Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 8, Issue 8, Cumulated No. 54, August 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0808

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CONTENTS

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Titles / Authors

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[J Am Sci 2012; 8(8): 1-7]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.01

 withdraw

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Hvsr Technique For Burried Monuments Delineation At Saqqara (Zoser) Pyramid

 

Amin E. Khalil

 

Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt

Amin_Khalil@Science.Helwan.Edu.Eg

 

Abstract: Saqqara pyramid lies to the south west of Cairo near the epicenter of Cairo earthquake that took place on 12th October 1992. The Pyramid is severely damaged by the earthquake with epicenter at about 14 km away. As a result numerous efforts are exerted to restore the pyramid and to prevent it from total collapse. The current work is motivated by such efforts with focus on the potential of using the spectral ratio method (HVSR) to define subsurface monuments. HVSR method is based on the spectral analyses of recorded ambient method. The ambient noise in front of the southern side of the pyramid is recorded at 15 sites. The sites selected are 9 m apart with a time window of 5 minutes on average. Array shape and dimensions is chosen based on the prior information about the location and extension of the tunnel underneath. The tunnel extended about 20 m underneath the area adjacent to the southern gate of the pyramid. The estimated fundamental frequencies and peak amplitudes are contoured showing some low value trends at the area adjacent to the southern gate. This may lead to the possibilities of the HVSR method to explore the subsurface monuments. However, this statement is still in the early stage and further theoretical investigation is required.

[Amin E. Khalil. Hvsr Technique For Burried Monuments Delineation At Saqqara (Zoser) Pyramid. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):8-15]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.02

 

Key words: HVSR; Zoser pyramid; microtremors; archaeology.

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A Comparison between Two Different Doses of Vaginal Isosorbide Mononitrate in Pre-Induction Cervical Ripening at Term: A Randomized Controlled Study

 

Hazem S.E. Mohamed

 

Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Women's Health Center, Assiut University

 

Abstract: Objective: The objective of this current study was to evaluate the effect of the vaginally administered nitric oxide donor-isosorbide mononitrate [ISMN] at two different doses (40 and 60 mg sustained release) on the cervix uteri, the mother and the foetus when used for pre induction cervical ripening at term. Materials and Methods (Study design): The study design was randomized controlled type. This study was performed at the labour sector of the Women's health tertiary University center between January 2011 and February 2012. One hundred and fifty nulliparous women (n = 150) with uncomplicated singleton, > 37 completed weeks of gestation cephalic presentation left occipito anterior, requiring cervical ripening prior to labour induction (modified Bishop score (MBS) < 6) were allocated by stratified block randomization to receive either ISMN 40 mg (Mono MAK®), ISMN – SR 60 mg (Imdur® – Astra Zeneca) or the placebo folic acid 5 mg, vaginally on two occasions, at 16 and 48 hours before scheduled admission for labour induction. Data were analyzed by intent to treat. Student, chi-square, fiber exact, and Mann-Whitney tests were used where appropriate with P< 0.05 deemed significant. Those women who whish to participate and who understand the nature of this trial will be asked to complete and sign two copies of the written consent form. Cervical status (MBS), maternal blood pressure, maternal pulse rate, non stress test, and various side effects were examined (3) and (6) hours after administration of the vaginal tablet. Results: At the current study, the parity, mean maternal age, gestational age, indications for labour induction, modified Bishop score, pulse rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as non-stress test were normal and nearly similar among the three studied groups.Women receiving ISMN 40 mg (group A = 50 women) and those receiving ISMN 60 mg – SR (group B = 50 women) showed significant increase of the mean modified Bishop score 16 and 48 hours after vaginal administration as compared to the folic acid group (group C = 50 women) (P<0.001). Thus, there was a significantly greater proportion of women of groups A and B who were favourable for induction of labour after 48 hours in comparison with the control group C. Regarding the mean increase in pulse rat, there was a significant increase in group A and B three hours after starting the trial and persisted up to six hours compared to the control group C (P<0.001). Headache was a significant side effect of ISMN in groups A and B (72% and 80% respectively) as compared to groups C (0%). No serious maternal or foetal side effects of clinical importance were registered. No significant difference in the clinical effect upon cervical ripening between the two ISMN groups A and B. Conclusion: Vaginal ISMN leads to significant effect on cervical ripening assessed using the modified Bishop score. Also vaginal ISMN causes headache as well as clinically insignificant maternal haemodynamic changes.

[Hazem S.E. Mohamed. A Comparison between Two Different Doses of Vaginal Isosorbide Mononitrate in Pre-Induction Cervical Ripening at Term: A Randomized Controlled Study. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):16-21]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.03

 

Keyword: Isosorbide monoitrate – cervical ripening – modified Bishop score

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Peripheral-Ossifying-Fibroma; Clinicopathological Study

 

Safia Al–Attas1, Zeinab Darwish2 and Suzan Ibrahim3

 

1Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

2Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

3Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Egypt and King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

zenabelsayed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To investigate clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of Peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) cases, and to compare the results with normal & reactive lesions to clarify the nature of these lesions. Methods: Clinical, immunohistochemical and management of three cases of POF diagnosed and treated at the faculty of Dentistry, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were presented & compared with specimens of normal oral mucosa and irritational fibroma. Results: Two males and one pregnant female patient presented to the college with recurrent clinically benign gingival lesions. The histological examination was consistent with POF. The immunohistochemical analysis of the cases was moderately to strongly positive to both vimentin and actin. However, specimens of normal oral mucosa and fibrous hyperplasia showed moderate positive reaction to vimentin in the fibroblast cells, with weak positive reaction to actin noted only in the cells of the blood vessel walls. Conclusion: The results represent further evidence of the possible myofibroblastic nature of the POF lesions, and are consistent with a possible origin from the periodontal ligaments.

[Safia Al–Attas, Zeinab Darwish and Suzan Ibrahim. Peripheral-Ossifying-Fibroma; Clinicopathological Study of 3 Cases. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):22-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.04

 

Key Words: Peripheral ossifying fibroma, gingival growth, oral fibrous hyperplasia, immunohistochemical, vimentin and actin, myofibroblast.

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Mixed Use Space, a Pattern to Achieve a Dynamic Urban Space (Case study: Soltanie)

 

Dr. Zohre Davoudpour 1, Faeze mehri 2

 

1. Urban Planning and Designing Professor, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin, Iran

2. Urban Planning and Designing Professor, Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, Iran

eliza.urban@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mixed use as a several destination in one place, is a key element that has many advantages in social, economical and physical aspects. Mixed use is an element of rehabilitation in the developed regions, economic mobility, and one of the best methods in order to join different types of residentials in small scales. But builders and developers underestimate opportunities and advantages of mixed use developments. Mixed residential developments that have increased since ten years ago, devote only a little percent of new residential developments. This paper intends to obtain some objects like achieving a pattern of sustainable design in urban space, managing brown fields and revival of social life increasing environment quality, economic mobility and managing brown fields by using mixed use theory in city of Soltanieh. This paper presents suggestions in the fields of environment quality, sustainable design, economic and social mobility by surveying viewpoints, different aspects of mixed use development, residents' opinions, city's existing condition and suggested sanctums. It is necessary to mention that Soltanie is one of Iran's cities located in the province of Zanjan.

[Zohre Davoudpour, Faeze mehri. Mixed Use Space, a Pattern to Achieve a Dynamic Urban Space (Case study: Soltanie). J Am Sci 2012; 8(8): 29-36]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.05

 

Key words: Land use- Zoning- Mixed use- Mixed use development- Sustainable development

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Applied MASW Technique for Detecting Soil Condition underneath the Packing Unit in Helwan Cement Factory

 

Amin E. khalil1 and Hesham E. Abdel Hafeiz2

 

1 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Egypt.

2 National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Egypt

amin_khalil@Science.helwan.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The packing unit of Helwan cement factory encountered a partial failure at the beaching walls that surrounds the platform together with differential subsidence of the concrete floor. These signs indicated that the unit is in danger and a swift interruption to restore the working condition is needed. Thus present research work was carried out to define the situation of the soil beneath the concrete floor using the passive multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method was thus used. The experiment was carried out using an array of 24 geophones with 1 m interval with the total length of 23 m. Nineteen roadside experiments (linear array) is carried out at the site to deduce the shear wave velocity model underneath the unit. The shear wave velocity models obtained shows that there exist a low shear velocity layer between 2 m and 4 m deep. The research results showed that the soil layers below the concrete plateau lost its strength due to the high dynamic load exerted from the overlying industrial activities. This study helped to point out the problem, which, in turn, helped in choosing the suitable engineering solution.

[Amin E. khalil and Hesham E. Abdel Hafeiz. Applied MASW Technique for Detecting Soil Condition underneath the Packing Unit in Helwan Cement Factory. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):37-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.06

 

Keywords: MASW, Seismic soil modeling, SPAC

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Field Investigation of Flexible Pavement Rutting Damage Using the Transverse Surface Profile

 

Mahmoud El-Saied Solyman1 and Hassan Salama2

 

1Construction Engineering and Utilities Department, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt,

2Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Al-Azhar University

elsaied2000@yahoo.com, salamahas@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The pavement deterioration over time is demonstrating in several distresses types; however, flexible pavement rutting represent major failure mode. Recently, surface distress survey has conducted in the Egyptian road network showed that pavement rutting represent one of the main pavement distresses. This paper presents a case study of one road within the Egyptian road network that showed sign of major premature rutting. Identifying the pavement layer that cause the majority of rutting is important to properly prescribe the right treatment. Field investigation of the transverse surface profile as nondestructive simple method was carried out to locate the origin of the rutting within the pavement layers. The transverse surface profile at 10 sections was analyzed for Belbis - Zagazig road. The analysis of the transverse surface profile has proven a good diagnostic tool to determine where the majority of the rutting failure resulting from. The transverse surface profiles analysis of the road segment showed that 60% of tested sections has showed rutting failure in the hot mix asphalt, 30% in the base layer, whereas 10% in the subgrade layer. The analysis indicated that the pavement is under designed and the construction records showed defects in quality of the hot asphalt mixture used in construction of the road.

[Mahmoud El-Saied Solyman and Hassan Salama. Field Investigation of Flexible Pavement Rutting Damage Using the Transverse Surface Profile. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):44-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.07

 

Keywords: Pavement rutting, transverse surface profile, Layer rutting, field investigation, truck traffic.

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Effect of Using Herbal Mixture Extract and Camellia Sinensis on Weight Loss in Over Weight and Obese Humans as Therapy for Obesity

 

EL-Sayeda Ghandour EL-Sayed EL-Sahar

 

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University

 drsayedaghandour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity is becoming increasingly common and recognized as a major public health problem worldwide. It is associated with multiple chronic health conditions including heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and cancer. The present investigation aims to determine i) the effect of using a mixture of natural herbs (Mallow, Senna and Sage) on weight loss in overweight and obese humans, ii) the effect of using green tea on weight loss in over weight and obese humans, and comparative between them. A total of 59 persons volunteers (17 males and 41 females), 22-39 year, were recruited into the study.Subjects were divided into two main groups, the 1st group contained 33 volunteers (group 1). The 2nd group contained 26 person volunteers (group 2). Subject age sex, anthropometric measurements, body mass index, state healthy, adverse effects associated with intake of herbs and 24-hours recall food intake were recorded, the Statistical analysis were done. Results showed that the ratio of males and females was 29.32% and 70.68% respectively. Distribution of the sample respondents according to age at 67.24% in age group (18: 30) and 32.76% in age group (31: 39). Also found that 34.48% suffer from overweight and 65.52% of the sample suffers from morbid obesity. The results found that 1.72% suffers from diabetes and 3.44% suffers from hypertension, in group (2) detected that 1.72% and 1.27% were found to be suffering from some insomnia and diarrhea respectively. The group (1) reported consuming adequate quantities from carbohydrate when compared with RDA. As for protein, reported consuming more than the recommended intake of protein (128.7 g/d). The fat intake was 80.2 gm/d with significant increase. The results of macronutrients intake for green tea, the carbohydrate intake was 365 gm/d with no significant difference than RDA. While protein was 136.4 g/d with significant increase. Intake of fat was 77.5 g /d with low significant increase. The loss weight continued during experiment weeks with increasing experiment period. At the end of the experiment, total loss weight was 8.9 kg in group (1) while in group (2) was 5.6 kg with positive rate which didn’t affect the health situation, group (1) gave significant increase in loss weight when compared with group (2). Based on our results, we conclude that the intake of mixture herbs succeeded in reducing body weight without adverse effect, green tea caused some positive effects. Therefore, it could be recommended that the use of herbal mixture and green tea should be ingested as natural herbs to obese human, further investigations also should be carried out with different doses for more prolonged periods to complete the profile of the herbs with the studying of more effects at experimental animals in order to introduce it as a natural antiobesity agent.

[EL-Sayeda Ghandour EL-Sayed EL-Sahar. Effect of Using Herbal Mixture Extract and Camellia Sinensis on Weight Loss in Over Weight and Obese Humans as Therapy for Obesity. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):51-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.08

 

Key words: natural herbs, green tea, Camellia sinensis, mallow, Senna, sage, weight loss, obesity, obese humans

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Preparation and Characterization of Tin Sulphide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Technique in Ambient Atmosphere

 

M.O. Abou-Helal1,2 and M. Boshta1

 

1Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Center, El-Behoos str., 12311Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 2097, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

osamah4@hotmail.com, osamah4@tedata.net.eg, mabouhelal@mailer.scu.eun.eg, mabou-helal@jazanu.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Thin films of tin sulfide (SnS2) have been prepared by spray pyrolysis on Corning 7059 glass substrates with the substrate temperatures in the range of 300–400oC, keeping the other deposition parameters constant at their optimized values, and in normal ambient atmosphere. The films were characterized to evaluate the structure and optical energy gap. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements revealed that the films are polycrystalline tin sulfide SnS2. The optical band gaps for SnS2 films vary from 1.0 to 1.25 eV depending on the experimental parameters such as deposition temperatures. Although the experimental work was done by spray pyrolysis technique in the air, and from commercial chemicals, it was possible by keeping the ratio of [S]/[Sn]=(3) to control the chemical reaction, and to get tin sulfide SnS2 films instead of tin oxide SnO2, which is more likely in the normal ambient atmosphere (air), this lower the cost of producing tin sulfide thin films, which is very important for many applications in industry.

[M.O. Abou-Helal and M. Boshta. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Sulphide Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Technique in Ambient Atmosphere. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):61-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.09

 

Keywords: tin sulfide, tin oxide, spray pyrolysis, structural measurements, optical measurements, cost effective thin films.

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Comparative Study between the Effect of Atorvastatin and Naltrexone on Hepatic Fibrosis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Rats

 

Mohamed Nabih Abdel Rahman

 

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

dr_modyoyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis is one of the common pathological features of chronic liver disease. Atorvastatin and naltrexone previously showed a beneficial effect on hepatic fibrosis. In the present study, we compared the effect of atorvastatin and naltrexone on a rat model of hepatic fibrosis induced by BDL. Methods: This study was carried out on 4 groups each of 10 albino rats; Group 1: Sham operated group, Group 2: BDL group + No treatment, Group 3: BDL + Atorvastatin orally for 4 weeks and Group 4: BDL + Naltrexone SC for 4 weeks. Serum bilirubin, ALT, AST, ALP and hyaluronic acid and hepatic hydroxyproline content, GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio and TNF-α level were measured. Histopathological examination of the liver tissue was performed. Results: Treatment with either atorvastatin or naltrexone showed significant increase in hepatic GSH and hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio with significant decrease in serum hyaluronic acid and hepatic hydroxyproline content and TNF-α and improvement of histopathological picture of hepatic tissue. Also, naltrexone produced significant decrease in serum total bilirubin, AST, ALT and ALP while atorvastatin showed significant increase in their levels. Moreover, treatment with naltrexone showed significant reduction in serum hyaluronic acid level and more improvement in the histopathological picture of hepatic tissue than atorvastatin. Conclusion: Naltrexone is more effective than atorvastatin in attenuation of BDL induced hepatic fibrosis and both could be of beneficial effects in treatment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

[Mohamed Nabih Abdel Rahman. Comparative Study between the Effect of Atorvastatin and Naltrexone on Hepatic Fibrosis Induced by Bile Duct Ligation in Rats. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):64-69]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.10

 

Keywords: Atorvastatin, Naltrexone, Hepatic, Fibrosis, Rats.

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Hematological and biochemical effects of an air freshener in rabbits

 

Zuhair Y. A1-Sahhaf

 

Department of Biology Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: The present investigation deals with the effect of inhalation of the air freshener, glade on hematological and biochemical parameters in male rabbits. Animals were divided into 3 groups. Animals of first group were considered as controls and animals of second anf third groups, were inhaled one ml of the air freshener, Glade, once daily for 2 and 4 weeks respectively. Animals were kept individually in a closed cage and 1 ml of the air freshener was sprayed in each cage. Exposure of animals to glade for 2 and 4 weeks induced significant decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin, WBCs count hematocrit percentage and the blood platelets. Transaminases ALT and AST were gradually increased in the sera of treated rabbits and this increase became significant (P<0.05) at the end of the fourth week.

[Zuhair Y.A1-Sahhaf. Hematological and biochemical effects of an air freshener in rabbits. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):70-73]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.11

 

Keywords: Air freshener - Glade -Rabbits-Blood indices-Transaminases

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Liver Dysfunction and Ultrasonographic Findings in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Compared to Late Normal Pregnancy

 

Wael Mohammed Aref1, Ahmed ElMazny1 and Akmal El Mazny2

 

1Internal medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

2Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

waelaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Liver pathology may precede pregnancy, develop during pregnancy or result as a direct complication of pregnancy. Differentiation of pathologies can be difficult but is of importance as the appropriate management varies with the diagnosis. Aim: of this study was to estimate the pattern and the degree of liver dysfunction in women complaining from pregnancy induced hypertension. Subjects and Methods: This study was performed on forty females in their late trimester of pregnancy. Twenty females were complaining from preeclampsia and twenty normal late pregnant females. A control group of twenty non pregnant females was randomly selected. Liver function tests and abdominal ultrasound was done for the studied subjects. Results: Statistically significant difference was found between different groups as regards liver echogenicity, liver span and gall bladder abnormalities in abdominal ultrasonography. We noted that liver enzymes were higher in pregnant group more than the normal control group and the enzymes were higher in pregnancy induced hypertension more than the other pregnant group but serum bilirubin and coagulation profile showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups. From this study we concluded that liver function tests and abdominal ultrasonographic examination is an important tool to detect hepatic dysfunction in women with pregnancy induced hypertension.

[Wael Mohammed Aref, Ahmed ElMazny and Akmal El Mazny. Liver Dysfunction and Ultrasonographic Findings in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Compared to Late Normal Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):74-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.12

 

Keywords: Liver; Dysfunction; Ultrasonographic; Pregnancy; Hypertension

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Supply chain management and principles to design production and distribution systems

 

Mahtab Dadresan1, Mohammad Mohammedi2

 

1 No. 115, Second Floor, Entry 4, Block 133, Phase 1, Ekbatan, Tehran, Iran, Postal code: 1394753388

2 No: 23, daghigh alley, mohasel st., pirozi st., Tehran, Iran, Postal code: 1735954639

Dadresanm389@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Supply chain management is of key importance in achieving the objectives in different parts of a country. Domestic and foreign purchases, development of outsourcing, partnerships, and attention to some of the legal requirements (especially given the 20-year outlook plan) emphasizing on necessity of government downsizing increase this importance. On the other hand, permanent increase in the depth and diversity of design and specification of products and services in various industries naturally make it more necessary to take advantage of high level technical and managerial knowledge and skills. Hence, the necessity of resorting to effective and innovative solutions in the domain of supply chain management aiming at supporting the key missions of the organization is now more needed than the past. For instance, expanded interorganizational cooperation and also extensive cooperation with other industrial and research sectors have now become a top necessity. This paper aims to extensively discuss key points and principles of designing an appropriate system of production and distribution and propose an integrated logistic model by emphasizing on logistics and multiple-product trends in the production and distribution systems.

[Mahtab Dadresan, Mohammad Mohammedi. Supply chain management and principles to design production and distribution systems. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):79-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.13

 

Keywords: Logistic management; Production and distribution; Supply chain management; mixed distribution channel; Marketing

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Political Relationships between Iran and the Jewish

(From coronation of Cyrus the Achaemenid to death of Darius the Achaemenid)

 

Ali Nikoei

 

PhD student of History of Ancient Iran, Tajik State National University

NikoeiA@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Achaemenian was the greatest regular and durable empire in the ancient times, undoubtedly, that controlled the world with specific political and administrative arrangements for more than two centuries. The ancient world that was under the obedience of Achaemenid kings, had various nations and religions, and in most of the cases, there was no close relationship between this nation and these religions; however, the Persian management had all these races and thoughts side by side and in the obedience of one king during two centuries. One of these nations was Jewish, who got familiar with Iranians at the beginning of Achaemenid Empire, and formed some part of political relationships of Iran with themselves during the history of Achaemenid Empire. In the present research, the author has tried to consider the political relationships of Jews with Achaemenid Empire in the empire periods of Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius. Moreover, the researcher has tried to conduct a research on this issue by applying a theoretical and citation approach.

[Ali Nikoei. Political Relationships between Iran and the Jewish. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):86-90]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.14

 

Keywords: Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus, Cambyses, Darius, Jewish, Jewish prophets

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The Religion Manifestation in the Mongol Era Society

 

Majid Sadeghani, Neda Azimi Zavareh

 

University of Isfahan, HezarJerib.st, Isfahan, Iran, Postal Code: 81746-73441

 

Abstract: The religious situation of Iran faced with major challenges in the seventh and eighth centuries AH contemporaneous with the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries AD. Tatar tribes led by Genghis Khan had been succeeded to occupy completely east of Islamic lands (darol Islam) to Shamat and Egyptian border, by the use of disappointing and frustrating spirits dominating the society at that time. Therefore, the society had faced with severe social crisis, the sample of which is completely clear in the religion situation of that time. Although, at the time of Mongols, and especially the centralized government of the Ilkhanids- by the tolerance of the Mongolian, Islam was greatly expanded, and many scholars appeared in the fields of jurisprudence, mysticism, and theology, the progression was in another way in the hearts of the masses of people. Due to the cultural disintegration, a kind of protracted hypocrisy and pretence had been rooted among the people. Hypocrisy had become the dominant aspect of people's many everyday behaviors. Furthermore, the appearance of superstition was regarded as another aspect of this cultural and social disintegration. Nevertheless, one of the main reasons of this matter should be analyzed through the people's look at the issue of fate. Iranians- most of the statesmen, troops, and urban classes were firmly believed who acted completely passively. This issue facilitated the Mongol's invasion, and increased this kind of proceeds when they were dominated.

[Majid Sadeghani, Neda Azimi Zavareh. The Religion Manifestation in the Mongol Era Society. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):91 -95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.15

 

Keyword: Iran, religion, Mongols, Ilkhanids, society

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On a Numerical Method for Solving Fredholm - Volterra Integral Equation

 

S. J. Monaquel

 

Department of Mathematics Faculty of Science King Abdul Aziz University Saudi Arabia

smonaquel@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In this paper, the existence and uniqueness of solution of Fredholm – Volterra integral equation (F-VIE) of the first kind is considered in the space . Then, a numerical method is used to reduce this type of equation to a system of Fredholm integral equations (SFIEs). After this, Toeplitz matrix method (TMM) is used to obtain a linear algebraic system (LAS). Finally, the linear algebraic system is solved numerically, when the singular kernel takes the logarithmic form and Carleman function. The error, in each case, is calculated.

[S. J. Monaquel. On a Numerical Method for Solving Fredholm - Volterra Integral Equation. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):96-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.16

 

Keywords: Fredholm – Volterra integral equation, system of Fredholm integral equations, linear algebraic system, Toeplitz matrix method.

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Indigenous knowledge and utilization of arid and semi-arid rangelands by Iranian pastoralists

 

Abdolhamid Papzan1, M. Reza (Fariborz) Hamzeh'ee2, Nashmil Afsharzadeh3

 

  1. Associate professor of Razi University, College of Agriculture, Ag. Extension and Education, Kermnashah, Iran and Guest Researcher of FU, Berlin, BC-Care, Berlin, Germany.

  2. Assisstant Professor of Razi University, College of Agriculture, Ag. Extension and Education, Kermnashah, Iran.

  3. Ph.D. student of Razi University, College of Agriculture, Ag. Extension and Education, Kermnashah, Iran.

Papzanabdolhamid89@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper aims to study the indigenous systems of natural resource management, specifically utilization strategies of rangelands, among the Kalhor nomads in Kermānshāh province. In the last few decades, the natural resources in arid and semi-arid nomadic regions of the Kalhor have been seriously damaged by the negative impact of modernization, industrialization and destructive natural forces. The results are drought, flood and environmental pollution. This ongoing situation is threatening the survival of the nomads, forcing them to abandon their traditional way of life, and adding to the inhabitants of the slums around big cities. This article argues that in spite of the negative effects of artificial and natural factors on rangelands in the above area, the use of indigenous systems of natural resource management will inevitably improve the conditions of the rangelands, leading towards a sustainable development. It is believed that the combination of short term and a long term strategies that was initiated by the nomads will contribute to the improvement of the rangelands. The conclusions of this paper show that their survival depends upon systems of indigenous management. This type of management is locally initiated, flexible, and sustainable, which requires the full participation of the nomads in the utilization and preservation of their natural resources.

[Abdolhamid Papzan, M. Reza (Fariborz) Hamzeh'ee, Nashmil Afsharzadeh. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of arid and semi-arid rangelands by Iranian pastoralists. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):102-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.17

 

Keywords: Nomads, Management, Sustainable Development, Kurds, Kermanshah

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Studies on Imidazolones: synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some new Imidazolone Derivatives

 

K. A. Hebash

 

Chemistry Department; Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha- Egypt

kaouserhebash@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: 2-[1-Hydroxy-4-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmeth-yl]-isoindole-1,3-dione (1) has been synthesized by treatment of 2-[4-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-oxazol-2-ylmethyl]-isoindol-1,3-dione with hydroxyl amine hydrochloride in boiling DMF/ pyridine mixture. The reactions of (1) with nitrogen and carbon nucleophiles have been investigated. The structure of these compounds was established on the basis of IR and H-NMR spectroscopy, the antimicrobial activities of the investigated compounds were tested against a Gram positive bacterium i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram negative bacterium i.e. Escherichia coli and some fungal plant pathogens i.e. Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans by using the hole plate and filter paper disc method.

[K. A. Hebash. Studies on Imidazolones: synthesis and Biological Evaluation of some new Imidazolone Derivatives. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):111-117]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.18

 

Keywords: Aryl cinnamides, imidazolone, antimicrobial activity.

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Assessment of nurses’ practices related to safety of intraoperative surgical patient undergoing general anesthesia.

 

Thanaa M. A. Alaaa-Eldeen1; Amna Y. Saad2 and Noura M. Elrefaee

 

Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University.

yaramohamed_2020@yahoo.com; alaa_download@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human errors play an important role in the occurrence of surgical complications that interfere with patient’s safety. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ safety practices related to safety of intraoperative surgical patient undergoing general anesthesia. The study was carried out at the operating room of the Main University Hospital (A&B&C). Nurses’ safety practices observational checklist was used for data collection. The study revealed that the nurses’ level of safety practices was unsatisfactory along the phases of surgery with no significant correlation with presence of patient’s associated diseases, nurses’ years of experience or previous attendance of training programs in the majority of patients.

[Thanaa M. A. Alaaa-Eldeen; Amna Y. Saad and Noura M. Elrefaee. Assessment of nurses’ practices related to safety of intraoperative surgical patient undergoing general anesthesia. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):118-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.19

 

Keywords: Assessment; nurse; practice; safety; surgical; patient; general anesthesia.

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Concept Maps, Cloze Tests, and Multiple-choice Tests:

A Think-aloud Approach to the Comparison of the Strategies Utilized in Different Test Formats

 

Mansoor Fahim (Ph.D.), Maryam Sadat Tabataba’ian (Ph.D. Candidate)

 

Department of English Language and Literature, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

maryam.tabatabaeian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present case study was to investigate different strategies utilized by test takers while performing on three different reading test formats, including: Concept Maps (CM), Cloze Tests (CT), and Multiple-choice Tests (MC) using a think-aloud approach to understand the mental processes of the participants and to elicit their strategy use while completing the tests. To this end, five advanced EFL learners studying at Avesta Language Institute in Mashhad, Iran were given reading tests containing the three aforementioned formats. The obtained results were identified according to Pishghadam and Ghanizadeh’s (2011) framework. However, some strategies were added to account for all test formats. The results indicated that different strategies were used when test takers perform on different test formats and the test format affects learners’ strategy selection and strategy use.

[Fahim M, Tabataba’ian M. Concept Maps, Cloze Tests, and Multiple-choice Tests: A Think-aloud Approach to the Comparison of the Strategies Utilized in Different Test Formats. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):131-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.20

 

Keywords: Case study, cloze test, concept map, multiple-choice test, protocol analysis, think-aloud technique

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The role of tourism in economic development

 

Zahra Razaghi, Mohammad Ebrahim Alinejad

 

Farhangian University, Iran

Razzaghi_z@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the importance of tourism industry in creating positive economic impacts has been increasingly revealed at the global level, and statesmen in developed and developing countries have considered tourism as one of the main factors in creating job opportunities, reducing the unemployment rate, and generally the stable development in the world, given the global society’s factors which have influenced every industry. In Iran, the tourism industry has been considered as an economic section bearing an increasing role in mass production, and its job-creating power is more than other economic sections directly or indirectly, and its development will definitely make the economy grow at a rapid rate alongside improving the spread of income in country. In fact, tourism industry has nowadays balanced the incomes, interests, expenses, presentation of the negative and positive statistics in states’ accounts, and finances in a way that it was beyond the pale in the last few years. Since tourism is a functional industry and many small or large scale industries are related to it, its impact is more significant compared to the other industries. Hence, this industry bears more advantages compared to the other industries due to its high multiplication coefficient, and if a country has an appropriate economic structure, she can play an efficient role in economic development. Developing tourism industry requires a suitable environment to create and grow the necessary infrastructures. The requirement of creating these infrastructures depends on creating tourism culture, and what bears high significance here is to deepen the understanding of tourism destination and its cultural and social realities. The role of tourism in developing Iran which has many touristic attractions is highly notable. Since the majority of economic income in Iran comes from fossil fuels, we need to use all the capabilities and equipment to create a comprehensive and stable development, and also to substitute the new resources of income for petroleum resources. In this regard, developing tourism industry which economist consider the third dynamic and developing economy after oil and automotive industry is highly significant.. Relics left from different eras alongside natural and various coastal sceneries with the existence of many islands are in a coordinated combination with the historical buildings of cultural and religious heritage which is a set of different motivations for visiting the Persian Gulf Area. Moreover, being located in the heart of Islam world, the countries in this area draw the global attention as a political axis. So, there are many incentives for the foreign tourists to visit the area especially the world of Islam, which can be referred to as social, pilgrimage, cultural, historical, natural, recreational, and etc. In this paper, given the economic features in the region, it has been tried to study the role of tourism in the economic growth and development of the Persian Gulf area, and given the library and field studies done in this area, assess the existed challenges and find the appropriate solutions according to a special model for economic development based on touristic features and observe the growth of the area.

[Zahra Razzaghi, Mohammad Ebrahim Alinejad. The role of tourism in economic development. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):139-144]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.21

 

Keywords: Tourism economy, invisible exports, domestic tourist, foreign tourist

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The Relationship between Urban Morphology and Urban Designing Guidance

 

Amir Tayyebi1, Mohammad Azad Ahmadi2*

 

1 Architecture engineering college, Jondi Shapour University, North Branch, Dezful, Iran

Tel: +98-912-2063878, E-mail: Amir.Tayyebi1@yahoo.com

2 Sama technical and vocational college, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran

Post Code: 66177-66869, 1st unit, no. 1320, Havarinasab St., Villashahr area, Sanandaj, Iran

Tel: +98-918-8711988, *corresponding author E-mail: mo.aahmadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Urban morphology as “knowledge of urban form”, has notable capacities to participate in comprehension and management of urban development, specially in this days cities have faced with unprecedented changes that create problem for cities inhabitants in perception and creation of cities image and also have confronted designers with a serious question to control and guide new constructions. Use of urban morphology in urban form and image, can take place at a more effective way while we know these cases: 1- Identify theoretical base of this knowledge field 2- Identify and separate “urban morphology techniques” 3- Identify, separate and analyze previous experience of this field in model of schools, thoughts, case studies and usage of morphological analysis. “Urban design guidance” is a comparative and pictorial explanation of policies and goals that codify at metropolis scale with physical quality promotion purpose, at a way that make them (policies and goals) executable in design language. Three techniques (plan analysis, typology and city character study) that use in urban morphology have application for policies and goals preparation in urban guidance that addresses urban form and townscape problems. This paper after urban guidance description introduces trinary urban morphology techniques and defines application method and advantages of their use in urban guidance preparation.

[Amir Tayyebi, Mohammad Azad Ahmadi. The Relationship between Urban Morphology and Urban Designing Guidance. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):145-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.22

 

Keywords: Urban morphology techniques, Urban design guidance, Plan analysis, Typology, City character study, Policy and Goal

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The Postmodern Drama

 

Yousef Afarini 1, Mohammad Shoalehsaadi 2

 

1. Department of Art and Architecture, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran.

2. Department of Art and Architecture, Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran.

sepidanfaculty@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Postmodern drama has the absurd-grotesque characteristics. Absurdity is the content of our contemporary drama. Whatever postmodernists and critics have claimed on rejection of modernism can be seen in absurdist drama. Nowadays, life is absurd; without any meaning, goal, or hope to the future and drama, which has been lifelike or at least affected by real life, from Socrates time until now, represents this absurdity. The author of an absurdist drama is not intended to be a social reformist or the savior. He just draws out the image of real world.

[Afarini Y, Shoalehsaadi M. The Postmodern Drama. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):150-154]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.23

 

Keywords: absurd, modernism, postmodernism, hero, non-hero

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Artificial Neural Network for predicting Flexural Strength of Concrete Containing Cr2O3 Nanoparticles

 

Farzad Soleymani1 and Akbar Karimi Livary2

 

1) Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

2) Department of Materials Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present paper, a model based on artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting flexural strength of concretes containing Cr2O3 nanoparticles have been developed at different ages of curing. For purpose of building these models, training and testing using experimental results for 144 specimens produced with 16 different mixture proportions were conducted. The data used in the multilayer feed forward neural networks models and inputvariables of genetic programming models are arranged in a format of eight input parameters that cover the cement content (C), nanoparticle content (N), aggregate type (AG), water content (W), the amount of superplasticizer (S), the type of curing medium (CM), Age of curing (AC) and number of testing try (NT). According to the input parameters, in the model the flexural strength of concretes was predicted. Neural network have trained results good and the new data can be predicted by the trained network as well.

[Farzad Soleymani. Artificial Neural Network for predicting Flexural Strength of Concrete Containing Cr2O3 Nanoparticles. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):155-162]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.24

Keywords: Concrete; Cr2O3 nanoparticles; artificial neural network; genetic programming; flexural strength

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Computer-aided predicting of compressive Strength of Concrete Containing Cr2O3 Nanoparticles

 

Farzad Soleymani1 and Pouriya Fataei2

 

1) Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

2) Department of Materials Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present paper, a model based on artificial neural networks (ANN) for predicting compressive strength of concretes containing Cr2O3 nanoparticles have been developed at different ages of curing. For purpose of building these models, training and testing using experimental results for 144 specimens produced with 16 different mixture proportions were conducted. The data used in the multilayer feed forward neural networks models and input variables of genetic programming models are arranged in a format of eight input parameters that cover the cement content (C), nanoparticle content (N), aggregate type (AG), water content (W), the amount of superplasticizer (S), the type of curing medium (CM), Age of curing (AC) and number of testing try (NT). According to the input parameters, in the model the compressive strength of concretes was predicted. Neural network have trained results good and the new data can be predicted by the trained network as well.

[Farzad Soleymani. Computer-aided predicting of compressive Strength of Concrete Containing Cr2O3 Nanoparticles. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):163-170]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.25

Keywords: Concrete; Cr2O3 nanoparticles; artificial neural network; genetic programming; compressive strength

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Abrasion resistance of concrete containing SiO2 nanoparticles in different curing media

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, abrasion resistance and compressive strength of concrete specimens containing SiO2 nanoparticles which are cured in different curing media have been investigated. SiO2 nanoparticles were partially replaced by Portland cement up to 2.0 wt% and mechanical properties of the produced specimens were measured. Increasing the nanoparticles content have found to increase the abrasion resistance of the specimens which were cured in water and saturated limewater, while this condition was not observed for compressive strength in both curing media. The enhancement of abrasion resistance was more for the specimens containing SiO2 nanoparticles in both curing media. Since, abrasion resistance and compressive strength of the specimens follow a similar regime by increasing the nanoparticles content when they are cured in saturated limewater, some experimental relationships has been presented to correlate these two properties of concrete for this curing medium. On the whole, it has been concluded that the abrasion resistance of concrete does not only depend on the corresponding compressive strength. [Farzad Soleymani. Abrasion resistance of concrete containing SiO2 nanoparticles in different curing media. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):171-178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.26

 

Keywords: A. Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs); B. Mechanical properties; B. Strength; D. Thermal analysis.

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The comparison of middle class in developed societies and Iran society

 

Abbas kaabi

 

PhD student in political science Tajikistan

KaabbiA@gmx.com

 

Abstract: One of main subjects in political sociology region is middleclass. Middle class has been known like political and social alterations in modern world. the importance of middle class appearance in different social and political eras is such as most of thinkers in different backgrounds, consider it as a base for constructing new societies and one of elements and democratic society basic prerequisites. so, dependants to middle class, democracy pioneers and economical and political and social development precursors,were known in society. in twentieth and twenty first centuries, acceptance and importance and surveying necessity of this class has been more obvious. So, surveying and rule recognition and place of middle class in social and political changes, are one of sociology and political main keys. This research wants to compares middle class in developed countries and Iran and surveys middle class specifications in Iran and developed countries.

[Abbas kaabi. The comparison of middle class in developed societies and Iran society. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):179-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.27

 

Keywords: middle class, ancient middle class, new middle class, developed countries, Iran.

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A Comparative Study of Creativity and intelligence of Students in Wechsler Intelligence Scale and Children's Apperception Test

 

Leila hamivand

 

MSC. in Exceptional Children Psychology,

leylahamivand@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study is to comparatively study these problem: whether there is a relationship between creativity and intelligence.The method of the research is descriptive. The statistical society of the research includes all students of primary schools in Tehran city in 2010-11 years. 60 students contributed in the study to be selected for available sampling. The Instrumentations of data collection was Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and Children’s Apperception Test(C.A.T). The data was analyzed by Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient(Pearson's r).Results indicated a statistically significant correlation between creativity and intelligence of students. This study support threshold theory.

[Leila hamivand, Janet HashemiAzar, GholamrezaSarami. Comparative Study of the Stories of Gifted and Creative Children in C.A.T Test. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):184-188]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.28

 

Keywords: Creative Child, Gifted Child, Children's Apperception Test(C.A.T)

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Recognition and Prioritization of Pull Factors of Azerbaijan as a Destination for Iranian Tourists

 

Ramin Asadi, Mahmoud Daryaei

 

Azerbaijan Industry and Agriculture Development and Studies co.

ra_asadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recognition of pull factors of a country for attracting tourist and their prioritization is of considerable importance for planners and politicians of the countries of origin and destination. In this research pull factors of Azerbaijan Republic as a destination for Iranian tourists are recognized. In the first phase, referring to literature review, pull factors were recognized. Then using the same method, five criteria were determined to analyze these factors by application of pair-wise comparison and then weight of these criteria was calculated. In the next step, TOPSIS method was used for ranking twenty pull factors of Azerbaijan. Library-based studies were used for preparing theoretical fundamentals and research background and questionnaires were used for collecting information to determine the importance and prioritization of the factors. The sample of the research is technical managers of travel agencies, located in different parts of the country. Sample Size of this study amounts to 278 persons.

[Asadi R, Drayaei M. Recognition and Prioritization of Pull Factors of Azerbaijan as a Destination for Iranian Tourists. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):189-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.29

 

Key words: Pull Factors, Iranian Tourist, Azerbaijan Tourism, TOPSIS, and Prioritization

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Sustainable urban development through sustainable urban green spaces: The Case of Sanandaj City in Iran

 

Mohammad Azad Ahmadi1, Amir Tayyebi2*, Jahede Tekyehkhah3

 

1 Sama technical and vocational college, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, Sanandaj, Iran

Tel: 0098-918-8711988, E-mail: mo.aahmadi@yahoo.com

2 Architecture engineering college, Jondi Shapour University, North Branch, Dezful, Iran

Tel: 0098-912-2063878, *Corresponding author E-mail: Amir.Tayyebi1@yahoo.com

Post Code: 1613639514, 3st floor, no. 77, Sorraya Al., Keshvad St., Shariati St., Tehran, Iran

3Member of GIS research group and vice president of Jahad university of Kurdistan ACECR

Tel: 0098-918-3729312, Email: jahede2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sanandaj city as the capital of Kurdistan province enjoys a special position at the provincial level and its physical development and growth has been impressive in recent years. The important point here is that growth course of the population of the city is faster than its harmonious and sustainable development course; and the result of this event is marginalization increase, overcrowding and population density, urban traffic problems and especially environmental problems. One component that can restore balance to the urban development state is developing parks and green spaces that are considered one of the most important factors of sustainable development. Therefore, this paper attempts to review the status quo of parks and green spaces of Sanandaj and then compare it with the existing standards. Then by analyzing the collected data and comparing it with ideal and optimal status proposed strategies for the development of parks and green spaces be explained. Hence, some part of the mission of urban sustainable development which is truly green spaces development and its ecological improvement can be answered.

[Mohammad Azad Ahmadi, Amir Tayyebi, Jahede Tekyehkhah. Sustainable urban development through sustainable urban green spaces: The Case of Sanandaj City in Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):195-201]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.30

 

Keywords: sustainable development, parks and urban green spaces, Long-term planning, green space per capita, Sanandaj city

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Phytochemical and Microbiological studies of PetreavolubiliesL

 

Gouda T. M. Dawoud1 and T. H. El-Morsy2

 

1Phytochemistry and 2Microbiology Departments, Applied Research Center for Medicinal Plant, National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Egypt.

tarekelmorsy0101@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical screening of Petreavolubilies L for volatile oils, polyphenols and/or tannins, sterol and/or triterpenes, flavonoid aglycones and/ glycosides, carbohydrates and /or glycosides, and iridoid glycoside It is free from anthraquinone glycosides, alkaloid, saponins, resins and oxidase enzyme. Phenylethanoidsverbascoside, eukovoside and cistanoside D were isolated and identified by co-chromatographic and specteoscopic methods. Antimicrobial properties of n-butanol fraction and pure compound were evaluated against Escherichia coli ATCC 14169, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ACCT 9027, Staphylococcusaureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus subtulis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus leutus ATCC9341, Aspergillusniger and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 by the disc diffusion method.

[Gouda T. M. Dawoud and T. H. El-Morsy. Phytochemical and Microbiological studies of PetreavolubiliesL. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):202-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.31

 

Keywords: verbascoside, eukovoside, cistanoside-D and antimicrobial properties.

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Effect of Different Levels of NPK and Micronutrient Fertilization on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Maize Plants

 

El-Fouly, M.M.1; Abou El-Nour, E.A.A.1; Shaaban S.H.A1 and Zeidan, M.S2

 

1Department of Fertilization Technology, 2Department of Field Crop Research, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

shashaaban@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field experiments were carried out in Kafer El Kadera village at El–Monofia governorate- Egypt which located at the middle of Delta, during three summer seasons of 2009, 2010 and 2011 to explore the effects of different NPK treatments on growth, yield and nutrients uptake of maize plant (Zea mays, L.) var.30K8, grown on an irrigated silty clay loam under a wheat-maize cropping system. Six NPK combinations were tested in the first season, while one more treatment was added in the second and third seasons as control treatment. The obtained results indicated that the NPK dose based on soil testing plus spraying of micronutrients, improved all growth parameters, ear characteristics and resulted in improving nutrient concentrations in maize leaves and also enhanced nutrients uptake which induced significant increase in grain yield as compared to other treatments.

[El-Fouly, M.M.; Abou El-Nour, E.A.A.; Shaaban S.H.A and Zeidan, M.S. Effect of Different Levels of NPK and Micronutrient Fertilization on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Maize Plants. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):209-214]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.32

 

Key words: maize, macro and micronutrients, nutrient uptake, yield and yield components

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Assess the Effect of Cucrumen in Histopathologcal Changes on the Cerebral Cortex of Offspring Rats Toxicity Induced By Fried Foods

 

Ismail, N.H.

 

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Girls for Art Sciences and Education, Ain Shams University

nadia-hussein@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Acrylamide is an industrial chemical formed in food containing starch like chips, crisps and bread during heat processing and preparation of food. Acrylamide used in preparing polyacrylamide which is used in water purification from organic substance, paper, oil field industries and preparation of poly acrylamide gels using in laboratory searching. The present investigation shows the effect of dietary fried food on the histoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, female Sprague-Dawley rats were feeding with fried potato chips or fried bread alone or combined at dose 15%, 30% supplemented basil diet before 6 weeks of gestation and 6 weeks during the gestation and lactation, the offspring's reaching 3 weeks old. Microscopic examination of sections of the cerebral cortex of offspring's maternally fed on fried potato (G2) showing some cells appeared with distorted deeply stain, malformed in pia mater with loss of density in plexus nerve fibers and dilatation blood capillary in piamater with many necrotic cells, Cerebral cortex of (G, 3, 4) showed rupture piamater layer, with infiltrated inflammatory cells in molecular layer, The most prominent alterations in external granular such as most nuclei in external granular cell shrunken surrounded by spaces and dilated congested blood capillary in piamater and molecular layer with loss of density in plexus in molecular layer (G, 5, 6 & 7). The using of curcumen showing ameliorative cerebral tissue, represented in low doses of acrylamide (fried potato 15%%, fried bread 15% mixed fried bread & potato 15%) groups: indicated the external granular cell appeared nearly normal, with moderate ameliorative. On the other side, the groups feds on high dose of acrylamide (fried potato 30%, fried bread 30% mixed fried bread & potato 30%), showed remarkable changes, represented necrotic cells& dilated blood capillary, inflammatory tricked in pia matter and loss of plexus, necrotic cells & dilated blood capillary.

[Ismail, N.H. Assess the Effect of Cucrumen in Histopathologcal Changes on the Cerebral Cortex of Offspring Rats Toxicity Induced By Fried Foods. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):215-221]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.33

 

Key words: Cucrumen; Histopathologcal; Cerebral Cortex; Offspring Rat; Toxicity; Fried Foods

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Dietary Behavior toward Osteoporosis among Women in a Slum Area Influenced by Nutritional Knowledge and Stages of Precaution Adoption Model

 

Sherine Gaber Mohamed1, Dalia Ibrahim Tayel2

 

1Health Administration and Behavioural Sciences Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt.

2Nutrition Department, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt

dalia2tayel@yahoo.com,

 

Abstract: The cross sectional study aiming to assess the effect of Precaution adoption process model (PAPM) and nutritional knowledge concerning osteoporosis on dietary behavior of women. Two hundred and twenty women aged 21 years and above living in slum area in Alexandria, Egypt were randomly selected and asked about their nutritional knowledge, dietary behaviors and PAPM stages related to osteoporosis. Poor total knowledge about osteoporosis was found among 52.7% of women specially knowledge concerning nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis. More than two thirds of women (69.1%) had bad dietary behavior due to low consumption of food containing calcium and high consumption of food and drinks that inhibit calcium absorption. Using PAPM, 56.4% of women were unaware of osteoporosis problem, 13.6% have heard about the problem but were unengaged, only 5.5 % were concerned about the problem and were deciding to act and 24.5% of women were planning to take protective measures within the next 6 months. Poor nutritional knowledge, low educational level and low family income are main reasons for unawareness of osteoporosis problem as the first stage of PAPM. PAPM stages are associated with poor dietary preventive behavior toward osteoporosis. Nutritional education program about osteoporosis ought to be developed and implemented for the women in slum area in Alexandria, Egypt.

[Sherine Gaber Mohamed, Dalia Ibrahim Tayel. Dietary Behavior toward Osteoporosis among Women in a Slum Area Influenced by Nutritional Knowledge and Stages of Precaution Adoption Model. Journal of American Science 2012; 8(8):222 -227].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.34

 

Keywords: Precaution adoption process model, nutritional knowledge, dietary behavior, osteoporosis.

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An experimental study of the challenges and perspectives of the schema descriptive evaluation from

 

Managers, Teachers and Experts’ points of view in Chaharmahal and Bakhteyari Primary Schools

 

Mahin Naderi1, Maryam Shoja Hiedari1, Fatemeh Mehrabifar2, Hamid Mortazavi3, Mohammad Reza Jalilvand4

 

1. Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Science & Psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

2. Faculty of Educational Planning, Islamic Azad University, Oloom Tahghighat Branch, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Educational Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

4. Department of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

rezajalilvand@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In recent years, there has been lots of discussion going around educational reforms in schools. Assessment and evaluation of students are considered as a key lever and element for reforming schools and enhancing education and learning. It is expected that proper assessment prepare basis of educational reforms. Currently, assessment is an inseparable part and hand-in-hand with education-learning process that instead of classifying students focuses on their learning. The aim of present study is to determine challenges and perspectives of executing descriptive evaluation scheme from the viewpoint of deans, teachers and experts of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Statistical population includes 208 deans, 303 teachers, and 100 executive experts of descriptive evaluation scheme in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province in educational year 2010-2011. Sample's volume after some statistical estimation calculated to be 175, and members of the sample were selected by random sampling of a category proportional to selected volume, that contains 100 teachers, 50 deans and 25 experts. We used interview for employing opinions and experiences of executives in the area of implementing descriptive evaluation scheme. A self-administrated questionnaire containing four scales and 74 closed questions and four open questions was used. Data analysis was based on one-sample t-test, independent t-test, ANOVA, and least significant difference (LSD) tests. Results indicated that the executives of descriptive evaluation scheme in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province evaluate the so called scheme above average regarding to four scales (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat). In strength scale, the most response mean was toward "increase of knowledge and awareness in students". In weakness scale, the most response mean was toward "insufficiency of executives’ readiness for accepting the descriptive evaluation scheme". In opportunity scale, the most response mean was toward "the ability to increase the accuracy in doing tasks", and the most response mean in threat scales, was toward "the possibility of insufficiency in cultural foundation promotion for accepting descriptive evaluation scheme".

 [Naderi M, Shoja Hiedari M, Mehrabifar F, Mortazavi H, Jalilvand M. R. An experimental study of the challenges and perspectives of the schema descriptive evaluation from Managers, Teachers and Experts’ points of view in Chaharmahal and Bakhteyari Primary Schools. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):228-240]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.35

 

Keywords: Descriptive evaluation; challenge; perspective; strength; weakness; opportunity; threat

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Evaluation of Some Faba Bean Genotypes against Chocolate Spot Disease Using CDNA Fragments of Chitinase Gene and Some Agronomic Methods

 

Noha F. El-Badawy1, S. R. E. Abo-Hegazy2, M. M.Mazen1 and H. A. Mohamed1

 

1- Plant Pathol. Res. Inst., ARC, Giza, Egypt

2- Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Farinoha_200@Yahoo.com; samirrabie10@yahoo.com; Mazenpp2007@yahoo.com; Haemi1974@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Thirteen faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genotypes were assessed under greenhouse and field conditions in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, using morphological and molecular characterization methods for resistance to chocolate spot diseases caused by Botrytis fabae A significant variation among the tested genotypes and their reaction to the disease was found under greenhouse condition. Sakha 1, Sakha 2 and Nubaria-1 were resistant, indicating by the lowest disease severity. Whereas Giza 40, line 375 and Cairo 25 where susceptible. Other faba bean genotypes were moderately susceptible. RT. PCR analysis using chit-1 and chit-2 primers amplified fragment of chitinase gene (900 bp) in six faba bean genotype upon infection with the pathogen 48 hrs after inoculation. This fragment detected only in the resistance cultivars Sakha-1, Sakha-2 and Nubaria-1 and some moderate resistance genotype including Giza-3, line-24H and line 36. At the same time no signal was detected in other infected genotypes or healthy ones. Field results of testing genotype against chocolate spot diseases differed slightly than that of greenhouse. The estimates of heritability in broad sense ranged from 0.90 to 0.99, High values of heritability were obtained for seed yield/plant (0.99), followed by plant dry weight, plant height, seeds/pod across the two seasons. However, No relationship was found between resistance of genotypes against B. fabae and their morphological characterizes under field conditions. Reverse-Transcription (RT-PCR) showed that Chitinase gene, is expressed at early stages in infected faba bean leaves. By using of Chitinase specific primers DNA fragment at molecular weight 900 bp appeared at 48 hrs. after inoculation and disappeared in the healthy plants.

 [Noha F. El-Badawy, M. M.Mazen, H. Abd El- Menem and S. R. E. Abo-Hegazy. Evaluation of Some Faba Bean Genotypes against Chocolate Spot Disease Using CDNA Fragments of Chitinase Gene and Some Agronomic Methods. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):241-250]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.36

 

Keywords: Perceived Stresses, Students, Physical Health, Mental Health, Life Style, Saudi Arabia.

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FGF-23 as early marker of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in non dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease patients

 

Doaa Salah Eldeen¹, Fawkia Eissa¹, Mona Naiem², Nivin Ghoraba³, Shereen Elshaer4

 

¹Department of Internal Medicine, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

² Department of Cardiology, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

³ Department of Clinical Pathology, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

4 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

dsalah241@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The family of FGFs consists of 23 proteins that regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. FGF-23 is the most recently discovered FGF and functions as an endocrine hormone that regulates phosphorus homeostasis. Increased FGF23 production in chronic kidney disease (CKD) enhances urinary phosphate excretion to prevent hyperphosphatemia. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common manifestation of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients. We design this study to examine the relationship between increased plasma FGF 23 and LVH in patients with pre-dialysis CKD in order to understand the early mechanisms of LVH in CKD patients. Methods: FGF-23 measurement using ELIZA immunoassay and Conventional echo-Doppler study for LVH were done in 27 patients with pre-dialysis CKD (estimated glomeriolar filteration rate (eGFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m²) as well as 13 patients with preserved kidney function (eGFR) ˃ 60 mL/min/1.73m²) to serve as control. Results: The mean FGF-23 plasma level in patients with CKD (3.8 ± 2.2 pg/ml) was significantly higher than FGF-23 in those with preserved kidney function (0.5 ± 0.1 pg/ml). Within CKD patients, the FGF -23 levels were also significantly increased in group 4 compared with group 3 CKD (5.5 ± 1.3 pg/ml vs. 1.9±0.8 pg/ml). The increased FGF23 level in CKD patients was negatively correlated with GFR and positively correlated with LVM and LVMI. Conclusion: Increased synthesis of FGF-23 in the course of declined GFR were positively correlated to LVM and LVMI in patients with CKD and this positive correlation were present before appearance of hyperphosphatemia. FGF-23 may serve as sensitive marker of early calcium-phosphate disturbances and can predict occurrence of LVH in patients with CKD.

[Doaa Salah Eldeen, Fawkia Eissa, Mona Naiem, Nivin Ghoraba³, Shereen Elshaer FGF-23 as early marker of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in non dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease patients. Journal of American Science 2012; 8(8):251 257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.37

 

Key words: Fibroblast growth factor 23; left ventricular hypertrophy; chronic kidney disease.

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Immunohistochemical Expression of CD44V6, P53 and BCL-2 in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

 

Afaf T Elnashar1 and Abdou S Abdel Hafez2

 

1Pathology and 2Obstetric and Gynecology Departments, Faculty of Medicine Sohag University.

moh_abo_elaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ovarian epithelial cancer is a leading cause of death among gynaecological malignancies due mainly to advanced stage at presentation. Aim of the work: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of CD44v6, Bcl-2 and P53 in ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) and primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas Experimental Design: We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of CD44v6, Bcl-2 and P53 in 100 patients with primary ovarian carcinoma (64) serous 26 mucinous and 10 undifferentiated carcinoma) and 50 patients with ovarian tumors of (LMP). Results: CD44v6 was expressed in 25 cases of ovarian tumors of LMP (50%) and in 9 cases of ovarian carcinomas (9%). CD44v6 expression was correlated with early clinical FIGO stage (p=0.003) and the grade of the tumor. (p <0.05). P53 expression was detected in 21 cases of ovarian tumors of LMP (42%) and in 52 cases of ovarian carcinomas (52%) and was associated with high grade and advanced clinical FIGO stage (p <0.004). Bcl-2 was expressed in 43 cases of ovarian tumors of LMP (86%) and in 66 cases of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (66%) with positive correlation between Bcl-2 expression and early clinical stage and low grading of the tumors (p <0.001). Conclusion: CD44v6 and Bcl-2 expressions were correlated with LMP and, early- stage tumor with good prognosis, whereas P53 expression was associated with less differentiated, advanced-stage tumor and unfavorable prognosis

[Afaf T Elnashar and Abdou S Abdel Hafez. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD44V6, P53 and BCL-2 in Epithelial Ovarian Tumors. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):258-264]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.38

 

Keywords: CD44v6. P53, BCL-2, epithelial ovarian tumors

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Selectivity and Performance of Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst for Methanol Production with Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) Reaction

 

A. Gharibi Kharaji1, A. Shariati2

 

1. Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran, abolfazl.gharibi@yahoo.com

2. Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran, shariati@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: One of the main reactions that can be used to reduce greenhouse gases emissions is Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) reaction. Through this reaction CO2 is converted to CO to produce beneficial chemicals such as methanol. In this paper Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared and then promoted with Ni ions through impregnation method to produce Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. The structures of the catalysts were studied using XRD, XRF and TEM techniques. Activity, selectivity and stability of both catalysts were investigated in a batch reactor and the results indicate that addition of Ni promoter to Mo/Al2O3 catalyst increased its activity and CO selectivity. Ni-Mo/Al2O3 showed acceptable catalytic stability during RWGS reaction. As a whole Ni-Mo/Al2O3 can be a suitable candidate for methanol production process from CO2 using RWGS reaction.

[A. Gharibi Kharaji, A. Shariati. Selectivity and Performance of Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst for Methanol Production with Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) Reaction. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):265-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.39

 

Keywords: RWGS reaction; Ni-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst; Methanol process; greenhouse gases; selectivity

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Sarcocystis hominis and Other Sarcocystis Species Infecting Cattle in Sharkia Province, Egypt

 

1Badawy, A.I.I; 2Abouzaid, N.Z. and 3Ahmed, H. A

 

Departments of 1Parasitology, 2Animal Medicine (Infectious diseases) and 3Department of Zoonoses Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

heba_ahmed@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Bovine sarcocystosis is an economically important disease worldwide caused by the apicomplexan protozoan, Sarcocystis species. There are three main species of cattle Sarcocystis; S. cruzi (S. bovicanis), S. hirsuta (S. bovifelis) and S. hominis (S. bovihominis). The current study was conducted to identify Sarcocystis species infecting slaughtered cattle at Sharkia province, Egypt using light and electron microscopy, as well as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) technique. Both thin-walled and thick-walled microscopic sarcocysts were observed in 29.6 % (24 out of 81) of the examined cattle. Thin-walled sarcocysts were observed in the 24 infected animals (29.6 %), while thick-walled sarcocysts were only detected in three samples (4.9 %). Large macroscopic cysts were not observed by the naked eyes. The identified microscopic cysts measured 198-1050 µm (average 624 µm) in length and 72-150 µm (average 111 µm) in breadth. Thin-walled microscopic sarcocysts were identified as S. cruzi, while thick-walled sarcocysts were confirmed as S. hominis using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and RAPD-PCR technique. Thick-walled S. hirsuta was suspected only at light microscopic level. This is the first report and molecular confirmation of S. hominis in slaughtered cattle at Sharkia province, Egypt.

[Badawy, A.I.I; Abouzaid, N.Z. and Ahmed, H. A. Sarcocystis hominis and Other Sarcocystis Species Infecting Cattle in Sharkia Province, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):271-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.40

 

Key words: Sarcocystis species, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocysts, Protozoa, Cattle

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Human Presence and City Squares in an Iranian Context

 

Amir Tayyebi1, Jaber Danesh2

 

1 Architecture engineering college, Jondi Shapour University, North Branch, Dezful, Iran

Tel: 0098-912-2063878 *Corresponding author E-mail: Amir.Tayyebi1@yahoo.com

Post Code: 1613639514, 3rd floor, no. 77, Sorraya Al., Keshvad St., Shariati St., Tehran, Iran

2 Institute of Culture and Art and Architecture, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In spaces of cities in Iran that have been formed during long years. They have influenced from artistic and mental patterns and teachings of Islam. The physical and semantic factors can be considered as the main factors of its formation alongside the qualities related to human activities and behaviors. In this regard, urban squares play an outstanding role as the most important place of collective living in open space of cities. They appeal people presence and enhance the quality of human presence in cities. This article has obtained analytical approaches to this literature and analyzed the structure of concepts and components of this issue. The shortened outcome of these subjects has been used to determine the relation between three main topics of urban space (square), human presence, and the Iranian traditional city. The dominant rules in formation of squares have been focused. It should be noted that presentation and selection of these materials has been mostly directed into offering a prescribed solutions. Although this text does not propose any strategy or policy regarding human presence in urban squares, the grounds and directions have been provided in this regard.

[Amir Tayyebi, Jaber Danesh. Human Presence and City Squares in an Iranian Context. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):276-285]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.41

 

Key Words: Human presence; Urban Square; Iranian traditional city; urban spaces

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Study on Petroleum Enterprise Soft Power Evaluation Indicator System Based on Factor Analysis

 

Yang Xiao-long 1, Yang Jin-bao 2

 

1. Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing, 163318, China

2. Institute of Higher Education, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing, 163318, China

yxl@nepu.edu.cn

 

Abstract: With the development of economic globalization and rapid technological revolution, enterprise soft power plays a more and more important role in enterprises. As the pillar industry of china’s national economy, petroleum enterprise soft power will directly affect the process of enterprise internationalization, the implementation of energy development diversification strategy, the sustainable developmnt of petroleum enterprises and their international competitiveness. Taking petroleum enterprise soft power as the research object, sets up petroleum enterprise soft power evaluation indicator system is set up, which enriches the connotation of petroleum enterprise soft power research and lays the groundwork for improving petroleum enterprise soft power, through factor analysis of index selection.

[Yang Xiao-long, Yang Jin-bao. Study on Petroleum Enterprise Soft Power Evaluation Indicator System Based on Factor Analysis. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):286-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.42

 

Keywords: Petroleum enterprises; soft power; indicator system; factor analysis

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P-Glycoprotein Efflux Activity in Steroid-Responsive versus Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

 

Elalfy MS1, Khaled A. Khalifa3, Badr HS2 and Ashraf G Dala4

Faculty Of Medicine, Depart. of Pediatrics, Ain Shams University1 and Menoufiya University2, Clinical Pathology3 and Internal Medicine4 Departments, Menoufiya University

drashrafgharieb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, encodes for P-glycoprotein may predict response to treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia includes agents that are substrates of P-glycoprotein. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of P- glycoprotein efflux activity on lymphocytes to disease outcome in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Methods: The study was carried out on 52 subjects [37 patients; age ranged from 2.6 to 20 years, with a median 9.5 years (27 acute, 10 chronic AIHA and 15 controls; age ranged from 2.6 to 20 with a median 10 years). Three patients died (they were steroid resistant and excluded from the study). Patients were subjected to the following: History taking (including onset, course, duration of evidence of haemolysis and bleeding tendency, drugs, viral infections, treatment regimens and response), full clinical evaluation, complete blood picture, coombs' test both direct and indirect. Functional assay of P-glycoprotein activity. Patients had been followed up for six months. RESULTS: According to the response to treatment, they were; 18 steroid responsive patients with sustained remission, 6 patients became chronic). Evan's syndrome was reported in 8 cases (32%), while 3 cases (11%) diagnosed later to be SLE by serology and score. The efflux capability of its substrates increased in chronic cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia than that in steroid responsive cases, and also higher than in controls, while not significantly different between responsive cases and controls, which means that the study found a correlation between chronicity and P-glycoprotein activity that makes resistance to steroid therapy. Conclusion: P-glycoprotein can efflux its substrate like steroid that used as the main line of treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia which leads to unresponsiveness and then chronicity. It could be used as a predictor of outcome.

[Mohsen Saleh Elalfy, Khaled Abd ElMoemen Khalifa, Hasan Said Badr and Ashraf Gharieb Dala. P-Glycoprotein Efflux Activity in Steroid-Responsive versus Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):292-296]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.43

 

Key Words: P-Glycoprotein, steroid-responsive, autoimmune hemolytic anemia

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Investigating the Formation of Virtual Identity in Media Discourse

 

Shahrooz Ebrahibmi1, Reza Mahmoodoghli2, Ahmad Abaszadeh3, Zohreh Marandi 4

 

1.2.3.4 Department of Political Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

r_oghli@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study looked at the construction social identity has on media consumption and how it leads to social identity and media dependency via the uses and gratifications framework. More recent studies have examined identity performance in less anonymous online settings such as Internet dating sites and reported different findings. This research addresses the relevance of context to the study of media effects on individual cognitions—specifically, perceptions of public opinion—and political behavior the mass media plays an influential role on individual viewers. Television viewing patterns may have a connection with Affective Orientation. However, the findings suggest that affective orientation may be more uniquely influenced by media program type viewed. Results showed that perceived public opinion varied significantly across media markets, and newspaper use as well as personal candidate preference had a significant effect on Construction social identity. An examination of such influences as media context can provide deeper theoretical insights into the analysis of media effects, and perceptual processes such as the persuasive press inference, false consensus, and social projection.

[Ebrahibmi E, Mahmoodoghli R, Abaszadeh, A, Marandi, Z. Department of Political Science, University of Isfahan. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):297-301]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.44

 

Keywords: Media, Social Identity, Discourse Analysis, Consumption

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J Am Sci 2012;8(8):302-304]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

Withdrawn

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Dizziness among older adult

 

Amer Al Saif 1 and Samira Alsenany2

 

1Assistant Professor in Physical Therapy, Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Applied Medical sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Aalsaif@kau.edu.sa

2Assistant Professor in Gerontology, Nursing Department, Faculty of Applied Medical science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Salsenany@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: People aged 60 and over numbered around 600 million worldwide in 2000, and these figures are expected to reach 1.2 billion by 2025 and 2 billion by 2050. Of these, about two thirds currently live in the developing world, and by 2025 it is estimated that this figure will rise to 75% [1]. Globally, this increase in both overall numbers of older people and the relative percentage compared to the total population has considerable implications both for older people themselves and for the health services generally [2]. By this date, the number of old people is expected to grow from approximately 1 million (4 % of the population) to roughly 2.5 million (7 % of the population). This increase in numbers of older people presents numerous challenges to the health care system in Saudi Arabia [3]. However, little prior research has been undertaken examining older people and dizziness. Significantly, Older people suffer from dizziness. It is common in the elderly and increases the risk of falls, thus affecting the quality of life [2]. A major debate is whether dizziness is a normal part of the process of aging or is due to multiple factors, and how that will affect older people regarding treatment and quality of life. However, we do not know how common dizziness is in the general population of older adults. Studies were reviewed from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); MEDLINE and ASSIA were searched using Ovid and CSA.

[Amer Al Saif and Samira Alsenany. Dizziness among older adult. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):305-309]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.46

 

Keywords: dizziness, older people, Falls, elderly, risk of falls, poor balance.

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Investigating relationship between brand image, personalities traits and customer loyalty (case study: laptop buyers in Isfahan city)

 

Dr. Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi, Department of management, Faculty of administration Sciences and economic, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

 

Nasim amirosadat hafshejani, Department of management, Faculty of administration Sciences and economic, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran, Nasim_amt@yahoo.com

 Milad kamtarin, Department of management, Faculty of administration Sciences and economic, Vancouver Island University (VIU)

 

Abstract: Some researchers believe personality traits are stable, but some other researchers indicate personality traits will continue to evolve and may even change and its important factor that effect consumer behavior. We considered personality trait as independent variables. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between brand image, personality traits and loyalty in laptop industry. We selected laptop buyers from Sony company and questionnaires were distributed between their customers. The model proposed in this research was tested by structural equations modeling. Findings show the relationship between brand image, personalities traits and customer loyalty also refine the overall understanding that researchers and managers have of the direct or indirect impact of personalities traits on consumers loyalty with a brand.

[Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi, Nasim amirosadat hafshejani, Milad kamtarin. Investigating relationship between brand image, personalities traits and customer loyalty (case study: laptop buyers in Isfahan city). J Am Sci 2012;8(8):310-313]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.47

 

Keywords: brand image, personalities traits, customer loyalty

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Tourism management theories

 

Ali Rostamian1, Marzieh Rezaei Kalantari2, Raheleh Rostamian3, Seyed Ali Moosavi Nor4

 

1Department of management, Neka branch, Islamic Azad University, Neka, Iran

2Department of management, Neka branch, Islamic Azad University, Neka, Iran

3 Tehran university, Tehran, Iran

4 University of Payame noor

RostamianA@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Today tourism is one of the best tools for cultural exchange and interaction, also touring and traveling into different lands is a successful way to spend leisure time. According to an international definition,” a tourist is a person who travels to other countries in order to visit spectacular places, medical treatment, and business, sport, pilgrimage provided that his staying time is not less than 24 hours and more than 6 month and the distance is not less than 70 km”. If we want to study the tourism history, we will encounter to memoir and adventures of whom traveled to different parts of the world, spend short or long period of time among other ethnic groups, closely visited their manner of living artistic works, handcrafts and other nations specification or heard about them from other ones, After coming back they wrote the seen and heard some of which specified as a myth. These remnant written works help to understand the history, location geography and government conditions of the predecessors. Moreover, occasionally the tourism activities influences societies and different ethnic’s fate such as Christopher Columbus navigation whose hardship and suffrage led to discover a new land called America.

[Ali Rostamian, Marzieh Rezaei Kalantari, Raheleh Rostamian, Seyed Ali Moosavi Nor. Tourism management theories. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):314-318]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.48

 

Keywords: Management theories - Tourism – Tourism industry - Marketing - Hospitality management

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Investigation of attachment styles in adults and its relationship with the Sanitary attitude and behaviors

 

Maryam Radmehr 1, Ahmad T Ezadi 2, Leyla Neisi 3*

 

1. Instructor, MSc of nursing, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Dezful, Iran.

2. Assistant professor, Education Center of Imam Hussein University

3. Instructor, MSc of nursing, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Dezful, Iran.

neisi.l@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Healthy sanitary attitude and behaviors are the most important factors in order to prevent and treat diseases. The "Theory of attachment" is an important contemporary notion for anticipating the social behaviors and psychichealth in adults affecting the general health, attitude, and healthy sanitary behaviors of people in adulthood, according to its effect on the preliminary personality of children. This study was a descriptive correlation assay. 300 bank clerks and instructors of Literacy Movement were asked to fill out the questionnaires. The supplementary questionnaire of revised adult attachment (RAS) coefficient and self-made questionnaire of healthy attitude and behavior were used for data collection. 69.3% of people who were asked in this study were men and 30.7% were women with the average age of 33.61 ± 7.2. 80% were married and half of them had a bachelor's degree or higher. The results indicated that whereas 87% of the respondents showed a healthy sanitary attitude, majority of them were reported to have weak healthy sanitary behaviors, and no significant relationship between the healthy sanitary attitude and behaviors with personal traits was observed. The frequency of attachment style in 64% of samples was safe and in 28.3% was unsafe. There was no significant relationship between attachment style of people and their healthy sanitary attitude and behavior, but a significant, negative relationship between the average values of healthy sanitary attitude and behavior with those of avoidance style was found. The results also showed a significant relationship between the styles of attachment with marital status and the age of samples. This study showed that the type of the sanitary attitude and behaviors in adults cannot be easily predicted with some personal traits and/ or conditions, and more extensive studies should be performed in order to assess and detect effective factors which cause unhealthy sanitary behaviors. Although no significant relationship between attachment style with sanitary attitude and behaviors in adults was confirmed in this study, the negative, significant relationship between the average values of avoidance style with those of the healthy sanitary attitude and behavior can be a trigger for more research, by modified method data collection and analysis, on this subject.

[Maryam Radmehr, Ahmad T Ezadi, Leyla Neisi. Investigation of attachment styles in adults and its relationship with the sanitary attitude and behaviors. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):319-324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.49

 

Keywords: attachment styles, sanitary attitude and behaviors

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Effect of Repeated Bleaching Procedures on Surface Color and Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite Bonded Enamel

 

Ola. M. Sakr1 and Mohammad Almohaimeed2

 

Departments of 1Operative Dentistry and 2Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Qassim University Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

olasakr2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Statement of the Problem: When repeated clinical applications of bleaching procedures are needed and presence of adhesive restorations it is generally some restoration surface changes are occurred but what is recommended with in office repeated bleaching procedures. Also the effect on shear bond strength of resin composite bonded to enamel. Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of in office repeated bleaching procedures on restoration surface color and the shear bond strength of restoration to enamel. Methods: A gel consisting of 30% carbamide peroxide was applied to ground buccal surfaces of resin composite bonded to enamel surfaces of premolar teeth. The color changes of resin composite surfaces are detected using Environmental Scanning Electronic Microscope. The shear bond strength of the restorative systems to enamel was tested, and data was evaluated using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Results: Significant differences (p < 0.05) in shear bond strengths were found among repeated bleaching procedures. Conclusion: repeated vital tooth bleaching with carbamide peroxide gel has an adverse effect on enamel shear bond strength to existent P60 resin composite.

[Ola. M. Sakr and Mohamed Al mohaimeed. Effect of Repeated Bleaching Procedures on Surface Color and Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite Bonded Enamel. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):325-331]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.50

 

Key words: repeated enamel bleaching, adhesive restoration, enamel shear bond strength

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LTE-Advanced Physical Layer Optimum Performance Parameters

 

 Salwa M. Serag Eldin

 

Eletronics and Electrical Communications Engineering dept., Tanta University, Egypt

sserag@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of Advanced Long Term Evolution (Advanced-LTE) telecommunication network and investigates system performance against variations in system parameters trying to reach the parameter values that give best system performance.

[Salwa M. Serag Eldin. LTE-Advanced Physical Layer Optimum Performance Parameters. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):332-337]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.51

 

Keywords: WIMAX, LTE, MIMO,BLER, Throughput, HARQ

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Correlation between Ultrasonic Pachymetry and the Scheimpflug Based Pentacam for Assessment of Central Corneal Thickness in Myopic Patients

 

Mohamed Z. Eid

 

Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. moeid64@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: to assess the correlation between central corneal thickness measurements using ultrasonic pachymetry and Scheimpflug based pentacam analyzer in myopic patients. Materials and Methods: Forty four myopic patients (88 eyes) were subjected to ultrasonic corneal pachymetry and Scheimpflug based pentacam (Pentacam; Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) Allegro Oculyzer corneal thickness measurements.. All the measurements were taken by a single operator. Agreement between both instruments was assessed in addition to the interoperator variability. Results: The mean of the average central corneal thickness (CCT) measured with pentacam Allegro Oculyzer was 562.72±21.54 μm standard deviation (SD) and US pachymetry was 566.74 ± 21.41μm standard deviation (SD). The correlation coefficient (r) between measurements using both instruments was 0.975. There was tendency towards higher measurements with pentacam with a statistically significant difference between both methods (P < 0.0001). For the Pentacam the correlation coefficient (r) between both observers was 0.975, but there was no statistically significant difference between both observers’ measurements. For the US pachymetry measurements the correlation coefficient (r) between both observers’ was 0.965, but there was no statistically significant difference between both observers’ measurements. Conclusion: Central corneal thickness measurements obtained with either the noncontact pentacam or the contact ultrasonic pachymeter are close to each other with tendency of obtaining higher readings with pentacam. Measurements of the CCT with either pentacam or US pachymetry were convenient, with excellent interoperator agreement.

[Mohamed Z. Eid. Correlation between Ultrasonic Pachymetry and the Scheimpflug Based Pentacam for Assessment of Central Corneal Thickness in Myopic Patients. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):338-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.52

 

Keywords: Correlation; Ultrasonic Pachymetry; Scheimpflug; Corneal; Patient

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The Impact of Application of Multimodal Approach on Expected Clinical Outcome for Post Illues Patients after Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

 

Hala A. Ali1; Salwa A. Mohamed2 and Amany shebl3

 

1Obstetric and Ggynecology Department, Faculty of Nursing, El Minia University

2Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing, Fayoum University.

3Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University

dramanys5@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Oral fluids and food are traditionally introduced slowly after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). This study examined the effect and tolerance of early oral intake following this surgery. Postoperative illeus (POI) is broadly defined as a temporary impairment of gastrointestinal (GI) motility, it leads to patient discomfort, decrease the mobility and prolongs both convalescence and hospital stay. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of application of multimodal approach on expected clinical outcome for post illues patients after total abdominal hysterectomy. Design: Quasi-experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department in El-Minia General Hospital from first of September 2011 to the last of February 2012. Sample: Total samples of 40 female patient divided equally into two groups (control group and intervention group) were assigned to multimodal approach. The results also revealed that early feeding could be tolerated well in patients under going total abdominal hysterectomy TAH. Also the results shows that, with improvements in post operative nausea and vomiting and length of stay were noted in the early fed group with minimal medical benefits. Conclusion: This study concluded that early feeding and hydration after major gynecologic surgery results in decreases nausea and vomiting and decreases hospital stay, promote wound healing, optimizing patient condition before, during and after surgery and reduce the length of hospital stay. Recommendation: This study recommended that more approaches such as chewing gum, antiemetic drugs and laxatives should be applied to relieve the post operative complications especially illues after the total abdominal hysterectomy.

[Hala A. Ali; Salwa A. Mohamed and Amany shebl. The Impact of Application of Multimodal Approach on Expected Clinical Outcome for Post Illues Patients after Total Abdominal Hysterectomy. J Am Sci 2012; 8(8):342-350]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.53

 

Key Words: Early feeding, early immobilization, post operative illues, total abdominal hysterectomy.

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Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Investigation for a Bank of Inclined Flat Tubes

 

Khaled M. K. Pasha

 

Mechtronics Department, Faculty of Engineering, October 6, University, Egypt

khmki1@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: A study was performed to investigate the average Nusselt number and pressure drop for a bank of inclined flat tubes. The tubes are arranged in rows, each one is inclined to a reversed direction with respect to its neighbor rows. The angle of inclination varied from zero to 90 for two values of R; 2.5/7 and 3/7. A numerical model was prepared, supported with the necessary defined functions, and verified to simulate the different studied cases. The results showed that, when increasing the inclination angle, almost within the first 20o the nusselt number and the non-dimensional pressure drop increased slightly, then, a considerable increase is observed within the range from 20 to about 80, and, increasing the angle beyond that exhibited little increase in both values. Considering the ratio between the percentages of increase for both the Nusselt and the non-dimensional pressure drop, it is concluded that, the most economical conditions are included in two cases; the first is when R=2.5/7, Re = 12830, with inclination angle of 30o, and the second is when R=3/7, Re = 12830, with inclination angle of 50o.

[Khaled M. K. Pasha. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Investigation for a Bank of Inclined Flat Tubes. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):351-356]. (ISSN: 1545-1003) http://www.americanscience.org 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.54

 

Keywords: Nusselt number, flat tube, and aspect ratios

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Tourism and Iran’s place role in international level

 

Zahra Razaghi, Mohammad Ebrahim Alinejad

 

Payame Noor University (PNU), Sari,Iran

Razzaghi_z@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Today, tourism industry importance has been increasingly appeared in creating positive economical effects in worldwide level. And governors in developed countries and in underdeveloped countries know tourism as one of main agents in creating jobs and decreasing unemployment rate. In today world, the less people know tourism industry role and value in community development and welfare. today, with giving identity to natural cultures and communities, paying attention to migrates as a valuable heritage, holding more traditional festivals and creating compound interests, provide more opportunities in absorbing more tourists and accessing exchange income for a country and economical improvement in host communities and improving their life level. In this thesis, we try to introduce tourism status in Iran, and know importance of this subject in international level and state Iran place in international level in tourism industry. For presenting subjects in this thesis, library method and tourism international organizations statistics has been used.

[Zahra Razaghi, Mohammad Ebrahim Alinejad. Tourism and Iran’s place role in international level. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):357-361]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.55

 

Keywords: word: tourism, Iran economical development

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How to foster entrepreneurial spirit in organizations

 

Mohammad Mohammedi1, Mahtab Dadresan2

 

1 No: 23, daghigh alley, mohasel st., pirozi st., Tehran, Iran. Postal code: 1735954639

2 No. 115, Second Floor, Entry 4, Block 133, Phase 1, Ekbatan, Tehran, Iran. Postal code: 1394753388

mohammadim@gmx.com

 

Abstract: The goal of this paper is responding to this question that “Does employees needs have any effect on their Intrapreneurship (Organizational Entrepreneurship) tendency in Central Staff of National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)?” Variables of this study includes different needs such as (consisting of need of esteem, self-actualization, and physiological, and social needs) are considered as Independent Variables and employee tendency to Intrapreneurship (Organizational Entrepreneurship) as the Dependent Variable. After Correction and adjustment and Tests-retest of some of the questions, we applied two questionnaires with sufficient validity and reliability which have been used in last studies as the data collection instrument to measure types of needs and tendency of employee. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for both questionnaires obtained orderly 85.65% and 86.68%. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software and correlation and multiple regression of the research hypothesis test results at 95 percent confidence level. This indicates that there is a strong relationship between collective needs and, Intrapreneurship Tendency in research population. Based on findings of multiple regressions, all hypothesis of research is supported.

[Mohammad Mohammedi, Mahtab Dadresan. How to foster entrepreneurial spirit in organizations. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):362-368]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.56

 

Keywords: Motivation, Needs, Intrapreneurship (Organizational Entrepreneurship), Entrepreneurship Tendency, Employee, NIOC

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Analyzing the Status of Political, Social, and Cultural Independence in Tahirid Dynasty

 

Hamid Kohan sal

 

Shahed street, Dehdasht, Kohgiluyeh bowyerahmad, Iran

Email: scientificgroup@mail.ru

 

Abstract: In the beginning of the third century, Tahirids laid the cornerstone of a new independent government after the Sassanid dynasty, so they became the starter of a political, geographical, economical, and cultural in the area of East geography of Islamic Caliphate. Tahir Ibn Hossein known as Zolyaminain established Tahirids' government in 205 AH, which continued until 205. Their territory included the great Khorasan to the border of India, and on the other hand, it included such districts as Sistan, Kerman, Gorgan, Tabarestan, and Rey to about Hamedan. The existence of good and friendly relationships, with the caliphate of Baghdad did not indicate the full independence of this government, though; their strategy provided the most basic space for growing a suitable bed for foundation of other governments, and their relative independence of the Baghdad caliphate in the great Khorasan. Although, Tahirids could not form a big government, they succeeded in releasing them from the Arabs' subordination after two hundred years. Generally, it can be concluded that the Tahirid dynasty paved the way for great political, social, and cultural revolutions in reinforcing the necessary fields for Iran's independence. Tahirids have a main difference with the Emirs before them, and it was that the previous Emirs came to power not hereditarily, but by the caliphates' commends, and they were dismissed by their commends, without keeping power in their dynasty; however, Tahirids had such a strong position in Khorasan, that had the government hereditarily for fifty year.

[Hamid Kohan sal. Analyzing the Status of Political, Social, and Cultural Independence in Tahirid Dynasty. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):369-371]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.57

 

Keywords: Political condition; Cultural Independence; Tahirid Dynasty

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Developing and Validating Standards for Effective Clinical Training Settings for Nurse Students

 

Fadia Mousa; Samia M.Adam and Rabab M. Hassan

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt.

fadia4111@hotmail.com; drabab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Clinical training is very important for any clinical profession. It facilitates the student acquisition of fine skills. The focus in clinical education settings must include educational standards and experiences designed to augment students’ knowledge and to promote their professional maturity. Aim: The study was aimed to develop the standards for the selection of an effective clinical practical setting for nurse students, through determining clinical practical setting criteria from clinical nurse teachers' point of view, eliciting the clinical practical setting criteria from nurse students' point of view, designing standards based on literature review and examining the proposed standards' validity based on experts' opinions.. The study was conducted in tow Technical Institutes affiliated to Ain Shams University using methodological design. Subjects of The study included three groups consists of (25) nurse teachers, (130) nurse students enrolled in these institutes and jury group consists of 16 members from the Nursing Faculties. Tools of data collection included three tools namely; a questionnaire sheet was used to determine the importance of the developed standards and its criteria from participants view points, opinionnaire sheet to examine the face and content validity of the proposed standards and observation checklist which aimed at assessing the applicability of developed standards. Results: The main findings indicated that most of nurse teachers and nurse students agreed upon the proposed standards and its criteria. Jury group were agreed upon almost all of the proposed standards and related criteria. Conclusion: there was an agreement on the proposed standards and its criteria for selection of an effective clinical practical setting for nurse students. Recommendations: using the developed standards as a tool for assessing and evaluating the clinical practical setting for nurse students.

[Fadia Mousa; Samia M.Adam and Rabab M. Hassan. Developing and Validating Standards for Effective Clinical Training Settings for Nurse Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):372-382]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.58

 

Key Words: Standards, Clinical training setting, Nurse student

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The Study of Relationship between Knowledge Management and Organizational Innovation in Isfahan Steel Company

 

Mohamadreza Neyestani 1, Farzane Aminayi&2*Salman Darabi3

 

1Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Administration, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran,

2 MA Student, Department of Educational Administration, University of Teharn, Tehran, Iran

3MA student, Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

salman.darabi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to study the relationship between knowledge management and organizational innovation in Isfahan steel Company. This study was descriptive and its type was correlation. The statistical population of this study includes 1124 experts of Isfahan Steel Company that 286 of them were selected randomly. In order to collecting data, two researcher-developed questionnaires of knowledge management and organizational innovation have been used and their stability was respectively 0.87 and 0.85 respectively that has been calculated through Cranach’s alpha coefficient. In order to analyzing data, descriptive and inferential methods such as Pearson correlation coefficient and one sample t-test have been used. The results of this study indicated that status of knowledge management and organizational innovation in Isfahan Steel Company located in relatively favorable. Also the results indicated that there is relationship between knowledge management and organizational innovation and its value was 0.56 (with sig= %1). Also the results indicated that there is significant direct relationship among components of knowledge management (knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge application and knowledge storage) with organizational innovation.

[Neyestani M, Aminayi F, Darabi S. Department of Educational Planning, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):383-390]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.59

 

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, knowledge storage, knowledge application, organizational innovation, Isfahan steel Company

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Accuracy of electronic apex locator in relation to the condition of human dental pulp: Histological and histochemical study.

 

Asmaa Serry1, Mohamed Adel2 and Ehab Mohey Elden3

 

1 Demonstrator, Oral biology department, Faculty of oral and dental medicine, Nahda University.

2 professor, Oral biology department, Faculty of oral and dental medicine, Cairo University.

3 Lecturer, Oral biology department, Faculty of oral and dental medicine, Cairo University.

dr.asmaaelgamal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulp condition on the accuracy of apex locator compared with periapical radiograph. 50 patients were collected for this study. Endodontic treatment was performed with root length measurement with 5th generation apex locator (AL). X-ray was performed while the file in place to verify the working length. The pulp was extirpated for histological and histochemical examination. After histopathological and histochemical examination, the extirpated pulps were classified into 5 groups (10 canals in each group), Group I: normal pulp, Group II: acutely inflammed pulp, Group III: chronically inflammed pulp, Group IV: degenerated pulp, Group V: degenerated pulp with periapical radiolucency. From the radiographic findings and histopathological finding we concluded that presence of pulp tissue inside the canal (normal or inflammed pulp tissue) affects the accuracy of AL during root length determination. As AL gives the most accurate readings in case of degenerated pulp without periapical radiolucency. While in case of degenerated pulp with periapical radiolucency, the AL tends to give over reading in most cases.

[Asmaa Serry, Mohamed Adel and Ehab Mohey Elden. Accuracy of electronic apex locator in relation to the condition of human dental pulp: Histological and histochemical study. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):391-397]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.60

 

Keywords: Electronic root canal length measurement, Apex locator, Apical constriction, pulp pathosis, Pulpitis, Periapical radiolucency.

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Subclinical Epileptiform Dysfunction in Children with Idiopthic Autism

 

Riad M. Elsayed1* and Hala E. Sayyah2

 

*1 Department of Pediatric, Pediatric Neurology Unit, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Department of Psychiatry, BeniSuef University, Beni - Suef city, Egypt

shewaka1971@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Many studies reported high incidence of epileptiform discharges in children with autism, but with different rates and different patterns, few studies done for children with idiopathic autism. Aime of work: is to study the pattern of subclinical epileptiform discharge, and its clinical correlations for childern with idiopathic autism. Patients and methods: 47 children with idiopathic autism,with their ages range from 3-12 years (mean 6.96± 2.19), compared to 24 healthy age and sex matched contols. All children were assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) and brain imaging as a part of routine care, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was done for assessing the severity of autism in patients group. Results: We found that, there were higher incidence of epileptiform discharges at children with idiopathic autism (51.1%) compared to 8.3% at the control group (P value 0.002). The pattern of epileptiform abnormalities is highly correlated to the severity of autism (P value 0.000). Focal EEG changes (focal frontal, occipital or temporal) predominate in severe cases of idiopathic autism (72.7%). In conclusion: subclinical epileptiform dysfunction were detected at higher rate in children with idiopathic autism, different EEG patterns were identified according to severity of autism. we recommend EEG study as a dignostic tool for children with idiopathic autism specially moderate and severe cases.

[Riad M. Elsayed and Hala E. Sayyah. Subclinical Epileptiform Dysfunction in Children with Idiopthic Autism. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):398-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.61

 

Keywords: autism, children, epileptiform dysfunction, Subclinical

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A decision model for selecting of strategic plans in Balanced Scorecard model: A case study for a manufacturing firm

 

Javad Dodangeh1, Ebrahim Dehafarin2, Vahid Nasehifar3

 

1Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran

2Institute for Trade Studies and Research (ITSR), Tehran, Iran

3Department of Management and Accounting, Allame Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran

jdodangeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has been proposed as a strategic management evaluation system recently. Strategic management is important for organizational success and competitive advantage in an increasingly competitive business environment. Many organizations have adopted the BSC to gain business excellence and success in the marketplace. It is a practical tool for designing operational strategies. However, the BSC model has some drawbacks and problems which disable to identify the priorities in strategic plans (Initiatives). In this paper, the strategic plans is identified, using a simple additive weighting (SAW) decision model. Also, assessing and determining the strategic plans is developed in the BSC model, using expert panel opinion and SAW method. The results showed that the proposed model is more valid and acceptable and the experts verified the model for selecting strategic plans in the BSC in practice. The developed model has been used in a real case study and the results have been analyzed from different points of view. In this article initiative is called strategic plans.

[Dodangeh J, Dehafarin E, Nasehifar V. A decision model for selecting of strategic plans in Balanced Scorecard model: A case study for a manufacturing firm J Am Sci 2012;8(8):402-407]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.62

 

Keywords: Strategic Management, Balanced Scorecard (BSC), Performance Management, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW), Multi Criteria Decision Making

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The Impact of Workplace Incivility on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz, Iran

 

Gholamreza Memarzadeh1, Mojtaba Hajizadeh2, Mehrzad Sarfarazi3

 

1-Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. 2-MA Student of Management

3-PhD Candidate of Human Resource Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Babakhajizadeh11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: There is a growing interest for studying voluntary behaviors specifically organizational citizenship behavior in the organizations. Voluntary behaviors are attached strictly to desired work related outcomes and improve efficiency within the organizations. The current study investigated the impact of workplace incivility on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Namazi hospital of Shiraz, Iran. A sample of 115 employees selected. Data analyzed using SPSS software and showed that the impact of workplace incivility is significant on organizational citizenship behavior. Also dimensions of workplace incivility (experienced incivility and instigated incivility) exerted a significant impact on organizational citizenship behavior.

[Gholamreza Memarzadeh, Mojtaba Hajizadeh, Mehrzad Sarfarazi. The Impact of Workplace Incivility on Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Namazi Hospital of Shiraz, Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):408-410]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.63

 

Keywords: Workplace Incivility, OCB, Namazi, Organizational Citizenship Behavior

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Evaluating the component of flexibility in the schoolyard

 

Niloufar Malek

 

PhD student of Architecture, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. malek.niloufar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Since children spend much time of their life in the school, so the recognition of school environment especially its yard is essential. Physical environment and making the learning bed in all aspects flexible has attracted education experts’ attention in recent years. Learning environments and schools are formed of spaces which together are meaningful. Specifications and qualities each of these components are effective in the formation of different behaviors. Unfortunately, in Iran schoolyard is considered apart from the school building. Schoolyard is not considered the natural continuation of classrooms and any independent curriculum provided for it. Schoolyard has variety specifications and potentials; considering to them children’s physical, emotional and mental needs are met. Schoolyard is treated an area for students interaction and strong emotional and cognition relationships. In this article, schoolyard as a learner-friendly and flexible place in the school is emphasized for children relying on children‘s searching and experiencing nature and in order to answer the extensive educational developments. In order to advance this idea, some guidelines are recommended to increase dynamism and flexibility in term of growth and learning in the schoolyard as an active learning environment.

[Malek, Niloufar. Evaluating the component of flexibility in the schoolyard. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):411-417]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.64

 

Keywords: Schoolyard, flexible environment, children, school, flexibility, architecture

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Box-Behnken Experimental Design in Development of Glimepiride Floating Matrix Tablets

 

Ghada E. Yassin(1) and Afaf A. Ramadan(1&2)

 

(1)Dept. of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

(2) Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt.

Ghada15ehab70@yahoo.com Afaframadan1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Floating matrix tablets of Glimepiride were developed to enhance its bioavailability by prolonging the gastric residence time in which Glimepiride was chosen as a model drug because of its has incomplete absorption due to its low gastric residence time. Floating matrix tablets were prepared using melt granulation technique. Bees wax was used as a hydrophobic meltable material. Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (Hypromellose K4MCR), sodium bicarbonate (sodium bicarb.) and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as matrixing agent, gas generating agent and floating enhancer, respectively. Tablets were evaluated for physical characteristics such as weight, thickness, hardness, % friability and drug content. Tablets also were subjected to in vitro evaluation as buoyancy test (floating lag time), floating duration and drug release profile for 24 hours. A Box – Behnken design was applied to investigate the combined effect of 3 formulation variables including amount of hypromellose (X1), sodium bicarbonate (X2) as well as ethyl cellulose (X3). Fifteen batches were prepared and evaluated. Floating lag time, Flag (Y1), percent of drug released in 5 hours (Y2) and percent of drug released in 12 hours (Y3) were taken as responses. Obtained results of multiple regression analysis indicated that, high level of hypromellose (50 mg), high level of sodium bicarbonate (20 mg) and intermediate level of ethyl cellulose (15 mg) should be used to manufacture the tablet formulations with the desired in vitro floating time and dissolution. In addition; Formulations developed using Box – Behnken design, were fitted to various kinetic models for drug release. Formulation F7 was selected as a promising formulation.

[Ghada E. Yassin and Afaf A. Ramadan. Box-Behnken Experimental Design in Development of Glimepiride Floating Matrix Tablets. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):418-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.65

 

Key words: Floating Matrix tablet, Box – Behnken design, Glimepiride, Melt granulation technique.

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The effect of utilization of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in local Iraqi geese diets on blood biochemistry

 

Hazim J. Al-Daraji, H. A. Al-Mashadani, H. A. Mirza, A. S. Al-Hassani, W. K. Al-Hayani

 

University of Baghdad, College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Production, Baghdad, Iraq

prof.hazimaldaraji@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing different levels of parsley on blood biochemical characteristics of local Iraqi geese. A total of twenty four local geese, one year old were used in this experiment during the period from beginning of October to the end of December. The birds were allocated for four treatment groups consisted of six geese each. Treatment groups were as following: Control diet (T1) (free from parsley), T2: Control diet + 80 g / d parsley, T3: Control diet + 160 g / d parsley; T4: Control diet + 240 g / d parsley. At the end of experiment blood samples were obtained from all geese by venipuncture from brachial vein and blood plasma samples were prepared. Blood biochemical traits included in this study were blood plasma concentrations of glucose, total protein, albumen, globulin, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), calcium, phosphorus and creatinine and blood plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes. Results revealed that supplementing the diet of geese with different levels of parsley (T2, T3 and T4) resulted in significant (p< 0.05) increase in blood plasma glucose, total protein, albumen, globulin, HDL, calcium, phosphorus and ALP and significant (p< 0.05) decrease in uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and creatinine in comparison to control group (T1). Whereas, there were no significant (p> 0.05) differences between all experimental groups with respect to blood plasma AST and ALT. However, T3 group (160 g parsley / day) and T4 group (240 g parsley / day) recorded the best results concerning the most of blood biochemical traits included in this study as compared with T1 (control group) and T2 (80 g parsley / day). In conclusion supplementing the ration of geese with parsley resulted in significant improvement in most of blood plasma traits involved in this study. So, parsley can be used as an effective feed additive for enhancing general physiological status of birds.

[Hazim J. Al-Daraji. The effect of utilization of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in local Iraqi geese diets on blood biochemistry. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):427-432]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.66

 

Key words: Parsley, geese, blood biochemistry.

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Expression of Truncated Sequences of Influenza A Virus Subtype H5 in Pichia Pastoris

 

1, 2A.A. Shehata, P. 1P. Fiebig; 1K.Rall and 1U.G.Liebert

 

1 Institute of Virology, Medical Faculty, Leipzig University, Germany

2Avian and Rabbit Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt

AwadAli.Shehata@medizin.uni-leipzig.de

 

Abstract: Influenza A virus haemagglutinin (HA) is the major target for protective immune responses in the natural host. Vaccines based on conserved antigenic determinants could provide efficient protection from disease and infection. Therefore, four non-overlapping sequences (designated P1, P2, P5 and rHA1) of different functional domains of influenza A virus subtype H5 were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris (P.pastoris). P1, P2 and rHA1 polypeptides were purified using nickel affinity chromatography, whereas, P5 was purified using lectin affinity chromatography. Correct expression was analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot, glycosylation analysis and MALDI-TOF. These results form the basis for generation of monoclonal antibodies, development of recombinant Elisa and subunit vaccines.

[A.A. Shehata, P. P. Fiebig; K. Rall and U.G. Liebert. Expression of Truncated Sequences of Influenza A Virus Subtype H5 in Pichia Pastoris. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):433-441]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.67

 

Keywords: Yeast Expression, Avian Influenza H5N1, Recombinant antigen.

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Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid Connected Micro Grid by PI-NN Hybrid Controller

 

Mohammad H. Moradi1, Eidy Hadadi2*

 

1Assistant professor within Bu Ali Sin University, Hamedan, Iran

Mh_moradi@yahoo.co.uk

2Master student within Bu Ali Sin University, Hamedan, Iran

power89hadadi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a combined control techniques introduced which consists of an improved neural network and PI to control the active and reactive power of a grid connected micro grid whose energy supplier is a fuel cell. The neural network controller improves system performance in tracking set point and the PI controller decreases the steady state error to zero. It also eliminates confusion and robust the closed loop system against its change parameters. The micro grid and its proposed controller are simulated in Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results show efficient performance of the controller in its task to follow active and reactive power, to reject system disturbance and to robust it against system parameter changes.

[Mohammad H. Moradi, Eidy Hadadi. Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid Connected Micro gird by PI-NN hybrid Controller. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):442-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.68

 

Keywords: Micro grid, fuel cell, Active and reactive power control and Combined Controller PI-NN

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The Effects of Informal Language on Reading Comprehension of Iranian English Language Learners

 

Goodarz Shakibaei

 

Islamic Azad University, Branch of Baghmalek, Baghmalek, Iran

godarzshakiba@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aims at investigating the impacts of informal language instruction on improving foreign language learners’ reading comprehension. The following procedure was taken to prove or reject the hypotheses. First sixty learners in language institutes in city of "Ahvaz", Iran were selected. Next; they were divided into two groups, (experimental and control groups) then the two groups were instructed in two different ways. That is, experimental group learners were provided with informal language reading texts in about 12 weeks and each week three sessions, whereas, control group learners were not exposed to such kind of treatment. After the period of instruction, the post-test covering the pedagogical materials of the study was administered to two groups. Statistical analysis of participants scores on the post-test indicated that informal language instruction does not have significant effect on learners reading comprehension ability, but it was of significant importance in developing learners reading comprehension in reading informal language text..

[Goodarz Shakibaei. The Effects of Informal Language on Reading Comprehension of Iranian English Language Learners. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):450-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.69

 

Keywords: Informal Language, Reading comprehension, instruction, Proficiency

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Studying the Effects of the Functions of Human Resource Management on Organizational Entrepreneurship

 

Akbar Hassanpour 1, Seyyed Mehdi Alvani 2, Mohammad Alavi 3

 

1. Department of Accounting and Management, Qazvin Branch, Azad Islamic University, Qazvin, Iran

2. Department of Accounting and Management, Qazvin Branch, Azad Islamic University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Department of Accounting and Management, Qazvin Branch, Azad Islamic University, Qazvin, Iran

mohammadalavi847@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In recent decades, intense competition between the organizations and the changes in industrial fields has forced the organizations and companies to use innovation and entrepreneurship to preserve their competitive power. The effects of entrepreneurship on creation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and their subsequent effects on the economy of the societies cannot be denied. The effects like generation and distribution of the wealth and incomes, job creation, and preparation for generating and extending different sorts of business are just some few samples of these benefits. On the other hand, it is generally agreed that the human resource in any organization is the main principal of that organization. For the same reason and for the existence of such competitive environments, optimized using of the mental and executive power of the employees to reinforcing the innovation and creativity is now vitally important. The main objective of this research is to study the relationship between the elements of human resource management and organizational entrepreneurship. In particular, we will focus on such a relationship through organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational perceived support. This research is a descriptive research being done in correlation method. The statistical population o the research includes all active experts of cultural and social organizations of Iranian Zanjan Province who are totally 967 persons. The instruments of data collection are questionnaire, interview, and archival studies whose data that have been analyzed with statistical softwares. The results of the research show that there is a significant relationship between some functions of human resource management and the entrepreneurship, though the size of such effectiveness is different.

[Akbar Hassanpour, Seyyed Mehdi Alvani, Mohammad Alavi. Studying the Effects of the Functions of Human Resource Management on Organizational Entrepreneurship. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):454-464]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.70

 

Keywords: Citizenship behavior, Human resource, Organizational entrepreneurship, Organizational support

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71

Evaluation of the penetration depth of sealing plastic concrete walls in the clay core of earth dams.

 

Reza Mahinroosta1, Mohammadreza Shoaei2*, Faranak Pishgar3

 

1Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Tarbiyat Modarres University

2*Islamic Azad university, Fouman and Shaft branches, Fouman, Iran. Reza_shoaee61@yahoo.com

3Islamic Azad University, Fouman and Shaft branches, Fouman, Iran

 

Abstract: Using of plastic concrete for construction of cutoff wall is known as a method to reduce and control of seepage which has been developed in recent three decades. Plastic concrete cutoff wall is suggested when a dam is constructed on an alluvial foundation with high permeability. In these conditions, a proper material is the one that can carry high stresses of wall, Moreover, this material with its adjacent soils should deflect without failure and losing sealant of wall. In other words, deformability modulus of this material should be similar to adjacent foundation. Low permeability, plastic behavior and high flexibility are most important specifications of plastic concrete. In order to accelerate of dam construction, in first step, an embankment should be constructed up to a specified height and then plastic concrete cutoff wall would be constructed from the same height. If height of embankment is increased the construction time will decrease. In this thesis and in order to find a maximum critical height for embankment, effect of different factors have been investigated by using PLAXIS code such as penetration depth of cutoff wall into clayey core and changing of mechanical specifications of clayey core, alluvial foundation, plastic concrete cutoff wall and different properties of interface element. All models have been analyzed with and without interface element.

[Reza Mahinroosta, Mohammadreza Shoaei, Faranak Pishgar. Evaluation of the penetration depth of sealing plastic concrete walls in the clay core of earth dams. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):465-473]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.71

 

Key Words: dam, plastic concrete, cutoff wall, finite element method, PLAXIS software

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Multi-objective optimization of square beam subject to side impact for improvement of crashworthiness design

 

A.Farhaninejad 1, Rizal Zaharib 2, B.B. Sahari 1, Faieza Abdul Aziz 1, E. Rasooliyazdi 1

 

1. Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2. Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

alifarhaninejad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Increasing energy absorption is a significant parameter in vehicle design. Absorbing more energy results in decreasing occupant damage. Limitation of the deflection in a side impact results in decreased energy absorption (SEA) and increased peakload (PL). Hence a high crash force jeopardizes passenger safety and vehicle integrity. The aims of this paper are to determine suitable dimensions and material and an appropriate reinforced structural design of a square beam subjected to side impact, in order to maximize SEA and minimize PL. To achieve this novel goal, the geometric parameters of a square beam are optimized using the response surface method (RSM). Both multi-objective and single-objective optimizations are performed, and the optimum design for different response features is obtained. A comparative analysis showing the relationship between these two parameters is presented.

[Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):474-481]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.72

 

Keywords: crashworthiness, side impact, energy absorption, multi-objective optimization, square beam, SEA.

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Effect of Existential Group Therapy on the Promotion of Mood in Women after Myocardial Infarction

 

Parvaneh nikkhah1*, BahramAli Ghanbari HashemAbadi2

 

1. Clinical Psychologist MA; Health Center, Sarakhs, KHorasan razavi Province, Iran

2. Clinical Psychologist PhD, Ferdousi University, Mashhad, KHorasan razavi Province, Iran

nikkhahp1@mums.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Present study was performed with the main goal of investigating the effect of existential group therapy on the promotion of mood in women after myocardial infarction (MI).Studies in two decades have presented relationship between depression, cardiovascular disease and mortality. The subjects were selected by using convenient sampling method from the list of women after MI. 24 subjects selected (12 persons in each group). Then the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with a reliability ratio of 0.86 was performed as pre-test and post-test. The experimental group was subjected to the intervention of existential group therapy. After a 12-session treatment (3 months, each session being tow hours) in excremental group in order to measure the dependant variable (depression), Beck Depression Inventory was performed as post-test. The results of statistical analysis of T-test supported the main hypothesis (verified with a significant value of p= 14% and reliability of 95%) and secondary hypothesis (verified with a significant value pf p= 01% and reliability of 95%). As a result, existential group therapy in comparison with control group would significantly reduce the amount of depression in women after MI.

[Parvaneh nikkhah, BahramAli Ghanbari HashemAbadi. Effect of Existential Group Therapy on the Promotion of Mood in Women after Myocardial Infarction. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):482-486]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.73

 

Keywords: existential, group therapy, depression, myocardial infarction

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Use of fuzzy AHP for Prioritization effective factors in the organization performance: marketing capabilities and Operations capabilities (Case study some business organization of Isfahan city)

 

Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi 1, Elham Sadat Moosavizadeh Noghabi 2, Aghil khouravand 3

 

1. The member of scientific board Group of Management, University of Isfahan, HezarJerib.st, Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran

2. Graduate student of business administration (marketing trends) University Isfahan, HezarJerib.st, Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran

3. Graduate student of business administration (marketing trends) University Isfahan, HezarJerib.st, Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran

elhammosavi22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Staying ahead of the competition in competitive business world, organizations must improve the quality of their products and services continually. Marketing capabilities and operations capabilities take organizational efforts on to achieve this goal. Our purpose of this paper is to tender Prioritization marketing capabilities and operations capabilities that are effective in the organization performance of companies. In this study, we used AHP- Analytic. Our statistical population consists of 491 major managers in some Isfahan's business organization which 250 have been chosen by using stratified randomized sampling. We earned our information by using of researcher- made questionnaires with 7 items and 250 questionnaires that had been distributed to target population. The response rate is quite suitable for this type of study in order to 124 out of 250 completed questionnaires that we have received. Finding demonstrates, the marketing assets and cost of capital alternatives are the preferred key figure which all-lucrative organizations utilize those for better performance.

[Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi, Elham Sadat Moosavizadeh Noghabi, Aghil khouravand. Use of fuzzy AHP for Prioritization effective factors in the organization performance: marketing capabilities and Operations capabilities (Case study some business organization of Isfahan city). J Am Sci 2012;8(8):487-494]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.74

 

Keywords: Fuzzy sets, marketing capabilities, Operations capabilities, Prioritization, AHP-Analytic, Marketing

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A study of the relationships between probability ratios and B/M, P/E, and Q'Tobin ratios

 

Mahdi Mehravar, Mohaddese Kargarfard, Abdolrasoul Rahmaniankoushkaki

 

Department of Accounting, Payame Noor University, I.R. IRAN

 

Abstract: Net profit is considered as a criterion for evaluating performance. Most investors and creditors make decisions based on the profitability of a business in the past as well as predictions of future profits, which makes net profit and profitability ratios significant. On the other hand, when the economy experiences crisis, the price of shares are affected and almost equals the book value of the company. Decline in the price of shares makes the investors use the opportunity and start to invest, hoping the crisis will end son and the price of shares will increase. Given the relationships among profitability ratios and most financial ratios, the present study investigates the relationships among probability ratios, the B/M ratio, P/E, and the Q'Tobin index. To this end, the information provided by 111 businesses admitted to the Tehran stock market during 2005-2009 was studied. The method adopted here is the multivariate linear regression and correlation. The findings revealed that there is not a significant relationship between profitability ratios and the ratio of the book value to the market value. Also, the results suggested a significant and positive relationship between ROA and EPS ratios with the ratio of the price of shares to the earnings of each shares. Furthermore, there is a negative and significant relationship between ROA and ROS ratios and the Q'Tobin index. In addition, there is a significant and positive relationship between the EPS ratio and the Q'Tobin index.

[Mahdi Mehravar, Mohaddese Kargarfard, Abdolrasoul Rahmaniankoushkaki. A study of the relationships between probability ratios and B/M, P/E, and Q'Tobin ratios. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):495-501]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.75

 

Keywords: profitability ratios, B/M, P//E, Q'Tobin index

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Analysis of the Effect of dimensions of Spiritual intelligence on organizational justice in some industrial firms of Isfahan city

 

Mohsen allameh 1, nasim amirosadat 2, Amir Hossein Jafari Najafabadi 3

 

1. Department Assistant Professor of Management, Department of Management, Isfahan University, Iran

2. MA student, Department of Management, Isfahan University, Iran

3.MA student, Department of Management, Isfahan University, Iran

Nasim_amt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present research is the study of the effect of Spiritual intelligence on perceptions of organizational justice. This study is practical and descriptive. For data analysis we are using Structural equation m model (SEM). Hypothesis testing shows there is a positive relationship among Spiritual intelligence and employee's perceptions of organizational justice. About the effect of Spiritual intelligence dimensions on organizational justice, results shows that all dimensions are positively related to organizational justice and Conscious state expansion factor has most important effect on organizational justice.

Analysis of the Effect of dimensions of Spiritual intelligence on organizational justice in some industrial firms of Isfahan city. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):502-506]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.76

 

Keywords: organizational justice; Spiritual intelligence; Structural equation m model

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Identification Educational Barriers to the Development of Entrepreneurial Spirit in Zanjan University Students

 

Mohammad Reza Soleimanpour1, Shadali Tohidlu2, Reza Bakhtiari3

 

1. Young Researchers Club, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

2. Department of Agricultural Development, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

3. Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

m_soleimanpour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to identify educational barriers to the development of entrepreneurial spirit in Iranian students. This study was descriptive and quantitative research and included the use of factor analysis as the main data processing method. The total population was all students studying in Zanjan University that 185 students were selected using stratified random sampling. A questionnaire was designed as the tool for collecting data. After data collection, SPSS/16 was used in the statistical analysis. The results of factor analysis showed that that the five factors namely educational recourses, motivation in training, teaching methods, foresight, and hardware resources could explain 55.9% of the variation of barriers to the development of entrepreneurial spirit in students.

[Soleimanpour M. R., Tohidlu S. Identification Educational Barriers to the Development of Entrepreneurial Spirit in Zanjan University Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):507-511]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.77

 

Keywords: Entrepreneurial spirit, University students, Educational Barriers, Zanjan University, Iran

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Rectal Hyoscine-N-Butylbromide Safely Accelerates Progress of Labor in Primipara: A Placebo-Controlled Study

 

Ayman Ahmed A. Shedid

 

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

Dody-Shedid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of the administration of Hyoscine-N-butylbromide (HBB) as a therapeutic modality for acceleration of progress of labor in primipara. Patients & Methods: The study included 150 primiparae having normal-sized singleton fetus with cephalic presentation. At time of pregnancy diagnosis, patients' demographic and body constitutional data were determined. Parturient were randomly allocated into two equal groups: Control group received paracetamol 800 mg rectal suppository as placebo and Study group received buscopan compositum adult supp containing HBB 10 mg and paracetamol 800 mg. Both groups received nalbuphine, 10 mg intramuscular injection. All medications were administered during the active phase of the first stage of labor when cervical dilatation was 4 cm with 80% cervical effacement and regular uterine contraction at frequency of 3-4 contractions every 10 minutes. The durations of the first and second stages of labor were determined. Results: Mean duration of both first and second stages and total durations of active labor were significantly shorter in study group compared to control group. Fifty parturient had spontaneous rupture of membranes and 33 parturient required oxytocin augmentation with significantly higher frequency of spontaneous membrane rupture and the need for oxytocin in control group compared to study group. As regards mode of delivery, 40 parturient required instrumental aid with significantly higher frequency of need for instrumental delivery in control group compared to study group. Twenty-two neonates had Apgar score of <9; 13 in control and 9 in study group with non-significant difference between both groups. Conclusion: Rectal administration of HBB for primipara allows significant reduction of duration of first and second stages of labor without inducing significant maternal or fetal complications. Meticulous observation of the progress of pregnancy spared the possibilities for hastened delivery with its subsequent complications, so it is mandatory for such cases.

[Ayman Ahmed A. Shedid. Rectal Hyoscine-N-Butylbromide Safely Accelerates Progress of Labor in Primipara: A Placebo-Controlled Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):512-516]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.78

 

Keywords: Hyoscine-N-butylbromide, primipara, first stage duration

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Prophylactic Carbetocin Improves Outcome of Cesarean Section in Parturient High-Risk for Postpartum Hemorrhage

 

Hany El-kallaf

 

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

Hanyelkallaf@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Evaluation of the clinical yield of prophylactic carbetocin versus oxytocin single shoot injection in parturient high-risk for developing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) undergoing cesarean section (CS). Patients & Methods: The study included 150 parturient with mean age of 27.6±2.1 years and having at least one high-risk for development of PPH. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups to receive slow intravenous injection of single dose of carbetocin 100 μg (Group C) or oxytocin 5 IU (Group O) at time of umbilical cord clamping. Uterine tone was assisted and rated according to the extent of indentation by finger pressure using a 5-point scale. Obstetric hemorrhage was calculated according to postoperative packed cell volume (PCV) deficit. Rescue uterotonic was provided in form of slow injection of oxytocin 5 IU diluted to 3 ml with normal saline. The frequency of rescue uterotonic used since administration of study dose till 24-hrs after surgery was reported. Postoperative hemoglobin concentration and deficit, amount of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion were recorded. Results: Both drugs provided successful uterotonic effect; 107 patients (71.3%) had grade-4 uterus and only 3 patients (2%) in group O had grade 0 and one uteri with non-significant difference in favor of group C. Twenty-six patients (17.3%) required rescue uterotonic; 7 in group C and 19 in group O with significantly higher frequency of patients required rescue uterotonic in group O. Postoperative PCV and hemoglobin concentration were significantly lower compared to preoperative estimates in both groups, with significant difference in favor of group C. Thirty-four patients (22.7%) developed side effects of used medications with non-significant difference in favor of group C. Conclusion: Single bolus injection of carbetocin reduced the frequency and severity of postpartum hemorrhage in high risk women assigned for elective cesarean section. It also spares the use of rescue uterotonic and blood transfusion with minimal drug-related side effects.

[Hany El-kallaf Prophylactic Carbetocin improves outcome of cesarean section in parturient high-risk for postpartum hemorrhage. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):517-522]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.79

 

Keywords: Oxytocin, Carbetocin, postpartum hemorrhage, high-risk women, cesarean section

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A Model for Time Overrun Quantification in Construction of Industrial Projects Based on Risk Evaluation

 

Usama Hamed Issa1, Aly Ahmed2

 

1Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Egypt

2Civil Eng. Dept., Faculty of Industrial Education, Beni-Suef University, Egypt

usama.issa@eng.miniauniv.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The complete of construction projects on time is considered one of the most challenges that meet construction companies since time is one of the vital criteria that control the success of projects. The construction projects involve various risk factors which have various impacts on time objective that may lead to time overrun and schedule delay. One of the serious problems that face the dealers with construction projects is the lack of practical models that used to quantify the effect of risk factors on time objective. A fuzzy model for time overrun quantification in construction projects was proposed based on risk evaluation. The developed model is mainly based on many relationships among the impacts of risk factors on time and the time overrun through several logical rules. The developed model was validated and used to demonstrate an actual case study in Egypt based on real data taken from an industrial construction project. The estimated time overrun based on the model outputs is compared with the actual construction time overrun from the case study. The results represent a new methodology for using the probability of occurrence for a certain risk factor to represent the weight of its fuzzy logical rules. In addition, the results showed that the proposed model can be used to calculate the expected time overrun, which is associated to the industrial projects, as a percent of the original time of the project.

[Usama Hamed Issa and Aly Ahmed. A Model for Time Overrun Quantification in Construction of Industrial Projects Based on Risk Evaluation. J Am Sci 2018;8(8):523-529]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.80

 

Key Words: Fuzzy Model, Time Overrun, Risk Factors

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Extraction and Identification of Natural Compounds in Muscle Tissue of Blue Swimming Crab (Portunus pelagicus) in Persian Gulf Coasts

 

Keivandokht Samiee1, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan2, Shila Kabirian Far3

 

1. Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Chemistry, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology,North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

k.samiee@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Portunus pelagicus known as sand crab is important in commercial and recreational fisheries in the most coastal marine waters. In this study, natural compounds from muscle tissue of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) from the coastal waters of Bushehr, Iran in May 2012 was extracted using the method of Blight and Dyer. Compounds were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS). Components were identified in both male and female species. Some of the compounds identified in both sexes, including saturated fatty acids including Palmitic acid and Stearic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid Oleic acid (9Z-Octaecenoic acid), Polyunsaturated fatty acid alpha- Linoleic acid, two methyl esters of fatty acids including Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, Vitamin E(α-Tocopherol) and Cholesterol (Cholest-5-en-3-ol(3β). The dominant fatty acids identified in both sexes were Omega-3 alpha- Linoleic acid (ALA), and Omega-9 Oleic acid.

J Am Sci 2012;8(8):530-534]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.81

 

Keywords: blue swimming crab, natural compounds, muscle tissue, Persian Gulf, Portunus pelagicus

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Effect of Lifestyle Modifications on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Symptoms

 

Eman M. Sayed Ahmed1, Mohamed E. Salem2 and Mohamed Samir Eid Sweed3 

 

 1Department of Maternal & Neonatal Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2 Department of Public Health, Social Research Center, American University in Cairo

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University

mrseslam0@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous endocrine disorder associated with reproductive morbidity, including menstrual dysfunction and infertility. A comparative prospective intervention study aimed at assessing the effect of lifestyle modification on polycystic ovary syndrome and assessing the effect of exercise and nutritional counseling (EN) compared to nutritional counseling (N) only on PCOS symptoms. The study was conducted in outpatient gynecological/infertility clinic at Ain Shams Maternity University hospital, from 1st March 2011 to 1st May 2012. Purposive sample of 72 cases were enrolled at the beginning. The attraction rate was 11.1%, and 64 cases completed the study. Tools used for data collection consisted of Arabic Structured Interviewing questionnaire, Psychological quality of life assessment tool, Two Arabic Weekly log to record regularity of diet & exercise, Woman's follow up card to record measures changes pre/post intervention and. the intervention consisted of counseling session and distribution of Arabic leaflet to the participants. Post test assessment was conducted after 6 months. Results revealed that there is a significant improvements in menstrual frequency, problems and weight loss. Also significant decreases in waist and hip girth. A trend towards an improved hormonal profile, fasting insulin level & free testosterone occurred. There is a significant reduction in hirsutism total score. However, there were no significant differences the improvement between the (N & EN) groups. In conclusion the present study drew attention that lifestyle modification with weight loss leads to improved hormonal profile, which restores ovulation the best initial management for overweight & obese women seeking to improve their reproductive function. The study recommended didactic center for PCOS cases inside infertility/gynecological clinics to ensure lifestyle modification, Future research should focus on the optimal dietary strategies and exercise regimens for PCOS treatment and the relative efficacy and appropriate use of lifestyle management versus anti-obesity pharmacologic agents and surgery, further research on larger sample size.

 [Eman M. Sayed Ahmed, Mohamed E. Salem and Mohamed Samir Eid Sweed Effect of Lifestyle Modifications on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Symptoms. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):535-544]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.82

 

Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome - Didactic center

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On Product Groups in which S-semipermutability Is aTransitive Relation

 

Mustafa Obaid

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box: 80111, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia. E-mail: &drmobaid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract. Let  be a finite group. A subgroup  of G is said to be S-semipermutability in  if  permutes with every Sylow p-subgroup of  with  A group  is said to be -group if -semipermutability is a transitive relation in. In this paper, we investigate the structure of finite groups that are the mutually permutable products of two solvable -subgroups.

[Mustafa Obaid. On Product Groups in which S-semipermutability Is aTransitive Relation. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):545-549]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.83

Keywords: supersolvable groups, -semipermutability, -groups, mutually permutable product.

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The importance of Adult education

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

ghorbani132@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in developed countries, adult education is a form of informal education for people above 24 years is presented. In fact, a means of expanding knowledge, skills and abilities of adults. In these countries, adult education helps adults to variable conditions of political, social, economic and cultural adjustment, and pay to fix their shortcomings. Concept of adult education in revolutionary countries, is a combination of these two concepts. Changes in these countries due to social, political and cultural revolution, resulting from, literacy and continuing education necessary to find because of the revolution, there is cultural poverty on the other hand the implementation of development plans and the need for skilled personnel are expert. General adult education system based on economic conditions - social and cultural community is different and each specific goals will follow. General objectives of adult education and literacy in two categories is divided into professional education.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani. Adult education in asia. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):550-554]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.84

 

Keywords: adult education, developing countries

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Design and Development of an Intelligent Controller for a Pole-balancing Robot

 

Pedram Masajedi1*, Tohid Yeganeh2, Mehrdad Fouj Lali3, Mehran Mohammadi4, Saeed Hosseinkhah Soorkoohi5

 

1. MSc of Applied Design Engineering, Control and Robotics, Shahid Chamran University

2. BS in Accurate Instruments Engineering of Petroleum Industry, member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University of Urmia

3. Member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University of Urmia

4. Member of Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University of Urmia

5. Mechanical Engineer of Iran's Renewable Energy Investigation Office

pedram.masajedi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, an intelligent controller capable of static balancing as well as dynamic balancing of a pole mounted amotorized robot is designed and developed. The brain of the intelligent controller lies in the Fuzzy Inference System, which receives as its input displacement, velocity and acceleration information. An embedded instrumentation system onboard the robot\ measures the displacement of the robot and the angle of inclination of the pole from the vertical position. For static balancing, the controller needs to maintain the pole in an upright position while the robot is free to move on a flat surface. For dynamic balancing, the robot needs to balance the pole while performing transitions up and down a ramp. Furthermore, the robot needs to steer itself back to the center to prevent it from falling off the ramp.

[Pedram Masajedi, Tohid Yeganeh, Mehrdad Fouj Lali, Mehran Mohammadi, Saeed Hosseinkhah Soorkoohi. Design and Development of an Intelligent Controller for a Pole-balancing Robot. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):555-562]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.85

 

Keywords: Micro-controller; Fuzzy inference system; Pole-balancing robot

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Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment

 

Edwin Zong

 

Oasis Medical Group. Bakersfield, CA 93305, USA

R4gomed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The origin of universe, the big bang, modern observations of paradox phenomenon in Phantom Physics and surprisingly accelerated peripheral galaxies have been the center of confusion in contemporary scientific world. In this paper, a possible cause is discussed base on classic physics. Since the energy in the universe is constant, when the background temperature drops, the heat energy transforms into a different form of energy -- that is momentum. In space, the galaxies are the most significant masses that gather in random movements when their speed drops (due to aging) and they cannot offset inter-mass attractions or gravities; on a macro level, the mega aggregation of galaxies/matters provide them ever-increasing heavier mass by collecting more aged galaxies/mass/comic rayalong the way. On the other hand, lost matter in the background means lost energy, which means a drop in universe background temperature. Gigantic numbers of regional galaxies/masses will eventually join together and reach a critical mass level or a critical energy level that can be labeled as a blast point, which will trigger a gigantic explosion, similar to our nuclear reaction. The gigantic blast is also known as a big bang that simply bombs everything within to its most primitive state. The blast spits out those most primitive particles, which one day will again form atoms, then molecules -- first inorganic, then organic. The universe is nothing but an unending cycle of merging and collapsing first-forming a pre-blast mass/energy that triggers a gigantic explosion when the mass/energy reaches a critical blast point. The blast then spits out primitive particles that once again form molecules and then form galaxies/planets. The mother blast also fuels the mass with initial momentum/kinetic energy. When the kinetic/momentum energy declines to certain levels, those galaxies cannot resist the attractions of gravity. They once again merge and collapse, then trigger another explosion; then a new collection of galaxies will be formed, then they age, then merge, collapse and blast again. The big bang/particle explosion is triggered by a certain level (quantifiable) of mass/energy. It cannot be an infinite level of mass/energy. It is another logical call. To express this in a more organized way, I will have to coin a new term for each part of the universal system – Zolaxy, which is created by a single mother blast. The Zolaxy is a family of galaxies created by a single big blast. In other words, the galaxies of any Zolaxy should have the same birth origin/mother bang. In the micro world of sub atom level (Phantom Physics), any unrelated particles/energies existing in experiment environment will greatly alter the experiment results. Since a theoretical space of temperature 0k has never been accomplished in any man-made labs, I am afraid to say that none of those experiments is valid in Phantom Physics. In other words, there is no evidence support quantum mechanics or quantum laws.

[Edwin Zong. Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):563-568]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.86

 

Key words: big bang; origin of universe; black matters; particles; time; odds; single bang; numerous bangs; quantum

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Distance learning and education

 

Mohaddaseh Nazarpour

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The adult education process drives towards the achievement of the capability to individually use reason on the subject matter in question. Adult education is oriented at the use, at any age, of attitudes and skills prone to clarifying any distortions in communication, favouring “why,” “how,” “when” and “where” as well as the “what for” in all situations. Adult learners are often those that distinguish each other and have many different targets at the same time and will follow a common challenge to fulfill the goals of building self motivation vectors as educational materials to learn and use the forge.

[Mohaddaseh Nazarpour. Distance learning and education. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):569-573]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.87

 

Keywords: distance learning, education

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Studies on Lernaeosis and the efficacy of Dipterex as treatment in the Hatchery Reared Fingerlings of Cyprinids

 

Mohamed A. A. Abd El-Galil 1, ESSA, M. A. A.2, Korni, F. M. M.2

 

1 Fish Dis. Dept., Fact. Vet. Med., Sohag Univ. Egypt

2 Fish Dept., Fact. Vet. Med., Beni suef Univ., Egypt

Abdelgalil1997@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The lernaea infested fingerlings of cyprinids showed the attachment of worm-like grey to greenish coloured copepods distributed along the both sides of the body, peduncle region especially at the base of caudal fin, base of dorsal fin and the buccal region. The sites of attachment were hemorrhagic nodules in C. carpio fingerlings and reddening without swollen margins in C. idella and H. molitrix fingerlings. The prevalence was 26.5, 32 and 33.1% among C. carpio, C. idella and H. molitrix fingerlings respectively and the highest infestation rate was in October and May. The lernaea infestation significantly decreased (4.3 up to 71.7%) the body weight of diseased fingerlings and this decrease was directly correlated with the infestation intensity. The histopathological alterations of the lernaea infestation were studied and Dipterex could not completely eliminate the lernaea from the infested C. carpio fingerlings.

[Mohamed A. A. Abd El-Galil, ESSA, M. A. A. and Korni, F. M. M. Studies on Lernaeosis and the efficacy of Diptrex as treatment in the Hatchery Reared Fingerlings of Cyprinids. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):574-580]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.88

 

Key words: Lernaeosis, Dipterex, Fingerlings, Cyprinids, C. carpio, C. idella, H. molitrix

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Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Local Egyptian Bentonite

 

Ehssan Nassef 1 and Yehia Eltaweel 2

 

1Petrochemical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University

2Chemical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alex. University

ehssan.nassef@pua.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Phenolic compounds are some of the major hazardous compounds in industrial wastewater due to their poor biodegradability, high toxicity and ecological aspects. These compounds are listed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among the priority pollutants for instance phenols are released into water from industrial effluent discharges such as petroleum refinery wastewater. Classical methods employed for phenol removal are either costly or limited to large-scale applications such as biological and thermal decomposition methods. In this study an Egyptian Bentonite clay has been used for the adsorption of phenol from aqueous solutions over a concentration range of 10–100 mg/l, shaking time of 5–120 min, stirring rate from 50-250 r.p.m and adsorbent dosage from 0.1to 0.5 g. The Experiments were carried out for the analysis of adsorption equilibrium capacities using a batch equilibrium technique. The process of uptake follows both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The complete removal of phenol was observed with initial concentration of 10 mg/l and 0.5 g of bentonite, speed rate of 200 r.p.m. with 30 min time of contact. All Experiments were done at room temperature.

[Ehssan Nassef and Yehia Eltaweel. Adsorption of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Local Egyptian Bentonite. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):581-589]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.89

 

Keywords: Adsorption; Phenol; Bentonite; Kinetics; Isotherm.

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Comparative Ultrasonographic Findings of Traumatic Reticulitis, Perireticular Abscess and Diaphragmatic Hernia in Buffalo (BubalusBubalis)

 

Khaled S. Abouelnasr*, EsamMosbah, Gamal I. Karrouf, and Adel E. Zaghloul

 

Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

aboelnasr_2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:Background The present study aimed at discussing the role of ultrasonography for differential diagnosis of some reticular affections in 18 buffaloes suffered from traumatic reticuloperitonitis, diaphragmatic hernia and perireticular abscess. Material and Methods A 3.5 MHz convex transducer was used for examination of the reticular area from left and right side. B and M mode display were used for evaluation of reticular appearance, frequency of biphasic contraction and comparing of reticular motility in the abdominal and thoracic cavity in cases of diaphragmatic hernia. Results Normal or reduced frequency with reduced amplitude of reticular contraction was recorded in cases of traumatic reticuloperitonitis and diaphragmatic hernia. While, normal frequency with relatively normal amplitude was visualized in cases of perireticular abscess. The smooth wall of the reticulum was altered by echogenic deposits in most cases of traumatic reticuloperitonitis which is not found in case diaphragmatic hernia and perireticular abscess. Conclusion The result of this study presented the significance of ultrasonography for differentiation between various reticular affections in buffalo and the utility of B/M mode of display for detection and evaluation of reticular motility in the thoracic cavity which is mandatory for diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia.

[K. S. Abouelnasr, E. Mosbah, G. I. Karrouf, and A. E. Zaghloul. Comparative Ultrasonographic Findings of Traumatic Reticulitis, Perireticular Abscess and Diaphragmatic Hernia in Buffalo (BubalusBubalis). J Am Sci 2012;8(8):590-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.90

 

Keywords: ultrasonography, reticuloperitonitis, perireticular abscess, diaphragmatic hernia, buffalo.

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Removal and Kinetic Studies of the Carcinogen Bromate Ion in Drinking Water Using Modified Date Seeds and Granular Activated Carbon

 

Mohamoud A. Mohamoud*, Mubarak A. Al-Qurashi, Feda E. Ali and M. Emad

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, P.O. Box: 30002, KSA

m.a.mohamoud@gmail.com

 

Abstract: For the first time, we explore the efficacy of modified date seeds on the removal of the carcinogenic bromate ion from drinking water. As a way of checking the validity of this novel application of date seeds, we also test the capability of granular activated charcoal on the adsorption-reduction processes of the bromate removal in an identical system parameters. Special emphasis was given to the kinetics and the mechanism of bromate ion reduction and the formation of its conjugate bromide ion. For brevity purpose, only three well-established kinetic models were applied to the experimentally obtained data. We found that both the reduction and formation mechanisms of bromate and bromide ions follow pseudo-second order in the presence of the modified date seeds. However, the same adsorption-reduction process was observed to follow intraparticle diffusion kinetics in the presence of the granular activated carbon. Interestingly, the removal kinetics of bromate ion was acknowledged to be faster using the modified date seeds in the first stages (1-5 h) of the process though in the long run (after 24 h) the efficiency of the granular activated carbon was higher. In both systems, the removal efficacies were quite significant.

[Mohamoud A. Mohamoud, Mubarak A. Al-Qurashi, Feda E. Ali and M. Emad. Removal and Kinetic Studies of the Carcinogen Bromate Ion in Drinking Water Using Modified Date Seeds and Granular Activated Carbon. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):596-601]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.91

 

Keywords: date seeds, activated carbon, bromate ion, kinetic models, carcinogen, drinking water, ion chromotograph

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Potential of Sport as an Instrument for Social Empowerment

 

Ali Hosseinzadeh Gonabadi

 

Sama Technical and Vocational Training Collage, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Iran

Email: upm2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: People all over the world use the potential of sport to promote local development. Sport has the potential to support development in many ways. It might have the potential to cause social, political, cultural and economic-development. An important trigger of ‘development through sport’ is empowerment that is caused through sport. Especially social-development can be supported or happens through sport. The aim of this study is to illustrate the potential of sport in local areas of Shiraz, Iran. This research sought to find out ways through which sport can be empowering the local societies. Quantitative method was used to collect and analyze data for the study. The study identified several integration approaches that can be adopted in social empowerment through sport. The findings of this study showed some of the potential of sport in Shiraz, Iran.

[Ali Hosseinzadeh Gonabadi. Potential of Sport as an Instrument for Social Empowerment. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):602-605]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.92

 

Keywords: Sport, empowerment, social development, women, local development

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-Subalgebras of BF–algebras

 

A. R. Hadipour1 and A. Borumand Saeid2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran.

2. Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

arsham@mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the notions of-sub algebras in BF-algebras and study it in detail.

[A. R. Hadipour, A. Borumand Saeid. -Subalgebras of BF–algebras. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):606-610]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.93

 

Keywords: BF–algebra, –subalgebra.

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Guideline Model for Nurses to Prevent the Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events in Pediatric Inpatients

 

Hanan T., Elbahnasawy1, Samia Elnagar2 and Maha Atout1

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Isra University

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing El-Menoufya University

hanantharwat2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Medication errors were defined as errors in medication ordering, transcribing, dispensing, administering, or monitoring. Quasi experimental design was conducted for this study, The study aimed to identifying nurses needs of knowledge, practice, and attitude, developing guideline model for prevention of medication errors according to nurses needs and evaluating the effect of guideline model for prevention of medication error on nurses knowledge, practice, and attitude. The study was conducted in the pediatric medical, surgical and neonatal intensive care units in Al – Basher hospital in Amman city Jordan. This is a convenient sample of 85 registered nurses who's worked in the mentioned above setting. For data collection an interview questionnaire (pre/ posttest format) was used to assess nurses knowledge and practices as regard to definition, causes, contributing factorsand complication of medication errors also medication calculations, correct reading order, review patient six rights and double check of medication. The result of the study showed the effectiveness of guideline model on nurses who caring with children for medication administration. The implementation of guideline model showed significant improvement in nurses knowledge regarding all tested items, also concluded that the highest statistical significant improvement in nursing practices were noticed in most of the tested area which lead to prevent of medication errors. According to this study it is recommended that using the guideline model by all pediatric nurses which are dealing with children to prevent the medication errors, encourage continuous education program for pediatric nurses by using the different educational strategies to achieve high level of care for children and develop other standardized guideline model relevant to different aspect in pediatric nursing in order to cover most of the nurses educational needs.

[Hanan T., Elbahnasawy,SamiaElnagar and Maha Atout. Guideline Model for Nurses to Prevent the Medication Errors and Adverse Drug Events in Pediatric Inpatients. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):611-617]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.94

 

Keywords: Guideline model, Medication error, Pediatric nurses

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The Influence and Spread of Sassanids’ Architecture in Islamic and Other Countries Architecture

 

Seyed Mohammad Reza Mokhtari Hoseini

 

Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran

Mokhtari_43@mail.ru

 

Abstract: Sassanids’ art includes Achaemenids and Parthia’s traditions in it, and it is a bridge between the ancient civilizations of Asia, new Islamic civilizations, and Western medieval. Islamic architecture traditions and other cultural manifests have been spread from north of Africa, to Spain, Italy, India, and China, and have even affected the official Christianity architecture. All the methods of Sassanids’ architecture and its ancient architecture have been observed from the both perspectives of building and aesthetic in the wall of Baghdad gate and Ivan Khosrau, respectively. The campaniles of Islamic periods have been inspired by the Sassanids’ fire towers. The indentations stuccoes of Great mosque of Ghazvin have been the masterpiece of stucco art and the presence of stucco can be known in altars of Islamic Period mosques. Sassanids placed an arched vault at the top of door and window that transferred to the East and West Christianity and Muslim. The dome that is based on the angles of vaults, found international worth very soon. In the Sassanids’ era, the decoration of buildings including stucco, mosaic tile, mosaic, the pictures of animals, and Iranian textures were highly significant, and influenced in some countries including Constantinople, Georgia, Afghanistan, Italy, Spain, French, and Byzantine. The architecture works of Sassanids’ era can be seen in the land of Mawarannahr (Great Khorasan), including Republic of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, the districts of Kazakhstan, and Kirghizstan in such areas as Varakhsha, and the valuable ancient region of Panjakent in the sixtieth kilometers of Samarkand.

[Seyed Mohammad Reza Mokhtari Hoseini. The Influence and Spread of Sassanids’ Architecture in Islamic and Other Countries Architecture. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):618-621]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.95

 

Keywords: Sassanids, architecture, Islamic Architecture, arc, vault

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The managers’ utilization level of management accounting information in decision making

 

Mohammadreza Hajiaghazadeh Mostofi, Sina Kheradyar, Mohammadreza Shabani

 

Islamic Azad University, Naragh Branch, Iran

 

Abstract: Background and Purpose - This paper seeks to answer this question that whether the managers of Daroupakhsh company's subsidiaries use the management accounting data in their decision makings. Materials and Methods - After investigating the issue, designing relevant questionnaires and analyzing the results with statistical methods and SPSS software, and also interviewing people and reviewing the environment and the performance indicators in accounting, it was identified that essentially in these companies the managers do not use management accounting data in their decision makings and their status in accounting performance evaluation is not evaluated as favorable either. The statistical society of this study consisted of 92 middle to senior managers from Abu-Rayhan, Exir, Damlaran, Daroupakhsh, Razak, and Zahravy pharmaceutical companies, of which, based on statistical methods, 67 people were selected as the sample society. However, in order to increase the accuracy of sampling and the results, 3 were added to the sample society.

[Mohammadreza Hajiaghazadeh Mostofi, Sina Kheradyar, Mohammadreza Shabani. The managers’ utilizationlevel of management accounting information in decision making. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):622-627]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.96

 

Keywords: Management Accounting - Measurement - Analysis – Decision Making – Investment Center – Return on Investment - Residual Income

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The Impact of Change Orders on Construction Projects Sports Facilities Case Study

 

Ibrahim Abdel Rashid; Mohamed A. El-Mikawi and Mohammed E. Abdel-Hamid Saleh

 

Construction Project Management – Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University

mohammedsaleh7700@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Change Orders in construction often have a serious impact on the quality, time, and cost of projects. Hence, Change Orders require proper analysisand action to measure the reasons and effects of change orders. This paper presents the most important factors considered to have impact on the time, and the cost of the project during its life cycle stages forsportsfacility projects in Egypt.These two dimensions of change order are applied to specific factors (Owner, Consultant, Contractor, Project Management, Local Authorities, Stakeholder, etc.).

[Ibrahim Abdel Rashid; Mohamed A. El-Mikawi and Mohammed E. Abdel-Hamid Saleh. The Impact of Change Orders on Construction Projects Sports Facilities Case Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):628-631]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.97

 

Keywords: Change Order, Construction, Impact, Cost, Time, Sports Facility

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Colon Targeting of Mebeverine HCl from pH-Dependent Tablet Formulations

 

Safaa El Gamal; Viviane Naggar and Magda Sokar*

 

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

magdasokar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome (IBS), is an inflammatory disease affecting the bowel in which gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is more sensitive to many stimuli causing it to contract abnormally. Mebeverine HCl “as an intact drug” is a musculotropic antispasmodic agent with a direct non-specific relaxant effect on smooth muscles, especially the colon. In an attempt to restrict its action locally to the colon, avoiding its first-pass effect, its metabolic changes in the small intestine and its absorption along the GIT, mebeverine HCl polymer based formulations were designed for colon targeting. Tablet core containing drug, Avicel PH101 and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC Sod.), 1:1:2 was compression coated. A set of tablets was coated with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose 4000 (HPMC 4000) and cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) 1:1 (F1), 1:3 (F2), 1:5 (F3), and with HPMC 4000 and Eudragit L100 (EL100) 1:3 (F4). Another set was coated with HPMC 6cp, then dipped in solution of 12.5% w/v Eudragit L100 in isopropyl alcohol containing 1.25% w/w polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) (F5). Swelling index was calculated for most formulations. Coated tablets were tested for release at pH 1.2 (2 hours) and pH 6.8 (28hours). No or negligible release occurred in the first 2 hours. After 3 hours, less than 20% of drug was liberated. Results of dissolution were consistent with those of swelling. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Infra Red Spectroscopy (IR) studies were also performed. A selected formulation was tested ex-vivo on isolated guinea pig colon. Formulations were stable for at least one year except for F3 (after 6 months).

[Safaa El Gamal; Viviane Naggar and Magda Sokar. Colon Targeting of Mebeverine HCl from PH-Dependent Tablet Formulations. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):632-638]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.98

 

Keywords: Mebeverine HCl; polymer; colon targeting; compression coating; guinea pig colon

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The Effect of head punches on Some Physiological and Psychological Responses of Boxers

 

Mohamed Salah Al-Din Mohammed

 

Department of Biological Sciences and Sports Health,Faculty of Physical Education in Port Said, Port Said University. drmohamedsalah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This research aims to identify the effect of strong and frequent head punches on some of the physiological and psychological responses of boxers, and the possibility of getting Alzheimer's disease and some physical and psychological diseases. The study was conducted on (6) six boxers. Experimental method was used through using the design of (Pre- posttest) for a single experimental group. The average of effort head punches in the match were (20+6). The variables of heart rate, blood pressure, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood lactate, catecholamine, Prolactin and Dopamine hormones were measured before and after training session. The results showed significant increase of all physiological variables after training session, furthermore increase in the level of catecholamine, Dopamine and Prolactin hormones was obtained. The author concludes that the pressure loaded on the boxers as a result of exposure to strong and frequent head punches during exercise periods leads to a dysfunction of neurons, the secretion of neurohormone in brain, increase in the level of dopamine and the prolactin hormone, the formation of protein deposits on the internal parts of the brain, and the significant deterioration in Neuromodulation, which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease or some physical, psychological diseases.

[Mohamed Salah Al-Din Mohammed. The Effect of head punches on Some Physiological and Psychological Responses of Boxers. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):639-644]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.99

 

Keywords: head punches, catecholamine, prolactin, Alzheimer's disease

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Possible Ameliorative Role of Propolis and Ginseng against Hepatotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos and Profenofos in Male Rats

 

Abd El-Aziz A. Diab 1, El-Sayed A. Abd El-Aziz 2, Ahmed A. Hendawy 1 and Reham Z. Hamza 1*

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

2 Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Sharkia, Egypt

dr_reham_z@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was an attempt to evaluate the toxic effect of both Chlorpyrifos and Profenofos (organophosphorous insecticides) each alone and in their combinations with either propolis or ginseng and as well known that propolis and ginseng have been reported to be effective antioxidant, therefore, the present study is aimed to elucidate the possible ameliorative role of propolis and ginseng in alleviating the toxicity of both Chlorpyrifos and Profenofos when given to male rats. This was done through studying the effects of both Chlorpyrifos and profenofos on some liver function parameters like liver enzymes, total protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver homogenates and by making protein electrophoresis as well as histopathological changes in vital organ like liver. Animals were divided into nine groups; The 1st (Control group): Animals received 1ml of distilled water orally daily for 8 weeks, The 2nd (Chlorpyrifos treated group)Animals were daily received oral doses of Chlorpyrifos (6.75 mg/Kg b.wt.) for 60 days, The 3rd (Profenofos treated group)Animals were received orally Profenofos (20 mg/Kg b.wt.) daily for 8 weeks, The 4th (Propolis treated group)Animals were received orally Propolis extract (70mg/kg b.wt.) daily for 8,The 5th (Ginseng treated group)Animal were given orally Ginseng extract (200mg/Kg b.wt.) for 8 weeks daily, The 6th (Chlorpyrifos + Propolis treated group)Animals were given orally Chlorpyrifos (6.75 mg/Kg) and then co-administered with Propolis extract (70mg/kg b.wt.) for 8 weeks daily, The 7th (Chloropyrifos+Ginseng treated group). Animals were given orally Chlorpyrifos (6.75 mg/Kg b.wt.) and then co-administered with Ginseng extract (200mg/Kg) for 8 weeks daily, The 8th (Profenofos +Propolis treated group)Animals were given orally Profenofos (20 mg/Kg) and then co-administered with Propolis extract (70mg/kg) for 8 weeks daily, The 9th (Profenofos +Ginseng treated group)Animals were given orally Profenofos (20 mg/Kg) and then co-administered with Ginseng extract (200mg/Kg) as mentioned above for 8 weeks daily. Results showed that there was a correlation between CPF and PRF administration and the highly significant increase of the liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and some antioxidant enzymes with decreasing other enzymes, as well as decrease of total proteins. In contrary to these actions, co-administration of propolis and ginseng to CPF and PRF-treated rats retrieved almost most of these biochemical parameters to normal levels. On the other hand, CPF and PRF showed histopathological alterations in liver of male rats like necrosis and hydrobic degeneration and highly fatty change, while administration of both propolis and ginseng highly ameliorate these dangerous hepatotoxicity markers.

[Abd El-Aziz A. Diab, El-Sayed A. Abd El-Aziz, Ahmed A. Hendawy, Reham Z.Hamza. Possible Ameliorative Role of Propolis and Ginseng against Hepatotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos and Profenofos in Male Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):645-664]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.100

 

Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Profenofos, Propolis, Ginseng, Hepatotoxicity, Liver enzymes, protein electrophoresis.

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Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metals in Some Dairy Products and the Effect of Storage on its Distribution

 

Salah Fathy Ahmed Abd- El Aal

 

Food Control Department-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Zagazig University-Egypt

drsalah_aal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A total of 120 dairy product samples (30 each of condensed milk, infant formula, milk powder and sterilized milk) were collected from Zagazig city, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt and classified into three groups: each group include 10 cans of each product. All samples stored at room temperature (17.5-31.5C) for 210 days (from August 2011 to March 2012). All groups were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (the first group at zero day, the second at 60 days and the third at 210 days) to determine the level of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Al and Sn) to study the effect of storage on the distribution of these metals in the examined dairy products. The statistical analysis of the data indicated that 100% of the examined samples contained (lead, cadmium, aluminium and tin). The analyzed data revealed that the mean values of Pb, Cd, Al and Sn in condensed milk samples during storage period (0-60-210 days) were (0.548, 0.115, 0.600, 1.400); (0.660, 0.250, 1.650, 1.400) and (0.770, 0.245, 2.300, 1.520) ppm, respectively. While, in case of infant formula samples were (0.410, 0.210, 1.350, 1.550); (0.561, 0.280, 1.350, 1.760) and (0.815, 0.285, 1.850, 1.660) ppm, respectively and in milk powder samples were (0.488, 0.225, 1.150, 1.580); (0.572, 0.330, 1.650, 1.500) and (0.800, 0.345, 2.500, 1.760) ppm, respectively. Otherwise, in sterilized milk samples were (0.497, 0.150, 1.150, 1.170); (0.636, 0.220, 1.300, 1.640) and (0.765, 0.380, 1.850, 1.680) ppm, respectively. When comparing the obtained results there were significant change (p<0.05) in the level of Pb, Cd, Al and Sn in all examined dairy product samples from 0, 60 and 210 days. The public health hazards of these metals were discussed.

[Salah Fathy Ahmed Abd- El Aal. Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metals in Some Dairy Products and the Effect of Storage on its Distribution. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):665-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.101

 

Keywords: lead, cadmium, aluminium, tin, storage, dairy products

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102

Empowerment of rural women

 

Abbas Emami

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: However rural women play major role to produce food at all over the world, but rarely enjoy of extension services. Wherever, rural women as producers of food productions and family supervisor, have little contact with extension services organizations, so their problems and needs would reflect at extensional information feedback, rarely. Therefore agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture.

[Abbas Emami. Empowerment of rural women. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):671-676]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.102

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women, developing countries

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Comparing & Prioritizing the Strategies of Development of Sport for All in Iran from the Viewpoint of Managers, Experts and Authorities

 

Nasrin Zahedi 1, Dr. Mehrzad Hamidi 2, Mitra Rouhi 3, Nastaran zahedi 1

 

1, 4 – Master of Physical Education

2 - Member of Faculty Board of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

3- Scientific member of Nasibe college, Farhangian university, Teheran, Iran

mitrarouhi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current research intends to determine some strategies for development of sport for all in Iran from the viewpoint of managers, experts and authorities. Research methodology is descriptive and comparative type. Statistical universe included managers, experts and authorities in the field of sport for all, totally 120 individuals. Method of sampling was full-scale and research tool was questionnaire made by researcher including 75 questions and 9 sub-scales. Validity of the questionnaire was measured by elites’ method and its reliability was measured by Cronbach’s Alpha (0.98). Inferential statistics’ techniques such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has been used for investigation of natural status of information and ANOVA test and Kruskal-Wallis Test were used for comparing three groups. Friedman test has been used for prioritizing development strategies. Equipment and facilities, human resources, projects and holding management, lawful and legal environment, promotion of culture, development of institutes, supervision and investigation, financial support and educational-scientific development were respectively prioritized as the strategies of development.

[Nasrin Zahedi, Dr. Mehrzad Hamidi, Mitra Rouhi, Nastaran zahedi. Comparing & Prioritizing the Strategies of Development of Sport for All in Iran from the Viewpoint of Managers, Experts and Authorities. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):677-684]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.103

 

Keywords: Sport For All, Development strategies, Human resources, Development, culture, Legal environment, Financial support

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Diversity in China; Economic Growth or Financial Expense?

 

1Mohammad Hadi Damiri, 2Sasan Ghermezi

 

1Abadeh Tashk Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadeh Tashk, Fars, Iran

2University of Applied Sciences and Technology, Jahad Daneshgahi Branch, Shiraz, Fars, Iran

 

Abstract: China economy is faced with different people with different races, genders, languages, cultures and religions. The diversity may be a source of creativity and competitive advantage but a good management and accuracy are needed. Although in the last years, political freedoms in the china have been reduced, but the china has become a leading economical power in the world. So, what are the lessons behind this economic growth? And how diversity can lead china to gain a competitive edge with different peoples? This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities in front of china resulting from diversity.

[Mohammad Hadi Damiri, Sasan Ghermezi. Diversity in China; Economic Growth or Financial Expense? J Am Sci 2012;8(8):685-687]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.104

 

Keywords: China, Economy, diversity, challenges, opportunities

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Histological, Ultrastructural and Physiological Studies on the Effect of Different Kinds of Energy Drinks on the Liver of Swiss Albino Rat

 

¹Latifa Khayyat, ¹’²Jehan Sorour, ¹Maisaa Al Rawi and ¹’²Amina Essawy

 

¹ Biology Department, Faculty of Applied Science for Girls, Umm Al-Qura University, Mekkah, KSA

² Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharam Bey, Alexandria 2151, Egypt
Jehansorour@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Three kinds of power drinks (Power horse, Red bull and Code red) were used to study their histological, ultrastructural and physiological effects on Swiss albino rat liver. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control, while Groups 2, 3 and 4 were each orally administered with a type of the power drinks daily for 4 weeks. After two and four weeks of treatment, five animals from each group were killed and dissected. The liver was removed, cut and fixed quickly to carry out light and electron microscopic preparations. Blood samples were collected from each rat via Cardiac puncture method for enzyme determination. The histopatological and ultrastructural results indicated mild hepatotoxicity of Power horse, Red bull and Code red. The alterations in liver ultrastructure were almost similar to each other; however the necrotic areas and the pyknotic nuclei were more obvious in Power horse and Red bull than that of Code red. Moreover, the present study showed that the energy drinks induced an elevation of liver enzymes AST, ALT and ALP after two and four weeks of treatment. The data illustrated that power horse was more effective in its action on liver enzymes, followed by red bull and to less extend code red. The different action of the energy drinks on liver function could be attributed to the different mixture of their ingredients.

[Latifa Khayyat, Jehan Sorour, Maisaa Al Rawi and Amina Essawy. Histological, Ultrastructural and Physiological Studies on the Effect of Different Kinds of Energy Drinks on the Liver of Swiss Albino Rat. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):688-697]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.105

 

Keywords: energy drinks, rat liver, histopathology, ultrastructure, physiology

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Anti-Osteoporotic Activity of Soy Total Extract and Genistein Compound in Ovariectomized Rats

 

Dalia A. Hafez

 

Nutrition and Food Science Department, Faculty of Design and Home Economics, Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt

daliaij_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-osteoporotic activity of soy total extract and genistein isoflavone in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in rats under aseptic condition and ether anesthesia. Rats were randomly distributed into 6 equal groups of 7 animals each. Group (I) was sham operated and the other 5 groups were OVX. Group (II) was left OVX control, while groups (III), (IV), (V) and (VI) were given orally soy extract in 250 and 500mg/kg-1 and genistein in 25 and 50 mg/kg-1, respectively for 8 weeks. At end of the experiment, blood was collected for estimating serum calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), bone - specific alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP) and osteocalcin (OC). Urine samples were collected for determining Ca and P concentrations. Rats were euthanized and the uteri were removed and weighed. Both femur bones were taken for bone analysis. The results showed that ovariectomy caused increases in serum levels of Ca, P, b-ALP and OC and decreases in uterine and femur weights. Administration of soy extract and genistein to OVX rats normalized the elevated serum levels of Ca, P, b-ALP and OC and restored uterine and femur weights. Ovariectomy also increased urinary Ca and P levels and decreased femur volume, mineral density and calcium content in bone ash. Treatment with soy extract and genistein normalized urinary Ca and P levels and increased femur bone volume, density and calcium content. In conclusion, total soy extract has an anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rats. This study recommends that intake of soybean in foods may be beneficial as an alternative therapy for women who suffer from postmenopausal osteoporosis.

[Dalia A. Hafez Anti-Osteoporotic Activity of Soy Total Extract and Genistein Compound in Ovariectomized Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):698-703]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.106

 

Keywords: Soybean; Genistein; Osteoporosis; Calcium, Phosphorous; Osteocalcin; Ovariectomized rats.

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Relationship between Critical Thinking Dispositions and Dialogue-based Education among teachers

 

Mohammadreza Neyestani 1, Mohammadhossein Heydari 2, Amir Ghamarani 3

 

1. Assistant Professor, Faculty of educational sciences and psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran, neyestani@gmail.com

2. Assistant Professor, Faculty of educational sciences and psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of educational sciences and psychology, University of Isfahan, Iran

 

Abstract: Dialogue-based teaching has been pointed to as an important strategy during process of teaching. Teachers who have intangible qualities or dispositions can create an classroom environment that provides opportunities to dialogue-based teaching. Critical Thinking Dispositions can create desires in teachers to engage in teaching critically. Dialogue-based teaching in schools needs teachers that encompass both cognitive skills and affective dispositional dimensions. Dialogical teachers possess well developed critical thinking skills and a strong affinity toward developing disposition. Dispositions toward critical thinking are the tendencies that motivate teacher to practice and apply critical thinking skills in classroom. Without disposition, teacher won’t be willing to develop dialogical methods, strategies and techniques in classroom. The goal of this research is to assess relationship between teachers’ critical thinking dispositions and Dialogue-based teaching. Survey method has been used in this research. Statistical population of this research consists of higher school teachers and students. 76 teaches and 1300 students participated in this research voluntarily. Two instruments California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) and Dialogue-based teaching questionnaire was administered to participants. The findings obtained from the research show that most of the correlations between thinking dispositions and dialogue-based teaching were found positive.

[Neyestani Mr, Heydari, Mh. Ghamarani, A Relationship between Critical Thinking Dispositions and Dialogue-based Education among teachers. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):704-708]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 107

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.107

 

Keywords: Dialogue, Critical Thinking, Dispositions, Dialogue-based education

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The Link between Creativity and Mental Health among the Students of the Universities in Tehran

 

Mahshad Mohammad Noori1, Hassan Ahadi2, Parviz Askari3, Kianoosh Hashemian4, Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri5

 

1. Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khouzestan, Iran

2. Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Ahwaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran

 4. Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Roudhen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

5. Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding Author: mahshad.mn@gmail.com

 

Abstract: According to Freud’s theory, the origin of creativity refers to the conflicts of unconscious mind. Psychologists, who came after Freud, reduced the effects of primary processes; moreover, explained that the origin of creativity refers to subconscious mind. Several principal studies performed in the era preceding the systematic ordering of the recent classification (DSM IV-TR and ICD 10) show among creative and famous individuals, a prevalence of severe mental disorders, significantly higher than among the general population. Even, recently, psychiatrist Szabolcs Kéri focused on a gene (neuregulin 1) that normally plays a role in a variety of brain processes and has a clear link with creativity. However, a variant of this gene (or genotype) is associated with a greater risk of developing mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The goal of this research was to study the link between creativity and mental disorders among the undergraduate students of universities in Tehran. In this research, the subjects were 180 students of the universities in Tehran. Selection was in cluster manner, random sampling. The following instruments were used: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and Abedi’s creativity test. Two groups of variables were tested. Eight clinical criteria of mental disorders of MMPI and four criteria of creativity. Research design were quasi – experimental, field correlation type study. Statistical tests were correlation test and regression analysis. The results showed that there were negative and significant relations between depression and creativity, and between psychasthenia (Pt) and creativity (p< 0.01). The best predictors of creativity were Pt and schizophrenia (Sc) criteria which Pt had negative coefficient and Sc had positive. It seemed that when these personality factors such as: self – confidence, relaxation, sense of security and normal approach to life come along with the tendency toward schizophrenia, person’s creativity is increased.

[Mahshad Mohammad Noori, Hassan Ahadi, Parviz Askari, Kianoosh Hashemian, Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri. The Link between Creativity and Mental Health among the Students of the Universities in Tehran. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):709-718]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.108

 

Key words: Creativity, Mental Disorders, Personality Factors, University students, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia

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Existential Anxiety of Omar Khayyam

Comparative study of Anxiety in Khayyam quatrains and Heidegger’s existentialism

 

Tahereh Jaberizadeh

 

Zahedshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedshahr, Iran

PhD Candidate, Comparative Literature. Shekoofeh116@yahoo.com. Tel: +374 55874123

 

Abstract: Anxiety occupies a privileged position in existential philosophy. There is something profound and decisive in the notion of anxiety that existential philosophy highlights, namely anxiety's role in the primordial situation of Being and its relation, in an exceptional manner, to the truth, authenticity and to the essential being of our existence. The following paper analyze and compare the thoughts of Omar Khayyam underlying his quatrains and Heidegger concerning the problem of Anxiety -as one of the main concepts in the existentialism-. The researcher undertakes the surveys by examining how these two thinkers distinguish themselves from the social, political and cultural events of their era, how the social events influenced their thoughts and their thoughts had emerged in the situation. Khayyam, in his Quatrains, challenged religious doctrines, alluded to the hypocrisy of the clergy, cast doubt on almost every facet of religious belief and appeared to have advocated a type of humanism. Philosophical approaches of Rubaiyat in Europe and the West, often expressed during the translations of Rubaiyat from the original language. By definition of Heidegger’s anxiety as a criterion for classification of the quatrain, using the structure of Persian literature, attention to ironies and allusion in original language to interpret Genuine quatrains, we could specify the role of Khayyam’s anxiety as the existential anxiety that is result of his awareness about being (existence) and his responsibility toward personal choosing, his own life and his society and people that he was conscious about their ignorance.

[Tahereh Jaberizadeh. Existential Anxiety of Omar Khayyam. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):719-724]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 109

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.109

 

Key words: Existential anxiety, Khayyam, Heidegger and Responsibility.

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The Interrelationships among Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Anxiety, and

Willingness to Communicate

 

Parviz Birjandi (PhD) 1, Maryam Sadat Tabataba’ian (PhD Candidate) 1

 

1. Department of English Language and Literature, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

maryam.tabatabaeian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the relationships among emotional intelligence (EI), foreign language anxiety, and willingness to communicate (WTC). To this end, 88 upper intermediate and advanced English learners from Azaran Language College and Avesta Language Institute were asked to complete 3 questionnaires: Bar-On’s EQ-i, Foreign Language Anxiety (FLCAS), and Willingness to Communicate (WTC). The results of the correlational study indicated that there was a significant relationship between EQ, WTC, and FLCAS. The correlation between FLCAS and WTC was also significant. Several subscales of EQ were also related to FLCAS and WTC. To further analyze the data, regression analysis was run which indicated that FLCAS, EQ, and some of its subscales were predictors of WTC. Also, EQ and several of its subscales could predict FLCAS.

 

[Birjandi P, Tabataba’ian M. The Interrelationships among Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Anxiety, and Willingness to Communicate. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):725-730]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 110

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.110

 

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Willingness to Communicate

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Effect of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Metformin on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

 

Mohamed Nabih Abdel Rahman

 

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

dr_modyoyo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli as a complication of diabetes. It is the leading cause of chronic renal failure in the industrialised world. The mechanisms of DN are incompletely understood but include glycosylation of circulating and intrarenal proteins, hypertension and abnormal intrarenal hemodynamics. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound found in grapes and red wine that has been shown to offer protective effects against many cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Curcumin is a natural phenol that may be useful for prevention and treatment of several diseases. Metformin is the first-line drug of choice for treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people. Objective: To study the effect of each of resveratrol, curcumin and metformin on STZ-induced DN in rats. Methods: Fifty albino rats were divided into 5 equal groups: Control untreated group, STZ group, STZ + Metformin group, STZ + Resveratrol group and STZ + Curcumin group. Kidney weight/body weight ratio, serum fasting glucose, blood urea, serum creatinine, UAER and creatinine clearance were determined. A part of the kidney was homogenized for determination of tissue TNF-α, TGF-β1, NO, GSH and AGEs and the other part was examined histopathologically. Results: Administration of each of resveratrol, curcumin and metformin induced significant increase in creatinine clearance and tissue GSH with significant decrease in kidney weight/body weight ratio, serum fasting glucose, blood urea, serum creatinine, UAER, tissue TNF-α, TGF-β1, NO and AGEs and alleviated the histopathological changes compared to the group that received STZ alone. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the protective effect of each of resveratrol, curcumin and metformin on STZ-induced DN in rats.

[Mohamed Nabih Abdel Rahman. Effect of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Metformin on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):731-738]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 111

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.111

 

Key words: resveratrol, curcumin, metformin, nephropathy, rats

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Implementation of Strategy in National Iranian Gas Company using(BSC) Approach

 

Fakhrossadat Hashemian

 

The master of educational management of Allameh Tabataba'i,s University

fa_hashemian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study used descriptive survey to examine the performance of National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC) as evaluated by using balanced scorecard approach. The study population included all NIGC employees and customers. This study used stratified sampling to select its study sample of 350 proportionally from 30 provinces. The study sample consisted of 300 employees and 50 customers of NIGC. Final analysis examined data provided by 261 employees (including 100 managers and 161 specialists) and 51 customers. With a balance criterion of 2.33, single sample t-test results showed that general performance of NIGC is balanced in all perspectives (p<0.01). This study showed that there is a significant direct relationship between four studied perspectives (p<0.01). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) among factors showed that two perspectives of learning and growth, and internal process had the same balance level. Customer satisfaction had the highest balance. Finance had the lowest balance compared with non-financial perspectives. Step by step regression analysis showed that internal process (β=0.38) and learning and growth (β=0.28) were the best predictors of NGIC financial standing with learning and growth contributing the most to NIGC financial position. T-test on two independent groups showed that managers viewed NIGC more balanced in terms of internal process and learning and growth perspectives compared to employee's views. Metropolitan employees believed that NIGC was less balanced in learning and growth perspective when compared to employee believes in other cities. Employees perceived higher customer satisfaction compare to the level of satisfaction expressed by NIGC customers. Therefore, employees' perception of customer satisfaction was higher than real customer satisfaction. In conclusion, NIGC performance is balanced and satisfactory in all perspectives. To increase the balance, NIGC should concentrate on customer satisfaction and learning and growth together with employee satisfaction to improve non-financial perspectives which in turn shall increase NGIC financial standing.

[Fakhrossadat Hashemian. Implementation of Strategy in National Iranian Gas Company using (BSC) Approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):739-752]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 112

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.112

 

Keywords: Performance evaluation, Balanced Scorecard, Strategy, National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC)

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Effect of Discharge Planning On Knowledge and Self-Efficacy of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

 

Soheir Tawfik Ahmed, Hanan Sobeih Sobeih and Neamatalla Gomaa Ahamed

 

Medical Surgical Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt.

Soheir2010@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis patients with strong self-efficacy influences their capacity to manage in their every day lives. Furthermore it has been found to reduce the number of visits to health care professionals and results in lowering the overall health care costs for both patient and the health care system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of discharge planning on knowledge and self-efficacy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The research hypotheses were that post implementation of the discharge planning the patients' knowledge and self-efficacy scores will be higher than their pre-implementation scores in the immediate post and follow-up tests and there is a positive correlation between level of patients' knowledge and self-efficacy. Design: a quasi-experimental research design was used. Setting: the study was conducted in the inpatient department and outpatient clinic of rheumatoid arthritis, affiliated to Ain-shams university hospital. The study was carried out a purposive sample of rheumatoid arthritis adult patient (70) from both gender. Tools: three tools were used for data collection. 1-Patient's Characteristics Form. 2- Patient Knowledge Questionnaire (PKQ). 3-Arthritis Self-Efficacy questionnaire. Results: there were statistically significant improvement of patients' knowledge and self-efficacy after implementation of the discharge planning. There was no relation between level of patients' knowledge and their self-efficacy after implement discharge planning. The study concludes that, at completion of the structure discharge planning, both knowledge and self-efficacy were significantly improved and this was maintained at follow-up. However, there were no correlate between RA patients' self-efficacy and their knowledge (r= 0.076). Therefore, this discharge planning should become an integrated part of the total nursing management of rheumatoid arthritis. Long- term effects of following discharge-planning educational intervention need to be further studied.

[Soheir Tawfik Ahmed, Hanan Sobeih Sobeih and Neamatalla Gomaa Ahamed. Effect of Discharge Planning On Knowledge and Self-Efficacy of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):753-762]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 113

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.113

 

Key word: rheumatoid arthritis, self-efficacy, complains, discharge planning.

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The Effect of Periodic Educational Skills on the Level of Satisfaction of Educational Managers

 

Fakhrossadat Hashemian

 

The Master of Educational Management of Allameh Tabataba'i,s University

fa_hashemian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Increased research in teacher thinking, together with, increased attention to theories proposed on teacher actions during last two decades have led to the proposed "thoughtful agent" as a new idea in teacher training. An outcome of this idea has been the use of such other phrases like "action research", "thoughtful teaching", "think about action", and "teacher as researcher". These changes have resulted into research approaches taking a dominating rule in teacher training all over the world. Action research has been successfully applied in research activities and curriculum planning in teacher education. Action research has been progressively instrumental in introducing higher quality and improved effectiveness in teacher training activities because of its special properties and advantages. Teacher training programs can be designed with the emphasis on action research in preparatory and on-the-job training programs to encourage thoughtful actions among teachers.

 

[Fakhrossadat Hashemian. The Effect of Periodic Educational Skills on the Level of Satisfaction of Educational Managers. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):763-765]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 114

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.114

 

Keywords: Action reasech, Teacher Training, Toughtful teaching, Emphasis, Instrumental.

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115

 

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Much like strategies to curb epidemic, strategies to reduce illiteracy and raise the educational attainment of Kentucky’s population must include both short-term efforts to face the immediate crises as well as long-term strategies to get at the underlying causes. Short-term crises include the imperative to keep helping welfare clients make the transition from welfare to work within the constraints of federal and state mandates and the need to train workers for immediate employer demands. Long-term prevention must address the underlying, persistent problems of the state’s economic structure as well as the low awareness--if not appreciation--among segments of the population of the vital connection among education, employment, and improved standards of living.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani. Efficiency of Adult Education. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):766-771]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 115

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.115

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning.

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The Effect of Patellar Taping on Knee Kinematics during Stair Ambulation in Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain

 

Abdelhamid Akram F

 

Department of Orthopedic Physical Therapy, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University

drbakram4@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a prevalent condition in young people. While it is widely believed that abnormal patellar tracking plays a role in the development of Patellofemoral pain syndrome. Recently, taping techniques with the primary purpose of altering muscle activity have become a part of clinical physiotherapy practice. A firmly applied tape across the fibers of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscles has been proposed to decrease the vastus lateralis muscle activity. Methods and measure: Ten subjects with a diagnosis of Patellofemoral pain were studied (five men and five women). The subjects' mean age, height and mass were 36.5 ± 11.1 years, 173.1 ± 10.3cm, and 70.9 ±13.3 kg, respectively. Lower extremity kinematics, Visual analog scale (VAS) and ground reaction force were obtained simultaneously while subjects ascend and descend stairs, under taped and untapped conditions. ANOVAs for repeated measures were used. Results: On the average, a 92% reduction in pain was observed following the application of tape. Increase in cadence and knee flexion angle were observed under the taped condition for both stair ascent and descent in comparison with the control group.

 [Abdelhamid Akram F. The Effect of Patellar Taping on Knee Kinematics during Stair Ambulation in Individuals with Patellofemoral Pain. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):772-776]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 116

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.116

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Epidemiology of Birth Defects in Women's Health University Center Assiut –Egypt: An Observational Cross- Sectional Study

 

Hazem S.E.M.1, Hassan S.K.1, Alaa Eldeen M.I. 1 and Rami M.B2

 

1Department of OB/Gyn Women's Health University Center, Assiut University,

2Department of OB/Gyn, Al Iman general Hospital – Assiut – Egypt

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the descriptive epidemiology of birth defects in Women's Health University Center – as a unique tertiary hospital in upper Egypt to estimate the real impact of this problem on Assiut governorate. The design was observational cross- sectional study. The study was performed at the antenatal clinic of obstetrics and the labour room from September 15th 2009,On 8696 cases, including 123 babies with congenital malformations, making a frequency of 14/1000 deliveries. No previous chromosomal study was performed to any women scheduled for this study. The commonest congenital malformations were neural tube defects especially hydrocephalus (55.3% of cases) the second commonest was multifoetal abnormalities (44.7 % of cases). Antenatal diagnosis of these anomalies was made by antenatal ultrasonography in 84.4% of cases while 16.6% cases were diagnosed postnatally. In the light of the previous data we concluded our recommendations to overcome the birth defects problem in upper Egypt by trying more advance in basic reproductive health care services, educating couples about avoidable risks of such defects and discouraging reproduction after the age of 35 and introducing more advance and availability of genetic services.

[Hazem S.E.M., Hassan S.K., Alaa Eldeen M.I. and Rami M.B. Epidemiology of Birth Defects in Women's Health University Center Assiut –Egypt: An Observational Cross- Sectional Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):777-781]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 117

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.117

 

Keyword: Birth defects – Antenatal care.

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Evaluation of Neonatal Resuscitation Technique in Benha University Hospital

 

Elshazly A1, Abdelazim M1, Rizk A2 and Moussad M.3

 

1Pediatrics& 2Obstitric Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3Pediatric Department Ministry of Health

Meeroo.Moussad@Yahoo.Com

 

Abstract: Background: Neonatal resuscitation skills are essential for all health care providers who are involved in the delivery of newborns. The transition from fetus to newborn requires intervention by a skilled individual or team in approximately 10% of all deliveries. Objective: Evaluation of neonatal resuscitation measures in Obstetric Department Benha University Hospital. Methods: It is an observational study as we watch the resuscitation of 100 cases of newly born infants at delivery room in Benha University Hospital from June 2010 through December 2010 without informing any member of obstetric or neonatal resuscitation team, comparing this with Mega code assessment chick list for year 2005. Results: There is a significant difference between practice of neonatal team and other health care givers (Anesthesiologists, house officers, nurses of Obstetric Department). Other health care givers were not skilled or trained on basic neonatal resuscitation techniques or familiar with available equipments, and trained persons like anesthesiologists had unsuitable equipments for dealing with neonates. Conclusions: the study indicates that the all medical staff on the delivery room (neonatologists, nurses, midwives, pediatricians, obstetricians, anesthesiologists and general practitioners) must be trained on NRP program which is an effective and practical tool that provides skill-based and evaluation-based instructions. Periodic Re-evaluation of the trained persons is essential to maintain the level of practice & keeping them updated.

[Elshazly A E, Abdelazim M, Rizk A and Moussad M. Evaluation of Neonatal Resuscitation Technique in Benha University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):782-785]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 118

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.118

 

Key words: Evaluation, Neonatal resuscitation, Technique, Health care providers, Training, Skills

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Analyzing the Effects of Information Technology Flexibility on Business Process Agility and Business Process Outcomes

Case Study: Azaran industrial company

 

Sayyed Mohsen Allameh *, Mohammad Mahdi Abrishamkar **, Rayehe Bahrami *, Sajad Jafari * (Corresponding author)

 

* Department of Management, The University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

** The University of Essex, England.

E-Mails: dr_allameh@yahoo.com, mahdiabrishamkar@yahoo.com, rayehe.bahrami@yahoo.com, drjafari2020@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Change is a quality of many organizations in today’s competitive and unstable environment. They need to change in order to survive and compete. Organizations need to be agile if they want to seize the opportunities they have. In this research we analyze the effects of information technology flexibility on business process agility and business process outcomes in Azaran industrial company. This research is a correlational one. The statistical population for this research includes managers and employees at Azaran industrial company. The company has a total of 250 employees from which 141 were chosen at random to answer survey questions. A survey was designed to be both valid and reliable. To determine the reliability of the survey, 50 questionnaires were distributed among the participants and Cronbach'salpha was calculated for the variables. The results suggest that information technology flexibility has a significant positive effect on business process agility but there is no meaningful relationship between business process agility and business process outcomes. Information technology flexibility has a correlation coefficient of 0.42, thus showing a meaningful relationship with process agility. Process agility has a correlation coefficient of 0.06 with the quality of process outcomes and 0.13 with efficiency.

[Sayyed Mohsen Allameh, Mohammad Mahdi Abrishamkar, Rayehe Bahrami, Sajad Jafari. Analyzing the Effects of Information Technology Flexibility on Business Process Agility and Business Process Outcomes. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):786-793]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 119

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.119

 

Keywords: Information Technology, Agility, Process, Flexibility

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Diagnostic Utility of Thoracoscopy & Mesothelin in Malignant Mesothelioma

 

Rana El-Helbawy 1; Nesreen El-Helbawy 2; Safaa Tayel2 and Ehab Shaltot 3

 

1Chest, 2Medical Biochemistry and 3Clinical Oncology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Minoufiya University, Egypt

ranaelhelbawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive malignant tumor of mesothelial origin triggered by asbestos exposure. Mesothelin is a tumour differentiation antigen that is normally present on the mesothelial cells lining the pleura. Mesothelin is an epithelial marker highly expressed by cancer cells from diverse origins, including ovarian or pancreatic adenocarcinomas, and mesotheliomas. Early detection of mesothelioma can greatly improve the chances of survival. Objective Evaluating the utility of mesothelin quantification in serum or pleural fluid as useful adjunction to thoracoscopy in diagnosis of MPM and its additional value over pleural fluid cytology. Methods This study was carried out on 44 adult patients (24 males and 20 females) with exudative pleural effusion divided into three groups; malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) (n=16), pleural metastases of carcinomas (Mets) (n=13), and non malignant pleural effusions (n=15). Mesothelin levels were measured in serum & pleural fluid by enzyme- linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results Diagnosis was confirmed by analysis of pleural fluid in 10 out of 44 patients (22.7%), by needle biopsy in 12 out of 34 patients (35.3%), while thoracoscopy had a diagnostic yield of 90.3%. Patients with MPM had significantly higher pleural effusion mesothelin level (107.01±44.16 ng/ml) than those with metastatic effusion of carcinoma (34.88±30.88 ng/ml) or non malignant pleural effusion (38.08±18.99 ng/ml). Serum mesothelin showed similar trends. Pleural fluid & serum mesothelin levels positively correlate in patients with MPM. The optimal discrimination of patients with MPM from non neoplastic group could be performed at a cut-off point of pleural fluid mesothelin 51.95 ng/ml with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%) and at a cut-off point of serum mesothelin 49.4 ng/ml with AUC of 0.98 and the same (sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%).Pleural & serum mesothelin had an accuracy of 97% in distinguishing between MPM and effusion of non neoplastic origin. Conclusions The pleural mesothelin is useful adjunction to thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of MPM and correlates with serum mesothelin in cases of MPM. Mesothelin can distinguish between MPM and benign pleural effusion. Pleural fluid mesothelin has better diagnostic accuracy than the serum mesothelin in cases of MPM and Mets.

[Rana El-Helbawy; Nesreen El-Helbawy; Safaa Tayel and Ehab Shaltot. Diagnostic Utility of Thoracoscopy & Mesothelin in Malignant Mesothelioma. Journal of American Science 2012; 8(8):794 -803]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 120

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.120

 

Key words: Pleural effusion, malignant pleural mesothelioma, Mesothelin, SMRP, thoracoscope

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Applying the Transtheoretical Model of Change and the Health Belief Model to Breast Self-Examination in Females Undergraduate Students in Faculty of Nursing Tanta University

 

Entisar Abo Elghite Elhossiny Elkazeh1 and Om Ebrahiem A.E.Elsaay2

 

1Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

2Medical – Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

dr.entisaraboelghite@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and it can be detected at an early stage through breast self-examination. Screening for early detection and diagnosis of diseases and health conditions is an important public health principle. The aim of this study was to apply the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TMC) to breast self-examination behavior in females undergraduate students to help in identifying their stage of readiness to perform BSE. This study also examined the relationship between stage adoption and Health Belief Model variables. The study is a descriptive correlative study. The sample was approximately 642 female students, their ages 18-24 years, those females enrolled in third and fourth year in Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University. Tools of the study included three parts; (1) Sociodemographic demographic characteristics of females students and basic clinical data. (2) Transtheoritical model of change items, this part consists of seven questions (3) Health Belief Model items, This part consists of 42- questions. The mean age of the females was ± SD 19.977±0.652 years (range was 18 to 24 years). (33.96%) reported that they were in preparation stage. As regarding to the HBM variables, (55.30%) of the females had poor score for perceive susceptibility to the breast cancer, (75.86%) had poor score for perceive severity, (43.46%) of them had good score for perceive benefits, and (55.76%) of them had poor score for perceive barriers, (83.49%) of them had poor score for perceive cues of action and (52.34%) of them had good score for perceive self efficacy. There was statistically significant relation between TMC Stages and student's mother who perform BSE monthly and also with female who performed BSE. Further research should include a population of non-college women to ascertain their stage readiness of BSE performance and determine if there are any differences between women enrolled in college and those who are not enrolled.

[Entisar A. Elhossiny and Om Ebrahiem A.E.Elsaay. Applying the Transtheoretical Model of Change and the Health Belief Model to Breast Self-Examination in Females Undergraduate Students in Faculty of Nursing Tanta University. J Am Sci 2012;8(8): 804-814]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 121

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.121

 

Keywords: Transtheoretical Model, the Health Belief Model Breast Self-Examination, Students

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One-Pot Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones Catalyzed by Ceric (IV) Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) under Solvent Free Conditions

 

Eman A. Ahmed*, Mounir A. A. Mohamed and Ahmed M. M. El-Saghier

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt

abdala_15@yahoo.com; mounir_abbas@yahoo.com; el_saghier@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Abstract: An efficient one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones or thiones is described using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as a catalyst in the reaction of an aromatic aldehyde, β-ketoester and urea or thiourea under solvent free conditions in terms of excellent yields and very short reaction time.

[Eman A. Ahmed, Mounir A. A. Mohamed and Ahmed M. M. El-Saghier. One-Pot Synthesis of Dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones Catalyzed by Ceric (IV) Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) under Solvent Free Conditions. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):815-818]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 122

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.122

 

Keywords: Biginelli reaction, 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones, solvent free conditions, ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN).

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Incidence of Genotypic Resistance to Lamivudine Long Term Therapy in Egyptian patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

 

Naglaa Allam1, Warda Osman1, Mona Hassouna2, Anne Abdel-moneim2, Ayat Abdallah3, Imam Waked1 

 

1Department of Hepatology, National Liver Institute, 2 Clinical Pathology Department, National Liver Institute, 3Environmental Health of the Liver Department, National Liver Institute

naglaaallam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Lamivudine improves patients' outcome but is reported to be associated with increasing rates of viral resistance. The long-term benefit of lamivudine therapy and resistance rate in HBeAg negative genotype D patients is not fully known. This study aimed to determine the incidence of genotypic resistance to lamivudine therapy in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: This follow up study included 50 Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis B who had received lamivudine 100mg daily for at least 12 months (7 females, age 32±8years). Patients were followed up for a mean period of 25±10 months. Investigations included: liver profile, hepatitis B serology and HCV Abs by ELISA, and HBV DNA by PCR. INNO-LiPA was performed in selected cases. Results: HBV-DNA decreased to <2000 IU/ml in 20 patients (40%), and HBV-DNA became undetectable in 30 (60 %) during the first year of treatment. The rate of relapse with either HBV-DNA reverting to positive or increasing to >2000 IU/ml after initial response was 16 patients during the second year, 3 during the third, 1 during the fourth year of follow up. Breakthrough was observed in 75% of the HBeAg positive group and only 33.3% of the HBeAg negative group. INNO-LiPA was performed for the 20 patients with relapse. Wild type was found in 14 patients; mixed type in 4 and mutant in two patients. Hence mutations were detected in 30% of the tested lamivudine-treated cases. YMDD was detected in 15%. Mean viral load was 7416.00±9232.24 IU/ml compared to 21 900 333IU/ml in the patients with the mutants. Conclusion: Long-term lamivudine therapy is associated with a high response rate with a rather low breakthrough rate in HBeAg negative patients and a low incidence of YMDD mutation.

[Naglaa Allam, Warda Osman, Mona Hassouna, Anne Abdel-moneim, Ayat Abdallah, Imam Waked. Incidence of Genotypic Resistance to Lamivudine Long Term Therapy in Egyptian patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):819-825]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 123

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.123

 

Keywords: Chronic Hepatitis B, Lamivudine, genotypic resistance.

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Effect of Teaching Program for Patients with Leukemia on Their Self-care

 

Jehan S. Ali Sayyed1 and Ahmed G. Mohamed Eissawy2

 

1Adult Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing El - Minia University

2Hematology Department, Faculty of Medicine, El - Minia University

jehan_sayyed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Leukemia is a life-threatening illness that significantly affects a patient's physiological, psychological, and social well-being. The main objective; of this study was to evaluate the effect of the educational program for patients with leukemia on their self-care. The research hypothesis; educational program will affect positively on self-care for patients with leukemia. The Methods: The study was conducted in the Institute of Oncology in Minia Governorate. Aquasi-experimental research design was utilized in this study on 37 adult patients their age between 18-55 years old, from both sexes with acute or chronic leukaemia. Four tools were used to collect the data in this study, tool one: Interview questionnaire sheet were included biosocial demographic data and knowledge assessment sheet tool two: Observational checklist tools three: Self-care questionnaire. Tool four: Teaching program sheet. The Results of the study documented that there were a significant improvement in patients knowledge and practices (p<0.00 of most items) after implementation of educational program. In conclusion, education of patients is necessary to achieve an optimum level of functioning. Replication of this study on larger probability sample is highly recommended.

[Jehan S. Ali Sayyed and Ahmed G. Mohamed Eissawy. Effect of Teaching Program for Patients with Leukemia on Their Self-care. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):826-836]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 124

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.124

 

Key words: Leukemia, Self-care, Educational program

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Effect of Nursing Intervention on Patient's Breathing with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Using Prone Position versus Semi Recumbent Position

 

Hanan Sobeih Sobeih1, Neamatallah Goma Ahmad1, Soheir Tawfek Ahmad 1 and Gehan Mohamed El-Asaal2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing- Ain Shams University

2 Chest Diseases Dept - Faculty of Medicine-Ain Shams University

Soheir2010@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: An integral part of treatment, for patient with chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD), involves recommending optimal patient positioning for activity and rest to relieve shortness of breath and dyspnea. Aim: To evaluate the effect of nursing intervention on patient's breathing with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by using prone position versus semi recumbent position. Design: A quasi experimental design was used in carrying out this study. Setting: This study was conducted in chest units and pulmonary function research unit affiliated to Ain Shams University Hospital, Sample: A purposive sample included all adult patients (45) in from both sexes having three stages of COPD and 12 nurses working with COPD patients. Tools: Two tools as regards studied patients 1- Interview questionnaire sheet (a)- Patient's demographic data, (b)- COPD questionnaire to assess level of COPD (mild, moderate or sever) (c)- Patient's complaint sheet to assess patient complaint in two positions, and d)Patient's assessment sheet. 2- Laboratory value sheet: It was used in two stages (a) In baseline position to assess level of COPD combined with patient assessment by measuring FEv1% (pulmonary function) (b) During prone position and semi recumbent position measuring FEv1% and arterial blood gases in the three stages of disease for seven days. Two tools of studied nurses: First tool- Nurse's questionnaire sheet divided into (a) Nurse's characteristics (b) Nurses' knowledge and Second tool: Prone position observation checklist to evaluate the level of nurse's' performance Results: More than half of the studied patient were included in mild stage of COPD, but more than one fifth of them represented equally moderate, sever stages of disease according to Clinical COPD questionnaire and results of pulmonary function (FEv1%). There were statistically insignificant differences between prone position and baseline position as regards pulmonary function in moderate and sever stages of disease along the seven days, while there were statistically significant differences in mild stage of disease. There were statistically significant differences between two positions as regards arterial blood gases in the three stages of disease after seven days of prone position. There were a positive percentage change between two positions as regards patient's complaints in mild and moderate stages of disease except for sever stage. Patient's assessment by results indicated that there was a percentages change as regards their patient condition between two positions at the end of seventh day of prone position. Conclusion and recommendations: The result of the present study answered the researcher's hypotheses since the nursing intervention had statistically significant improvement in nurses' knowledge and performance and the prone position had statistically significant improvement in patient's breathing than baseline position. Patient's respiratory complaints were decreased percentage change in prone position versus in baseline patient's position. Continuous nursing instruction for the purpose of updating the knowledge and performance of nurses will help them in working with COPD.

[Hanan Sobeih Sobeih, Neamatallah Goma Ahmad, Soheir Tawfek Ahmad and Gehan Mohamed El-Asaal. Effect of Nursing Intervention on Patient's Breathing with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Using Prone Position versus Semi Recumbent Position. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):837-847]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 125

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.125

 

Keyword: Breathing with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

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The effect of tomato pomace on carcass traits, blood metabolites and fleece characteristic of growing Markhoz goat

 

Farzad Abdullahzadeh

 

Islamic Azad University, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran

Rahim.abdulkarimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twenty four male Markhoz kid goats were used in completely randomized design to study the effect of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on the carcass traits, blood metabolites and fleece characteristic. Markhoz goats (BW = 18.6 ± 0.7 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments and were fed with different levels of DTP (10, 20 and 30% DTP) for 94 days. The first group was fed a basal diet without DTP and considered as control, while the other three groups fed the basal diet after substituting part of the diet with DTP at 10, 20 and 30%, respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) difference between different experimental groups in carcass fat and carcass protein, while no significant differences for empty (digesta-free) BW, hot carcass, dressing percentage and carcass length among treatments were observed. There was no significant difference in the glucose, total protein, urea, and cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of goat's blood metabolites. The inclusion of DTP in Markhoz goats' diet was associated with a higher (P<0.05) greasy fiber, fiber diameter and Barbe length than control diet. It could be concluded that DTP can be utilized efficiently and safely in the diets of Markhoz male kid goats up to level of 20% without any adverse effect on the carcass traits, blood metabolites and fleece characteristic.

[Farzad Abdullahzadeh. The effect of tomato pomace on carcass traits, blood metabolites and fleece characteristic of growing Markhoz goat. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):848-852]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 126

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.126

 

Key words: Dried tomato pomace, Carcass characteristic, Blood metabolites.

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THE IMPLICATE OF IRRATIONAL BELIEFS IN DEPRESSION AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN

 

1 Maryam Mousavi nik*; 2 Dr. Basavarajappa

 

1 Research Scholar in Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-06, Karnataka -India; 2 Professor and DOS in Department of Psychology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri. Mysore-06,Karnataka- India; *Corresponding author email: mmoosavinik@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Irrational beliefs play a central role in cognitive theory and therapy; they have been shown to be related to a variety of disorders such as depression. Dysfunctional negative feelings (e.g., anger, depressed mood, anxiety, guilt) are more intense and related to irrational beliefs. The present study aimed at evaluating the implication of irrational beliefs in depression among infertile women. A purposive sample of 50 primary infertile women (Diagnosed by the concerned hospital specialist) selected from Mediwave IVF & Fertility Research Hospital in Mysore-India, and their spouse interviewed individually with a request to cooperate in the research. 40 infertile women were selected randomly. All subjects were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and The Shortened General Attitude and Belief Scale (SGABS). Results showed a irrational beliefs has significant correlation with depressive symptoms also The result of the linear regression model to determine the predictors of Irrational Beliefs showed that 84.1% of the variation observed in the irrational beliefs can be explained by these five variables (History of IVF, Cause of Infertility, Duration of try to pregnancy, Financial support and Duration of infertility treatment) and these are significantly correlated with irrational beliefs And can predict the irrational beliefs levels of the infertile women. The Results suggested to apply counseling and psychotherapy services in the infertility centers to reduce the psychological pressures on couples facing infertility to help them to enhance fertility chances.

[Maryam Mousavi nik; Basavarajappa. THE IMPLICATE OF IRRATIONAL BELIEFS IN DEPRESSION AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):853-857]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 127

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.127

 

Keywords: Irrational Beliefs, Depression, Infertile Women

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Effect of Nutritional Educational Program among overweight/obese female students at Benha University

 

Howyida, s. Abd el Hameed1; Soad A. El Salam2; Heba, A. Aly 3 and Abeer, Y. Mahdy3

 

1Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty Nursing, Benha University

2Department of Obstetric &Gynecological Nursing Faculty of Nursing, Benha University

3Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Benha University

Elmokhtar.Mohamed@yahoo.comsoad_abdelsalam@yahoo.com, Serag_7000@yahoo.com, polica_14@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nutritional educational program on knowledge, attitude and knowledge related practice among overweight/obese female students at Benha University reflecting on their quality of life (QoL). Aquasi experimental design was utilized in this study. A total of 143 overweight/obese female students were selected by systematic random sample for the intervention and control groups. The study was conducted at Benha University. Two tools were used: 1) An interviewing questionnaire to assess knowledge, attitude and knowledge related practice. 2) An observational checklist for observing female student body mass index, Pre/post test which was calculated according to WHO, (2000) classification The study results revealed that overall female student's knowledge for post-test was significantly higher than pre-test (P-value ≤ 0.05). Statistically Significant differences between pre post- intervention were detected for participants quality of life domains (p-value ≤ 0.001). The study concluded that the nutritional educational program had positive effects on improving knowledge, practice and attitude of overweight/obesity Benha University female students, as well as their quality of life mean scores. The study finding recommended that guideline manual should be available for university female student to help them identify risk of obesity and correct misconceptions and bad feeding behaviors which lead to obesity. Health education about balanced diet should be conducted to all university students. More research should be done concerning nutrition, especially in adolescence stage.

[Howyida, s. Abd el Hameed; Soad A. El Salam; Heba, A. Aly and Abeer, Y. Mahdy. Effect of Nutritional Educational Program among overweight/obese female studentsat Benha University. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):858-868]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 128

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.128

 

Key words: nutritional educational program, quality of life, overweight, obesity.

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EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 

Hassan Danial Aslam1, Muhammad Salman Azhar2, Kausar Yasmeen 3, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan 4, Muhammad Badar Habib5, Asif Tanveer6

 

Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan1, 2, 4, 6

Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan3

Department of Physical Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan5

E-mail: Hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

ABSTRACT: Globalization is a widely spoken terminology since last decade in the developed countries as well as the developing and developed countries. Being human beings, it is our main purpose to develop a beneficial environment for all human beings and living things upon earth. But, unfortunately the lust for wealth, power, superiority and dominance has overcome the sense of cooperation and humanism, and made nations adopt brutal and barbarian steps to achieve their mal-intentions. The two world wars in the 19th century were the reasons of this lust for power and superiority. However, after 1950s the worlds’ notion changed rapidly to bring peace, harmony, integrity and consolidation in the world. Globalization is the mechanism of bringing world closer and benefiting one another through indigenous resources and manpower. However, statistics and critics are of the view that the step of globalization is making developed and strong countries stronger and weaker nations weaker. There are no doubts in admitting the fact that no matter strong nations are facilitating the weaker nations financially, but they are earning many times more in shape of trades and exports to those developing countries. Due to this reason opponents of globalization hold serious reservations of giving exemptions to the strong countries in terms of duty free exports and other benefits they take in regard of globalization agenda. The present study attempts to discuss the viewpoints of the supporters and opponents of globalization, and to realize its impacts on the economy of developing countries.

[Hassan Danial Aslam, Muhammad Salman Azhar, Kausar Yasmeen, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Badar Habib, Asif Tanveer. EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):869-874]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 129

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.129

 

Keywords: Developing Countries, Globalization, Developing Economies

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Explore ways to develop tourism industry in Kermanshah

(Approaching to marketing and prioritizing based on AHP model)

 

Mohammadhadi vaysi; Mahvash moazinezhad

 

Department of management, Sahneh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sahneh, Iran

mohamadvaysi@gmx.com

 

Abstract: The Research examines the ways to develop tourism in Kermanshah province. This research explores the ways of developing tourism industry in Kermanshah Province according to their relationship with industry from perspectives of the experts and practitioners approaching to marketing prioritizing them based on the AHP model in the year of 2004. The research is applied research in the sense of purpose and descriptive in the sense of methodology. Information used in this research is gathered by field and library investigation. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and adjustment or analysis of the AHP model was used and independence by X2 (X-squire) was applied to test the research questions. The relationship between second question namely the local and geographical position of tourism attraction in the province and it development will be rejected due to inappropriateness. On the other hand, since the tourism is taken account into luxury products and the end tendency toward its application is high, so the relationship between low price and tourism development will be rejected.

 [Mohammadhadi vaysi; Mahvash moazinezhad. Explore ways to develop tourism industry in Kermanshah. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):875-881]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 130

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.130

 

Keywords: tourism industry, Kermanshah, marketing, AHP model

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Influence of light - Curing Mechanism on Microshear Bond Strength of Different Adhesives

 

A. ABO EL NAGA1,A. HAFEZ2, H. EL-SHENAWY3 and M.ELEWA4

 

1Assistant Prof. Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

2Researcher in orodental research division National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Associate Prof. Dental Biomaterial, Faculty of dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

4Associate Prof. Periodontology Faculty of dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the microshear bond strength of two novel adhesives with their corresponding restoratives when cured with conventional halogen, plasma arc and argon laser curing units. Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 18 human molars were ground to obtain a flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into 2 groups (n=9) according to the adhesive used [Adper Prompt L-Pop Self-Etch Adhesive (AP) with Filtek Supreme Ultra, 3M/ ESPE, and Ketak N100 nano-ionomer primer (KN) with Ketak N100 light-curing nano-ionomer restorative, 3M/ESPE]. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups (n=3) according to the curing methods used to polymerize both the adhesive system and the resin composite: 1) Cured with a halogen light curing unit (PRO-DEN systems, USA); 2) Cured with a plasma arc unit (Apollo 95E, Calif., USA) and 3) Cured with argon laser. After curing each adhesive, the restorative material corresponding to each adhesive [AP with Filtek Supreme Ultra, 3M/ESPE, and KN with Ketak N100 light-curing nano-ionomer restorative, 3M/ESPE] was used for composite cylinder build-up (0.9 mm diameter x 0.5 mm height). Three composite cylinders were constructed on each treated surface (n=9). A Lloyd universal testing machine was used to test microshear bond strength at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P≤0.05). Results: The mean microshear bond strength of KN (30.3 MPa) showed a statistically significantly higher value than AP (22.47 MPa). The argon laser curing subgroup (26.3 MPa) showed the highest mean microshear bond strength values. There was no statistically significant difference in the microshear bond strength values between the halogen light (23.77 MPa) and plasma arc (24.55 MPa) specimens. Conclusion: The novel nano-ionomer offered better microshear bond strength, whereas the argon laser provided better microshear bond strength.

[A. ABO EL NAGA, A. HAFEZ, H. EL-SHENAWY and M.ELEWA. Influence of light - Curing Mechanism on Microshear Bond Strength of Different Adhesives. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):882-887]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 131

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.131

 

Key words: Microshear Bond strength, nano-ionomer, restorative materials.

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Cardiotoxic Effect of Chlorpromazine in Adult Male Albino Rats and the Possible Curcumin Cardioprotection (Histological, Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study)

 

Manar A. Bashandy1, Safaa A. Amin2 and Hanan Seleem3

 

1Anatomy, 2Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology & 3Histology Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

maalbash@yahoo.com sfamin2007@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Introduction: Chlorpromazine is a centrally acting phenothiazine antipsychotic drug used for the management of psychoses, including schizophrenia, and in the control of severely disturbed or agitated behavior. Several studies reported variable effect of chlorpromazine on myocardial muscle. Aim of the work: This study aimed to determine the possible protective effect of curcumin on: chlorpromazine induced histopathological changes in rat heart model. Material and Methods: Twenty–eight adult male Albino rats were subjected to experiment for 14 days as follows: Control groups were divided into: group I, Rats in this group were injected intraperitoneally with the same volume of vehicle (normal saline) and group II, were received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.wt./day) orally daily. Group III, was injected intraperitoneally with daily dose (10 mg/kg b.wt) of chlorpromazine. Group IV received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.wt./day) orally daily half an hour before intraperitoneal injection of chlorpromazine. Heart tissue were excised for histological, histochemical and, immunohistochemical studies. Results: Histologically and histochemically, myocardial muscles of chlorpromazine treated rats showed pathological changes in the form of some degenerated fragmented muscle fibers with vacuoles. In other areas, wide separation of muscle fibers with areas of myocytolysis can be seen. Some cadioymyocytes nuclei are small and pyknotic and others are fading out. The blood vessels appeared congested with infiltration in between myocardial muscle fibers. There was weak PAS reaction in the degenerated muscle fibers and moderate reaction in other cells. There was increased deposition of collagen fibers in between cardiac muscle and around blood vessels as shown by Masson trichrome stain. Immunohistochemically, in chloropromazine treated group showed negative immunoreactivity for E cadherin in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. On the other hand, histological, histochemical and immunohistochmical examination of the prophylactic group displayed nearly normal appearance of most myocardial muscle fibers, but still some muscle fibers appeared widely separated with some vacuolations. Conclusion: Chlorpromazin causes myocardial damage in experimental rats. Curcumin could be used as protective agents against long term use of chlorpromazine to ameliorate damaging effects on myocardial muscles as it has positive contribution as a dietary supplement for the prevention of myocardial injury and heart disease.

[Manar A. Bashandy, Safaa A. Amin and Hanan Seleem. Cardiotoxic Effect of Chlororomazine in Adult Male Albino Rat and the Possible Curcumin Cardioprotection (Histological, Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Study). J Am Sci 2012;8(8):888-897]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 132

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.132

 

Keywords: Chlorpromazine, Myocardial muscle, Cardiomyopathy, Curcumin, Cardioprotection.

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Discussion about the Necessity of Institutionalizing Meritocracy MCDM Approach

 

Sheikh.Reza1, Mirzaei.Afshin2

 

1Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN,

resheikh@Shahroodut.ac.ir

2Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Shahrood University of Technology, SHAHROOD, IRAN, Mirzaei.Afshin@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Managers are the most important social capital for each society. They cannot play an effective role for their organization unless the optimal condition which is necessary for Meritocracy culture is provided by the society. In this research, 30 executives, 35 University management professors and 45 Employees participated. Participants are asked to choose the 14 most and least important factors in response to this question “What factors are essential for professional manager? “The participants presented their views about the absence of professional managers in the organizations. Finally these factors are prioritized using Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) technique and the Necessity of institutionalizing meritocracy is proved. Results indicate that the three most important factors are Instability rules, Lack of motivation, and Lack of meritocracy system and the net causer factor is no separation between political management and scientific management and the net receiver factor is Lack of acceptance by staff.

[Reza Sheikh, Afshin Mirzaei. Discussion about the Necessity of Institutionalizing Meritocracy MCDM Approach. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):898-903(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 133

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.133

 

Keywords: Meritocracy, DEMATEL technique, MCDM

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EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 

Hassan Danial Aslam1, Muhammad Salman Azhar2, Kausar Yasmeen 3, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan 4, Muhammad Badar Habib5, Asif Tanveer6

 

Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan1, 2, 4, 6

Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan3

Department of Physical Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan5

 (PAKISTAN). E-mail: Hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

ABSTRACT: Globalization is a widely spoken terminology since last decade in the developed countries as well as the developing and developed countries. Being human beings, it is our main purpose to develop a beneficial environment for all human beings and living things upon earth. But, unfortunately the lust for wealth, power, superiority and dominance has overcome the sense of cooperation and humanism, and made nations adopt brutal and barbarian steps to achieve their mal-intentions. The two world wars in the 19th century were the reasons of this lust for power and superiority. However, after 1950s the worlds’ notion changed rapidly to bring peace, harmony, integrity and consolidation in the world. Globalization is the mechanism of bringing world closer and benefiting one another through indigenous resources and manpower. However, statistics and critics are of the view that the step of globalization is making developed and strong countries stronger and weaker nations weaker. There are no doubts in admitting the fact that no matter strong nations are facilitating the weaker nations financially, but they are earning many times more in shape of trades and exports to those developing countries. Due to this reason opponents of globalization hold serious reservations of giving exemptions to the strong countries in terms of duty free exports and other benefits they take in regard of globalization agenda. The present study attempts to discuss the viewpoints of the supporters and opponents of globalization, and to realize its impacts on the economy of developing countries.

[Hassan Danial Aslam, Muhammad Salman Azhar, Kausar Yasmeen, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Badar Habib, Asif Tanveer. EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. J Am Sci 2012;8(8):904-909]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 134

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.134

 

Keywords: Developing Countries, Globalization, Developing Economies

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Optimizing traffic control signals in a signalized intersection using genetic algorithm – (the case of Iran)

 

Soheil Yektaparast Movafegh1, Hoda Pourghafar Maghferati2, Faranak Pishgar3

 

1 M.Sc Student, Department of Civil Engineering, South Tehran Branch Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, Iran.

2 Islamic Azad university,Fouman and Shaft branches,Fouman, Iran

3 Islamic Azad university,Fouman and Shaft branches,Fouman, Iran

E-mail: soheil_yektaparast@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper genetic algorithm is used to minimize the total user delay in a junction by controlling the signal timings. Both pedestrian and vehicular users are considered to be contributing to the total user delay. A model of the problem is explained for both scramble and two-way crossing patterns. The appropriate definition for chromosome is determined to code the information of pattern and timings of crossings. The explained model and optimization algorithm are implemented for determining the optimum timings and crossing pattern in an intersection in the city of Rasht in Iran as a case study. Given that the timing signal traffic at the intersection of the scramble crossing is not considered, recommended that a traffic signal phase timing for this intersection to be considered in order to minimize delays in moving pedestrians.

[Soheil Yektaparast Movafegh, Hoda Pourghafar Maghferati, Faranak Pishgar. Optimizing traffic control signals in a signalized intersection using genetic algorithm – (the case of Iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(8):910-915]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 135

doi:10.7537/marsjas080812.135

 

Keywords: traffic control, signalized intersection, two-way crossing, scramble crossing, genetic algorithms

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Hepatotoprotective Activity of Different Doses of Spirulina against Ccl4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats

 

EL-Sayeda, G. E. EL-Sahar and Abor, M. M. Abed EL- Rahman

 

Home Economics Dept., Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University.

 drsayedaghandour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Spirulina is a type of microscopic blue-green algae that is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids, antioxidants that can help protect cells from damage. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of different doses of Spirulina on lipids profile and liver and kidney functions in cirrhotic rats by carbon tetrachloride (Ccl4). Rats were divided into five groups; control groups (1&2) negative and positive were fed on basal diet without supplementation. All treated cirrhotic groups (3-5) were fed on experimental diets with Spirulina by different levels (0.25, 0.5 &1%). Results clearly revealed that the best treatment were Spirulina (1%) which had lowest values of total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, AST, ALT and had the highest values of HDL. While, all groups fed on basal diet with spirulina by different levels (0.25, 0.5 &1%) showed significantly decrease of serum total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol LDL, VLDL, AST, ALT and had significant increase of serum HDL, respectively. It could be concluded that Spirulina by different levels (0.25, 0.5 &1%) improve lipids profile and liver functions especially Spirulina by (1%) which has a best significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (Ccl4) in rats.

[EL-Sayeda, G. E. EL-Sahar and Abor, M. M. Abed EL- Rahman. Hepatotoprotective Activity of Different Doses of Spirulina against Ccl4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats] J Am Sci 2012;8(8