has paid special attention to the software industry as Egypt to provide it with a competitive advantage that makes this emerging industry promising. Thus, the State has supported the Egyptian companies to make use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Since 2009, more than thirty companies obtained the CMMI at different levels. However, these companies suffer from lack of a mechanism to exchange experience and information among themselves although they could be similar in the culture of their engineers and perhaps in the nature and size of their software projects. So, we provide in this research a survey to gauge the quality of methods, tools and processes used in these Egyptian companies winning the CMMI. Then we analyzed the results to reach the recommendations aimed at enriching the software industry in Egypt.

[Alaa El-Din Hamouda and Mohammad Abdrabo Elwahsh. Comparative Study of Software Engineering Processes in Egyptian Cmmi Companies. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):509-514]. (ISSN:1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.82

Keywords: CMMI in Egypt, software engineering processes, survey

Full text

82

83

Prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis among patients with indwelling catheters and their antibiogram using some commonly used antibiotics.

*De, N. and Godlove, M.

Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Technology, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

e-mail: nanditamicrobio@yahoo.com; *corresponding author

Abstract: The objectives of this study were to find the prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in urine samples of patients placed on catheter in Federal Medical Centre, Yola (FMCY) and State Specialist hospital, Yola (SSHY) and the efficacy of some commonly used antibiotics against the isolates of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. A total of one hundred and five samples (60 from SHHY and 45 from FMCY) were collected and inoculated into Cystine lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED) agar for isolation of Staphylococcal species. A total of seventy six presumptive Staphylococcal isolates were obtained on CLED agar and these isolates were identified using gram staining, morphological characteristics and standard biochemical tests. Serological studies revealed that out of 76 isolates, 56 were S. epidermidis (coagulase negative) and 20 were S. aureus (coagulase positive). Fifty one point eight percent (51.8%) of the isolates of S. epidermidis were sensitive to ceftazidime followed by ciprofloxacin (46.4 %) whereas 45% of the isolates of S. aureus were sensitive to ceftriaxone followed by cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin (40%).

[De, N. and Godlove, M. Prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis among patients with indwelling catheters and their antibiogram using some commonly used antibiotics. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):515-520]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.83

Keywords: ciprofloxacin; coagulase; CLED agar, catheters, S. aureus, S. epidermidis

Full text

83

84

Biochemical and Molecular Genetic Studies on Rice Tolerance to Salinity

El-Mouhamady, A. A.; I. S. El-Demardash and K. A. Aboud*

*Genetics Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: The present investigation was carried under green house conditions during 2009 and 2010 seasons included two conditions (normal irrigation and salinity) using model of half diallel analysis by five cultivars of rice “Gz1368-s-5-4, Hybrid1, Sakha102, Giza 181 an IE1444”. Five parents and ten crosses were grown under two conditions and the results showed that: (1) The most desirable mean value and positive and highly significant for heterosis, general and specific combining ability effects for all genotypes under normal and salinity conditions were observed from the genotypes.; Gz1368-s-5-4, hybrid1, IET1444, Gz1368-s-5-4 x hybrid 1, Gz1368-s-5-4 x IET1444, Hybrid 1 x I”ET1444, Sakha 102 x IET1444 and Giza 181 x IET 1444 for all traits studied. (2) From the foreign discussion, it could be concluded that the crosses Gz1368-s-5-4 x Hybrid 1, G21368-s-5-4 x IET1444, Hybrid 1 x IET1444 and Giza 181 x IET1444 were contained of 1, 5, 1 and 56 and 5 using PM15 primer, 6, 3, 6 and 6 bands using AY334988 and 6, 2, 4 and 5 bands using HL-17 primer, which indicated that these bands were found to be index and marker for salinity tolerance in rice by increasing K+ content and decreasing of Na+ content.

[El-Mouhamady, A. A.; I. S. El-Demardash and K. A. Aboud. Biochemical and Molecular Genetic Studies on Rice Tolerance to Salinity. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):521-535]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.84

Keywords: heterosis,, half diallel analysis, salinity tolerance, RAPD

Full text

84

85

Effect of Adding Urea or Ammonium Sulphate on some Herbicides Efficiency in Controlling Weeds in Onion Plants

1El-Metwally, I. M.; *1Kowthar G. El-Rokiek; 1Salah A. Ahmed; 1Ebrahim R. El–Desoki and

2Emad E. H. Abd-Elsamad

1Botany Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo,Egypt.

2Vegetable Crops Research Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. *ahmed_ezat2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted during two successive seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 at the Agricultural Experiments Station of the National Research Centre at Nobariya, Behaira Governorate, Egypt, to study the effect of adding urea or ammonium sulphate at 2% to herbicide solution on weed control efficiency in onion fields. Weed control treatments were as follows: Metosulam at 20 ml/fed or Clodinafop-propargyl at 70g/fed with or without addition of urea or ammonium sulphate (AMS) at 2% of herbicide solution in comparison to Metosulam at 40 ml/fed, Clodinafop- propargyl at 140g/ fed, Metosulam at 20 ml + Clodinafop- propargyl at 70 g / fed, two hand hoeing and unweeded check. All weed control treatments significantly depressed weed growth when compared to the unweeded one. Two hand hoeing showed the best control of broadleaved weeds in both seasons, followed by that of Metosulam at 40 ml, Metosulam + urea and Metosulam + AMS treatments, respectively. Clodinafop – propargyl at 140 g, Clodinafop – propargyl at 70 g, Clodinafop – propargyl + urea, Clodinafop – propargyl + AMS and Metosulam + Clodinafop – propargyl were very effective in controlling most grass weeds. Meanwhile, hand hoeing, Metosulam + Clodinafop – propargyl, Metosulam at 40 ml and Clodinafop – propargyl at 140 g /fed were the most effective in controlling onion weeds. All herbicidal treatments as well as hand hoeing markedly increased onion yield in both seasons. Maximum values of bulb length, diameter, weight and bulb yield (t/fed) were recorded from Metosulam + Clodinafop – propargyl, Metosulam at 20 ml and hand hoeing twice.

[El-Metwally, I. M.; Kowthar G. El-Rokiek; Salah A. Ahmed; Ebrahim R. El–Desoki and Emad E. H. Abd-Elsamad. Effect of Adding Urea or Ammonium Sulphate on some Herbicides Efficiency in Controlling Weeds in Onion Plants. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):536-543]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.85

Keywords: Onion, Urea, Ammonium sulphate, Metosulam, Clodinafop-propargyl, weeds

Full text

85

86

Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites infections in sheep in the Zoo garden and Sinai district and study the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in the treatment of these parasites.

Abouzeid. N.Z.1; Selim. A. M.1 and El-Hady K. M.2

1.Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

2.Veterinay Clinic Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt.

dr_nasser_zeidan@yahoo.com

Abstract: A survey of the prevalence of gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) parasites in 240 sheep was conducted in different area in the zoo garden (110) and in Sinai district (130) during the period of March 2009 to February 2010. The overall prevalence of infections with nematodes; fasciola and coccidiosis in sheep in Sinai and zoo garden were 66/240 (27.5%); 24/240 (10.0%) and 16/240 (6.7%) respectively. Of the 240 examined sheep, 12.5%; 0.0% and 8.6 % young lambs (1-6 month), 37.7%; 6.9 % and 9.2 % immature sheep (>6-12 months) and 17.1 %; 21.4 % and 1.4 % adult sheep (>one yr) were infested with nematodes, fasciola and coccidia respectively. Most of the animals examined during the present survey had low to moderate infestation. Serum biochemical parameters revealed that serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, copper and iron levels were significantly decreased in all parasitic infested animals. All treated sheep showed significant improvement & disappearance of most clinical signs and significant decrease of egg per gram (EPG) with complete disappearance of eggs in 5th day; 4th day and 6th day post treatment with albendazole (valbazine); doramectin (dectomax) and trichlabendazole (fasinex) respectively. There were gradual increases in the levels of biochemical parameters in 3 groups after one and two weeks post treatment and their levels reached nearly similar to standard levels after 3 week post treatment. Study surveys suggest, appropriate parasitic control approach be explored and tried in order to alleviate the problem of worm burden.

[Abouzeid. N.Z.; Selim. A. M. and El-Hady K. M. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites infections in sheep in the Zoo garden and Sinai district and study the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in the treatment of these parasites. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):544-551]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.86

Key words: gastro intestinal parasites, sheep, Zoo garden, Sinai, anthelmintics & biochemical parameters

Full text

86

87

Diet quality in Egyptian Obese Children and Adolescents

Nayera El-morsi Hassan*1, Safaa,T, Zaki 2, Azza,Gabr2 and Hala El gindi 2

Biological Anthropology Department 1, Child Health Department2, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*safaazaki@hotmail.com

Abstract: The epidemic increase in the prevalence of obesity is now seen in most countries Dietary composition, the relative proportions of calories coming from fats, carbohydrates, protein and intake of fiber has been suspected of playing a role in obesity. So, the aim of the present study was to analyze the diet quality and also to determine if an association exists between obesity and the relative percentage of fats, carbohydrates, protein and fiber in the diets of children and adolescent. A cross-sectional survey, comprised 5760 children (2638 boys and 3122 girls) was recruited from 6 public schools. Each child underwent a complete physical examination, including anthropometric measures. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. Only one thousand and one hundred children of the total sample (19.1%), (417 boys and 683 girls, aged 13.43+2.65 years), with the complaint of obesity, were included. Repeated Twenty-four hour recall method, record food intake for three scattered days (3 recalls), includes one day as a holiday was done to assess the nutritional status of obese children. Nutrient intake were calculated using the computer program World Food Dietary Assessment System (1) compared with National Research Council USA1989 (2), while vitamins and minerals were compared with USDA, 2005(3). This study highlights the importance of nutritional data that it is not what you eat but rather how much the total number of calories consumed which contributes to obesity. Success in obesity prevention is most likely to be achieved when preventive measures are initiated early and sustained throughout childhood and adolescence. More researches must be done for more evaluation, also, to achieve physical activity and life style for obese children and adolescence.

[Nayera El-morsi Hassan, Safaa,T, Zaki, Azza,Gabr and Hala El gindi. Diet quality in Egyptian Obese Children and Adolescents. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):552-558]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.87

Keywords: Diet quality, obese, children, adolescents

Full text

87

88

Improvement Growth, and Yield of Wheat Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress by Using Silicon
Abd El-Monem M. Sharaf

Botany and Microbiology Dept. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univ. Cairo, Egypt, sharaf5858@yahoo.com

Abstract: The present study aims to improvement of wheat production under saline conditions using silicon (Si) treatment. Salinity caused significant reduction in the growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and yield components of wheat plants. The magnitude of reduction increased by increasing salinity level. Significant increases were observed in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in shoots of salt stressed plants. Silicon treatment in absence and presence of NaCl had great changes on most of the assayed parameters. The adverse effects of salinity as regards the growth characters, photosynthetic pigments and yield components were significantly mitigated by Si supplement. Application of Si caused great variations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Under normal (Non-saline) condition, addition of Si, especially at 1 mM, markedly increased the activity of both SOD and CAT, however activity of both POX and GR was significantly decreased. Addition of Si markedly reduced the increases in the activities of SOD, POX, CAT and GR were observed in salt stressed plants. Great variations were also observed as regards the contents of endogenous phytohormones in response to Si, NaCl and their interactions. Generally, it could be concluded that Si have (to more extent) a beneficial regulatory role in plants grown under salt stress conditions.

[Abd El-Monem M. Sharaf. Improvement Growth and Yield of Wheat Plants Grown Under Salinity Stress by Using Silicon. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):559-566]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.88

Key words: Triticum aestivum; NaCl; Silicon; Photosynthetic pigments; Antioxidant enzymes

Full text

88

89

Re-introduction of Elephant’s Infant into Wild Group: First Attempt and Case Study from North-West India

Ritesh Joshi

Doon Institute of Engineering and Technology, Shyampur, Rishikesh, Dehradun, 249 204, Uttarakhand, India. E-mail: ritesh_joshi2325@yahoo.com

Abstract: Elephant’s infant is considered extremely difficult to re-introduce into the wild. On 21st of November 2009, an eight day old elephant’s infant was found strayed from its group at Shyampur forest of the Haridwar forest division. For the first time in the history of Uttarakhand, attempts had been made by forest officials to re-introduce the orphaned baby elephant into the wild. It is noteworthy that during the introduction attempts, group of seven elephants had taken the baby within group, but left her behind after a while. They had responded from all directions to the cries of the baby elephant but the attempts were in vain. Radha – the domesticated elephant at Chilla forest of the Rajaji National Park nurtured the infant for 10 days before infant’s death and Radha’s behaviour always illuminated something new about elephant’s life. It was the first attempt to re-introduce the infant to wild in north-west India in which some lessons came forward and could be helpful in management of elephants and in documentation of conservation-oriented action plan. Additionally, studies on the behaviour of wild elephants are highly required and recommended so that we can ensure the future survival of this endangered species.

[Ritesh Joshi. Re-introduction of Elephant’s Infant into Wild Group: First Attempt and Case Study from North-West India. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):567-570]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.89

Keywords: Asian elephants, infant, re-introduction, conservation, north-west India

Full text

89

90

An Approach To Partially Import The Ontologies On Semantic Web Based Upon User Choice

Tayybah Kiren1, Muhammad Shoaib1, Muhammad Tariq Pervez2, Sonia Majid3, Qazi Mudassar Illyas4

1Department of CS & E, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore Pakistan

2Department of CS, Virtual University of Pakistan, Shadman Campus, Shadman Market, Lahore, Pakistan

3Lahore College for Women University, Lahore Pakistan

4COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan

tariq_cp@hotmail.com

Abstract: With the increase in applications using ontologies to represent semantic information, the issue of partially reusing the ontologies is getting more focus of researchers. Ontology construction from scratch is protracted and labor intensive job. Therefore, it is good to fabricate the ontologies by reusing the existing ontologies. Existing techniques for partially importing the ontology do not consider the user choice while selecting the most relevant ontologies for reusing. Most of the approaches have restriction on the size of ontology that is to be modularized. An approach for partially importing the ontologies has been presented in this paper. The proposed technique selects important keywords from a document by calculating term frequency, IR measure and precision along with class match measure to rank the most relevant ontologies. An algorithm to extract ontology fragments has been presented. This algorithm is independent of the size of ontology being reused.

[Tayybah Kiren, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Tariq Pervez, Sonia Majid, Qazi Mudassar Illyas. An Approach To Partially Import The Ontologies On Semantic Web Based Upon User Choice. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):571-581]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.90

Keywords: semantic web; ontology; partial import; knowledge management; user choice; term frequency

Full text

90

91

The Use of Lemongrass Extracts as Antimicrobial and Food Additive Potential in Yoghurt

Shaaban, M. Abd-El Fattah*1; Abo sree, Yahia Hassan1; Hala M. Bayoum2 and Hesham A. Eissa3

Food Toxins and contaminants Department1, Dairy Department 2, Food Technology Department 3, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. *shaabanmostafa@yahoo.com

Abstract: The following study was conducted to investigate the antifungal and food additive potential of medicinal plants. herbal decoction and essential oil (EO) extracts of Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) leaves and stems were tested for their inhibitory action against spoilage organisms and mycotoxins formation in two separated experiments. In the first experiment, yeast- extract sucrose medium (YES) was used as a basal medium to examine the mold growth and mycotoxin production by three pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) and Aspergillus ochraceus (A. ochraceus). The YES medium was supplemented with four different concentrations of Lemongrass oil, inoculated with 1-mL of a spore suspension containing 105-106 conidia of each test mold and then incubated at 28º C for 14 days. After incubation period, cultures were analyzed for mycelial dry weight and mycotoxin accumulation. In the second experiment, yoghurt medium was used as a basal medium and the same system of study was applied in two different degrees of temperature (5ºC and 28ºC) for 4 weeks. Evaluation of the Lemongrass oil activity in yoghurt samples focused on the microbial stability of yoghurt, sensory evaluation as well as mold growth and mycotoxin formation. In the 1st experiment, the level of 0.1% of the EO extract was effective in inhibition both mold growth and mycotoxin production for all tested molds, and 0.3 % extract completely prevented the growth and toxin production. whereas, 1% of the decoction extract was effective. So, the EO extract was the suitable agent in the second experiment. It is of interest to note that while reduction in mold growth due to increasing extract concentrations was observed, the most striking effect was the reduction of mycotoxin production. The obtained data from the second experiment showed that the EO extract (0.1% concentration) inhibited viable yeasts and preserved yoghurt for over 28 days at 5ºC. Also, the inhibitory action of the EO extract against yeasts was concentration dependent. The maximum inhibitory effect of was found when the extract level increased above 0.1%. Incubation temperature had an important role in growth and mycotoxin production in yoghurt medium. During cold storage for 28 days at 5°C, the different concentrations of the EO extract added to yoghurt samples displayed different titratable acidity and total bacterial cells and pH than the control yoghurt (p < 0.05). Overall sensory acceptability of yoghurt supplemented with the EO extract was higher than that of the control yoghurt prepared without the EO extract. The results indicate that the addition of the appropriate the EO concentration (0.1%, w/v) improved the physicochemical properties as well as sensory characteristics of yoghurt, could be used for decontamination of dairy products such as yoghurt from mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins formation, beside its beneficial properties as a functional food.

[Shaaban, M. Abd-El Fattah; Abo sree, Yahia Hassan; Hala M. Bayoum and Hesham A. Eissa. The Use of Lemongrass Extracts as Antimicrobial and Food Additive Potential in Yoghurt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):582-594]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.91

Key words: Yoghurt, lemongrass, molds, yeasts, mycotoxins, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, food additives

Full text

91

92

The Assessment Of Mycotic Settlement Of Freshwater Fishes In Egypt

Refai, M.K.1, Laila, A. Mohamed2, Amany, M. Kenawy2, and Shimaa, El-S.M.A*.2

1 Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Vet.Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2 Hydrobiology Dept., National Research Center. Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*shimaakhalifa2003@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study was carried out on 360 freshwater fishes (240 Oreochromis species and 120 Clarias gariepinus). They were collected from different governorates and during different seasons. Naturally infected fishes showed clinical abnormalities such as skin darkening, exophthalmia, corneal opacity, abdominal distention, ulceration of the skin and cotton wool like growths on various parts of the body. Fishes were then subjected to post mortem examination which revealed many abnormalities. Mycological examination revealed the isolation of 2081 fungal isolates from 150 diseased and 210 apparently healthy fish samples (1658 mould and 423 yeast isolates), of which 1334 were isolated from Oreochromis species and 747 isolates from Clarias gariepinus. Isolated moulds belonged to the following genera: Saprolegnia (4.2%), Aspergillus (43.0%), Fusarium (14.1%), Mucor (14), Penicillium (17.2), Rhizopus (4.8%), Scopulariopsis (1.2%), Paeciliomyces (1%) and Curvularia (0.4%). Yeasts isolated also from both fish species had the following incidence: Candida albicans (35.9 %), other Candida species (19.1%), Rhodotorula species (31.4%) and Torulopsis species (13.5%). Experimental infection with the most predominant fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium species and Candida albicans) was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates. Clinical pictures of experimentally infected fish were similar to those of natural infection. Inoculated fungi were re-isolated from different organs. Results were confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed the presence of fungal hyphae and spores in different organs.

[Refai, M.K., Laila, A. Mohamed, Amany, M. Kenawy, and Shimaa, El-S.M.A. The Assessment Of Mycotic Settlement Of Freshwater Fishes In Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):595-602]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.92

Keywords: Mycotic infection, Oreochromis species, Clarias gariepinus, Moulds, Yeasts, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Candida, Penicillium

Full text

92

93

Bacterial Infections Affecting Marine Fishes In Egypt

M. Moustafa 1, Laila. A. Mohamed2, M.A. Mahmoud3, W.S, Soliman2, A.E. Eissa 1 and M.Y. El-gendy*2

1 Department of Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Giza, Egypt; 2 Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt; 3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Giza, Egypt

*mamdouhyousif@yahoo.com

Abstract: Marine fishes are suffering from continuous depletion due to bacterial pathogens infections triggered by devastating environmental changes at their native aquatic environment. Qarun Lake and Suez Gulf are among the most vulnerable areas. 600 fish samples of Six different fish species; Epinephelus tuvina, Sisganus rivulatus, and Dedlechilus labiosus native to Suez-gulf at Suez governorate; Mugil capito, Solea vulgaris and Tilapia zilli native to Qarun Lake at El-Fayoum governorate were examined throughout the different year seasons. Gram positive and negative fish pathogenic bacteria were isolated from a total of 245 fish sample. Among those samples, the following bacteria were retrieved in the following percentages respectively, 17.55% (Vibrio. anguillarum), 16.73% (Vibrio. alginolyticus), 15.51% (Pasteurella. piscicida), 15.91% (Pseudomonas. fluorescens), 13.46% (Streptococus. fecalis), 11.02% (Aeromans. hydrophila), 6.12% (Aeromans. sobria) and 3.67% were infected with Staph. aureus. The Siganus rivulatus was the highest infected fish species with a prevalence of 8.33%, while Mugil capito was the lowest infected species (5.67 %). The highest total prevalence of bacterial infection was recorded in summer season (40.81%) while the lowest was recorded in winter (15.91%). The aforementioned bacterial isolates were successfully re-isolated from experimentally infected fish. The retrieved isolates were confirmed by semi-automated (API 20 E) and conventional biochemical tests.

[M. Moustafa, Laila. A. Mohamed, M.A. Mahmoud, W.S, Soliman, A.E. Eissa and M.Y. El-gendy. Bacterial Infections Affecting Marine Fishes In Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):603-612]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.93

Keywords: Marine fishes, Bacterial diseases, Diagnosis, seasonal variation

Full text

93

94

Effect of Antioxidant on Lead-Induced Oxidative Damage and Reproductive Dysfunction in Male Rabbits

*El-Tohamy, M.M., and El-Nattat, W.S.

Department of Animal Reproduction and A.I., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

*eltohamymagda@yahoo.com

Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize the Lead toxicity syndrome, to asses' biomarkers that may be most useful for detecting toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction, and to determine whether supplemental vitamin C would tend to alleviate the lead toxicity in rabbits. To test the hypothesis that the level of lead exposure is associated with an adverse effect on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, morphology, motility to asses' antioxidant as important markers of disease using total antioxidant status. Adverse effects of lead on the testes may be mediated by oxidative damage and subsequent lipid peroxidation. The effect of lead acetate administration on testicular, hepatic and renal functions and the biomarker of effect for them were investigated in the present study with a trial of treatment by vitamin C. 35 male rabbits were divided into five groups. One control group and four groups received orally low and high doses of lead acetate (10.8 and 15 mg/kg b.wt., respectively). One low and one high received, in addition, 1 g vitamin C / L in drinking water. SOD, g-GT, AST, ALT, cholinesterase, acid phosphatase, and LDH activities were measured in both serum and semen. Also semen characteristics were measured. Results concerning all the enzymes were promising. SOD, LDH, ALT and acid phosphatase activities in serum and semen were obviously affected by lead. Vitamin C was a good antioxidant that recuperates from the normal enzymatic status in both serum and semen. In conclusion, lead levels led to testicular hypo function, which is supported by the results of semen picture. The hazardous effect of lead led to disturbance in the activities of enzymes under investigation such as SOD, g-GT, LDH, AST, ALT, Cholinesterase, Acid phosphatase. Vitamin C proved its antioxidant effect on recuperating from the normal status of enzymes in semen and serum. LDH and prostatic acid phosphatase are shown to be biomarkers of testicular dysfunction, while LDH, ALT may be used as biomarkers for hepatic and renal dysfunction. This study established the principle that lead toxicity can be prevented and makes it worthwhile to establish an acceptable treatment or preventive regimen in the light of the present results.

[El-Tohamy, M.M., and El-Nattat, W.S. Effect of Antioxidant on Lead-Induced Oxidative Damage and Reproductive Dysfunction in Male Rabbits. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):613-622]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.94

Keywords: Effect; Antioxidant; Lead; Oxidative Damage; Reproductive Dysfunction; Male; Rabbit

Full text

94

95

Tara Gum Carbamate: A New Thickening System for Cotton Printing Using Vat Dyes

A. Hebeish 1, A.A. Ragheb 1, S.H.Nassar 1, E.Allam2 and J.I. Abd El -Thalouth2

 1Textile Research Division, National Research Center Dokki, Cairo Egypt

2 Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract: Green technology-based textile thickeners, namely, glactomannan was isolated from tara seeds and harnessed to vat printing of cotton fabrics before and after being carbamated. Carbamation was effected through reaction with urea at 160 oC for 15 and 90 min. to produce tara carbamate derivatives having 1% N and 3.12 % N respectively. These derivatives are soluble in water at room temperature and characterized by non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour. However, for a given rate of shear, tara carbamate derivative having 1% N exhibits lower apparent viscosity than the derivative with 3.12 % N. On the other hand the apparent viscosity of pastes prepared from these two derivatives increases by storing for 24 or 48 hours before commence measuring. Prints could successfully be achieved using either of the two new tara carbamate derivatives in single use or in admixture with conventional thickener viz. Lameprint A6. Colour strength (K/S) values of prints prepared using the new tara carbmate –based thickeners are higher than those obtained with the conventional thickener, meanwhile the overall fastness properties of all prints are equal, irrespective of the thickener used.

[A. Hebeish, A.A. Ragheb, S.H.Nassar, E.Allam and J.I. Abd El –Thalouth. Tara Gum Carbamate: A New Thickening System for Cotton Printing Using Vat Dyes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):623-631]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.95

Keywords: Tara Gum Carbamate; System; Print; Vat Dye

Full text

95

96

Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Environmental Sensitivity Assessment of North Coastal Part, Egypt.

Ahmed A. Afifi *1; Gad, A2. and Refat, A. 1

1 Soils and water use dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Egypt.

*a.afifinrc@gmail.com

Abstract: Desertification is considered as an important problem facing arid and semi-arid regions, as Egypt. These processes are resulted either from human activities or adverse natural conditions. However, the combination of both is often applicable. The aim of this study is the identification of areas sensitive to desertification in the north coast of Egypt. Based on the MEDALUS approach and the characteristics of the study area regional model developed using GIS. Three main indicators of desertification, including: soil, vegetation and climate were considered. The several sub-indicators affecting the quality of each main indicator were identified. Based on the MEDALUS approach, each sub-indicator was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1 and 2. Arc-GIS 9.2 was used to analyze and prepare the layers of quality maps using the geometric mean to integrate the individual sub-indicator. ETM and SRTM satellite images, geologic and soil maps were used as main sources for calculating the Environmental Sensitivity Areas Index (ESAI) for desertification. The results show that the soil of the north coast is characterized mainly by high sensitive areas for desertification (44.01 % of the total area), distributed mostly in the north western coast and the northern part of Sinai, where the soil quality, climatic quality and vegetation quality are low, while, 9.37 % of the total area exhibit are sensitive. The areas of moderate sensitive to desertification revealed in the studied area, representing an area of 3834.577 Km2 (11.04 %) of the total area. The low sensitivity areas for desertification exhibit the whole area of the Nile Delta, as they represent 27.17 % of the total area (i.e. 9434.928 Km2). The low sensitivity for desertification is due to the good vegetation cover and soil quality. It can be concluded that implementing the maps of sensitivity to desertification is rather useful in the arid and semi arid areas as they give a more likely quantitative trend for frequency of sensitive areas. The integration of different factors contributing to desertification sensitivity may lead to plan a successful combating. The usage of space data and GIS proved to be suitable tools to rely on estimation and to fulfill the needed large computational requirements. They are also useful in visualizing the sensitivity situation of different desertification parameters.

[Ahmed A. Afifi; Gad, A. and Refat, A. Use of GIS and Remote Sensing for Environmental Sensitivity Assessment of North Coastal Part, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):632-646]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.96

Keywords: Remote sensing, GIS, Environment, Desertification, Egypt

Full text

96

97

Efficiency of Natural Minerals in Presence of Different Nitrogen Forms and Potassium Dissolving Bacteria on Peanut and Sesame Yields

Gehan H. Youssef, Wafaa M. A. Seddik and Mona A. Osman

Soil, Water and Environ. Research Institute, agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt

Abstract: A field experiment was carried out for two summer seasons at Ismailia Agric. Res. Station to study the effect of some natural minerals combined with potassium dissolving bacteria inoculation in the presence of different nitrogen forms on chemical properties of soil, nutritional status and yield of peanut-sesame. Each experiment was designed in a split-split design with three replications. Three forms of nitrogen fertilizer were included along with two natural minerals, in a presence of potassium dissolving bacteria inoculation, as well as one mineral fertilizer as source potassium fertilizer. Furthermore, data show high significant increases in available N due to the application of ammonium nitrate in combination with feldspar, and calcium nitrate in combination with potassium sulfate in a presence of inoculation for peanut and sesame, respectively. However, application of calcium nitrate combined with potassium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate in combination with feldspar, in a presence of inoculation, led to significant increases in K available in soil for peanut and sesame, respectively. Oppositely, the pH values, different to those of EC, decreased either for inoculation or non-inoculation as compared to control. In spite of that, the values of EC and pH of soil were higher with application of either bentonite or bentonite + feldspar in a presence of all nitrogen fertilizer forms. Generally, the highest EC values in soil, after the two studied seasons were encountered with calcium nitrate fertilizer as well as bentonite mineral. Moreover, applying feldspar mineral and ammonium nitrate treatments had recorded the highest values of yield components as well as nutrient (N and K) uptake by either peanut or sesame crops, particularly in the presence of inoculation as compared to those given by other treatments.

[Gehan H. Youssef, Wafaa M. A. Seddik and Mona A. Osman. Efficiency of Natural Minerals in Presence of Different Nitrogen Forms and Potassium Dissolving Bacteria on Peanut and Sesame Yields. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):647-660]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.97

Keywords: Efficiency; Natural Mineral; Nitrogen; Potassium; Bacteria

Full text

97

98

Clinical Prespective of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Buffaloes

Ahmed W.M.*, El-khadrawy H.H., Emtenan M. Hanafi, Amal H. Ali, Shalaby S.A.

Department of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, National Research Centre Dokki,Cairo, Egypt. *wahidmma@hotmail.com

Abstract: Local meat production in Egypt is in continuous decrease and can not meet the local market requirement. So this study was designed to throw light on true repeat breeding syndrome (RBS) as one of the reproductive disorders that hinders the buffalo meat and milk production. A field survey was carried out on 1358 female buffaloes which were subjected to clinical and gynecological examination, and blood samples were collected for carrying out some relevant analyses. Treatment trials were practiced using different ways to control the condition and the economic impact of this syndrome has been studied. Results revealed that the incidence of clinical repeat breeding (RB) in the examined buffalo cows was 4.34 %. Typical repeat breeders represented 7.25 % of total reproductive disorders in female buffaloes. Serum progesterone level was 1.44 ± 0.39 and 3.66±0.84 in RB and normal buffaloes (NB), respectively. Oxidant/antioxidant markers in RB buffalo-cows showed increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) and decreased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid (ASCA), reduced glutathione (R-GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum zinc, copper, iron and selenium values were lower in repeat breeder cows compared to normal animals. Repeat breeder buffalo-cows responded to the treatments with mineral mixture, GnRH and Lugol‘s solution with recovery rates; 63.64, 61.54 and 60.00%, respectively. The study concluded that special care should be paid for food additives to control this syndrome.

[Ahmed W.M., El-khadrawy H.H., Emtenan M. Hanafi, Amal H. Ali, Shalaby S.A. Clinical Prespective of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Buffaloes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):661-666]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.98

Key words: Repeat breeding buffaloes - progesterone - oxidant/antioxidants and trace elements

Full text

98

99

Biologically evaluation of pan bread supplemented with vital gluten, lupin, fenugreek and turmeric flour blends

 Aly, M. H*; El Nikeety, M. M*; Saleh, M. A. M**. and Abd El-Hak, N. A. M.* **

*Cairo University, Faculty of Agric., Food Science & Technology Dept.

 ** Food Technology Research Institute, Special Food &Nutrition Dept.

 ***Food Technology Research Institute, Experimental Kitchen Unit.

ABSTRACT: The current study was carried out to utilize each of whole meal wheat flour (control), some legumes (lupin and fenugreek), turmeric and vital gluten flour in blends for preparation of pan bread more nutrients and healthy in order to enhance the dietary fiber and amino acids contents. The biological parameters of rats (non and induced diabetic) fed on such pan bread was also estimated. A significant higher amount of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber contents was found in the turmeric, fenugreek and lupin, pan bread compared to that found in control once(whole wheat flour). Normal rats (nondiabetic and fed on basal diet) exhibited an insignificant decrement in blood glucose. However, in the diabetic rats a significantly lowered blood glucose trend was found. The tested pan bread samples were more slightly effective in lowering liver and kidney function in the diabetic rats in a relation to diabetic rats, when compared with the positive control. Finally, it is recommended to utilize whole meal flour to prepare healthy diets to deal with diabetic status and control of some biological parameters.

[Aly, M. H; El Nikeety, M. M; Saleh, M. A. M. and Abd El-Hak, N. A. M. Biologically evaluation of pan bread supplemented with vital gluten, lupin, fenugreek and turmeric flour blends. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):667-79]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.99

Key words: Whole meal wheat, Vital gluten, Fenugreek seeds, Legumes, Turmeric, Diabetes

Full text

99

100

Scleral Fixation Intraocular lenses

1Ayman Shouman, 1Mohamed Marzouk, 1 Hesham Ali and 1Ehab Zakzook

1Ophthalmology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza

shoumanaaes@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: Background: The 1ry indication for scleral fixation of intraocular lenses (IOL) is dislocation as a principal complication of cataract surgery. Inadequate capsular support is the most common cause of IOL dislocation. Other indications include traumatic phakic lens dislocation (cataractous or clear), surgically aphakic eyes or anterior chamber IOL with complications (persistent hyphema, uveitis). Methods: 20 eyes of 20 patients were done, surgery was done only when the IOL was dislocated peripheral to the visual axis and was causing symptoms of visual loss sufficient to interfere with the patient’s activities of daily living, or patients who were left aphakic for a 2ry implantation procedure. A modification of the technique was done which made the procedure faster and preserved the surrounding conjunctiva. Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) preoperatively ranged from 1/60 -6/60 and postoperatively between 6/60 – 6/6. Statistical analysis of the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) between the preoperative and postoperative visual acuity revealed significant improvement (p≤0.05). Intraoperative complications included one case of accidental iris injury, two cases of mild vitreous hemorrhage, two cases of moderate vitreous hemorrhage. Early postoperative complications included pupillary block. Midterm post operative complications occurred in one case with the occurrence of cystoid macular edema. Conclusion: Scleral fixation of IOL is a safe procedure with minimal complications, but needs surgical skills to be managed optimally.

[Ayman Shouman, Mohamed Marzouk, Hesham Ali and Ehab Zakzook. Scleral Fixation Intraocular lenses. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):680-687]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.100

Key words: Scleral fixation, Intraocular lenses, Aphakia, IOL dislocation

Full text

100

101

Technological Properties of some Egyptian New Wheat Varieties

Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal H. Ragab

National Research Centre, Food Technology Department, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

email: ResearchTeamMMK@yahoo.com

Abstract: Whole meal and flour 72% of Gemmeiza 7, Gize 168, Sohage 3 and Sakha 93 wheat varieties were evaluated to produce pan bread, pasta and biscuits. Pan bread of whole meal wheat varieties had higher contents of moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber than wheat flour 72% of the same varieties. Pan bread of Sakha 93 characterized with its higher baking quality (weight, volume and specific volume) than pan breads of other varieties. Crust color of pan bread slightly affected with whole-meal wheat varieties, where its color score maximized in Sakha 93 (7.7) and Sohage 3 (6.7). This result agreed with the obtained color parameter of Hunter, where lightness (L) maximized to 55.95 and 49.79 in pan bread crust of Sohage 3 and Sakha 93, respectively. Pasta characterized with its higher protein (13.12%), fat (2.59%) and crude fiber (2.82%) in case of using whole meal of Sohage 3, Giza 168 and Gemmeiza 7 varieties, respectively. Pasta cooking quality ranked first in case of using Sohage 3 whole meal, where its weight increase, volume increase and cooking loss reached to 265%, 305.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Pasta color parameter showed that, wheat flour 72% and whole meal of Sakha 93 characterized with its higher lightness (L). Sensory evaluation showed that, pasta of wheat flour 72% accepted slightly in appearance and color if compared with whole meal pasta of the same variety. In addition, there were no significant difference between pasta of wheat flour 72% and whole meal in flavor, tenderness and stickiness. Biscuit of whole meal characterized with its higher content of protein, fat, ash and crude fiber than wheat flour 72%. Whole meal biscuit of Sohage 3 characterized with its higher protein (12.13%), fat (31.0%) and ash (2.51%) contents; and lowest carbohydrate content (52.18%). Biscuit of Sakha 93 variety (whole meal or flour 72%) was higher in baking quality. Hunter color parameter and sensory evaluation showed that, biscuit of whole meal varieties was slightly darker than biscuit of wheat flour 72% varieties. In addition, biscuits flavor, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability of wheat flour 72% not affected significantly in case of using whole meal flour of the same variety.

[Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal H. Ragab. Technological Properties of some Egyptian New Wheat Varieties. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):688-699]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.101

Keywords: Egyptian wheat varieties – technological properties - Pan bread – Pasta – Biscuit - whole meal – wheat flour 72%

Full text

101

102

Circulating Endothelial Cells And Cardiovascular Risk In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Elham Kassem 1, Mervat El-Sergany 2, Hanan El-Saadany3 Abeer Shahba4 and Wesam Salah5

Departments of Rheumatology & Rehabilitation 1,2,3, Internal Medicine4 and Clinical Pathology5

Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. Elahm77@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT: Premature atherosclerosis seen in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not explained by traditional risk factors. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) have been shown to be a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to assess the number of CECs in SLE patients and to determine any potential correlation between CEC count and endothelial function (FMD%), disease activity, organ involvement and therapy used. Also, to investigate VCAM-1and ICAM-1 levels as markers of vascular inflammation and injury. This study was performed on 30 premenopausal female SLE patients and 20 age and sex matched healthy controls (HC). Patients were subjected to full history taking, complete clinical examination and assessment of disease activity using (SLAM) score. For both patients and controls, endothelial function (FMD%), laboratory estimation of CEC count, and serum level of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were performed. CEC count was significantly elevated in SLE patients comparing to HC (P<0.001). CEC count was positively correlated with SLAM score, while negatively correlated with FMD%. Serum levels of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in SLE patients than controls. Moreover, VCAM-1 correlated significantly with disease activity and CEC count while ICAM-1 did not correlate with any of them. There was significant correlation between CEC count and skin vasculitis, renal involvement and anti-malarial medications. In conclusion, increased number of CEC may be a biomarker of disease activity and disseminated vasculopathy occurring in the course of SLE and may represent one of the first specific cellular markers to provide a direct link with the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD).VCAM-1 is considered a marker of activation of endothelial cells. Taking together, this may predict patients at increased risk of CVD complications, lupus nephritis or vasculitic skin affection.

[Elham Kassem, Mervat El-Sergany, Hanan El-Saadany Abeer Shahba and Wesam Salah. Circulating Endothelial Cells And Cardiovascular Risk In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):700-707]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.102

Key words: Circulating endothelial cells (CEC), SLE, adhesion molecules

Full text

102

103

Degradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons As Affected By Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

Abou-Arab, A.A.K*; Abou-Bakr Salim*; Maher,R.A.; El-Hendawy, H.H. ** and Awad, A.A.**

*Food Toxicology and Contaminants, National Research Center.

**Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University.

Aak_abouarab2007@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings that are formed from the incomplete combustion or high-temperature pyrolysis of coal, oil, gas, wood, fossil fuel, garbage or other organic substances, such as tobacco, charbroiled meat and exhaust from automobile and trucks. They enter the environment and release to air, soil, water and food. Some PAHs have shown to have toxicological, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and humans. Biodegradation of PAHs in the presence of the three types of lactic acid bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidium, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were studied during the different incubation periods (2, 4, 6,8,10,12,24,48 and 72 h) at 37˚C. The reduction of PAHs concentration proved that these compounds were affected by the previous lactic acid bacteria. At the end of incubation period (72 h), the reduction percent were 46.6, 87.7 and 91.5% with Bifidobacterium bifidium, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, respectively. These results could be explained as the bacterial cell is a high proteinous material and so may adsorbs PAHs which could interfere with cellular metabolism. Also, the variation of pH values during the incubation periods may control in the adsorbed PAHs on the cells. The biodegradation of PAHs by yoghurt starter during yoghurt manufacture were studied. Slightly reduction was observed during the incubation periods (1, 2 and 3 h). The reduction percent was 3.46 at the final product. It could be revealing that the persistence of PAHs depend on a number of factors such as the type of microorganism, the interaction between microorganisms, the microbial concentration, the composition of the medium, and the microbial growth conditions of temperature and pH. The foregoing information reveal that extra care must be taken when comparing the results since in-vitro studies are not always relevant to real situation in food products.

[Abou-Arab, A.A.K; Abou-Bakr Salim; Maher, R.A.; El-Hendawy, H.H. and Awad, A.A. Degradation Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons As Affected By Some Lactic Acid Bacteria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):708-715]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.103

Key words: PAHs, Lactic acid bacteria, Degradation, MRS, Milk, Yoghurt

Full text

103

104

Expression of The Antiapoptotic Gene Survivin in Acute Leukemias

Hoda Sadek,1 Shadia Ragab,2 Hanaa Rasmy,2* Nancy M. El Guindy,1 Wafaa Ezzat,3 Mona Hamed2

1 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, National Research Center, Egypt

3 Internal Medicine Department, National Research Center, Egypt

hanarasmy2000@yahoo.com

Abstract: Objectives: To assess the level of expression of the antiapoptotic signal "Survivin" in Egyptian patients with acute leukemias and to delineate any significant correlation between the level of Survivin with the clinical and haematological findings in those patients. Patients and Methods: Survivin expression was quantitatively determined by a real-time PCR technique in 30 acute leukemia patients; ALL and AML in two age groups; pediatric group (<18 years) and adult group (³18 years) and in age and sex matched control healthy subjects. Results: Statistically significant higher expression was noted in both ALL and AML groups when compared to the control group (p-value = 0.0001). A statistically significant negative correlation was detected between Survivin expression and RBCs count, HB level and Platelet count with p-values = 0.01, 0.01 and 0.0001 respectively. Positive correlations were found with T.L.C, peripheral blood blasts, bone marrow malignant cells, LDH, ALP and uric acid levels with p-values = 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.03, 0.0001, 0.006 and 0.001 respectively. During the post-induction phase, Survivin expression showed a statistically insignificant difference between patients achieving complete remission and those showing unfavorable response with a p-value = 0.7. After follow up, the expression change between patients achieving complete remission and those showing unfavorable response was statistically insignificant with a p-value = 0.6. In summary, The previous data emphasized important correlations between Survivin expression and established risk factors in acute leukemia patients. Thus Survivin could be used as a marker for assessment of bone marrow infiltration that in future could be used to refine treatment stratification.

[Hoda Sadek, Shadia Ragab, Hanaa Rasmy, Nancy M. El Guindy, Wafaa Ezzat, Mona Hamed. Expression of The Antiapoptotic Gene Survivin in Acute Leukemias. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):716-725]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.104

Key words: Survivin - Antiapoptosis function - Hematological malignancies

Full text

104

105

Biochemical and molecular characterization of three colored types of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Refaei M. Husseina, Yasser E. Shaheinb, Amr E. El Hakimb and Hanem M. Awadc,*

aGenetics and Cytology Department; bMolecular Biology Department and cDepartment of Tanning Materials and Leather Technology, National Research Centre, El-Behouth St., Dokki; P. Box; 12622; Cairo; Egypt. hanem_awad@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT: Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) has a considerable industrial, pharmaceutical and economic values in Egypt and many other countries around the world, mainly for its pleasant sepals. There are many colored types of Roselle depends on sepals color. The biochemical and molecular characterization of three roselle types, green (G), light red (LR) and dark red (DR), were studied. RAPD-PCR patterns for their genomic-DNA were significantly different. The total protein electrophoretic profile of their seeds was similar except for some inter-individual variation in band density. Their total protein contents were 46.0, 66.5 and 68.1 mg/g seed, respectively. In addition to the water-soluble antioxidant capacity, the total polyphenolic-content and the antioxidant activity of 12 roselle extracts, three colored types in 2 solvent systems (aqueous, A and 30% ethanolic, E) and 2 extraction temperatures (hot, H and cold, C), were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods, respectively. The ability of these roselle extracts to inhibit the formation of nitrous acid-induced tyrosine nitration decreases in the order of LREC > DREC > LREH > GEC > DREH > GEH > GAC > DRAH > LRAC > GAH > LRAH > DRAC.

[Refaei M. Hussein, Yasser E. Shahein, Amr E. El Hakim and Hanem M. Awad. Biochemical and molecular characterization of three colored types of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):726-733]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.105

KEYWORDS: Antioxidant activity; DPPH; HPLC; molecular characterization; polyphenol content; reactive nitrogen species (RNS); sepals, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Full text

105

106

Management of obstructive sleep apnea using oral appliance with magnetic versus increase vertical dimension

Mohamed. A. Saad-Eldeen1, Shawky M. Elmorsy2, Shaza. M. Hammad3

1 Ass. Prof., Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University

2 Ass. Prof, ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

3Lecturer, Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University.

mohamed.elkhodary@hotmail.com

Abstract: Statement of Problem: Oral devices may be helpful in the management of obstructive sleep apnea by improving upper airway potency. Purpose: Management of obstructive sleep apnea using oral appliance with magnetic versus oral appliance with increased vertical dimension. Material and Methods: 12 patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea were evaluated in this study before and after wearing devices for six months. The patients randomly divided into two equal groups(A and B). Group A used oral appliances with magnetic for six month Patients in group B wear oral appliances with increased vertical dimension, Evaluation was done by Polysomnograph, clinical findings and cephalometric x-rays. Results: The results of this study revealed that improvement of clinical finding, symptoms and apnea index for patients wearing two types of oral appliance. Conclusions: It can be concluded that oral appliance, with magnetic and increase vertical dimension, make improvement for OSA patients oral appliances with magnets are more effective in management of mild and moderate obstructive sleep apnea in comparison to appliances with increased vertical dimension.

[Mohamed. A. Saad-Eldeen, Shawky M. Elmorsy, Shaza. M. Hammad. Management of obstructive sleep apnea using oral appliance with magnetic versus increase vertical dimension. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):734-741]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.106

Keywords: Management; obstructive; sleep; apnea; oral appliance; magnetic; dimension

Full text

106

107

Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes

Ali Hafez El-Far1, Mohamed K. Mahfouz2, Hussein A. Abdel maksoud2

1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Alexandria University, Damanhour Branch (Al-Bostan), Egypt.

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Moshtohor, Banha University, Egypt.

aboufares90@yahoo.com

Abstract­ــ Pregnancy is the more prevalent stress in under feeding small ruminant with multiple bearing. Fifty Ossimi ewes of two years old and their body weight ranging between 35 and 50 kg were allotted into three groups; Group I: contains ten non pregnant non lactating ewes were used as control group. Group II: contains twenty single pregnant ewes* and Group III: contains twenty twin pregnant ewes used as experimental animals. Our study focused on the comparison between single and twin bearing ossimi ewes in the last three weeks of pregnancy and the day of parturition by measurement of reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the activities glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); glutathione reductase (GR-ase); glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and total superoxide dismutase (t-SOD) in erythrocytic haemolysate. In addition, glucose, non esterfied fatty acid (NEFA), Beta hydroxyl butyric acid (BHBA), cortisol, insulin and protein electrophoric patterns were measured in serum. Our results concluded that, In erythrocytic haemolysate the mean values of GSH-Px and GST in group II and III during the period of 2nd and one week before parturition and at the day of parturition were high significantly increased. While, GSH and t-SOD were high significantly decreased (P<0.01) and GR-ase activities were significantly decreased. While serum insulin level decreased while serum NEFA, BHBA and cortisol were increased in single and twin but in twin the values is more significant. The data showed that twin bearing ewes are more susceptible to pregnancy toxemia than single bearing that may be decrease the productivity and performance of those animals.

[Ali Hafez El-Far, Mohamed K. Mahfouz, Hussein A. Abdel maksoud. Biochemical Changes in Glutathione Redox System and Glucose Regulation in Late Pregnant Ossimi Ewes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):742-748]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.107

Keywordsــ pregnancy, glutathione, single bearing, twin bearing, ewes

Full text

107

108

Study the Efficiency of Investment and its Determinants in the Agricultural Sector
Khairy Hamed Eleshmawy, Enaam Abd elFattah Mohamed, Laila Mustafa ELShrif, Haitham Bauomy Hassan

Department of Agricultural Economics - National Research Center

Abstract: The promotion of increased rates of the investment growth is the main priority of the economic development, where there can be no development without adequate levels of investment. The problem has been narrowed to study in lower volume of investment goes to agriculture in spite of the importance of this sector to increase the rate of economic growth, the study aims to identify the relative importance of the investment total agricultural and agricultural domestic and foreign farm, as well as identify the most important factors affecting each. In addition to, identify the efficiency of agricultural investment. The results indicated that, overall agricultural investment and agricultural domestic and foreign farm represented about 9.38%, 7.98%, 1.4% of the total investments, and investments amounted to local agriculture, and foreign to 84.88%, 15.12% of the total agricultural investment. Estimating the efficiency indicators of agricultural investments shows that, there is efficiency in agricultural investment despite lower Kimpalasttmarat directed to the agriculture sector during the study period. The results showed that, the agriculture sector capital intensive, in addition to increasing the coverage of agricultural savings to agricultural investment as much as about 46% in 2008. While the share of one acre of agricultural investment from 283.65 pounds in 1999 to about 194 pounds in 2008. The results showed that, the most important factors affecting the local agricultural investments are in value-added farm income and saving agricultural and domestic liquidity and interest rate on farm loans. While the GDP and the budget deficit and non-agricultural investments, the most important factors affecting foreign investments in agriculture. Therefore, the study recommends the need to increase investments directed to the agricultural sector given the importance of this sector and its contribution to economic growth. You need to follow monetary policies that reduce the interest rate on agricultural loans to encourage investment in agricultural projects, in addition to the need to reduce taxes on agricultural projects as a means to stimulate the agricultural investor.

[Khairy Hamed Eleshmawy, Enaam Abd elFattah Mohamed, Laila Mustafa EL Shrif, Haitham Bauomy Hassan. Study the Efficiency of Investment and its Determinants in the Agricultural Sector. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):749-755]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.108

Keywords: Agricultural. Investments, Domestic Agricultural. Investments, Foreign Agr. Investments. Gross Investments

Full text

108

109

Measurement of Family Economic Status

1Mehdi Yadollahi & 2Laily Hj Paim

1 Faculty of Human Ecolog, Putra University, Malaysia & Dept. of Management, University of Payam e Noor, Sirjan

E-mail: mfma155@yahoo.com

2 Dept. of Resources Management & Consumer Studies, Putra University, Malaysia

Abstract: The concept of family economic has become important around the world. It has been realized that communities based family economic can play a fundamental role in poverty alleviation. Measuring of family economic status is an important step in developing family economic strategies to achieve poverty reduction. This paper used qualitative approaches to illustrated family economic status. The purpose of this study is to explore the concept and indictors of family economic. The literature derived from my study in family economic management.

[Mehdi Yadollahi & Laily Hj Paim. Measurement of Family Economic Status. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):756-760]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.109

Key Words: Family Economic, Income, Physical Assets, Expenditure

Full text

109

110

High Efficiency Production of Mosquitocidal Toxin by a novel Bacillus sphaericusisolate from Egyptian Soils on Local Agroindustrial Byproducts


M.S. Foda., 1 *Fawkia M. El-Beih., 2Maysa E. Moharam., 3Nora N.A. El-Gamal4
Microbial Chemistry Department, Genetic Engineering &Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. 1,3,4 Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.2
foda302002@yahoo.com


Abstract: Eighty six cultures were isolated from soil of different Egyptian Governorates including Quina, El-Menofeya, El-Gharbia, El-Sharkia, El-Behera and Kafr EL-Sheikh Governorates. Investigations of the mosquitocidal Egyptian isolates have revealed that isolate No.1 have the ability to form more toxin than the international reference strain Bs2362.The selected isolate No.1 exhibited a lower LC50 and LC 90values than the International strain B. sphaericus 2362 uponbioassay against secondinstars’ larvae of Culexpipiens. The Egyptian isolate No.1was identified morphologically and biochemically as Bacillussphaericus. Physiological factors affecting growth and toxin formation in B. sphaericus No 1 in comparison to B.s 2362 were carried out. THE organism grown on modified Nutrient broth medium yielded the highest larval toxicity against the second instars’ of Culexpipiens for both Bacillus sphaericusisolate No 1 and the international strain Bacillus sphaericus. The Optimum air: medium ratio were 9:1 and 4:1 of the flask volume for 4 and 3 days incubation periods using 2% and 3% sizes of inocula for B. sphaericus 2362 and the Egyptian isolate B. sphaericus No.1, respectively. Sodium acetate was the suitable carbon source for the isolate B. sphaericus No.1, while B. sphaericus 2362 was capable to utilize both sodium acetate and sodium succinate as carbon sources.The Egyptian isolate B. sphaericus No.1exhibited the highest mosquitocidal activity upon growth on kidney beans seeds and sesame meal as nutrient substrates at 3% final concentration, while B. sphaericus2362 exhibited the highest mosquitocidal activity by utilizing soy beans, lentils and sesame meal as complete media for growth and mosquitocidal toxin production.
[M.S. Foda., Fawkia M. El-Beih., Maysa E. Moharam., Nora N.A. El-Gamal. High Efficiency Production of Mosquitocidal Toxin by a novel Bacillus sphaericus isolate from Egyptian Soils on Local Agroindustrial Byproducts. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):761-769]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.110


Keywords: Bacillus sphaericus, isolation, characterization, mosquitocidal toxin, physiology, agroindustrial byproducts

Full text

110

111

Global Analysis of an Epidemic Model with General Incidence Rate

M. M. A. El-Sheikh and S. A. A. El-Marouf

(1) Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

(2) Permanent Adress: Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science,

Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom, Egypt.

Abstract: A general four-dimensional SIQR epidemic model is considered. Threshold, equilibria and their stability are established. The dynamics of the system is discussed in the case of this general form of incidence rate. The global stability of both free-deisease and endemic equilibria are deduced. Hopf bifurcation, boundedness, dissipativity and persistence are studied.

[M. M. A. El-Sheikh and S. A. A. El-Marouf. Global Analysis of an Epidemic Model with General Incidence Rate. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):770-783]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.111

Keywords: Epidemic model; Nonlinear incidence rate; quarantine; uniformaly persistence; global stability; Hopf bifurcation

Full text

111

112

The Effect of Combining Herbal Therapy with Conventional Chemotherapy on the Incidence of Chemotherapy Side Effects in 2nd Stage Breast Cancer Patients

Nagla Hamdi Kamal Khalil, Sanaa Alaa El- Din, Maha Adel Salem

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ahmed Adel Seif El-Din, Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of pharmacy, Waleed Osman Arafat, Oncology department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

Mahaadel52@yahoo.com

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of the combination of herbal mixture and conventional chemotherapy on minimizing the incidence of chemotherapeutic side effects for 2nd stage breast cancer. Forty adult female patients aging 20 to 65 years old diagnosed with breast cancer stage (II), receiving chemotherapy for at least one month and will continue to receive it for 3 months- were selected randomly and divided equally into study and control groups. They were free from any associated co-morbid diseases as diabetes, renal, cardiac. The patients were interviewed in the oncology outpatient clinic. Study group patients were instructed about the importance of taking herbal capsules regularly with chemotherapeutic cycles, on a scheduled dose of 1 capsule three times per day for 3months. Complete assessment for both groups as baseline data to assess the chemotherapeutic side effects, laboratory investigations and the nutritional status of the patients were done, and then after 45days and after 3 months. The results revealed that (45%) of cancer breast women were in age group 49-65 years. The greater proportion of the sample (62.5%) breast fed and lactated for three times and more through their life. The least affected systems with chemotherapeutic side effects and the most affected systems when combined herbal to conventional therapy were: liver functions and endocrine studies, renal functions, reproductive system, urinary system, and weight changes. While psychological status, nervous system, and skin, hair, and nails were the most affected systems with the side effects of chemotherapy, and they were the least affected systems when combined herbal to conventional chemotherapy. Also it was found that there was significant difference between the study and control groups in relation to second and third assessments related to all body systems. It is recommended that herbal education should be introduced in nursing and medical curriculum. Further researches related to these herbal components to measure its efficacy on minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy for breast cancer and/ or other types of cancer. Further researches are also needed on larger number of sample. Clinical studies should be done to identify the effect of these herbals on different cancer therapies, different chemotherapeutic protocols, specifically pre or post mastectomy.

[Nagla Hamdi Kamal Khalil, Sanaa Alaa El- Din, Maha Adel Salem. The Effect of Combining Herbal Therapy with Conventional Chemotherapy on the Incidence of Chemotherapy Side Effects in 2nd Stage Breast Cancer Patients. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):784-801]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.112

Keywords: Herbal Therapy; Conventional Chemotherapy; Chemotherapy; Side Effect; Breast Cancer

Full text

112

113

Women’s Awareness of Danger Signs of Obstetrics Complications

Wafaa A. Rashad *, Rasha M. Essa **

* Assistant Professor of Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

** Lecturer of Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Damnhour Branch, Alexandria, Egypt

wafaa.rashad@alex-nursing.edu.eg; wafaara@yahoo.com; rashaessa111@yahoo.com

Abstract: An exploratory descriptive study was conducted at two Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) selected randomly in Albeheira Governorate to assess women’s awareness of danger signs of obstetric complications. The study subjects consisted of 200 pregnant women attending the previously mentioned setting for tetanus toxiod immunization during pregnancy was enrolled in the study. (100 from each) A structured interview schedule was developed by the researcher after reviewing of the relevant literature and used to collect the necessary data. It comprised the following parts: Part I: Socio-demographic data such as age, level of education, occupation and number of family members…etc Part II: Obstetric characteristics such as gravidity, parity, abortions, antenatal follow up and presence of any complications. etc. Part III: questions related to knowledge about signs of obstetric complications, complaining of any obstetric complication, what to do if the woman has any of these signs. The study revealed that slightly more than one quarter of the study subjects (26.5 %) were unaware of obstetric danger signs compared to almost the same proportion (26.0 %) that had good awareness about such signs, while 47.5 % of the study subjects exhibited fair awareness. Lack of awareness about obstetric danger signs was related younger age, low level of education, gravidity and parity, previous experiences with any obstetric complications and lack of antenatal care. This study reflects the need for strategic plane to increase the awareness to shape health seeking behavior of the public related to signs of obstetric complications.

[Wafaa A. Rashad, Rasha M. Essa, Women’s Awareness of Danger Signs of Obstetrics Complications. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):802-]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.113

Keywords: obstetric danger signs, awareness, signs of obstetric complications

Full text

113

114

The Use of lemongrass extracts as Antimicrobial and food additive potential in yoghurt

 

Abd-El fattah1; Abo sree, Yahia Hassan1; Hala M. Bayoum2 and Hesham A. Eissa3

Food Toxins and contaminants Department1, Dairy Department 2, Food Technology Department 3, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. shaabanmostafa@ yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The following study was conducted to investigate the antifungal and food additive potential of medicinal plants. herbal decoction and essential oil (EO) extracts of Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) leaves and stems were tested for their inhibitory action against spoilage organisms and mycotoxins formation in two separated experiments. In the first experiment, yeast- extract sucrose medium (YES) was used as a basal medium to examine the mold growth and mycotoxin production by three pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) and Aspergillus ochraceus (A. ochraceus). The YES medium was supplemented with four different concentrations of Lemongrass oil, inoculated with 1-mL of a spore suspension containing 105-106 conidia of each test mold and then incubated at 28º C for 14 days. After incubation period, cultures were analyzed for mycelial dry weight and mycotoxin accumulation. In the second experiment, yoghurt medium was used as a basal medium and the same system of study was applied in two different degrees of temperature (5ºC and 28ºC) for 4 weeks. Evaluation of the Lemongrass oil activity in yoghurt samples focused on the microbial stability of yoghurt, sensory evaluation as well as mold growth and mycotoxin formation. In the 1st experiment, the level of 0.1% of the EO extract was effective in inhibition both mold growth and mycotoxin production for all tested molds, and 0.3 % extract completely prevented the growth and toxin production. whereas, 1% of the decoction extract was effective. So, the EO extract was the suitable agent in the second experiment. It is of interest to note that while reduction in mold growth due to increasing extract concentrations was observed, the most striking effect was the reduction of mycotoxin production. The obtained data from the second experiment showed that the EO extract (0.1% concentration) inhibited viable yeasts and preserved yoghurt for over 28 days at 5ºC. Also, the inhibitory action of the EO extract against yeasts was concentration dependent. The maximum inhibitory effect of was found when the extract level increased above 0.1%. Incubation temperature had an important role in growth and mycotoxin production in yoghurt medium. During cold storage for 28 days at 5°C, the different concentrations of the EO extract added to the yoghurt samples displayed different titratable acidity and total bacterial cells and pH than the control yoghurt (p < 0.05). Overall sensory acceptability of yoghurt supplemented with the EO extract was higher than that of the control yoghurt prepared without the EO extract. Total sensory evaluation of experimental yoghurt used as a control was up to 4.3 scores lower compared to yoghurt samples treated with the EO extract. The results indicate that the addition of the appropriate the EO concentrations (0.1%, w/v) improved the physicochemical properties as well as sensory characteristics of yoghurt, could be used for decontamination of dairy products such as yoghurt from mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins formation, beside its beneficial properties as a functional food.

[Abd-El fattah; Abo sree, Yahia Hassan; Hala M. Bayoum and Hesham A. Eissa. The Use of lemongrass extracts as Antimicrobial and food additive potential in yoghurt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):810-822]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.114

Key words: Yoghurt, lemongrass, molds, yeasts, mycotoxins, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, food additives.

Full text

114

115

The Assessment Of Mycotic Settlement Of Freshwater Fishes In Egypt

Refai, M.K.1, Laila, A. Mohamed2, Amany, M. Kenawy2, and Shimaa, El-S.M.A*.2

1 Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Vet.Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2 Hydrobiology Dept., National Research Center. Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*shimaakhalifa2003@yahoo.com

Abstract: This study was carried out on 360 freshwater fishes (240 Oreochromis species and 120 Clarias gariepinus). They were collected from different governorates and during different seasons. Naturally infected fishes showed clinical abnormalities such as skin darkening, exophthalmia, corneal opacity, abdominal distention, ulceration of the skin and cotton wool like growths on various parts of the body. Fishes were then subjected to post mortem examination which revealed many abnormalities. Mycological examination revealed the isolation of 2081 fungal isolates from 150 diseased and 210 apparently healthy fish samples (1658 mould and 423 yeast isolates), of which 1334 were isolated from Oreochromis species and 747 isolates from Clarias gariepinus. Isolated moulds belonged to the following genera: Saprolegnia (4.2%), Aspergillus (43.0%), Fusarium (14.1%), Mucor (14), Penicillium (17.2), Rhizopus (4.8%), Scopulariopsis (1.2%), Paeciliomyces (1%) and Curvularia (0.4%). Yeasts isolated also from both fish species had the following incidence: Candida albicans (35.9 %), other Candida species (19.1%), Rhodotorula species (31.4%) and Torulopsis species (13.5%). Experimental infection with the most predominant fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium species and Candida albicans) was conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity of these isolates. Clinical pictures of experimentally infected fish were similar to those of natural infection. Inoculated fungi were re-isolated from different organs. Results were confirmed with histopathological examination, which revealed the presence of fungal hyphae and spores in different organs.

[Refai, M.K., Laila, A. Mohamed, Amany, M. Kenawy, Shimaa, El-S.M.A. The Assessment Of Mycotic Settlement Of Freshwater Fishes In Egypt. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):823-831]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.115

Keywords: Mycotic infection, Oreochromis species, Clarias gariepinus, Moulds, Yeasts, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Candida, Penicillium.

Full text

115

116

Impact of Balanced Caloric Diet and Physical activity on Body Composition and Fat Distribution of Obese Egyptian Adolescent Girls

*Nayera El-morsi Hassan, **Safaa T. Zaki, *Sahar El-masry, **Manal A. Mohsen, **Eman Elashmawy

*Biological Anthropology, ** Child Health Depts., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

masrysa@yahoo.com

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of balanced caloric moderately deficit diet program combined with individualized moderate Physical exercise on the body weight, body composition and fat distribution of adolescent girls. Subjects & methods: It was a longitudinal survey comprised 1244 adolescent girls, aged from 14 to 18 years. Their body weight and height were measured, and the BMI was calculated. Of the total sample, only one hundred and eleven girls (8.9%), with mean age was 15.82+ 0.75 years, were suffering from obesity based on their body mass index; which is greater than the 95th percentile for age and gender based Egyptian Growth Reference Charts. These obese girls were undergoing nutritional intervention (specific dietary program, nutritional education and exercise) for 6 months. At the start of this program, the obese girls were assessed for their anthropometric measures: the body weight, body height (or stature), body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio, skin folds thickness at 5 sites and, according to BIA, their body composition. This assessment was repeated after 6 months. Only thirty eight girls completely finished the program till the end. Results: The current study showed that after following the dietary program and physical activity, there were highly significant reduction in waist circumference, the skin fold thickness at the 5 sites (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, suprailiac and abdominal), peripheral and central adiposity, and fat mass, and significant reduction in body weight, hip circumference and fat%. The change in BMI was not significant. On the other hand, there was a highly significant increase of the total body water and Basal metabolic rate after following the dietary program and physical activity. Conclusion: The nutritional intervention program was succeeded in 38 obese adolescent girls. These girls show highly significant reduction in body composition and body fat distribution.This revealed that the combined program of diet restriction and exercise is necessary.

[Nayera El-morsi Hassan, Safaa T. Zaki, Sahar El-masry, Manal A. Mohsen, Eman Elashmawy. Impact of Balanced Caloric Diet and Physical activity on Body Composition and Fat Distribution of Obese Egyptian Adolescent Girls. Journal of American Science 2010;6(11):832-842]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061110.116

 Keywords: Egyptian adolescents, obese girls, diet restriction, exercise training, body composition, anthropometry

Full text

116

117

Morphological and Molecular Evidences Among Four Heteroforms of Avicennia marina (Forssk) Vierh.

 

Wafaa M. Said and Nahla O. M. Ehsan*
Botany Department, Women's College for Arts, Science, and Education, Ain Shams University.

dr.nahla.osman@gmail*

 

Abstract: Morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker were used to assess inter-specific relationships among four heteroforms of gray mangrove (Avicennia marina (Forssk) Vierh.) grown in Al-Sharm Al-Bahari site, 33Km south Al-Qussier, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. The four heteroforms viz. I, II, III and IV were detected in two distinct habitats (marine and desert). The morphological and molecular data indicated high variation between form I&III and II&IV. On the other hand, low variation between form I&II and III&IV. Dendrogram based on morphological, anatomical and genetic data supported the segregation of the four heteroforms of Avicennia marina into two groups; one includes form 1 & III and the second include form II