Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 6, Issue 10, Cumulated No. 31, October 1, 2010

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0610

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@americanscience.org or americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

page

 

1

Ultrastructure of the Midgut of the Early Third Larval Instar of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

 

1*Nancy Taha, 2Afaf Abdel-Meguid, 1Ahmed El-ebiarie and 1Amany.A.Tohamy

1. Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, 2. Department of Zoology and Entomology,Faculty of Science,Helwan University,Cairo, Egypt.

*nancyt0000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The midgut of third larval instar of Chrysomya megacephala was studied using transmission electron microscope. The epithelium is mostly formed of columnar cell. The cells are characterized by a striated border of microvilli, thick amorphous basal lamina and tightly packed channels of basal labyrinth. Well-developed peritrophic membrane was observed in the gut lumen to protect the mid-gut cells from possible damage by abrasive food particles.Numerous cell organelles were observed throughout the cell. The structure and function of secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of nutrients in the mid-gut epithelium of this fly were discussed. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.01

 

Key Words: Chrysomya megacephala, mid-gut, Ultrastructure, maggot

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2

Structure and Some Geometric Properties of Generalized Cesro Type Spaces Defined by Weighted Means

 

N. Faried, and A.A. Bakery

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

awad_bakery@yahoo.com

Abstract: In this paper, we extend the Class of Cesro sequence spaces, introduced by Khan and Rahman to a generalized Cesro type spaces defined by weighted means and of positive real number powers with . We define a modular functional on this generalized Cesro sequence space and show that it is a complete paranomed space, and when equipped with the Luxemburg norm is a Banach space, possessing H-property, is not rotund and therefore not locally uniformly rotund. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.02

 

Keywords: Generalized Cesro sequence space, H-property, R-property, Convex modular, paranorm, Luxemburg norm, locally uniformly rotund.

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3

Structure and Some Geometric Properties of Nakano Difference Sequence Space

 

N. Faried, and A.A. Bakery

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

awad_bakery@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we extend the class of sequence spaces of p-bounded variation introduced by Altay and Başar [Ukrainian Math.J.55(1)(2003),136-147]; whereto the space of all sequencessuch thatbelongs to the sequence space introduced by Nakano where is a sequence of positive numbers with ,we define a modular functional on this space and show that when equipped with the Luxemburg norm is a Banach space and locally uniformly rotund when"N, therefore possessing H-property and rotund. Finally we find Gurarii’s modulus of convexity for the space. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):13-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.03

 

Keywords: Gurarii’s modulus of convexity, H-property, R-property, convex modular, Luxemburg norm, locally uniformly rotund

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4

Structure and Some Geometric Properties of Generalized Cesro Difference Sequence Space Defined by Weighted Means

 

N. Faried, and A.A. Bakery

 

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

awad_bakery@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we define the sequence space to be consisting of all sequencesfor which belongs to the sequence spaceintroduced by Altay and Başar [7]. We also define a modular functional on this space and show that it is a complete paranomed space, and when equipped with the Luxemburg norm is a Banach space, possessing H-property, and it is locally uniformly rotund (LUR) when, for all N. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):19-24]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.04

 

Keywords: Generalized Cesro sequence space, H-property, R-property, Convex modular, paranorm, Luxemburg norm, locally uniformly

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5

The Difference Sequence Space Defined on Orlicz-Cesaro Function

 

N. Faried, and A.A. Bakery

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

awad_bakery@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The idea of difference sequence spaces was introduced by Kizmaz [4]. Recently, Subramanian [13] studied the difference sequence space defined on Orlicz function M. In this paper we introduce new sequence spaces that we call Orlicz-Cesaro difference sequence space and denote it by, the difference paranormed sequence space , and study some inclusion relations and completeness of this spaces. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):25-30]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.05

 

Keywords: Orlicz function, Orlicz-Cesaro space, paranorm, difference sequence

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6

Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Dairy Cows Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

 

Hamza Mohamed Ibrahim Eid

Department of Bacteriology, College of Veterinary Medicine.Suez Canal University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Salmonella is widely distributed in cattle in different countries and it is considered the most important related zoontic diseases today which have a public health and economic importance. A total of 298 faecal samples were collected from dairy cows and calves from suez canal area. All samples were subjected to bacteriological examination. Eighteen Salmonella strains were serologically identified using specific antisera. All Salmonella strains were examined using polymerase chain reaction DNA was extracted from Salmonella strains, Two oligonucleotide primers were used for detection of Salmonella invA gene. Thirty PCR cycles were performed with 56oC annealing temperature. PCR products were examined using Agarose gel electrophoresis 2% Agarose in TBE which revealed single 243 base pair amplified DNA fragment. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):31-37]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.06

 

Keywords: Detection; Salmonella; Dairy Cows; Polymerase Chain Reaction

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Salt Stress Enhancement of Antioxidant and Antiviral Efficiency of Spirulina platensis

 

Emad A. Shalaby1* and Sanaa M. M. Shanab2

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza,

Egypt, 12613. *dremad2009@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cultivation of Spirulina platensis under salt stress conditions (0.02 (control), 0.04 and 0.08 M NaCl) led to a remarkable alteration of algal metabolism as well as an enhancement or induction of biologically active compounds concerning algal growth, salt stress caused a decrease in dry weight, chlorophyll a content as well as certain xanthophylls (neoxanthin and violaxanthin) while β-carotene production was stimulated especially at higher salt concentrations. Biochemical analysis of salt stressed alga revealed that lipid content was slightly increased together with certain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids espcially the polyunsaturated ones (Gamma linolenic acid). Electrophoretic analysis of soluble protein pointed out that certain high molecular weight protein bands were not detected comparing with the protein marker. Five new protein bands of molecular weights 190, 158, 113, 77 and 28 kDa were recorded, in addition to an increase in the intensity of 6 already existing bands. Phosphate buffer and water extracts of the alga exhibited antiviral activities against both Hepatitis-A-virus-type-MBB (HAV-MBB strain, RNA virus) and Herpes simplex-virus-type-1 (HSV-1, DNA virus). Water extracts was found to be more effective than phosphate buffer extracts in inducing antiviral activities (98%) espicially against HSV-1 virus. The same water extract of the salt stressed alga demonstrated higher anticoagulating activity compared with those of heparin and the positive control measured by clotting time assay. Antioxidant activity of the algal successive extracts against 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) radical methods revealed moderate antioxidant activity of the non-polar algal extracts (petroleum ether) which were doubled with increasing extract concentration (55.0, 60.4 and 62.3, 66.8 g/ml at 0.02, 0.04 M NaCl respectively) the lowest activity was recorded by the partialy polar (ethyl acetate) algal extract of both concentrations at all salinity levels. While the polar extracts (ethanol and water) showed higher antioxidant activities which were doubled with increasing extract concentration. Ethanolic algal extract (of 100 g/ ml at 0.08 M NaCl) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared with those of the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxy anisol as standard (85.0, 89.9 and 86.0, 91.8% respectively). [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):38-51]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.07

 

Key words: Antioxidant-Antivirus -Biochemical studies- -Spirulina platensis- Salt stress

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8

A Prototype-based Approach to Meta-Modeling using SELF

 

1Syed Ahsan 2 Amjad Farooq, 3Abad Shah

 

1, 3 Al-Khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science

2 Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

ahsancs@hotmail.com

 

 Abstract: The activities of system modeling and system implementation have traditionally been viewed as two distinct entities owning to the purported differences between modeling languages and programming languages. We however feel that with raised abstractions of programming languages and executable capabilities of modeling languages, these differences are no more distinct. Based on this argument, in our opinion, SELF, as a prototype based programming language is sufficiently rich to form the basis of prototype-based meta-modeling approach. Existing meta-modeling approaches do not provide adequate meta-design patterns in order to be able to alleviate inherited methodological deficiencies of class-based methodologies. We feel that our proposed approach may prove to be a suitable candidate for adoption by various agile practices to model today’s complex and evolutionary systems. Also included is a comparison between class based and prototype based object modeling techniques to highlight the suitability of the later for modeling evolutionary domains. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):52-59]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.08

 

Keywords: Evolutionary System, Object modeling, Meta modeling, Prototype, SELF, Agile development, Software Engineering, Knowledge Sharing

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9

A Bernoulli Process Approximation for the Reverse Translation of Protein to DNA/mRNA

 

1Syed Ahsan, 2Amjad Farooq, 3Abad Shah

 

1,3 Al-khawarizmi Institute of Computer Science

2Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

ahsancs@hotmail.com

Abstract: In proteomics, to find the genomic localization of a gene, a protein may be interpreted back to its DNA/mRNA using the method of reverse translation. A particular amino acid may be translated into more than one codon as the uncertainties exist in the reverse translation of a protein. In this paper, we propose a Bernoulli process approximation based on the usage of frequency distribution for the reverse translation of an amino acid to its DNA/mRNA. A comparison of our proposed method with the existing conventional procedure that is based on random selection of codon, is also presented. Preliminary results of the proposed process are encouraging and it shows improved accuracy and consistency. [Journal of American Science 2010; 6(9):60-64]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.09

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Proteomics, Reverse Translation of mRNA, genetic code, Bernoulli process, Frequency distribution, Binomial probability

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10

Application of 3D Numerical Simulation of Sand Drain Element to Soft Soil of Guangzhou-Zhujiang Highway, China

 

Waheed Oyelola Balogun1, Zhonghua Tang1, Si Chen2, M.A. Anifowose3, Mamadou Samake1

1. School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences (CUG), Wuhan, China, 430074

2. Key Laboratories of Mine and Environmental Geology, Bureau of Land Resources and Housing Management (Chongqing Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources), China, 400042

 3. Civil Engineering Departments, The Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 420, Offa, Kwara state, Nigeria.

waheedabefe@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The behavior of sand drain was estimated so that the size of very large load-pressure could be eliminated by changing the configuration of the sand drain elements into sand wall. A 3D mathematical model was formulated to transform the configuration of a sand drain into a sand wall to minimize or eliminate the excessive stress and primary settlement on the road base. This was barely considered in the past. According to soil mechanics theory and seepage characteristics of sand drain in road base foundations, a 3D sand drain element in FEM format was generated, a matrix expression was formulated which was introduced into 3D Biot Consolidation of Abaqus finite element program. The 3D sand drain element generated in this study has been applied to Guangzhou-Zhujiang Highway as a case study. The Sand drain FEM been simulated and the conventional FEM, as well as the Hansbo solutions have been comparatively established. The results show that the simulated 3D sand drain element FEM method accurately represents the sand drain in the soft soil of road base when compared with the conventional methods. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):65-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.10

 

Keywords: Sand Drain Element; 3D Biot FEM; soft soil foundation; Guangzhou- Zhujiang Highway

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11

Design, Synthesis and in Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of New 4-Anilino-7-Chloro Quinoline Derivatives Targeting EGFR Tyrosine Kinase

 

Enayat Ibrahim Aly

Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo., Egypt.

enayat_ ibrahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Four new 4-anilino-7-chloroquinoline derivatives substituted at position 4 of the anilino moiety with various bioisosteric heterocycles have been designed and synthesized. Virtual screening was carried through docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to predict if these compounds have similar binding mode to the EGFR inhibitors. The newly synthesized compounds were also tested in vitro on human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) in which EGFR is highly expressed. Most of the tested compounds exploited potent cytotoxic activity with IC50 values in the nanomolar range in particular compounds II, IVd, Va, Vc, VIa and VII which displayed the highest activity among the tested compounds with IC50 equal to 5.70, 5.37, 0.87, 5.10, 1.41 and 2.75 nM respectively. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):73-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.11

 

Keywords: Anilinoquinoline, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-, cytotoxic activity, Docking study

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Effect of Two Chemical Disinfectants on Both Acrylic and Metallic Dentures

 

 

Emiel Abdul Massieh Hanna1 and Mona Fatheey2

1Prosthodontic Department, 6 October University.

2Clinical pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University.

*Hanayousef_egypt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to compare between the effect of two different chemical disinfectants on both acrylic and metallic dentures. Materials and method: Sixthly patients were selected of both sexes. Their age were ranged from50-60 years, and free from any systemic diseases. Two types of chemical disinfectants were used which are glutaraldehyde, and lysoformine as tissue surface disinfectants. Both acrylic and metallic dentures were represented. According to the type of disinfectant used, the patients were classified into three groups, and each group divided into two sub group, acrylic denture sub group and metallic denture sub group. Group 1 received glutaraldehyde chemical disinfectant. Group II: received lysoformine chemical disinfectant. Group III is the control group. Results: The results demonstrated that lysoformine disinfectant was effective for both types of dentures, while glutaraldehyde disinfectant was effective in acrylic resin dentures only, while in metallic dentures was not effective. Conclusion: Lysoformine disinfectant is apromising tissue surface disinfectant for both acrylic and metallic dentures. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):84-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.12

 

Keywords: Effect; Chemical Disinfectants; Acrylic and Metallic Dentures

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Post-Prandial Responses to Different Bread Products Based on Wheat, Barley and Fenugreek or Ginger or Both in Healthy Volunteers and Their Effect on the Glycemic Index of Such Products

 

Marie-Christine R Shakib and Shreef G N Gabrial

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail: chris_shakib@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Consumption of a diet with a low glycemic index (GI) rich in dietary fiber can help for the management of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) level in normal subjects. Incorporation of whole grain barley rich in β-glucan, fenugreek and ginger as part of a balanced diet offers a variety of health benefits. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of bread products containing wheat, barley and fenugreek or ginger or both on postprandial blood glucose in healthy subjects, and to determine their Glycemic index values. All bread products were evaluated for their acceptance value. Results: All bread products induced significantly lower PBG responses (p<0.05) than did the reference bread, suggesting that the naturally occurring soluble dietary fiber in these blends had an impact on glucose tolerance with glycemic indices ranging from 38 to 52. Conclusion: The present study suggests that barley wheat fenugreek ginger bread (BWFGb) could be a replacement food of white wheat bread since it provides a healthy and easily digestible carbohydrate diet that can help to maintain PBG level within a normal range in healthy and diabetic patients. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):89-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.13

 

Key words: Barley grain, β-glucan, fenugreek seeds, ginger seeds, glycemic response, glycemic index

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Anion Exchange Behavior of Some Elements in Acetic Acid-Hydrochloric Acid Media

 

S.A. Abo-Farha*, N.A. Badawy, A.A. Emam and N.M. Moursy

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

* e-mail: samiaelhosiny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The heavy metals contamination of soil and water has stimulated the search for soft technologies to remove these pollutants. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and quantitative sequential separation methods of Cd(II), Zn(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) with a strong base anion exchange resin prolite A-400 in both chloride form-RCl and acetate form-RAc. The adsorbabilities of metal ions have been studied in the presence of different acetic acid concentrations. The Kd data of metal ions were the following selectivity sequence: Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Mn(II) > Ni(II). The adsorbabilities of metal ions were slightly higher over the whole molarity range of acetic acid (0–18 M) for RCl-resin form than RAc-resin form. The addition of HCl acid to acetic acid medium markedly enhanced the sorption of many heavy metal ions on purolite A-400. Several binary separations of metal ions were achieved on the basis of their кd values. Furthermore, Langmuir and Freundlish isotherme have been described. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):97-108]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.14

 

Keywords: Adsorption; Heavy Metals; Ion Exchange; Separation; Langmuir and Freundlish Isotherme

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Sodium Edate and Sodium Citrate as an Exhausting and Fixing Agent for in Dyeing cotton Fiber with Reactive Dyes and Reuse of Dying Effluent 

 

S. A. Abo Farha, A. M. Gamal, H. S. Bekhiet, G. E. A. Mahmoud and L. F. M. Ismail*

Al-Azhar University - Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Lailafmi@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: The present paper is aimed at studying the possibility of using organic salts (sodium edate and sodium citrate) in the dyeing of cotton fabrics with two reactive dyes, namely C.I. Reactive Red 120 (RR120) and C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5)) in place of inorganic salt (sodium sulphate) and in the absence of alkali. For this purpose, dyeing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes using sodium edate, sodium citrate and sodium sulphate is investigated and the results obtained are compared. Factors affecting dyeability such as the amount of sodium edate, sodium citrate and sodium sulphate, time, pH, temperature, liquor to fabric ratio and dye concentration are investigated. The dyed fabrics are evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion and fixation, and the fastness properties. The overall results suggest that sodium edate and sodium citrate offers the potential as an exhausting and fixing agent for reactive dyeing of cotton. Moreover, the reuse of the dyebath and the chemicals those remain after the original dyeing process and after pre-treatment using advanced oxidation process are also studied. Such recycling of exhausted dyebaths further offers the potential of lowering costs through the reduction of the amounts of water, chemicals and energy consumed. The to fastness washing and light of the two reactive dyes on cotton fabric with different dye concentrations at best dyeing conditions in aqueous medium and in presence of inorganic salt (SS) and organic salts (S.E) and (SC) are compared. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):109-127]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.15

 

Keywords: Cotton dyeing; Bi-functional reactive dyes; Sodium edate; sodium citrate; Water reuse; fastness

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Comparative Study of Oxidation of Some Azo Dyes by Different Advanced Oxidation Processes: Fenton, Fenton-Like, Photo-Fenton and Photo-Fenton-Like

 

S.A.Abo-F

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science,Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

E-mail: samiaelhosieny@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study makes a comparison between Fenton, Fenton-like, photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton-like treatment methods to investigate the removal of two acid dyes. The two selected acid dyes are C.I. Acid Orange 8 (AO8) and C.I Acid Red 17 (AR17). These were chosen as model organic contaminants. The effect of operating parameters, such as amount of Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 and Fe2+) and Fenton’s-like reagent (H2O2 and Fe3+), hydrogen peroxide concentration, the two azo dyes concentration and the solution pH have been studied. Results indicated that simultaneous utilization of UV irradiation with Fenton’s and Fenton’s-like reagent increase the degradation degree (DD%) of (AO8) and (AR17). The dyes quickly lose their color, indicating that the dissolved organics have been oxidized. The dye degradation is dependent upon, concentrations of Fenton’s and Fenton’s-like reagents, H2O2 concentration, dyes concentration and the solution pH. Decolorization efficiency observed in the order of photo-Fenton>photo-Fenton-like>Fenton>Fenton-like for the two azo dyes. The color removal was found also to depend on the dye structure. Mono sulphonic azo dye (AO8) was degraded faster than disulphonic azo dye (AR17). The results indicated that the treatment of the two azo dyes with four advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) were efficient at optimum conditions. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):128-142]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.16

 

Keywords: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs); Azo dyes; Dye degradation; Fenton’s reagent; Fenton’s-like reagent

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Biosorption of Pb(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions Onto Rice Husk and its Ash

 

A.G. El-Said

Chemistry Department. Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University (Girls), Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

asrargoma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from waste water has been reviewed. Present study deals with the adsorption of lead (II) from aqueous solution on rice husk and its ash. Rice husk (R.H) is a by-product generally obtained from rice mill. Rice husk ash (R.H.A) is a solid obtained after burning of rice husk. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters like pH, appropriate equilibrium time, amount of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate and particle size. Studies showed that pH of aqueous solution affected lead (II) removal as result of removal efficiency increased with increasing solution of pH. The maximum adsorption was about 87.75% and 94.75% for R.H and R.H.A. respectively, at pH 4.60.5, contact time 60 min and initial concentration of 30 mgL–1. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radush Kevich (D-R) adsorption isotherms were applicable to the absorption process and their constants were evaluated. The studies showed R.H.A was more favorable than R.H. in removing lead (II) and thus was a better adsorbent. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):143-150]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.17

 

Keywords: Biosorption; Pb(II) Ion; Aqueous Solution; Rice Husk; Ash

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Synthesis and Pharmacological Activities of Some Thieno Pyridazine Derivatives Using 5-Amino-4-Ethoxycarbonyl Phenanthro[9,10-e]Theino[2,3-c]Pyridazine as a Starting Material

 

 

Saleh A. Bahshwan1, Atef M. Amer*2 and Ahmed A. Fayed3

1Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Health Science, Taibah University, Madinah Munawarra, Saudi Arabia

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, 3National Research Center, Photochemistry Department, Cairo, Egypt

*amer_1eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: 5-amino-4-ethoxycarbonyl-phenanthro [9, 10-e]thieno[2,3-c]pyridazine 4 was prepared via reaction of pyridazine derivative 3 and ethyl chloroacetate. Reaction of 4 with chloroacetyl choride, potassium thiocyanate afforded pyrimidothienopyridazine derivative 6. reaction of 4 with active methylene reagents namely, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl benzoyl acetate, ethyl phenyl acetate, ethyl cyanoacetate and/or diethyl malonate gave pyridinothienopyridazine derivatives 16a-e respectively. The pharmacological screening should that many of these compounds have good activities. The structure assignments of the new compounds are based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic data, and pharmacological properties are reported. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):151-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.18

 

Keywords: Pyridazines, thienopyridazine, pyrimidine, pyridine, pharmacological activity

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Evaluation of Hypertelorism in Children with Genetic Syndromes Compared to Normal Egyptian Children. 

 

Amira A. Abdel Azeem*1; Manal H. Abu EL Ela 2; Shahira R. Nowier 1; Amr HAFEZ3 and Tarek Saleh 3

 

Ophthalmogenetics1, Public Health2, Ophthalmology3 Departments, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Cairo Egypt. *amiraazeem@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A case control study was carried out to evaluate hypertelorism in genetic syndromes and to start setting up standards for orbital parameters among Egyptian children. Head circumference, inner canthal, outer canthal and interpupillary distances were measured in 279 children; 49 patients with syndromes involving hypertelorism and 230 normal control children within the same age group. Controls were classified into 13 age groups (from1to 13 years) and mean values of the measured orbital parameters were estimated for the corresponding thirteen groups. Normal values were presented and compared with other populations and with Egyptian children with syndromes having hypertelorism. No significant sex differences were observed in different orbital measurements. Egyptian orbital morphometry did not resemble those of African Americans but showed similarities to the Turkish. Craniofacial anomalies had the greatest measurements of hypertelorism followed by the miscellaneous syndromes and skeletal displasias. The study will acquaint the geneticists on the need to the actual measurement, in relation to age, sex and racial standards for accurate diagnosis of syndromes. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):160-172]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.19

 

Key words: Hypertelorism, syndromes, canthal distance, interpupillary distance, canthal index, interpupillary index, and circumference-interorbital index

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Harmonic Distortion Effects and Mitigation in Distribution Systems

 

Hussein A. Attia1, M. El-Metwally1 and Osama M. Fahmy2

1 Cairo University, Faculty of Engineering, Electrical Power & Machines Department,.2 National Energy Control Center, Ministry of Electricity and Energy, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The harmonic distortion in the power system is increasing with wide use of nonlinear loads such as wave rectifiers, and solid-state controlled devices. Thus, it is important to analyze and evaluate the various harmonic problems in the power system and introduce the appropriate solution techniques. This paper, firstly, analyses the propagation of harmonic current and voltage in power system networks and appreciate their consequences on both utility system components and end user equipments. Throughout wave analysis of the harmonic wave forms and the concepts of cancellation and combination, effective techniques have been introduced by application of phase shifting transformers. Besides, other alternatives to mitigate harmonic effects on the system components utilizing harmonic filters are given. The merits of the introduced techniques were highlighted through a study case using Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) computer package. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):173-183]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.20

 

Keywords: Total Harmonic Distortion, Uninterruptible Power Supply, Adjustable Speed Drive, Displacement Power Factor, Actual Power Factor, Phase Shift Transformer, Harmonic Filter

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Separation Distance Determination of Torsional Adjacent Buildings Using Random Vibration Theory

 

Mojtaba Labibzadeh 1, Navid Siahplolo 1, Amin Khajehdezfuly 1, Behzad Zahabizadeh 1

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran. Labibzadeh_m@scu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: One of the phenomena observed during strong earthquakes is the pounding of adjacent buildings which has been known as the pounding in dynamic of structures science. This pounding sometimes can lead to significant pounding forces which ultimately resulted into the destruction of adjacent buildings. Various methods for prevention against to the pounding were having been proposed. Most simple and practical method to mitigate this damaging force is to provide adequate separation distance between adjacent buildings which has become a standard criterion in all structural codes. Various dynamic analyses such as time history, spectral response and random vibration method have been applied for determining of that separation distance. In the mentioned methods often the torsion behavior of buildings due to their inherent asymmetrical forms has been neglected. In this work an attempt has been performed to calculate the required separation distance in asymmetric buildings via some analytical relations developments using the torsional-lateral behavior. The most important factor which previous studies did not consider is the effect of similarity of torsional modes of two adjacent building in reducing the necessary separation distance assignment. The random vibration method was implemented as the analytic solution method and the effects of various parameters such as eccentricity, damping and natural frequency were taken into account in separation distance determination and the obtained results were compared to UBC97, IBC 2006 and standard No.2800 of Iran structural codes. The results were presented in the form of some graphs. It is important to note that throughout the entire of study the linear elastic response analysis was applied. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):184-194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.21

 

Keywords: Pounding force, Separation distance, Random Vibration Method, Torsional behavior

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Assessment of Soils of Wadi El-Natrun Area, Egypt Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

 

M.A. Abdel-Hamid1, M. Ismail2, Y.A. Nasr 1, and Y. Kotb2

1Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Soil Sciences Department2, Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute - Giza

kotby72@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The studied area is located between longitudes 30 06 21".37 to 30 28 50".02 East and latitudes 30 18 02".88 to 30 31 06''.66 North and covers about 142,687 fed. A physiographic analysis using visual interpretation on Spot 4 of false colour composite of bands 3,2,1 scale 1:50000 was carried out to delineate the different physiographic units of the studied area. Physiographic units were accurate defined by the Digital Elevation Model of Wadi El-Natrun area. Thirty four soil profiles and seventy minipits were examined to represent the soils of the studied area. The physiographic units were incorporated with soil taxonomic units of sub great group level and field data to represent physiographic soil map of the studied area. The soils of the studied area are slightly to extremely saline (EC values range from 1.0 to 71.9 dS/m). Soil texture is mostly sandy to sandy clay loam. Soil pH values range from 7.2 to 8.0. Organic matter content is very low with a maximum value of 0.3%. The soils are classified as Typic Haplocalcids, Vertic Aquisalids, Lithic Aquisalids, Lithic Torriorthents, Typic Torripsamment and Typic Torriorthents. The data reveal that current capability of soils is moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), temporary not suitable (N1) and permanently not suitable (N2). The soils of class S2 form 44.2% of the studied area (~ 63066 fed.). It includes one subclass S2x, as the texture is the limiting factor. The soils of class S3 cover an area of about 69715 fed. (48.9 %) and it contains three subclasses namely S3xn (texture and salinity are the limiting factors), S3tx (topography and texture are the limiting factors) and S3txn (topography, texture and salinity are the limiting factors). The soils of class N1 form 1.9 % of the studied area (~ 2756 fed.). The soils of class N2 cover about 5331 fed. (~ 3.8 %). Potential capability reveals that the soils of subclasses S3 xn, S3tx and S3txn could be improved to subclass S2 x. Five crops were selected to asses their convenience for cultivation in the studied area: wheat, barley, grapes, alfalfa and fodder beet. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):195-206]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.22

Keywords: Assessment; Soils; Wadi El-Natrun Area; Egypt; GIS Techniques

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Response of Flax Plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) to Treatments with Mineral and Bio-Fertilizers from Nitrogen and Phosphorus

 

El-Nagdy, G.A.1; Dalia M.A.Nassar1; Eman A. El-Kady2 and Gelan S.A. El-Yamanee2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University,. 2 Fiber Crops Research Section, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Field experiments were carried out at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr-El-Sheikh, Egypt during the two growing winter seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 in order to study the effect of different levels of mineral fertilizers from nitrogen and phosphorus (25, 50 and 100% of the recommended dose) alone or in combination with a mixture of biofertilizers containing nitrogen fixers (nitrobein) and phosphate dissolving bacteria (phosphorein) on morphological characters and yield of flax plant cv. Sakha 1 from seeds, oil, straw and fibers. Moreover, anatomy of the main stem was also investigated. The obtained results indicated that increasing level of the used mineral fertilizers induced significant increases in all investigated morphological and yield characters except that of number of seeds per capsule and seed oil percentage which showed no significant effect in this respect. The rate of promotion increased gradually as the rate of mineral fertilizers increased up to 100% of the recommended dose. It is clear that raising the level of the used mineral fertilizers from 25 to 100% of the recommended dose induced significant increases of 48.7, 46.6, 55.0, 14.1, 37.3, 19.1, 68.6, 45.4, 56.8, 44.5, 43.5, 42.3, 38.7 and 47.5% for plant height, technical length, length of fruiting zone, stem diameter, number of capsules / plant, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield / plant, seed yield / feddan, seed oil yield / feddan, straw yield / plant, straw yield / feddan, fiber yield / plant, fiber yield / feddan and fiber length of flax plant cv. Sakha 1; respectively. Data also revealed that flax plants obtained from biofertilized seeds and grown in soil inoculated with biofertilizers (nitrobein + phosphorein) showed significant increases in all investigated morphological characters and in most of yield characters when compared with control plants which were obtained from uninoculated seeds and grown in uninoculated soil. The increments in the mentioned characters as a result of biofertilization treatment were 17.8, 17.6, 22.2, 6.2, 15.6, 8.5, 26.8, 20.5, 25.1, 17.3, 15.4, 15.9, 14.3 and 18.5% for plant height, technical length, length of fruiting zone, stem diameter, number of capsules / plant, weight of 1000 seeds, seed yield/plant, seed yield/feddan, seed oil yield/feddan, straw yield/plant, straw yield/feddan, fiber yield/plant, fiber yield/feddan and fiber length of flax plant cv. Sakha 1; respectively. The interaction between the used levels of mineral fertilizers and biofertilizers proved significant effect for the above mentioned characters. It is noted that the promotion induced by raising the level of the used mineral fertilizers was equal to that induced by biofertilizers treatment which substituted half of the recommended dose from the used NP and this decreased the environmental pollution caused by repeated application of mineral fertilizers. The effect of the used mineral and biofertilizers on anatomical structure of the main stem of flax plant cv. Sakha 1 was also investigated. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):207-217]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.23

 

Key words: Mineral Fertilizers, Bio-fertilizers, Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., Morphology, Productivity, Stem Anatomy

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Assessment of DNA Sensitivity and Heat Stress Protein Response (HSP70) in Male Wistar Rat Blood After Exposure to Microwave Radiation

 

El-Ezabi, M.M.

Department of Zoology- Faculty of Science – Benha University, Benha, Egypt

 

Abstract: Because of the increasing use of mobile phones, the possible risks of non-ionizing radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) adverse effects on human health was evaluated. The present study aims to assess possible DNA damaging effects induced by microwave radiation of mobile phone type in male Wistar rat blood in vivo. A number of 30 male Wistar rats (11820g) was divided into 3 groups (10 animals in each group) exposed for (15, 30 and 60 min.) to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 900 MHz, at non-thermal specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.9 W/Kg. Concurrent control animals (n=10) were also included in the study. After the exposure periods five animals from each group were sacrificed immediately while the other five animals were sacrificed after 7 days (recovery period). DNA sensitivity in rat blood leukocytes was assessed by using the alkaline comet assay method. The heat shock protein stress response (HSP70) in serum samples of the rats was also investigated. The results showed significant increased DNA damage in blood leukocytes after the exposure times 15 and 30 min and after the three exposure times of the recovery period (7 days) as detected by the comet assay method. Serum HSP70 levels were also significantly increased in the exposed animals and in the animals at the recovery period as compared to the control animals. The present study indicates that RF-EMF represents a potential DNA-damaging hazards and using the alkaline comet assay is a sensitive tool in the measurement of DNA damage after exposure to 900 MHz microwave radiation in vivo. The increased HSP70 stress response to RF-EMF exposure might involved in protecting cells from DNA damage induced by microwave radiation. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):218-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.24

 

Key words: comet assay – DNA damage – microwave radiation – HSP70

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Utilization of Microcrystalline Cellulose Prepared from Rice Straw in Manufacture of Yoghurt

 

1Galal A. M. Nawar, 2*Fatma A. M. Hassn, 2Ali K. E., 2Jihan M. Kassem and 2Sahar H. S. Mohamed

1Green chemistry Department and 2Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*e-mail: fatmahassan98@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present work, we prepared Microcrstalline cellulose from rice straw and utilized it in manufacture of yoghurt. Different concentration of Microcrstalline cellulose was used and compared with yoghurt (control) without addition. Microbiologically, organoleptically, chemically and physical properties of resultant yoghurt was studied. Addition of Microcrstalline cellulose had no significant on the viability of Total bacteria count, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii supsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp thermophilus and all samples free from yeast, mould and coliform fresh and during cold storage (5 c 1 c). Organoleptically showed that 0.1 % of Microcrstalline cellulose was best concentration that had a highest score for appearance, body and texture and flavor fresh and during storage. esults showed that the yoghurt manufacture by using 0.1% Microcrstalline cellulose had a high acidity, acetaldehyde, diacetyl and Total volatile fatty acids than control. Also treated samples had a higher viscosity and lower synerthesis than control. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):226-231] SSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.25

 

Key words: Yoghurt, Stabilizer, Microcrstalline cellulose

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South Sinai Growth Charts of Children and Adolescents

 

G.A. Yamamah1, N.E. Hassan2, S.A. El-masry2, E.E. Salama1 and M.G. Shouman1

 

1 Paediatric Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

2 Biological anthropology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. E-mail: masrysa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Data from a cross-sectional study of 5245 healthy children in South Sinai were used to construct standard growth charts of weight, stature and BMI for each sex. The sample was collected during the project funded by the SSRDP which belong to the European Union commission (project 238). Weight and stature were obtained under standard conditions for each year cohort for children aged 1–16 years, BMI was calculated. The values were compared with those of the Egyptian and WHO growth curves. The constructed growth standards are suitable for growth monitoring programmes throughout South Sinai. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):232-240]. (SSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.26

Keywords: South Sinai Growth Charts; Children; Adolescents

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Recycling of Ceramic Industry Wastes in Floor Tiles Recipes

E. El-Fadaly1, I. M. Bakr2 and M.R. Abo Breka1

1Environmental Researches and Studies Institute, Monofeya University, Egypt, 2Faculty of Engineering, Mattareya, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to assess the possibility of the recycling of some solid wastes of ceramic industry in the preparation of ceramic tiles at the same factory. Cyclone dust, sludge, and filter dust were added to the base body in proportions ranging from 2.5 to 10 % weight content. The mixed powders were pressed at 225 bar, then fired in an industrial kiln at 1190 C for 35 minutes cycle. The results showed that addition of cyclone dust improved the physico- mechanical properties of the base body, while sludge additions deteriorated these properties. Filter dust had nearly no effect on properties. The phase analysis via XRD and SEM demonstrated that the very rapid industrial cycle is insufficient for the complete melting of soda feldspar and the formation of any mullite crystals. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):241-247]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.27

 

Key words: cyclone dust, sludge, filter dust, wastes, recycling, ceramic, densification, mechanical properties

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Comparing the Performance of Two Type Collectors on Drying Process of Lemon and Orange Fruits through a Passive and Indirect Solar Dryer

 

A.Lotfalian1, M.A.Ghazavi1, B.Hosseinzadeh1

1Departmen of mechanical farm machinery, University of Sahrekord, Shahrekrd 115, Iran

Amin_lotfalian@yahoo.com

Abstract: Drying of crops is an important procedure in order to preserve food products. The importance of it from one hand and minimizing fuel consumption from the other hand, emphasize that the designing of a system for solar drying of food is economical and substantial. Although due to increase of population industrial drying has been preferred, considering some issues such as maintaining quality, nutrition properties, marketing, and providing added value in rural societies, which lead to stable development of agriculture in a country, indicate that research and study on applying solar dryers is necessary. Regarding these issues, the process of drying of Lemon and Orange fruits by means of a passive indirect solar dryer under influence of two types of collectors (Iron and Aluminum) was studied and evaluated. The test design selected for this study was a complete random test with 3 repetitions. Data analysis showed that collector’s type and duration of sampling was significant on the amount of evaporated moisture from produce (p < 0.01). Also analysis showed that the tendency towards buying solar dried lemons and oranges is 5.6 and 4.2 times, respectively, higher than traditionally dried fruits and therefore solar dried fruits have higher marketing value. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):248-251]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.28

 

Keywords: Solar Dryer, Renewal and Modern Energy, Solar Energy, Lemon, Orange

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Cardiac Autonomic Function Tests in Type 1 Diabetic Patients (Four Years Follow up Study)

 

1Ahmed A. Battah, 2Soha M. Abd El Dayem and 1Randa A. Soliman

1Critical Care Department, Kasr El Ani Hospital, Cairo University,2Pediatrics Department, National research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Objective: to undertaken in a group of type 1 diabetic patients who were followed for 4 years to shed further light on the natural progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Patients and methods: The study consisted of 57 patients who were originally studied using a battery of five cardiovascular autonomic tests. Two years later, 46 patients were reevaluated, again 2 years later, 55 patients from the original study were reevaluated for the 3rd time using the same protocol. The control group comprised 30 age and sex matched healthy volunters. Results: The prevalence of established cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) at the beginning is 14%. Q-Tc intervals were found to be significantly higher in patients with abnormal cardiovascular reflex (CVRs) in 2nd examination. Eighteen patients of the original studied group showed deterioration of their CVRs test between 1st and 3rd examination, there is deterioration of their glycemic control guided by glycosylated hemoglobin and albumin / creatinine ratio. On the other hand, 12 patients of the original studied group showed regression of their CVRs test. Only their insulin dose showed significant decrease. Conclusion: The prevalence of CAN in diabetic patients is high. Our data suggest that valsalva – stimulated heart rate response is highly susceptible to the presence of autonomic dysfunction over time. Proper glycemic control is mandatory to prevent development of diabetic complications or ameliorate the pre- existing complication. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):252-259]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.29

Keywords: Cardiac Autonomic Function Tests; Type 1 Diabetic Patients

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Adherence, Invasion and Cytotoxicity of Some Bacterial Pathogens

 

Ghadir S. El-Housseiny, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa* and Nadia A. Hassouna

 

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*maboulwafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and sixty two bacterial isolates recovered from different collected clinical specimens were screened for adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity against Vero cells. All these isolates were able to adhere to Vero cells by variable degrees. Concerning invasion, the Staphylococcus spp were found to have the highest levels of invasion reaching 2.3% while a few Pseudomonas spp showed invasion levels between 1 % and 2 % but the rest of the Pseudomonas isolates and all the other Gram negative rods showed invasion levels <1%. Upon screening for cytotoxicity by the MTT assay, about 38% of the Staphylococcus species showed only low cytotoxicity (<50%) after 24 h of incubation while the rest of the isolates showed no cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. In case of Pseudomonas species, after 6 h, 38.5% of the isolates showed low cytotoxicity (<50%), 7.7% showed moderate cytotoxicity (50-85%) while 11.5% of these isolates exhibited high cytotoxic effects (>85%). In case of the other Gram negative rods, 44.4% of the isolates showed low cytotoxicity, 3.2% showed moderate cytotoxicity while 6.3% showed high cytotoxic effects after 6 h of Vero cell infection. Moreover, statistical data (excluding the highly cytotoxic isolates) showed a significant positive correlation between adherence and invasion of all the tested isolates. In addition, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between the adherence and cytotoxicity of the Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species. Concerning the statistical data for invasion and cytotoxicity, a significant positive correlation was found in case of Pseudomonas isolates only. Taken together, these results indicate that invasion is a post adherence effect, and that cytotoxicity of both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas species is associated with a higher adherence to epithelial cells. Moreover, the results suggest that invasive Pseudomonas species can induce cytotoxicity but at low levels. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):260-268]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.30

 

Keywords: Adherence, Invasion, Cytotoxicity, Vero cells, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, MTT

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Cytotoxic Activities of Some Escherichia coli Isolates: Possible Mechanisms and Approaches for Inhibition

 

Ghadir S. El-Housseiny, Mohammad M. Aboulwafa* and Nadia A. Hassouna

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*maboulwafa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The cytotoxicity of four highly cytotoxic E.coli isolates against Vero cells was studied and found to be cell associated. High cytotoxicity was observed at a multiplicity of infection of 200:1 and this activity gradually decreased as the bacterial count decreased. This cytotoxicity was affected by changes in pH and caused altered Vero cell morphology and detachment by different degrees which was apparent after 2 h of infection. In addition, viable metabolically active bacteria were necessary for Vero cell killing. Moreover, the four isolates showed very high adherence levels (>5%) while they showed very poor invasion (<0.01%) which implies that there is a strong relationship between the adherence and cytotoxicity of these isolates while cell invasion is probably not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Upon quantitation of the hemolytic activity of the bacterial cells of these isolates, a clear relation could be seen between the hemolytic activity of the tested isolates and their cytotoxic effects on Vero cells. In addition, results confirmed that no cell free α -hemolysin was released under the tested conditions which imply that a cell associated hemolysin (β-hemolysin) rather than α -hemolysin was responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. To further confirm this conclusion, the hemolytic activities of heat treated bacterial cells, gentamicin killed cells, bacterial cell lysates and metabolically inactive cells (bacteria cooled to 4 C) were measured and results showed that these treated bacterial suspensions lost their hemolytic activities which ensures the association between the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of the tested isolates. In an attempt to inhibit bacterial cytotoxicity, agents with reported antiadherent effects like glucose, galactose and mannose reduced the cytotoxicities of the tested isolates. Mannose caused the greatest reduction in cytotoxicity followed by galactose, and then glucose. Dextran 70 also reduced the cytotoxicities of the tested isolates. Of the tested pharmaceutical excipients, poloxamer 407 had the greatest inhibitory effect on E. coli cytotoxicity while tween 80 caused a smaller effect. In addition, the metal ions Fe3+ and Zn2+ caused a marked reduction in the cytotoxicities of the tested isolates, where 5 mM nearly abolished the observed cytotoxic effects while Ca2+ had little or nearly no effect. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):269-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.31

 

Keywords: cytotoxicity, E.coli, hemolysins, Vero cells

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Hormonal Role in Osteoporosis among Post – Menopausal Uremic Women

 

Ekram M. El-Shabrawy 1, Khadiga M. Abu Gabal 2, Saleh F. Nassar3

Public Health and Community Medicine Faculty of Medicine Department, Beni-Suef University, Egypt. 1

Clinical and Chemical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Egypt. 2

Consultant Nephrology, Faysal Kidney Dialysis Unit.3

dr-ekram_elshabrawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Osteoporosis is the most prevalent bone disorder in the general population, particularly in the middle and older age groups. Although more than half of the prevalent dialysis population is within these age groups, little concern has been given to the possible role of estrogen deficiency in the pathogenesis of bone disease in end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is often referred to as the "silent epidemic," it is a global problem that is increasing in significance as the population of the world both increases and ages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate both estradiol (E2) and parathormone (iPTH) as evidence that supports a potential role of the postmenopausal state in the pathogenesis of bone disease in ESRD to search for treatment. Subjects and Methods: A total of 20 women below 50 years and had persistent amenorrhea with ESRD (under prolonged hemodialysis) were selected from Faysal Kidney Dialysis Unit Giza, Egypt (ESRD group) and a control group of 20 women matched with same age were selected from the healthy volunteers of the medical staffs. For all subjects, bone mass density (BMD) analysis by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was done. Routine chemistry as serum creatinine, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were estimated using chemistry autoanalyzer. Serum E2 and iPTH levels were also measured by enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Results: It was shown that although the risk factors for fracture in ESRD were similar to the general population, the incidence was four folds higher in the cases. In ESRD cases the lower E2 level, the higher iPTH level (r = -0.861; p < 0.001), and consequently the higher incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. Recent evidence on the risk of HRT therapy should caution about its use in ESRD patients. In conclusion, osteoporosis should be recognized as an important entity that may modify the current conception of renal osteodystrophy in postmenopausal patients with ESRD. Low serum E2 and high iPTH levels are risk factors in decreased BMD in postmenopausal women on dialysis. Recommendations: Early detection of osteoporosis leads to good prevention of the disease. The use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) which may increase bone mass without significant secondary effects needs further clinical studies in order to propose strategies that may reduce postmenopausal osteoporosis in the dialysis population and may be an essential part of post-renal-transplant care. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):284-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.32

 

 

Keywords: Bone mineral density, hormone replacement therapy hemodialysis, iPTH, E2, osteoporosis

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Effect of Ripening on Some Maturing Parameters of Egyptian Gouda Cheese

 

M.M. El-Abd1; Hayam M. Abbas*2; A.A. Mehriz1; Hesham A. A. Eissa3; A.A. El-Nimr2, and Hala M. Bayoumi2

Dairy Department, Agriculture Faculty, Cairo University1, Dairy Department, National Research Centre 2, Food Technology Department3, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*profdrhayamabbas@yahho.com

 

Abstract: Gouda cheese was manufactured under the Egyptian marketing conditions by the standard method in Deina Dairy Factory; and ripened for 2 months. All samples were periodically analyzed for TS, TN, salt and SN. The obtained resulted indicated that, as ripening process was progressed; the values of TS, TN, SN and salt contents of all samples were increased. On the other hand, free amino acids (FAA), free fatty acids (FFA) & saturated and unsaturated carbonyl compounds (SCC & USCC) contents were also periodically estimated during 2 months. The concentration of FAA was gradually increased upon ripening period except Pro and Cys However, Ala, Leu, and Val. concentrations were sharply increased. Short chain fatty acids were also increased as ripening time prolonged as well as long chain saturated fatty acids. On the other side, both SCC and USCC were increased during ripening, however the increase in USCC was markedly pronounced. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):292-295]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.33

 

Key words: Egyptian Gouda cheese, FAA, FFA, SCC, USCC

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Sol – Gel Preparation, Characterization and Electrical Properties of Nanosized Gallium Doped Zinc - Oxide

 

ADLY A.,HANNA1*, SAHAR M.A.MOUSA1, MARWA A. SHERIEF1, GEHAN M.ELKOMY2

1 Inorganic Chemistry Departement, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Cairo, Egypt

2 Electronic microscope and thin films department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Cairo, Egypt

a_hanna2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gallium – doped zinc oxide was prepared by using sol-gel method where different concentrations of Gallium 2-8 at % were used for doping zinc oxide. The formation of zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4) was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The thermal stability of both non doped and doped zinc oxide with gallium was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of doping by Ga on the crystallite size of zinc oxide was investigated by TEM. Also, the electrical conductivity of non doped and doped zinc oxide with gallium was measured. The results of this work indicates that the phases and the morphology of the produced samples depend on the method of preparation and the particle size controlled by the method of treatment and the doping. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):296-300]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.34

 

Keywords: preparation- characterization – electrical properties – sol-gel - doping

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Honey Compared with Some Antibiotics against Bacteria Isolated From Burn-wound Infections of Patients in Ain Shams University Hospital

 

*Saadia M. Hassanein, Hassan M. Gebreel and Abdel-Rahman A. Hassan

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Email: sadiaeasa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Honey is an ancient remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. Four types of honey (Citurs, Clover, Nigella and eljabaly) were used. Six different species of bacteria were isolated from 120 burn- wound patients in Ain Shams University Hospital, namely Aeromonas schubertii, Haemophilius paraphrohaemlyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Listonella anguillarum and Acinetobacter baumannii. A comparative study between the known groups of 18 antibiotics and honey was carried out to evaluate the importance of using honey in burn-wound treatment on the 6 isolated species and compared with the effect of different types of honey on the same becateria. It was found that eljabaly has strong inhibitory effect in comparison to other mentioned types. Concentration of 25% of eljablaly showed inhitbition of 4 types, whereas 30% was potent enough to destroy the 6 isolated bacteria. Our data were that its antibacterial activity was attributed to its high osmolarity and hypertonic sugar concentration and low pH values. Amino and fatty acids, total proteins patterns were significantly changed. Total lipids of bacterial species was sharply decreased. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):301-320]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.35

 

Keywords: Patients, honey, antibiotics, bacteria, lipids, proteins, amino and fatty acids

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Biocontrol Activity of Some Bacterial Genera Against Root-Knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

 

Ashoub, A. H.1, Amara, M. T.2

1Plant Protection Department, Nematology Unit, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Mataria, Egypt.

2Soil Fertility Department, Microbiology Unit, Desert Research Center, Cairo, Mataria, Egypt.

Email: Az.Ashoub@hot mail.com

 

Abstract: Biological control is considered as new efficient method that becomes widely used for controlling plant parasitic nematodes, as aim to decrease the extent of environment degradation and the effect of the excessive toxic nematicides. So, this study was done to investigate the role of some bacterial genera as biocontrol agent against Meloidogyne incognita. The results of in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that, all tested bacteria have a greatly significant effectiveness for suppressing M. incognita. In vitro results showed that all biovars of Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens besides, Rhizobium leguminosarum can achieve M. incognita juveniles mortality to 100% at 72 hrs. Mixtures of bacteria genera varied in their effects, with regard to the presence of genus Rhizobium in the bacterial mixture give it an obvious lethal efficacy against M. incognita juveniles. In vivo study exhibited that, the most effective bacterium which can restrict and cease M. incognita reproduction was Pseudomonas fluorescens RR, followed by Rhizobium leguminosarum. Also, an enhancement in plant growth occurs. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):321-328]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.36

 

Key words: Biocontrol agent, bacteria, Meloidogyne incognita, root-knot nematodes, Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas spp., Rhizobium leguminosarum.

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A review of mangrove value and conservation strategy by local communities in Hormozgan province, Iran

 

Saber Ghasemi

Member of environmental science, Islamic Azad University- Bandar Abbas Branch, Iran

Tel:(+98)(761)6672328,Mobile:(+98)935-820-1684, E_mail:saberghasemi@gmail.com

Mohamed Zakaria

Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

E_mail: mzakaria@putra.upm.edu.my

Hazandy Abdul-Hamid

Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

E_mail: hazandy@putra.upm.edu.my

Ebil Yusof

Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

E_mail: ebil@putra.upm.edu.my

Afshin Danehkar

Faculty of Fishery and Environmental Science, Tehran University, Iran

E_mail: a_danehkar@yahoo.com

Muhammad Nawaz Rajpar

Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

E_mail: rajparnawaz@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mangroves are forest community within the intertidal region of tropical and subtropical areas. This study provides the values, functions and attributes of mangrove ecosystem and the importance of the local people in biodiversity conservation in the mangrove of Gas and Hara Rivers Delta (GHRD) in the Iranian coastline of Oman Sea. This study indicated that mangroves of GHRD are greatly influenced by the coastal environment and fulfil important socio-economic and environmental functions, therefore, it is considered that the protection of this site from threats must be enfaced. This study also provides the state of key guidelines for protecting biodiversity of mangroves by the local people. Over-use, lack of identity of mangrove resource and lack of tools for mangrove economic evaluation are the main destruction factors of the mangrove in this region. This study suggested that the end goal is to involve communities in direct management of resources. Furthermore, this study highlighted the role of awareness-raising in local communities in GHRD biodiversity conservation. There should be a willingness to move from old ideas on the use of this natural resource by villager and other people, which are largely dependent on this ecosystem. Awareness-raising campaigns must be developed for local communities using local languages, religious leaders and cultural events. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):329-338]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.37

 

Keywords: Mangrove, Conservation, Locale people, Gaz and Hara Rivers Delta, Iran

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Effects Of Level Of Awareness Of Pig Rearers About Swine Flu On Markets Prices Of Pigs In Mubi Zone, Nigeria

 

C. Augustine1; A. Midau1 and M. R. Ja’afar-Furo2.

1 Department of Animal Production, Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25, Mubi, Nigeria

2Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25, Mubi, Nigeria. 2muhammadfuro@gmail.com

Abstract: A survey was conducted to assess the level of awareness of pig rearers about swine flu and their immediate reactions about anticipated outbreak of the disease in Mubi region. Two hundred and ten (210) pig keepers were purposely sampled. Questionnaires were used as instrument of data collection. Descriptive statistics and market price analysis revealed that 85.56% of the pig keepers were aware of the outbreak of swine flu in foreign countries, with 14.44% showing ignorance. While majority (80%) of the farmers practiced seasonal confinement of pigs, 16.11% semi-intensive, only about 3.89% were involved in intensive management system. Radio set accounted for the highest (71.11%) effective means of information dissemination in the area. Of the total respondents, 90.56% were not properly advised and enlightened on necessary biosecurity measures to take in case of any outbreak. The comparative market price analysis between grower and fattener pigs before and after the news of swine flu outbreak showed insignificant difference. It was therefore, concluded that the immediate reaction of the farmers about anticipated outbreak had no economic consequences on the pig industry in the area. The study recommends the employment of trained personnel in managing the news of disease outbreak of health economic importance like swine flu in order to curb the anticipated economic losses in the event of occurrence. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):339-342]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.38

Key Words: Awareness; Mubi; Nigeria; Pig rearers; Swine flu

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Effect of Soil Water on Soil Temperature and Salt in Saline Soil with Undulate Surface in Hetao Irrigation District

 

Zhu Xue 1, 2 *, Takeo Akae1, Haibin Shi 2 and Mari Ishida2

1. Graduate School of Environmental Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan

2. Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering College of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,

Hohhot 010018, China. xuezhu_okayama@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil water on soil temperature and salt in saline soil and its interactive influence. The variation of soil temperature along with soil profiles was continuously monitored on three undulate experimental sites (C+, 50cm high from the reference level C, and C-, 50cm low from reference level, respectively). Soil samples were collected from 10cm to 150cm depth on each soil profile at three sites to measure soil moisture content and electrical conductivity (EC1:5) of soil in spring season (May, 2005). It was revealed the water content in soil profiles was in order of C->C>C+, and the soil temperature was in order of C+>C>C-, and the EC1:5 value was in order of C+>C>C-. Basing on the soil temperature model and diurnal variation in temperature data, we calculated the thermal parameters. Thermal diffusivity (DT) is 0.024, 0.049, and 0.233 cm2/s; the average thermal conductivity is 0.022, 0.051, and 0.246 cal/cm•s• in C+, C, and C-sites, respectively. The soil heat fluxes were also calculated based on the Fourier’s law. The variation range of soil heat flux at subsurface is in the order of C+>C>C-. This calculated results show that the calculated soil temperature values are in good agreement with the measured values for C+ site (low soil moisture content) but not so good for C- site (relatively higher soil moisture content) due to the effect of soil moisture content. The results suggest that in arid area like Hetao Irrigation District, China, water loss by evaporation should be reduced for preventing salt from accumulating on soil surface or rooting zone hazarded to seed germination and growth. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):343-350]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.39

 

Keywords: saline soil, soil temperature, soil moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), undulate surface, arid area

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Mathematical Model for Locating Input and Output Points Considering Time Value of Money

 

Amir Ardestani Jaafari 1, Seyed Hossein Hashemi Doulabi 1, Mohsen Akbarpour Shirazi 1, Mostafa Khatibi 2

1. Industrial Engineering department at Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2. Industrial Engineering department at Mazandaran University of Sceince and Technology, Babol, Iran.

E-mail: ardestani.amir@aut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Taxonomic For the first time, we consider time value of money in determining location of input and output points. We present a new mixed integer programming formulation and compare it with the conventional model in the literature. Computational results show significant effects of considering time value of money. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):351-354]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.40

 

Keywords: Facility design, I/O points location, time value of money, mathematical modeling

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Evaluation of Corn Stalks Treated Biologically with Aspergillus niger as feed for growing rabbits

 

A.A. Elshahat,1 R.I. Elkady1, A.A. Morad2, M.A. Khalafallah2 M. Fadel3 and M. I. Moahmed1

1Animal Production Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), 2Agriculturel Microbiology Dept (NRC), 3Microbial Chemistry Dept.

 

Abstract: A total of sixty-four male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits weaned at 5 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups (sixteen rabbits/group) according to their initial live body weight (850 gm approximately to evaluate the possibility of feeding rabbits on diets containing corn stalks treated biologically with Aspergillus niger (A. Niger); and their response to growth performance, slaugher and carcass characteristics, edible organs as well as different blood parameters.The rabbits of the first three groups were fed on rations contained corn stalks treated biologically with A. niger, with 10%, 20% or 30% respectively, whilst those of the fourth group were give ration without A. niger (0% e.g. the commercial diet). At the end of the experimental period, three rabbits from each treatment were selected and slaughtered to study the different carcass characteristics. Blood samples were taken during slaughtering process in heparinized test tubes and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes, the plasma were collected and preserved in a deep freezer at -20C until time of the analysis. The different blood plasma chemical parameters were calorimetrically determined using the proper commercial kits, following the same steps as described by the manufactures. All the results were subjected to analysis of variance. The most important results obtained in the present investigation could be summarized in the following points; 1). It was observed that the different biological treatments did not affect the live body weight gains. On the other hand, feed consumption had been influenced significantly by the treatment differences. 2).The present study showed that introducing biological treated corn stalks at the rate of 10% of the concentrate feed mixture improves feed conversion of growing rabbits. 3). The data of slaughter weight (SW), carcass weight (CW), empty body weight (EBW) and dressing percentage (DP) were not significantly affected by the different biological treatments. 4). With the exceptions of testis, no significant effects were detected in absolute or relative weights of edible organs. On the other hand, marked differential effects due to the biological treatments had been noticed on weights and percentages of testis. However, upon the basis of the present results one may suggest that the biological treatments may have on important role on the testis. 5). Results of the statistical analysis revealed that weights and percentages of the different carcass cuts were not significantly affected by the biological treatments. 6). No significant effects were detected in blood constituents of the experimental rabbits due to the different biological treatments. Likewise, it was observed that the data of the present investigation lies within the normal levels. 7). It was concluded from the present study that the biological treatments used in the present experiment have no deleterious effects on the liver and kidneys functions since levels of blood chemical constituents were not significantly changed. 8).Finally upon the basis of the obtained results, it could be suggested that A. niger can be used safely and successfully to enrich poor quality roughages such as corn stalks. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):355-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.41

Keywords: Rabbits – Corn stalks – Biological treatments – Growth – Carcass – Blood components

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In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation Of The Antidiabetic Effect Of Different Extracts Of Nepeta Cataria In Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

 

Hanan F. Aly; Mohamed Elsayed Ebrahim; Hemaia Mohamed Metawaa; Ebtessam Abdel-monaem Ahlam Hosni; Faten Mohamed Ebrahim

 

ABSTRACT: Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed in the present research to investigate the pharmacological effects of successive Nepeta cataria extracts on some biochemical parameters in Streptozotocin diabetic rats compared to the currently used drug, Glicalized. These involved some biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin, carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes; α –amylase, α- glucosidase, β- galactosidase, liver steoteosis; total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL–cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipid, liver function enzymes; alanin aminotransferase(ALT), aspatrate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphates (ALP) and total protein, oxidative stress markers; NO and DPPH. In addition histopathological investigations were performed. The results obtained revealed that in vitro analysis, different successive extracts of Nepeta cataria exhibited inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices ( NO and DPPH) and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). Total ethanol (70%), petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed respectively the most potent reducing power, while ethyl acetate and ethanol soxhlet appeared moderate or low reducing activity. In addition the in vivo anti-glycemic, antioxidant, antilipidemic effects of chloroform, petroleum ether as well as crude ethanol extracts in comparison with gliclazide as reference antidiabetic drug showed, these extracts have significant beneficial glycemic control, scavenging free radicals, normalized liver function, inhibited lipid synthesis associated with diabetic complication, as well as they have principle role in treatment and normalized liver and pancreas architecture. Hence, it could be concluded that Nepeta cataria extracts may be applied clinically for reducing complications against diabetes mellitus together with the ideal anti- diabetic drug glicalized. [Journal of American Science. 2010;6(10):364-386]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.42

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Nepeta cataria; oxidative stress; liver function; carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes

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Effects of Drying and Salt Extraction of Moringa Oleifera on Its Coagulation of High Turbidity Water

 

Amir Montakhab, Abdul Halim Ghazali, Megat Johari b. Megat Mohd. Noor, Thamer Ahmed Mohamed, Badronnisa bt.Yusuf

 

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

 amir_mth@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Moringa oleifera (M.O.) has been used as a natural coagulant in water treatment. The present study aims to determine the effect of drying M.O. seed powder that has been extracted with salt (NaNO3) on the coagulation of synthetic (kaolin) water of 2005 NTU. The optimum quantity of M.O. was 5 mg for both 10 and 200 g/l concentrations of the non-spray-dried salt-extracted M.O. (MOC-SC) solutions, with turbidity removal of 87%. This maximum turbidity removal was achieved with 1 M and 0.5 M of NaNO3 salt in the former and latter concentrations, respectively. The spray-dried M.O. (MOC-SC-SD) solutions exhibited better maximum turbidity removal of more than 95%, which also occurred at 5 mg of M.O., for both concentrations. Finally, the duration of storage of MOC-SC-SD did not affect its performance in the removal of turbidity. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(8):xx-xx]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):387-392]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.43

 

Keywords: Coagulation; Moringa oleifera; spray drying; turbidity removal; water treatment

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Response of Klamata Olive Young Trees to Mineral, Organic Nitrogen Fertilization and Some Other Treatments

 

Hassan, H. S. A. 1; Laila, F. Hagag1; M. Abou Rawash2; H. El-Wakeel2and A. Abdel-Galel1

 

1-Pomology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

 2- Dept. of Hort. Fac. of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Shobra El-Khiema, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out through two successive seasons (2007& 2008) on Klamata olive young trees grown at the Research Station Farm of National Research Center, El Nobarya, El Behera governorate. The investigation aimed to study the effect of applying mineral, organic fertilizers and some other treatments on leaf mineral contents at the first two years of planting. Planting holes were prepared for control plants in the first season only. Each treatment received 100 g actual nitrogen/plant/year as recommended by M.A.R.L. (2007). The following treatments were applied: T1: control ( mineral nitrogen + planting hole preparation), T2(100%mineral nitrogen), T3(100% organic N as cattle manure), T4(50% mineral N + 50% organic N as chicken manure), T5 (100%mineral nitrogen + humic acid as soil application), T6(100% mineral nitrogen + activated dry yeast as soil application), T7 (100%mineral nitrogen + GA3 spray) and T8 (100% mineral nitrogen + sea algae as soil application).At the end of each season, leaves dry weight per plant, and leaf mineral content were determined and recorded. The obtained results revealed that as follow: Leaves dry weight per plant the fifth treatment with humic acid showed higher value in the first season. In the second season, insignificant differences among treatments were found. Leaf nitrogen content with the second and fifth treatments showed the highest significant values compared with all other treatments in the first season. In the second season, the second treatment had higher significant value than those of the seventh and the eighth treatments. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):393-399]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.44

 

Key words: Klamata Olive; Nitrogen Fertilization; Mineral

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A Comparative Study of photometric and Semantic based Face Recognition Analysis Techniques

 

Salman Qadri1, Jalil Abbas 2, Muhammad Idrees3, Sarfraz Awan1, Naeem Akhtar Khan2

 

1Department of CS Virtual University Lahore, 54600, Pakistan.

2Faculty of Information Technology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

 3Department of Mathematics, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore, 54770, Pakistan.

salmanbzu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Image processing is a dynamic field and face recognition techniques are computer applications which mechanically verify the shape of an object from the source file. By comparing the selected facial features from the source file stored in a database we will get some resemblances. Different techniques are used in facial matching but this research is comparative study of geometric or photometric technique, which is statistical approach that purifies an image into values and comparing the values with source file to eliminate variances. Second approach is semantic based approach. This technique is dynamic which uses 3-D sensors to take the information about the shape of a object. This information is then used to identify characteristic features on the surface of a face, such as the shape of the eye, nose, and chin etc. semantic based approach is for better than photometric because its results are mainly used in biological sciences, Aerospace and nuclear sciences which gives the best results as compared to the other techniques. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):400-404]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.45

 

Keywords: semantic based model, 3D level, photometry

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Effect of Weeds on the Yield of Wheat Crop in Tehsil Nowshera

 

L.R. Dangwal, Amandeep Singh, Tajinder Singh, Chanchal Sharma

 

Herbarium and Plant Systematic Lab., H.N.B Garhwal Central University, SRT Campus, Badshithaul Tehri Garhwal-249199

Email: drlrdangwal@gmail.com, amamguru83@gmail.com

 

Abstract: - The present communication pertains to the effects of weeds on the yield of wheat crop in tehsil Nowshera of district Rajouri. During the course of study the authors have selected two plots of 01 hectare each (P1 and P2) in village Jaba of tehsil Nowhera during the year 2009-10. The plot P1 was marked as Weed Free plot (WF) and plot P2 as Weedy Plot (WP). Both the plots were ploughed and the seed beds were prepared by adding equal amount of NPK fertilizer (Urea150 kg, DAP 100 kg and Potash 40 kg/hq). Same variety of wheat seeds were sown in both the plots during first weak of Nov. 2009. Nitrogen fertilizer urea was given in split doses (50kg before sowing, 50 kg 40 DAS and 50 kg before flowering). In plot P1 (WF) 35 days after sowing two types of herbicides were sprayed i.e. 2, 4-D and isoproturon @ 0.75 kg/hq. for broad leaved and narrow leaved weeds respt. and deweeding (hand pulling and eradicating weeds with the help of digger and sickle) was done during the month of Feb.-Mar. 2010. In plot P2 (WP) no herbicide was sprayed and no deweeding was done as a result 28 weeds were reported from this plot. After ripening the crop was harvested (during first weak of May 2010) from both the plots and threshed separately. The grains collected in different bags were weighed. A total of 28.4 quintal of wheat grains were collected from plot P1 (WF) and 21.2 quintal from plot P2 (WP). The weeds competes with wheat crop in plot P2 (WP) and hence reduced the yield by 25.35%. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):405-407]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.46

 

Key words: - Wheat, Weeds, Plot, Yield.

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Effect of explant types and different basal nutrient media on in vitro growth of bitter almond cuttings during establishment and proliferation stages

 

Kassim, N. E.; S. M. Abou Rayya and E. A. M. Ali

 

Horticultural crops technology department, Agricultural division, National Research Center, Cairo Egypt

 

Abstract: This study was carried out in plant tissue culture Laboratory, Agriculture development Systems project (ADS) at Giza, Egypt during the period from 1999-2003. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different sources of explant and basal nutrient media on in vitro growth of bitter almond cuttings during establishment and proliferation stages. From the results of the study the following conclusions were derived: One node cuttings surpassed shoot-tip in in vitro growth (Survival percentage (96.67 and 63.33), No. of leaves / explant (11.0 and 6.33) and shoot length (cm.) / explant) (2.83 and 1.33) of bitter almond respectively. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) (Liquid or solid) was superior in in vitro growth of explant establishment in (No. of shoots / explant, No. of leaves / explant and shoot length / explant cm.) of bitter almond nodal cuttings. DKW medium was the poorest medium for almond, while WP medium came in between of all measured parameters for explant establishment. Higher effect of solid MS basal nutrient medium on enhancing the activity of bitter almond established nodal cuttings for the production of shoots and leaves and also for stimulating the elongation of bitter almond proliferated shoots. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):408-411]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.47

 

Keywords: basal nutrient; establishment; proliferation stages

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Serum and Tissue Leptin Levels in Relation to Psoriasis vulgaris Severity

 

Amira A. Zayed (MD)*, Nabila Abd El Maksoud (Ph.D.)** and Halla M. Ragab (Ph.D.)**

*Department of Dermatology Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, **Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory T-cell-mediated skin disease, with a preponderance of type 1 cytokines that contribute in the induction and persistence of the inflammatory process. Leptin, a peptide hormone secreted mainly from the adipocytes of white fat is known to regulate a wide range of biological responses. Recently, leptin has been considered a cytokine -like hormone that modulates T-helper cell activity, it promotes type 1 cytokine synthesis and suppresses type 2 cytokine production. Accordingly, leptin was suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases including psoriasis. However, the relationship between leptin and the severity of the disease still needs further studies. Objective: This study aims at investigating the suggested relationship between leptin levels in both serum and tissue and the severity of psoriasis vulgaris. Patients and Methods: This study included forty patients with chronic psoriasis vulgaris and forty healthy volunteers as a control group. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was scored for all patients. Serum leptin levels were estimated using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) technique. Skin biopsies were taken from lesional and non lesional skin of psoriatic patients as well as from normal skin of the control group. Tissue leptin levels were studied by both ELISA and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in all patients and controls. Results: Tissue leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in psoriatic lesions (p < 0.05) when compared to controls, as well as significantly higher when compared to the non lesional skin of the patients themselves (p<0.05) when studied by both ELISA and R-T PCR techniques. Moreover, tissue leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in the non lesional skin of psoriatic patients when compared to controls (p<0.05). Serum leptin levels, lesional and non lesional tissue leptin levels were found to be significantly higher in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris than mild to moderate psoriasis than controls (p<0.05). A statistically significant correlation was found between serum leptin levels, lesional tissue leptin levels and PASI score in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris (r=0.68, p=0.001, r=0.793, p=0.000). Conclusion: Serum and tissue leptin levels are elevated in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris and leptin level might serve as a marker of severity. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):412-422]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.48

 

Keywords: Psoriasis, PASI, and leptin

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Biochemical Significance of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Psoriasis vulgaris among Egyptian Patients

 

Halla M. Ragab*, Nabila Abd El Maksoud* and Mohamed M. Farid Roaiah**

 

*Department of Biochemistry, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. ** Dermatology & Andrology and S. T. D.S, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo university.

hmragab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Psoriasis has been characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by acanthosis and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes. Several growth factors and cytokines, are assumed to be important. Recent studies indicate that various cytokines including tumor necrosis factor - α ( TNF - α ), IL - 2R and IL - 6 play an essential role in the induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. Objectives: To analyse relevant inflammatory mediators in the serum of patients with active psoriasis ( Psoriasis vulgaris ) of mild-to-moderate and severe psoriasis compared to healthy controls. Patients / Methods: Forty psoriasis patients were recruited from the dermatology outpatient clinic of Cairo University Hospital. Patients body mass index ( BMI ), waist circumference and psoriasis area and severity index. (PASI ) were recorded. Fasting serum samples were obtained on enrolment. All the patients did not receive any treatment (locally or systemically), for at least four weeks before enrolment. Age, sex and ( BMI ) matched with forty healthy controls were also recruited. Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 levels were estimated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay ( ELISA ) technique. The patients group were subdivided to two groups according to the diseases severity, PASI, into, mild-to-moderate psoriasis group and severe psoriasis group. Results: Serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 were all statistically significant elevated in the patients group compared to healthy controls ( p < 0.05 ). Also they were all statistically significant increased in severe psoriasis compared to mild-to-moderate psoriasis ( p <0.05 ). Conclusions: These data support the view that serum TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6 are involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, possibly by induction and maintenance of psoriatic lesion. We recommend a use of an array of these cytokines as a useful follow-up marker for monitoring of psoriatic patients and optimizing therapeutic strategies. Also we suggest the study of antisense therapy using the antibody of these cytokines in psoriatic patients. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):423-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.49

 

Keywords: Psoriasis vulgaris, Cytokines, TNF - α, IL - 2R and IL - 6

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Attitudes and Local Beliefs towards Mosquito Insurgence in Imo State, Nigeria.

 

Mgbemena, I.C1 and Opara F.N1. Okechukwu, R. I1.

1. Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri. Mgbemena, I.C, Imo State, Nigeria

yinwa_2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Different attitudes and beliefs towards the presence of mosquitoes in the environment in the three urban centres of Imo State were investigated. Structured questionnaire were randomly distributed and the responses recorded accordingly, among the 461 respondents that participated in the study. The attitudes of killing it / controlling it topped the lists of the responses. Other attitudes are irritating, bad/ very bitter, negative/ concern, hatred / inimical and sleeplessness/ restlessness which could reflect strong attitudes that can induce change in behaviour. The various attitudes towards disease treatment rated as very effective (VE), fairly effective (FE), not effective (NE) and aggravate the sickness (AS) may reflect their perception of the seriousness of mosquito – borne diseases. The number that felt that mosquito – borne diseases was mild and not serious will definitely display attitudinal responses saddled with levity particularly towards treatment. Possibly they may not feel inclined to carefully adhere to drug dosage prescription. Differential misconceptions of mosquito and associated diseases reported by the respondents included: malaria is caused by drinking unclean water; hot sun predisposes people to malaria, prolonged malaria brings about yellow fever and mosquitoes carry AIDS virus etc. Enlightenment efforts need to also focus on the nature and severity of mosquito – borne diseases. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):430-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.50

 

Keywords: Mosquitoes, Attitudes, Beliefs, Insurgence Diseases

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Comparative Evaluation of Larvicidal Potentials of Three Plant Extracts on Aedes aegypti

 

Mgbemena, I. C.

 

1. Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

 yinwa_2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The activities of ethanol extracts of A. indica, O. gratissimium and C. citratus on Ae. Aegypti larvae were investigated at 96 hours exposure. Mortalities were observed to increase with concentration (P 0.05).The larvae of Ae. aegypti exhibited differential susceptibility to the extracts of the three plants.. In C. citratrus, mortality was recorded all through the exposure period of 96hours comparing to A. indica and O. gratissimum in which activities ceased at 48 hours. Comparative evaluation of the LC50 of three plant extracts showed significantly high toxicities with A indica showing the greatest toxicity having LC50 at 8.32mg/ml, while on the other hand O. gratissimum and C. citratus had LC50 19.50mg/ml and 34.67mg/ml on Aedes aegypti respectively. There were also variations in the composition of the phytochemicals in the 3 plants with A. indica having highest amount of all the phytohemicals relative to other plants except flavonoids, while glycosides were completely absent in the 3 plants. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):435-440]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.51

 

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Extract, Larvae, Ethanol, Mosquito, Plant

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 Properties of Edam Cheese Fortified by Dietary Zinc Salts.

 

Nabil Sami Abd-Rabou, Ahmed Hassan Zaghloul, Faten Lotfi Seleet* and Mahmoud Abdala El -Hofi

 

Dairy Science Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

*faten.seleet@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Edam cheese is a type of semi hard cheese having a wide distribution among consumers in Egypt. Zinc has a very important and effective role in human nutrition and body metabolism. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of fortification of cheese curd with zinc on the properties of the Edam cheese. Edam cheese was fortified by different sources of dietary zinc such as zinc acetate, zinc chloride and zinc sulphate at a level of 150 mg zinc / kg cheese curd. The resultant cheese was analyzed fresh and during storage at 51 at refrigerator each 2 weeks until 12 weeks. Results showed that Edam cheese fortified with zinc was higher in acidity, acid value and protein fractions during storage period than control. On the other hand, Edam cheese fortified with zinc acetate recorded the highest organoleptical scores, which more pronounced and preferable compared to control and other treatments. Fortified Edam cheese with zinc could be recommended as a good source to promote human dietary zinc intake. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):441-446]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.52

 

Key words: Edam cheese, Zinc fortification, properties of Edam cheese

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Water Activity, Color Characteristics and Sensory Properties of Egyptian Gouda Cheese during Ripening

 

A.A. El-Nimr1; Hesham A. Eissa*2; M.M. El-Abd3; A.A. Mehriz3; Hayam M. Abbas1; and Hala M. Bayoumi1

 

1Dairy Department, 2Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, 3Agriculture Faculty, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*hamin_essa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in water activity (aw), color characteristics (color values and parameters) and sensory evaluation of Egyptian Gouda cheese during 60 days of ripening, and to determine the correlations between the changes in water activity or sensory evaluation and color parameters during the ripening time of cheese. Intravarietal comparison of water activity and color values in Egyptian Gouda cheese was performed by evaluation of instrumental values (aw) and color parameters in terms of CIELAB color space (L*, a*, and b*). In addition to water activity and color parameters, color parameters and sensory tests were performed. The results were evaluated with statistical methods (single valued and multivariate analysis). During the first 15 days of ripening, a decrease in water activity values occurred. Simultaneously, L* and H* values decreased. After 60 days of ripening a*, b*, C* and visual color increased. The ripening time of Egyptian Gouda cheeses can be estimated with 6 variables: L*, a*, b*, H*, C* and a visual color. Evaluation of water activity, color characteristics and related sensory characteristics of Egyptian Gouda cheese (with 60 days of ripening) revealed correlations between these parameters. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):447-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.53

Key Words: Egyptian Gouda cheese • Water activity • color • sensory • ripening

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 Effect of Natural Cabbage and Taro Extracts on Oxidative Enzymes Activity of Frozen and Dried Apple Products

 

Hesham A. Eissa*1, S. M. Saad2, I. M. Abd El-Aleem2, Wafaa A. M. Ibrahim 1, G. M. Abd Elmoniem 1 and A. M. Helmy2

1Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Agriculture Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

*hamin_essa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, effect of taro peel and taro pulp extracts compared with those of cabbage on oxidative enzyme activities of frozen apple pulp and dried apple rings was investigated. Therefore, fresh apple rings were dipped in natural extracts from cabbage, taro peel and taro pulp. The effects of this pretreatment, freezing and drying on oxidative enzymes activity, colour characteristics, and total phenol contents of apple pulp and rings were recorded. The best used concentration of cabbage, taro peel and pulp extracts pre-treatment was found to be 15%, hence it improved the final acceptability and inhibited oxidative enzymes (PPO, POD and catalase) activity for apple pulp and rings. However, it could be noticed that addition of taro pulp extract at 15% in the soaking solution took place, hence the inhibition was 62. 22 %, 65.40 % and 28.68 % for PPO, POD and CAT, respectively in apple pulp. Meanwhile, such addition showed 44.75%, 46.66 % and 80.35 % of PPO, POD and CAT, respectively inhibition in apple rings. Generally, the result showed that utilization of taro pulp extracts at 15% prevented any browning for all frozen apple pulp and dried apple rings compared with untreated samples. The apple pulp and rings pretreated with taro pulp extract caused the highest reduction of oxidative enzyme activities followed by Taro peel extract. Results indicated that the treatment with cabbage and taro pulp extracts inhibited PPO, POD and CAT activity after dipping reached to 44.75 % and 80.35%, respectively. Dried treated apple rings had the highest values for inhibition oxidative enzymes activity compared with frozen apple pulp and untreated samples. Also, results showed a decrease in the total phenols content of dried apple rings comparing with those of frozen apple pulp after pre-treatment with cabbage and taro extracts. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):454-464]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.54

 

Key words: Apple, pulp, rings, drying, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, catalase, colour, extracts, browning, cabbage, taro

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Reverse Evolution: The Evolution Darwin Never Saw Supports Creation

 

Anthony H. Lariccia

 

Anthony H. Lariccia, Investigative Free-Lance Researcher, Creative Research Laboratories,
 4675 Village Street, Erie, Pa. 16506 USA. Telephone: (814) 833-1242

 E-mail: Tonygram@velocity.net & Tonygram@verizon.net

 

ABSTRACT: When Charles Darwin published “On the Origins of Species” in 1859, he introduced the world to the theory of evolution that challenged the widely accepted biblical belief in creation. This paper suggests Darwin’s evolution was the second of two distinctly different types of evolution occurring hundreds of millions of years apart. The first evolution (referenced in this paper as “Reverse Evolution”) and unknown to Darwin and today’s scientific community is suggested in a passage in Genesis found in the Old Testament of the Bible. Genesis is referenced because it provides the only available explanation as to the catalysis responsible for Reverse Evolution. The occurrence of this first evolution both supports the creation theory and provides the logic for the evolution Darwin witnessed. Discussed is the rationale for Reverse Evolutions beginning, the mechanics of its operation, the scientific method to confirm it occurred and why the need to find a “missing link” is no longer appropriate. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):465-469]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.55

 

KEY WORDS: Reverse Evolution, DNA-Singularity

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Physical and Catalytic Properties of Solids Produced from Solid-Solid Interactions between NiO and Fe2O3 System Doped with Ag2O

 

M.A. El-Kherbawi

 

Department of Chemistry, Women faculty for Science, Ain Shams University, Asmaa Fahmi Street, Cairo, Egypt

magdaelkherbawi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Physicochemical properties of equimolar ratio of pure NiO/Fe2O3 system and that doped with 2 and 4% Ag2O were investigated using DTA, XRD and BET. All solid mixtures were calcined at 500, 800 and 1000 C. The catalytic activity was studied through isopropanol conversion in flow system under normal pressure. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of NiO, α-Fe2O3 and NiFe2O4. The activation energy (ΔE) of NiFe2O4 phase formation of pure and doped samples was determined. Ag2O doping enhances the formation of NiFe2O4 and increases the catalytic conversion of iso-propanol to acetone and MIBK. The selectivity of sample doped with 4% Ag2O and calcined at 400 C towards acetone and MIBK formation was 64.26 and 13.30 % respectively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):470-478]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.56

 

Keywords: Nickel oxide; Fe2O3; NiFe2O4; Isopropanol conversion

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Molecular Taxonomy of some Selected Taxa of Subfamily Mimosoideae

 

A. Bahieldeen 1, M. M. Mourad2*and AlSafa H.M.3

 

1 Ain Shams University, Faculty of Agriclture,2,3 Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science

*mouradmagdy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Taxonomic relationships of 12 species representing three tribes of Momosoideae were studied using both the morphological characters and pollen grain characters as well as molecular data obtained by RAPD-PCR, AFLP and ISSR analysis. Nei coeffidient was used to compute the similarity matrices and the UPGMA method was to plot five dendograms demonstrating the relationships among the examined species. The 1st based on morphological and pollen grain character, the 2nd based on molecular criteria obtained by RAPD-PCR analysis, the 3rd based on ISSR analysis, the 4th based on ALFP analysis, and the 5th was based on all the information based on all the molecular parameters. The overall work culminated in discussion of the taxonomic position which was suggested by other workers. The collective dendogram based on the molecular data, even though apparently different from that based on morphological characters show similar relationships with the morphologically based dendogram. For instance, it shows a close relation among Albizia julibrissin, Al. lebbek (originally both belong to Ingeae) and Faidherbia albida (originally belongs to Acacieae). Calliandra haematocephala was separated from other species compared with morphological based dendogram which also separated it but within the same group with Albizia julibrissin, Al. lebbek and Faidherbia albida. This supports the view that Calliandra haematocephala represnts a distinctive character in the Mimosoideae. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):479-491]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.57

 

Keywords: Mimosoideae, Genetic relationships

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Estimating the Groundwater Storage from the Electrical Resistivity Measurements in Wadi El-Natrun Area, Western Desert, Egypt

 

Abdallah Ibrahim Ammar

Research Institute for Groundwater National Water Research Center El-Kanater El-Khairiya, Cairo, Egypt.

Abdallah_ammar_708@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Forty-three vertical electrical sounding stations (VESes) were measured in Wadi El-Natrun area, northern western desert. The analysis of the given well log data was used to estimate the groundwater storage. These VESes were interpreted to determine the subsurface layers and the true resistivities, lithologies and thicknesses variations of such layers. The result of this geoelectrical analysis is the subdivision of the shallow section into five geoelectric layers throughout the study area, except in some parts, where the surface layer disappeared; and the fifth layer is not reached. These layers varied in their resistivities from very low to high values. However, the groundwater is generally contained in the second layer of the unconfined Nile Delta aquifer (Quaternary period), in the third and fourth layers of the confined and semi-confined Wadi El-Natrun aquifer (Pliocene period), then in the fifth layer of the Moghra aquifer (Lower Miocene period). Also, the effective zones of the second, third and fourth layers were separated from the electrical interpretations. However, the variation in the net and effective thickness of each layer was calculated and represented in maps. The well log data of the resistivity, SP and gamma-ray logs were used for evaluating the rock units encountered in fifteen wells. The results of these data arrive at determining the shale and non-shale contents, water saturation and the effective zones as petrophysical parameters to the second, third and fourth layers. However, the variation in the water saturation percentages, net thickness and effective thickness was represented in maps. Then, the statistical analysis from the true resistivity that derived from the geoelectric analysis, and water saturation that deduced from the well log analysis, was carried out, only to the third layer. At the end, a comparison between the net and effective thickness values from the electric and well log interpretations was made, and then by applying the resulted mathematical equations, the groundwater amounts were calculated to the three layers. The results of these calculations showed that, the third layer as high groundwater content, then the fourth layer, but the second layer contains the least amounts. Therefore, the electrical resistivity measurements can be used for estimating the groundwater amounts in case of availability the geological information and the well log data are not available. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):492-502]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.58

 

Keywords: vertical electrical sounding stations (VESes); geoelectrical; Groundwater Storage; Western Desert

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Performance Evaluation Metrics: Can buffer size override the higher rotational speed of hard disk in terms of overall performance or throughput?

 

1Mahmood Ahmed, 1Sajid Mahmood, 2Muhammad Usman Ghani, 1Dr. Muhammad Shoaib

1University of Engineering & Technology Lahore, Pakistan

2The University of Sheffield, UK

mahmoodahmedmughal@gmail.com, sajid.mahmood@kics.edu.pk, usmanghanikhan@gmail.com, shoaib_uet@hotmail.com

Abstract: The aim of performance evaluation is to determine certain performance measures for existing systems or for models of systems to develop new analytical and methodological foundations for certain aspects of performance evaluation, find ways to apply theoretical approaches in creating and evaluating performance models. In this paper measurement based performance evaluation techniques have been applied to two hard disks of same storage capacity but of different rotational speeds. Results have been studied, plotted and discussed. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):503-508]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.59

 

Key-Words: - SUT (System under test), CUT (Component under test), Workload, Probe, Monitor, Agent

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VISFATIN G-948T POLYMORPHISM IN EGYPTIAN TYPE2

DIABETES

 

Hannan A Rehiem 1, Randa F Abd Al Salam*1, Tarek H Gado 1 and Lila A Rashed2

 

1Department of internal medicine2; Department of clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo. Egypt.

randa.fayez@hotmail.com*

 

Abstract: Visfatin is a newly discovered adipokine found in abundance in visceral fat. It lowers plasma glucose in human and mice. In this study, we investigated the role of genetic variant (G – 948 T) of visfatin on serum visfatin and biochemical markers in type 2 diabetic patients. In a case control study 40 diabetic obese type2 compared to 20 healthy controls age and sex matched. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were included fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, lipid profile, serum visfatin serum insulin, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist hip ratio. Visfatin G – 948Tgene polymorphism was performed using the real-time PCR method. Our results showed significant correlation between visfatin BMI, waist, WH ratio, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMAIR, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL but negative correlation with HDL in obese diabetics. G-allele had higher BMI, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HOMAIR, fasting insulin than T-allele carrier however not statistically significant. In conclusion: Variants of visfatin allele might be responsible for changes in visfatin expression and biochemical markers in unrelated Egyptian type 2 diabetic obese patients, visfatin G-948T polymorphism G allele may account for the development of insulin resistance. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):509-514]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.60

 

Key words: Visfatin; Gene polymorphism; Diabetes; Obesity

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61

Microorganisms Found in Fast and Traditional Fast Food

 

Saadia M. Hassanein Easa

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

sadiaeasa@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Sixty food samples were collected from 60 random restaurants of fast and traditional fast foods in El Qassium, Saudi Arabia and were investigated for bacteria species using different temperature degrees (10oC, 20oC, 30oC, 40oC and 50oC) wrere incubated for 24-48 hours and analyzed for fungi and yeasts incubated at 25oC. The results revealed that from 45 sample of traditional foods, yielded a total twenty two species of eighteen genera of bacteria. A fourteen species of twelve genera of fungi and three species of three genera of yeasts. While fast food results revealed that from 15 fast food samples collected from 15 restaurants a total ten species of ten genera of bacteria. A total eight species of seven genera of fungi. The species of bacteria isolated in this study namely, Acetobacter spp., Achromobacter spp., Bacillus coagulans, B. Subtilis, Clostridium perfringens, Erwinia carotovora,p Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Listeria monocytogenes, Microbacterium lacticum, Micrococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Campylobacter jejuni, Citrobacter fruendii, Proteus vulgaris and Yersinia sp. The occurrence of some these bacteria illustrate that fast foods in these restaurants may act as a reservoir of pathogenic bacteria for human. Fungi isolated namely Aspergillus glaucus, A. niger, Alternaria sp., Cheotomium candidum, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium sp., Monilia sp., Mucor rouxii, Neuropora sp., Penicillium expansum, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans, Sporotrichum carinis and Thamnidium elegans. Yeasts were represented namely Torulopsis caroliniana, Saccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces sp. Total viable count of bacteria (CFU) was higher in foods containing vegetable salad and fresh vegetables more than heated foods (e.g., chicken Shawarma, Beef burger). Some bacteria resist heat and grow at 50oC. Contamination occurred through raw foods, use of polluted irrigation waters, human handling and use of contaminated containers. The binge-eating of fast food can lead to measurable signs of liver injury, inflammation and inexpensive fat-and calorie-packed foods make as the fattest. Food poisoning can be controlled by the adjustment of pH, water activity, temperature control. Prevention of toxins in fast foods must become a cooperative effort on the part of all involved in food production. Prevent multiply the microorganisms by washing and dry hands before preparing any foods and after handling raw foods (meat, poultry, vegetables or fruits), food preparation areas, equipment must be cleaned, kitchen areas, restaurants and foods protected from insects, pests and other animals. Patients should not handle foods in restaurants. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):515-531]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.61

 

Key words: Fast food, traditional fast food, bacteria, fungi, yeasts, temperatures, contamination, poisoning food

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Protected Groves of Garhwal Himalaya, India: Biodiversity Status and Strategies for their Conservation

Tapendra Singh Bisht1, Radha Ballabha1 and A. B. Bhatt1

 1Department of Botany, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand- 246 174, India

Authors E-mail: tapi_bisht06@ yahoo.co.in, radhekuniyal.2007@rediffmail.com

 Abstract: The people of Garhwal, a part of central Himalaya, follow ancestral worship and animism in the form of deity worship, with the central focus on worship in forest patches. These social boundaries help to conserve the entire organisms as a whole, which stand the concept of sacred or protected groves. The pleasing of deities is performed every year by the villagers around the sacred groves, in honour of the deities and to gain their favour. Indigenous cultural and rituals practices of the local people in sacred groves serve as a tool for conserving biodiversity. Protected or sacred groves are distributed over a wide ecosystem and help in conservation of rare and endemic species. Well-preserved protected groves are store houses of valuable medicinal and other plants having high economic value, and serve as a refuge to threatened species. Thirty sacred and protected groves were inventoried in six districts of Garhwal Himalaya. Detailed studies were carried out in four selected groves, to understand the importance of biodiversity status and vegetation characteristics. A total of 271 plant species representing 211 genera under 88 families were recorded through baseline floristic survey. The species diversity indices were compared among the four studied groves. The vegetation composition and community characteristics were recorded. Ethnobotanical uses of species were examined, which reveal that 90% of species were used as medicine for the treatment of various ailments. A few of the medicinal plants which have disappeared from the locality are now confined only to the groves. Socio- cultural aspects were investigated taking into account the attitudes of local people, which indicates social beliefs and taboo are eroding simultaneously degrading the degree of protection of sacred and protected groves. Therefore, conservation measures of protected groves need to be formulated considering the factor of degradation and the basic necessities of the local people. Until and unless a viable option is provided to the local people for sustaining their economic condition, no step for conservation of biodiversity will be successful.

[Tapendra Singh Bisht, Radha Ballabha and A. B. Bhatt. Protected Groves of Garhwal Himalaya, India: Biodiversity Status and Strategies for their Conservation. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):532-541]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.62

 Keywords: Garhwal Himalaya, Protected groves, Biodiversity value, Conservation status

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Some pathological, biochemical and hematological investigations on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following chronic exposure to edifenphos pesticide.

 

A.Y. Gaafar1*, E.M. El-Manakhly2, M.K. Soliman3, H. Soufy1, Mona S. Zaki1, Safinaz G. Mohamed4 and Shahenaz M. Hassan5.

 

1Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - Alexandria University, Edfina, Egypt.

3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - Behira University, Bostan City, Egypt.

4National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria, Egypt.

5Animal Health Research Institute, Alexandria branch, Egypt.

*alkhateibyg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nile tilapia is the main cultured species in Egypt; the Egyptian fish farms are irrigated with agricultural drainage which contains pesticides residues or their metabolites which may affect fish. This study concerned with the pathologic and clinicopathologic findings due to chronic exposure to the organophosphate fungicide edifenphos on Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Eight weeks exposure to 1/10 96 hours LC50 (0.1 ppm) led to adverse effect on some serum parameters including AST, ALT, ALP, cholinesterase activity, total protein, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Also some of hematological parameters such as RBCs count, Hb content and blood indices were affected negatively. Histopathological investigations revealed various degrees of pathological lesions in different organs like gills, hepatopancreas, spleen, kidney, brain, and others. From this study it was obvious that edifenphos caused harmful effects on Nile tilapia fish. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):542-551]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.63

 

Keywords: Edifenphos, Hinosan, Oreochromis niloticus, tilapia, organophosphate, histopathology

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Effect of some Simulative Compounds on Growth, Yield and Chemical Composition of Snap Bean Plants Grown under Calcareous Soil Conditions

 

Hanafy Ahmed, A. H.1; Nesiem, M. R.1; Hewedy, A. M.2 and Sallam, H. El-S.2

1Plant Pysiology Section, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, 2Vegetable Research Dep., Horticulture Research Institute, Giza, Egypt

 

Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at Nubareia Agricultural Research Station Farm on a calcareous soil under drip irrigation system to study the effect of adding humic acid (20 g/l) as well as foliar application with putrescine (1.0 mg/l), novavol (2.5 ml/l) and vegimax (0.2 ml/l) on growth, yield and its components as well as chemical composition of snap bean plants cv. Paulista. The obtained results indicated that, application of humic acid, novavol or vegimax significantly increased all of the studied growth characters, i.e. plant height, number of leaves and branches/plant, leaf area as well as dry weight of shoots and roots at both samples. However, putrescine did not show a clear trend for various studied growth characters. Moreover, addition of humic acid as well as foliar application by novavol, putrescine and vegimax significantly increased yield and its components, i.e. total green pod yield, number of pods/plant, pods weights/plant, average pod weight and pod diameter at both pickings. Plant pigments, i.e. chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and caroenoids concentrations either in leaves or pods significantly increased at both samples when the plants treated with humic acid, novavol and vegimax. In shoots, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe concentrations significantly increased at both samples with all studied applications. Meanwhile in pods, addition of humic acid significantly affected on N, K, Fe and Cu concentrations, whereas foliar application with novavol and vegimax significantly improved N, K, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe concentration at both pickings. On the other hand, application of any treatments significantly decreased Na and Cl concentrations in both shoots and pods at both samples. Results also showed that all studied applications significantly increased some organic compounds, i.e. total sugar, total free amino acids and total soluble phenols concentrations at both of shoots and pods in both samples as well as protein concentration in pods. Meanwhile, all studied applications significantly decreased pods bending % and fiber content in pods at both pickings as well as pod humidity % and nitrate concentrations with humic acid, putrescine and vegimax treatments. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):552-569]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.64

 

Keywords: Field; drip irrigation system; humic acid

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Manufacture of Low Fat UF-Soft Cheese Supplemented with Rosemary Extract (as Natural Antioxidant)

 

Hala, M.F. El-Din*1, Ebtisam,I. Ghita2, Sanaa,M.A. Badran2, A.S. Gad1 and Marwa, M.El-Said1

 

1Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, 2Dairy Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Halah_fakhr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: UF- soft cheese was prepared from UF milk retentate (1.5% fat) and supplemented with 1-5% rosemary extract (RE) and cold stored for 30 days. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP methods in retentate before and after pasteurization and salting and in the resultant cheese. Also, the chemical composition and sensory properties were evaluated. Fortification of retentate with rosemary extract increased its content of phenolic content and consequently, its antioxidant activity. Pasteurization increased the TPC and antioxidant activity. Addition of 3% Nacl reduced slightly the TPC, RSA% and FRAP values. Moreover, it was noticed that UF- soft cheese fortified with 1% rosemary extract retained more TPC and antioxidant activity; also, increasing the concentration of rosemary extract to 5% had more acceptable flavor, body and texture, and antioxidant activity until 30 days. Furthermore, the rate of decrease in TPC, RSA% and FRAP values in cheese samples with rosemary extract after 30 days of storage were less comparable to control cheese (without RE). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):570-579]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.65

Keywords: UF milk retentate, UF-Soft Cheese, Rosemary Extract, Antioxidant

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Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Region Growing And Edge Detection Segmentation Algorithms.

 

Ahmed R. Khalifa

 

Systems & Computer Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University, Cairo, EGYPT

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: One of the important problems that ever exist in performance evaluation of any segmentation algorithm is that, when we ingrain the obtained results in a specific application, these results may not be expandable to any other application. So, it is very difficult to appraise whether one algorithm produces more precise segmentation than the other one. This paper, presents a novel technique through which the evaluation of the effectiveness of Region Growing and Edge Detection segmentation algorithms is carried out. The proposed evaluation metric is based on the EXOR measure approach, which was originally proposed for the evaluation of skin tumor borders [1]. This performance measure is then extended to a condition where the evaluation of these two image segmentation algorithms can be compared in a suitable and appropriate manner. In order to validate the proposed performance measure, we used 300 images from the publicly available Berkley Segmentation Dataset. These images are classified into seven groups of images, according to the dominant image. The evaluation and comparison results shows that the effectiveness of edge detection segmentation algorithm is better than region growing segmentation algorithm in many applications. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):580-587]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.66

 

Keywords: Region Growing, Edge Detection, EXOR

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Effect of Protein Additives on in vitro Maturation of Egyptian Sheep Oocytes with Reference to Seasonal Variation Effects on Yield and Quality of Oocytes

 

I.M. Farag*1; S.M. Girgis1*; N. H. A. Hassan2; W.K.B.Khalil1; A.A.M.Sakr 2 and N.I. Ali1

1Cell Biology Dept., National Research Centre, 2Zoology Dept., Fac. of Sci., Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

faragimdiab@yahoo.com* shenoudagirgis10@yahoo.com*

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementing of protein additives (PA) in forms of 10% ovine amniotic fluid (OAF), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 10% sheep serum (SS), individually to culture media (TCM-199 or RPMI-1640) on in vitro nuclear maturation (IVM) of sheep oocytes. In addition, the effect of seasonal variations on the yield and quality of recovered sheep oocytes was also evaluated. Sheep ovaries were collected from local slaughterhouse. Cumulus-oocytes complexes (COCs) and denuded oocytes (DOs) were aspirated and matured in culture media (TCM-199 or RPMI -1640) for 26-29h at 39C under 5% CO2 in air and 95% humidity. The results showed that the supplementation of protein additives (PA) in forms of OAF, FBS or SS to culture media (TCM-199 or RPMI-1640) are required for IVM of sheep oocytes. The supplementing of PA to culture media was more efficacious in TCM-199 than RPMI-1640 for IVM of oocytes. The COCs were more response for PA than denuded oocytes. The spring was the best season for recovery of COCs which have a worthy competence to be matured in vitro. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the importance of PA with the suitable culture media during the proper season for IVM of sheep oocytes as an abundant source for production of transgenics and cloning. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):588-599]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.67

Key words: Protein additives, nuclear maturation, sheep, oocytes, season, quality

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68

[Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):600-605]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.68

Withdrawn

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69

Estimate Solubility of Canola oil (Oleic Acid) in Supercritical Carbon dioxide - Experimental and Modeling

 

Soroush Zarinabadi1*, Riyaz Kharrat2, Ali Vaziri Yazdi3

 

1, 3-Islamic Azad University- Science & Research Branch – Tehran, Iran

2-Petroleum University of Technology - Tehran, Iran

1-zarinabadi@yahoo.com, 2-kharrat@put.ac.ir, 3- avy123@behta.com

 

Abstract: Extraction by using supercritical fluids is one of the procedures for separating specific substances which are not separable by common methods. (Like separating bimolecular from foods).one of the most important properties of bimolecular which makes using supercritical fluids method useful to separate them is great change of solubility in supercritical solvents with change in pressure and temperature. Intermolecular energy parameters, critical properties, acenteric factor, and molecular interactions are some parameters that restrict us in using thermodynamic simple equations in modeling supercritical interactions. In this research, four state equations (third order) was used in modeling colza oil extraction (oleic oily acid) by supercritical carbon dioxide that consisted of Vandervalse, Redlish-Quang,Ping-Robinson and Mohsen nia-Mansori- Modares(MMM) corrected equation. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):606-611]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.69

 

Keywords: Supercritical fluid, Extraction, Canola Oil, Thermodynamic model

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Reliability and Availability of the Coastal Missile Defence System

 

Ali Peiravi

 

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Mashhad IRAN

Telephone number: (0098) 511-881-5100; Fax number: (0098) 511-8763302; Ali_peiravi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Reliability is one of the main salient assets of modern weapon systems. The estimation of the failure rate of the major subsystems of military defence systems is of utmost importance in the design of any country's overall defence system. The results of a study to estimate the failure rate of the main computer system of the launcher of a shore to sea missile launcher is presented in this study. The effect of this failure rate on the reliability of the launcher and the overall availability of the missile guidance, launch and control system are studied considering the vast region to be covered along the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea area by such a defence system. Since aging of parts reduces a system's availability, the availability of the coastal missile defence system is studied based on the availability of each subsystem indicating the extent of work required for the reliability growth of the missile defence system along the coast. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):612-616]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.70

 

Key words: Reliability estimation, Failure rate, Coastal defence system, Availability

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Effect of Initial Inoculation of Meloidogyne javanica on Growth and Yield of Lagenaria siceraria

 

*Tanweer Azam; Hisamuddin and Merajul Islam Robab

Section of Plant Pathology and Nematology, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. 202 002

*Corresponding Author: Tanweer Azam; Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. 202 002

+91- 9758973098; azamtanweer@gmail.com

Co-authors: Hisamuddin; Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. 202 002

+91- 9358251728; hisams@gmail.com

Merajul Islam Robab; Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. 202 002

+91- 9897319052; meraj.botanica@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The plants of Lagenaria siceraria were inoculated with 02, 20, 200, 2,000 and 20,000 juveniles of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) per pot, under green house condition. Significant and maximum reduction in plant growth and yield was noticed at the highest inoculum level (T4 and T5) plant. Non-significant reduction in the length and weight of the root and shoot of Lagenaria siceraria in T1 and T2 plants, plants were inoculated with 2 and 20 juveniles/plants. The number of galls was greatly influenced by the initial population of the nematode. The maximum number and size of galls were noticed in T4 and T5 plants. The juveniles caused rupturing of epidermis of the root of Lagenaria siceraria while penetrating into the inner tissues. In young roots the juveniles migrated towards differentiating vascular tissues. Their migration was intra and inter cellular. In older roots, they migrated through the cortex. They caused the formation of giant cells in the form of clusters. In a giant cell cluster these are five to twelve giant cells, each having dense cytoplasm and enlarged nuclei. All the nuclei enclosed one to few nucleoli. The giant cell clusters modify the internal morphology of the affected tissue. In addition, abnormal xylem and abnormal phloem also occupy a major portion near the giant cells. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):617-622]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.71

 

Keywords: Lagenaria siceraria, Meloidogyne javanica, giant cell

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Optimum Choice of NGP, CIC and QS Algorithms in One Dimensional Electrostatic Particle Simulations

 

Ali Peiravi

 

Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,

Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Mashhad IRAN

Telephone number: (0098) 511-881-5100; Ali_peiravi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Several algorithms of different order and complexity are available for particle simulations. In this study, the actual results of measurements of self heating times as a measure of accuracy of a single species one dimensional electrostatic simulation of thermal plasmas are presented using zero order weightings (NGP), linear weighting (CIC), and quadratic spline (QS) weighting. Optimal range of parameters is found to be along  for zero order weightings and  for linear and quadratic spline weighting. Considerable increase in self heating time is achieved through truncation in k-space. The results are useful in the optimum choice of simulation algorithm and indicate that using a higher order simulation algorithm is highly recommended, especially when k-space truncation is used. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):623-628]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.72

 

Key words: Plasma simulation, self heating times, choice of simulation algorithm, NGP, CIC, QS

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Effect of Spacing on The Performance of Extra Early Yellow Maize (Zea Mays L.) Variety Tzesr - Y in Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria
 

*Futuless, K, N; Kwaga, Y.M1 and Aberakwa, S.M2
1. Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture Adamawa State University, P.M.B 25, Mubi Nigeria
2. Ministry of Agriculture Mubi, Adamawa State Nigeria
* E-Mail: Futulesskaki@yahoo.com; GSM: 08034798172

 

Abstract: The study examined the effect of spacing on extra early yellow maize variety TZESR —Y in Mubi Adamawa state with the objective of finding the most appropriate spacing for optimum yield. The effect of four spacing viz: 75cm x 25cm, 75cm x 20cm, 75cm x 15cm and 75cm x 10cm respectively were evaluated. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Data were taken on nine parameters viz: plant height, plant leaves, length of cob, diameter of cob, stem girth, 1000 seed weight, days to 50% tasseling, days to physiological maturity and yield per plot. Results were obtained after subjecting the data to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results shows that spacing has great significance on the performance of maize. S1 (75cm x 25cm) gave the highest number of days to 50% tasseling (48), length of cob (12.13), diameter of cob (13.27), stem girth (13.02), 1000 seed weight (1000g) and yield per plot (1900kg/ha) respectively. It was observed also that these values were significantly (p=0.05) different with other means. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):629-633]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.73

Key Words: Zea mays, spacing, performance, variety, physiological, maturity

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Digestibility, Nitrogen balance and haematological profile of West African dwarf sheep fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera as supplement to Panicum maximum

 

Akinyemi A. Fadiyimu*, Julius A. Alokan1 and Adebowale N. Fajemisin2

*Department of Animal Production, Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Nigeria.

1Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Tel: +234 0803 720 8290; adebayoalokan@yahoo.com

2Department of Animal Production and Health, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Tel: +234 0803 374 6415; debofajemisin@yahoo.com

*Corresponding author: yemifadiyimu@yahoo.com Tel: +234 0803 355 9984

Abstract: The effect of inclusion level on nutrient intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and haematological parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep fed Moringa oleifera as supplements to Panicum maximum was investigated in a completely randomized design experiment using twenty WAD rams with average initial weight of 16.1kg. There were five treatments 1 – 5 with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % M. oleifera inclusion levels respectively. M. oleifera had better nutrient profile with 29.68% CP and 16.98% CF contents than P. maximum with 9.17% CP and 40.37% CF. Inclusion of M. oleifera as supplement to P. maximum in the diets of WAD sheep significantly lowered (P<0.05) DM intake especially at higher (>50%) inclusion rates. OM, EE and NFE intakes were similar but CP intake increased while CF intake decreased (P<0.05) as inclusion level increases. The best DM, organic matter (OM), CP and Nitrogen-free extract (NFE) digestibility were obtained at 100 % Moringa inclusion while CF and ether extract (EE) digestibility were highest at 25 % inclusion level which also gave similar DM and CP digestibility with 100 % inclusion. N balance and retention were best under 25 % M. oleifera and least under 75 % M. oleifera. Packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts for animals on browse supplementation were within the normal physiological range for healthy sheep, in contrast with those without supplementation which were below the range. The blood profile was best for animals on 25 % Moringa inclusion. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):634-643]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.74

Key words: Digestibility, haematological profile, WAD sheep, Moringa

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Genotype Effect on the Reaction of Groundnut to Alectra vogelii (Benth.) Infestation in a Sub-humid Environment

*Yohanna M.amma. Kwaga1, Olussoji. Olufajo2, Balarabe. Tanimu2, Joseph Shebayan 2, S.T.O. Lagoke

 

1Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria

2Department of Agronomy, Ahmadu Bello University, P.M.B 1044, Zaria, Nigeria

3Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

: e-mail kwagahanna@gmail.com

Abstract: Field and screen house trials were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Samaru in the northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria to evaluate the reaction of 36 groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes to artificial inoculation with Alectra vogelii (Benth.).The field trial was conducted on a plot that was inoculated with about 24,000 Alectra seeds per each groundnut hill in the previous season. Every year, the trial plots were further inoculated with 2,700 Alectra seeds per hill and laid out in randomized complete block design(RCBD) with three replications. In the screen house, half of the experimental pots were inoculated with about 64,500 Alectra seeds per pot while the remaining half was used as un-inoculated control. Two out of the 36 groundnut genotypes screened ISG NIG 701 and SAMNUT-18, exhibited low pod yield reduction in the screen house and hosted low to moderate Alectra shoot number in both the field and screen house. These genotypes therefore appeared to be moderately resistant to Alectra. Two other genotypes, ISG NIG 174 and SAMNUT-11 which had very low pod yield reduction in the screen house and moderate to high Alectra shoot population in the screen house as well as the field could be regarded as being tolerant to Alectra. Groundnut genotypes, ISN NIG 858, ISG NIG 251, ISG NIG 826, ISG NIG 200B and ISG NIG 222 which had less pod yield reduction than ISG NIG 174 and SAMNUT-11 and supported moderate to high number of Alectra shoots both in the field and screen house were considered to be moderately tolerant to Alectra. Other groundnut genotypes supported high Alectra shoots in both the field and screen house and had high pod yield reduction in the screen house and were therefore highly susceptible to Alectra parasitism. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):644-651]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.75

Key words: Alectra vogelii, Reaction, Resistance, Tolerance.

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Direct Identification of Major Pathogens of the Bubaline Subclinical Mastitis in Egypt using PCR

 

KhaledA. Abd El-Razika,*,KhaledA.Abdelrahmanb,Youssef F.Ahmeda,AlaaM. Gomaac, HazemA.Eldebakya

 

aAnimal Reproduction Dept., bParasitologyDept., National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

cMastitis and Neonate Dept., Animal Reproduction Research Institute-Haram-Giza-Egypt.

*khaledemara707@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Present study is aimed to evaluate the PCRassays (using Universal and specific primers) for detecting the major pathogens of bubaline subclinical mastitis directly from 160 buffaloesmilk samples in comparison with bacterial examination.The bacteriological examinations showed incidence of 23.75%, 15.62%, 3.12% and 0.62% forE.coli, S.aureus, S.agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae respectively. PCR was better in sensitivity and specificity than the conventional culture as it detected more positive results in culturally negative milk samples.Thelevel of sensitivity achieved in our experiments (5x101CFU/ml of milk) is applicableto milk sample analysis without sample enrichment. The results suggest that this PCR assay especially that one works with universal primers could be used as an alternative method inroutine diagnosis for rapid, sensitive, and specific simultaneousdetection of E.coli,S. aureus, S. agalactiae andS.dysgalactiaein milk samples. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):652-660]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.76

 

Key words: Buffaloes, subclinical mastitis, Staph, Strept, E.coli, PCR

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Bioremediation of Paraffinic and Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Using Laser irradiated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

 

A.Y. El Naggar *1, M.M.Kamel2, A.A.Aladly3 and N.A. Ismail 4

 

1Taif University, Faculty of Science, Kingdom Saudi Arabia

2Water Pollution Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3 National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo, Egypt

4 Basic Sciences Department, 6th October University, Cairo, Egypt

*aynaggar361@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: River Nile is considered as one of the most important rivers in the world, it suffers from severe increase in pollutants' levels due to the direct discharge of industrial effluents into its water body. In an effort at developing active microbial strains that could be relevance in the bioremediation of these pollutants, eighteen hydrocarbon degrading bacterial isolates were purified from five sites along the river's main stream. The most potent bacterial isolate was identified according to the BioLog TM microplate assay as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In a trial to promote its degradation potentiality it was subjected to different He-Ne laser (7.3 mW, 632.8nm) irradiation doses. The chromatographic analysis of the residual substrates revealed that the irradiated isolate was able to degrade 98.12% of the paraffinic fraction and completely degrade the polynuclear aromatic fraction after 30hrs of incubation, these results supports its future usage in the bioremediation strategy of industrial effluents. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):661-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.77

 

Key Words: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, He-Ne laser radiation, Paraffinic hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, Bioremediation

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Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Some Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) Varieties in Northern Guinea Savanna

 

Futuless, Kaki Ngodi and Bake, Ibrahim Dauda

 

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi. P. M. B. 25, Adamawa State, Nigeria

E – Mail: futulesskaki@yahoo.com; GSM:08034798172

 

Abstract: Five cowpea varieties were evaluated in 2009 to determine their grain yield attributes. The experiment was conducted at the Research and Teaching Farm of Department of Crop Science, Adamawa State University Mubi laid in randomized complete block design in three replicates. Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves per plant, number of branches per plant, number of days to flowering, pod filling period, days to physiological maturity, pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pods, number of seeds per plant, 1000 seed weight and yield per hectare. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. Most of the yield and yield determining attributes recorded significant (P = 0.05) difference due to treatment effects. These varieties flowered between 38.02 days to 50.12 days after planting and the maturity period did not exceed 71 days. Average grain yield ranged between 14,000.3kg/ha to 20, 000.20kg/ha. V2 (Brown Kananado) recorded the highest yield of 20,000.20kg/ha with V5 (Ife - Brown) giving the least yield of 14,000.30kg/ha. The need to develop varieties with different attributes and resistance to major biotic and abiotic constraints to suite the needs of different agro – ecological zones can not be over emphasized. This is because varietal requirements in terms of plant type, seed type, maturity, yield for cowpea varies from one agro – ecological region to another. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):671-674]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.78

 

Key Words: Cowpea, Genotypes, Optimum, Evaluation, Yield Components

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Salicylic Acid Ameliorates Germination, Seedling Growth, Phytohormone and Enzymes Activity in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under Cold Stress 

 

Gharib F. A. 1 and Hegazi A. Z. 2

 

1 Botany department, Faculty of science, Helwan University, Egypt.

2Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

*amalhegazi2000@yahoo.com; fgharib_8@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: An experiment was carried out under laboratory condition to tackle low temperature stress by using salicylic acid (SA). Seeds of six common bean varieties (Polista, Nebraska, Goro, Helda, Duel and Giza 6) were soaked in water or 10−4 M aerated solution of salicylic acid (SA) for 6 h. Treated and untreated seeds were germinated at 25C (optimal temperature) and at 15C (suboptimal temperature or chilling stress) under dark controlled conditions for 9 and 30 days, respectively. Germination and seedling growth of the six tested varieties were significantly hindered under low temperature. Seed treatments with SA significantly improved germination percentage, germination rate and seedling criteria, compared with control seeds under optimal and low temperature stress conditions. The content of Indolacetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA3) and Abscisic acid (ABA) increased in the different varieties under study, in response to seed soaking in 10−4M SA at 15C. GA3/ABA ratio showed maximum increase in Duel and Helda, while the lowest ratio was observed in Giza 6 and Nebraska seedlings. At the same low temperature, catalase activity was decreased, whereas that of polyphenol oxidase increased on using 10-4M SA. Peroxidase isozymes indicated five to three isozymes in seedlings of the six bean varieties. Salicylic acid treatment resulted in detecting (in Duel) and disappearance (in Nebraska) of peroxidase isozymes at Rf: 0.37, which might be responsible for tolerance and sensitivity mechanism, respectively. The present results indicated that, salicylic acid stimulated various growth aspects of bean seedlings perhaps through interference with the enzymatic activities responsible for biosynthesis and/or catabolism of growth promoting and inhibiting substances. Thus, it might be concluded that, SA could eliminate the adverse effects of cold stress in common bean. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):675-683]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.79

 

Key words: Common bean, germination, seed soaking, seedling growth, salicylic acid, cold stress, phytohormones, enzymes activity

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Corn-Wheat Pan Bread Quality as Affected by Hydrocolloids

 

Attia A. Yaseen*, Abd El-Hafeez A. Shouk and Mostafa T. Ramadan

 

Food Technology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*Ayaseen565@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: The study was carried out to use hydrocolloids for improving quality of corn-wheat pan bread. The use of composite flour for bread making is gradually gaining prominence world wide due to some economic and nutritional reasons. However, the wheat-corn bread is suffering from many technological problems. This study examines the functional role of gum arabic and pectin on dough properties and pan bread from corn wheat flour. Addition of gum arabic or pectin was 1, 2 and 3% levels to wheat-corn flour mixture (80:20). Rheological properties of dough, baking quality and organoleptic properties of bread were investigated. Bread was stored at room temperature for 5 days and staling rate was also studied. Results showed that wheat-corn flour had lesser water absorption, dough stability, extensibility, resistance to extension and dough energy than wheat flour dough. However, addition of gum arabic or pectin to wheat-corn flour dough caused a noticeable increase in the above parameters and yielding strengthened doughs. Loaf volume, specific loaf volume and crumb moisture were improved upon the addition of gum arabic or pectin. Both two hydrocolloids made bread more fresh than the control. Pectin addition caused higher values of alkaline water retention capacity than gum arabic. It was found that gum arabic or pectin could be effectively used to improve dough handling, baking quality, sensory acceptability and retarded staling of corn-wheat bread up to 2 and 3%, respectively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):684-790]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.80

 

Key words: gum arabic, pectin, corn flour, wheat flour, pan bread quality

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Utilization of Grantitoid Rocks in Taif Area as Raw Materials in Ceramic Bodies

 

A. El-Maghraby, a*, b; M. A. Abou ElMaaty a, b; G. A. Khater b and Nasser Y. Mostafa a,c

 

a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif 888, University, Saudi Arabia

b Ceramic Department, National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

c Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

*Aelmaghraby60@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Traditionally, granite is used to produce porcelain and stoneware in Saudi Arab. In the present investigation, the granite raw materials were collected from Taif area (Wade Elnoman). The nature granite was characterized with respect to their mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, DTA analysis and microscopic examination. In the second part of the work, the magnetic separation method give a final non-magnetic concentrate (conc.) with relatively high of K2O and Na2O and minimal amount of Fe2O3 and TiO2. All the obtained final non-magnetic concentrate fulfills the chemical and mineralogical constitution required in ceramic industry. In third part of the work, the preparation and characterizing of ceramic bodies with nature granite, concentrate granite and feldspar were studies. Ceramic batch's were made by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press) and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 C. The technological properties determined by physical properties and mechanical strength. Microstructure and phases analysis of the fired bodies were carried out by XRD and SEM. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):691-701]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.81

 

Keywords: granite, magnetic separation, ceramic bodies, XRD, XRF, DTA, SEM

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The Chemo-Protective Effect of Turmeric, Chili, Cloves and Cardamom on Correcting Iron Overload-Induced Liver Injury, Oxidative Stress and Serum Lipid Profile in Rat Models.

 

 Eman A.Sadeek* and Fatma H. Abd El-Razek

 

Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition,Women's College –Ain –Shams University

*dr_emansaddeek@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: Assessing the chemoprotective effect of turmeric, clove, chili and cardamom on correcting iron overload -inducing liver injury,oxidative stress and serum lipid profile in rat models.

Methods: Design of the Study: Thirty sex male wistar rats weighing 145.81 12.10g (mean S.D) were divided into 6 groups. The first group served as a control and consumed a standard diet according to (AIN – 93). The other 5 groups were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose 30 mg Fe / kg body weight. One group was kept without further treatment and served as a positive control. Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 consumed diets to which finely ground 2 % turmeric, clove, and chili and cardamom flour were incorporated, respectively. The feeding trial continued for five weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the liver was separated and saved frozen for subsequent biochemical analysis. Laboratory investigations Consisted of liver function test [ALT, AST, ALP], complete lipid profile, measurement of lipid peroxidation indices and the antioxidative catalase enzyme activity. In addition liver iron was determined to test the magnitude of liver toxicity and the antioxidant potential of the supplements. Results: The iron overload was associated with significant increases in the activities of the liver enzymes AST, ALT, ALP (P< 0.05) compared with the respective mean control values. All parameters of lipid profile (i.e., serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol, phospholipids), total bilirubin and MDA showed significant increase. On the other hand, the mean HDL – cholesterol and the activity of serum catalase were lower than the respective mean values of the control. Liver iron deposition also increased significantly after the iron overload. The incorporation of the turmeric, clove, chili, or cardamom in the diet at 2 % significantly restored the enzyme activities of the liver AST, ALT, ALP to normal level. The mean values of lipid profile, the MDA and serum total bilirubin were also reduced. The liver iron deposition was reduced with significant increase in the activity of mean serum catalase and HDL-cholesterol compared with the respective mean values obtained with the positive control group overloaded with iron. Conclusion: The observed improvement in the liver functions suggests that the chemo-protective effect of the turmeric, clove, chili and cardamom is attributed to chelation with iron followed by excretion of the complex. This result may find application among populations at risk of iron overload; either acquired or inherited. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):702-712]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.82

 

Key words: Iron overload, liver injury, oxidative stress, turmeric, clove, chili and cardamom

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Conservative Breast Surgery in Early and Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

 

Tamer A. ElBakary*1, Salah ElDin A. ElGohary1, Magdy M. Elgendy1, Ashraf F. Barakat2 and

Samar Galal Younes2

 

1Department of Surgical Oncology, 2Department of Clinical Oncology, Tanta University, Tanat, Egypt

*telbakary@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim: to evaluate efficacy of breast conservation surgery in loco-regional control of early & locally advanced breast surgery. Methods: the study included 2 groups; group A: 30 patients with early breast cancer & group B: 32 patients with 33 locally advanced breast cancer which were furtherly subdivided into 2 subgroups: 1-FAC group: 24 patients with 25 breast cancer received 3 cycles of FAC regimen, 2-TAC group: 8 patients received 3 cycles of TAC regimen. Group A patients were submitted to quadrentectomy & axillary evacuation, group B patients were submitted to quadrentectomy & axillary evacuation or modified radical mastectomy according to their response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: in group A, 1 patient developed local recurrence & submitted to completion mastectomy, in group B, overall response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 54.5%. 14 patients in group B underwent breast conservation surgery, 18 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, 5 patients in group B developed treatment failure. Conclusion: breast conservation surgery is safe surgical technique for local control of both early & locally advanced breast cancer after downstaging by neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has significant anti-tumour activity & it increases the ability to perform breast conservation surgery. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):713-720]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.83

 

Keywords: Breast conservation surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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Corn-Wheat Pan Bread Quality as Affected by Hydrocolloids

 

Attia A. Yaseen*, Abd El-Hafeez A. Shouk and Mostafa T. Ramadan

 

Food Technology Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*Ayaseen565@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was carried out to use hydrocolloids for improving quality of corn-wheat pan bread. The use of composite flour for bread making is gradually gaining prominence world wide due to some economic and nutritional reasons. However, the wheat-corn bread is suffering from many technological problems. This study examines the functional role of gum arabic and pectin on dough properties and pan bread from corn wheat flour. Addition of gum arabic or pectin was 1, 2 and 3% levels to wheat-corn flour mixture (80:20). Rheological properties of dough, baking quality and organoleptic properties of bread were investigated. Bread was stored at room temperature for 5 days and staling rate was also studied. Results showed that wheat-corn flour had lesser water absorption, dough stability, extensibility, resistance to extension and dough energy than wheat flour dough. However, addition of gum arabic or pectin to wheat-corn flour dough caused a noticeable increase in the above parameters and yielding strengthened doughs. Loaf volume, specific loaf volume and crumb moisture were improved upon the addition of gum arabic or pectin. Both two hydrocolloids made bread more fresh than the control. Pectin addition caused higher values of alkaline water retention capacity than gum arabic. It was found that gum arabic or pectin could be effectively used to improve dough handling, baking quality, sensory acceptability and retarded staling of corn-wheat bread up to 2 and 3%, respectively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):721-727]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.84

 

Key words: gum arabic, pectin, corn flour, wheat flour, pan bread quality

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Identification and Characterization of Dominant Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Rayeb Milk in Egypt

 

Abd El Gawad, I.A.; Abd El Fatah, A.M. and Al Rubayyi, K.A*

 

Department of Dairy Science and Technology, Faculty of Agric., Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

*Kahalid308@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: A total of 170 strains were isolated from 40 traditional Rayeb milk samples that were collected from different areas in Egypt. The Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated the microbial population of Rayeb milk and were identified on basis of their morphological, physiological and biochemical (API) characteristics. Among the isolates, the Lactobacilli were dominant. The distribution of the isolates by genus was as fallows: Lactobacilli (30%), Leuconostoc (26%), Enterococcus (20%), Streptococcus (18%) and Aerococcus (6%). Thirty eight representative LAB strains were identified to species level belonging to species Str. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. helviticus, L. acidophilus, L. delbuerkii, Leu. cremoris, Ent. faecium, Str. durans, Str. acidomonas and Aer. viridans. The identified strains were then evaluated for some technological properties. Most strains of lactobacilli produced EPS and two strains only had antagonistic properties against E. coli and S. aureus. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):728-735]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.85

 

Key words: Traditional Egyption Rayeb milk, LAB, API technique

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Studies on Anti-oxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Miers.) Leaves using in vitro models

Ramya Premanath and N. Lakshmidevi*

Department of Microbiology, Manasagangotri, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India

lakshmiavina@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules, making them a rich source of different types of medicines. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concern over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. In the present study, we examined the anti-oxidant effects of leaves of Tinospora cordifolia. Dried and powered leaves of T. cordifolia were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and water. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of different solvent extracts were determined. Of the different solvent extracts, ethanol extract had the highest phenol and flavonoid content of 5.10.25 mg/g and 0.520.02 mg/g respectively. Antioxidant assays were carried out by using different in vitro models such as total reducing power, total antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Ethanol extract showed the highest total antioxidant activity of 41.40.45 M Fe(II)/g. The EC50 values of ethanol extract for lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml respectively. The anti-oxidant activities of other solvent extracts were poor when compared to the ethanol extract. These results suggest that, the active antioxidant compounds are better extracted in ethanol and there is a direct correlation between the total polyphenols extracted and its anti-oxidant activity. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of T. cordifolia justifies the ethno medical use of this plant. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):736-743]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.86

 

Key words: Medicinal plant; Tinospora cordifolia; solvent extracts; anti-oxidant activity

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Haemodynamic Changes of the Superovulated Follicle as a Cause of Superovulation Variability in Cattle

 

Taymour EL-Sherry *1, Motozumi Matsui 2, Yoh-Ichi Miyake 2

 

1Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of veterinary medicine Assiut university, Assuit, Egypt. 2Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, Obihiro University of Agriculure and veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Japan.

*timorsherry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to explore the real time changes in the vascularity of growing superovulated follicles and to establish whether the blood flow of growing follicles can affect superovulation variability. Eight Holstein-Freisian cows received PGF 10 days after spontaneous ovulation. After 36 hours, all follicles larger than 5 mm were aspirated at day 0 (D0). Animals were given 28 Armour units (A.U) FSH 24h after aspiration and for 4 days (twice daily, 12h interval). On day 5, animals received a GnRH analogue. Blood samples were then collected daily and were used to detect estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results showed that neither the follicular diameter nor the follicle sectional areas (SA) are reliable parameters to predict the superovulation response. On the other hand, the blood area (BA) and blood area percentage were significantly (P<0.05) higher for ovulated (OF) than non-ovulated follicles (NOF). The (NOF) became atretic or continued to form luteal cysts. The P4 level was below 1ng/ml while E2 increased on day 3 to reach the peak. IGF-1 decreased on day 3 and then started to increase until ovulation. In conclusion, the haemodynamics of superovulated follicle could be considered a major source of superovulated variability and play a crucial role in controlling the superovulation result. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):744-751]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.87

 

Key words: Cattle; superovulation; blood flow; color Doppler imaging, cyst

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The Impact of NGO’ functions on Women Participation in Capacity Building Programmes in Iran

Hedayat Allah Nikkhah

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

hnik2003@yahoo.com

Asnarulkhadi Abu Samah

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

asnarul@putra.upm.edu.my

Ma’rof Redzuan

Department of Social and Development Sciences, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

marof@putra.upm.edu,my

Abstract: Women, as citizens and human resources, have the same rights, duties, responsibilities and opportunities as men in all aspects of life and development activities. Thus, women’s participation in society and their role in development have been accorded significant importance. Recently, policy makers and NGO programmers have realized how women can play an important role in the development of their society. However, some factors such as norms, beliefs, customs and values constrained the women participation, particularly in Third World countries. This study attempts to examine the effect of NGO’s function to promote participation among women in capacity building programmes. Indeed, this paper discovered that the local NGOs have high impact on the participation of women in Shiraz, Iran. Data was collected from 195 women who involved in NGO’s activities. The result of study revealed that the mean score of the women’s participation are different among the four functions of NGOs, based on the mean score. The result of study also showed that the function of “mobilizing women to participate in programme” had higher impact compare to other functions. In short, the study concluded that the NGOs in Shiraz could act as medium to encourage women’s participation and subsequently has the potential to empower them. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):752-761]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.88

Keywords: non-governmental organization, NGO’s function and activities, participation, Iran, women and empowerment

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The Protective Effect Of Morus Alba And Calendula Officinalis Plant Extracts On Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Hepatotoxicity In Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

Manal, Sh. Hussein**, Osama, S. El-Tawil* Nour El-Hoda Yassin**And Khalid, A. Abdou**

* Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

** Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University

 

ABSTRACT: Liver is prone to xenobiotic-induced injury because of its central role in xenobiotics metabolism, its portal location within the circulation, and its anatomic and physiologic structure (Jones, 1996). Herbal medicine is the most widely used form of medicine in the world today where the medicinal plants contain curative bioactive ingredients such as alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and flavonoids (Halberstein, 2005). The present work was planned to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in isolated primary rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion two steps technique. Cytotoxicity was determined by assessing cell viability and leakage of cytosolic enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Oxidative stress was assessed by determining reduced glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation as indicated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production. Exposure of isolated rat hepatocytes to CCl4 caused cytotoxicity and oxidative injury, manifested by loss of cell viability and significant increase in ALT, AST and LDH leakages. As well as, CCl4 caused progressive depletion of intracellular GSH content and significant enhancement of TBARS accumulation. Pre- incubation of hepatocytes with either morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts ameliorated the hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CCl4, as indicated by significant improvement in cell viability and enzymes leakages (ALT, AST and LDH). Also, significant improvement of GSH content and significant decrease in TBARS formation as compared to CCl4 treated cells. The present study indicate the morus alba and calendula officinalis extracts possess a highly promising hepatoprotective effects against CCl4 - induced hepatotoxicity. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):762-773]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.89

 

Keywords: Egyptian medicinal plants, heptotoxicity, isolated hepatocytes.

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Effect of low dose of gamma radiation on multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

 

Zeinab H. Helal1, Fatma Alzahraa M. Gomaa 1, Mona M. K. Shehata 2

 

1Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt, 2Drug Radiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) which have the most effective bactericidal activity to M. tuberculosis, is now common throughout the world, with average rates of resistance of 15% in high-burden countries. Exposure of bacterial cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induces mutations that lead to genetic and subsequent phenotypic effects. Our aim was to study the effect of a low dose of gamma radiation, which is commonly used for treatment of most cancer patients, in altering the resistance of M. tuberculosis and analyze their effect on repairing gene mutations in the rpoB and KatG involving M. tuberculosis resistance to RMP and INH. M. tuberculosis strains resistant to RMP and INH were isolated, identified and exposed to 24.41Gy in-vitro gamma irradiation. The susceptibility tests to RMP and INH after irradiation were performed. Mutations in the rpoB and katG gene were analyzed by DNA sequencing of M. tuberculosis MDR clinical isolates before and after exposure to gamma radiation. The results revealed that after exposure 61.1% were sensitive to RMP and INH, 22.2% sensitive to RMP and resistant to INH while 16.7% remained MDR. As a result of comparing mutations of rpoB and katG gene before and after irradiation with respect to their mutations conferring RMP and INH resistance, a marked difference in the distribution of mutations was observed. Knowledge of the effect of radiation on M. tuberculosis would help to improve the treatment of tuberculosis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):774-780]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.90

 

Key words: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB); isoniazid (INH); rifampicin (RMP); katG gene; rpoB gene; mutations; in- vitro gamma irradiation

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In vitro studies and RAPD analysis of Echinacea angustifolia.

 

H. S. Taha1, I. I. Lashin2, A. M. Sharaf 2,, I. I. Farghal2 and M. K. El- Bahr1

 

1- Plant Biotechnology Dept., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

2-Botany and Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar Univerisity, Cairo, Egypt.

E. mail corresponding auther: Hussein.taha2@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The goal of this research was to establish protocol for micropropagation and RAPD analysis of Echinacea angustifolia. The obtained data revealed that seeds sterilization with 5% clorox for 20 min and 0.1% mercuric chloride (MC) for 1 min, gave the best results for seeds germination and survival percentage. Three type of explants i.e., leaf, petiole and root were used for callus formation. The best results were obtained with MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L-1 BA + 1.0 mg/L-1 NAA from leaf and petiole explant, respectively. However, supplementation of MS medium with 0.2 mg/L of BA gave the highest number of shootlets regeneration from root explants compared with other explants. Moreover, culturing the regenerated shoots on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L-1 IBA and 1 g/l activated charcoal enhanced of roots formation within two weeks. Furthermore, there is no evidence of somaclonal variations were recorded between the in vitro derived plantlets and those mother plant that revaluated highly similarity using RAPD–based DNA fingerprint analysis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):781-790]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.91

 

Key words: Calli, regeneration, Echinacea angustifolia, RAPD

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Measuring The Economic Value of Natural Attractions

in Rawapening, Semarang District, Indonesia

 

Arif R Hakim 1

1Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia, Indonesia

arhaqkm@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed to measure the economic value in Rawapening. This study is expected to be able to seen as an environmentally sound tourist attractions. Because the benefits of natural attractions usually have a variety of natural resources such as biodiversity, benefit directly, and indirectly related to important ecological functions that are not only considered as a tourist attraction an sich. This study uses primary data. The primary data obtained from field surveys to the perpetrator who was visiting tourist Rawapening. The analytical method used two methods. There are ordinary least square and logit estimation. The study found that annual consumer surplus value is greater than the total value of benefits per year. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):791-794]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.92

 

Keywords: Economic Value, Rawapening, OLS, Logit

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Application Of Navier-Stokes Equations Via A Model For Water Flow In Green Plant

 

Lawal O.W, Adeosun T.A, Olayiwola M.A, and Falade A.O

Department of Mathematics

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Nigeria.

Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos.

Osun State University, Oshogbo, Nigeria.

adebaba2001@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract: A dynamic mechanistic mathematical model of water flow through the xylem of growing plant is developed. We describe current theories about the physiology of xylem that necessitated the development of internal processes to supply all part of the plant with water. The model via Navier-Stokes equations is known to be a good tool for interpreting the phenomena of water transport in vascular tissues from roots hairs to the leaves. We derive the Hagen-Poiseuille formula for circular cross sectional xylem and determine the amount of flow in an annular cross sectional xylem. Some results of the model show that the increase in boundary of the annular cross sectional xylem compared with the circular-sectional xylem makes the coefficient in the velocity equation different. Hence a normalized annular xylem is presented where outer radius of xylem is fixed and the inner radius varied. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):795-798]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.93

 

Keywords: dynamic mechanistic mathematical model; xylem; plant

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Utilization of Grantitoid Rocks in Taif Area as Raw Materials in Ceramic Bodies

 

A. El-Maghraby, a*, b; M. A. Abou ElMaaty a, c; G. A. Khater d and Nasser Y. Mostafa a,e

 

a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif 888, University, Saudi Arabia

b Ceramic Dept., cGelogical Dept., dGlass Dept., National Research Center, Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

e Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

*Aelmaghraby60@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Traditionally, granite is used to produce porcelain and stoneware in Saudi Arab. In the present investigation, the granite raw materials were collected from Taif area (Wade Elnoman). The nature granite was characterized with respect to their mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, DTA analysis and microscopic examination. In the second part of the work, the magnetic separation method give a final non-magnetic concentrate (conc.) with relatively high of K2O and Na2O and minimal amount of Fe2O3 and TiO2. All the obtained final non-magnetic concentrate fulfills the chemical and mineralogical constitution required in ceramic industry. In third part of the work, the preparation and characterizing of ceramic bodies with nature granite, concentrate granite and feldspar were studies. Ceramic batch's were made by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press) and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 C. The technological properties determined by physical properties and mechanical strength. Microstructure and phases analysis of the fired bodies were carried out by XRD and SEM. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):799-809]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.94

 

Keywords: granite, magnetic separation, ceramic bodies, XRD, XRF, DTA, SEM

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Effect of Encapsulation on some Probiotic Criteria

 

*Khater, K. A. A., Ali, M. A. and Ahmed, E. A. M.

 

Dairy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*khater_abdelfatah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of twelve non-encapsulated and encapsulated lactic acid and bifidobacteria strains to withstand environmental conditions similar to the human digestion tract. Selection criteria employed included the ability of these strains to survive at low pH and relatively high bile concentrations. Cholesterol assimilation and the effects of exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices were also investigated to explore the effect of encapsulation on health beneficial effect of the tested strains. The results obtained clearly declared that encapsulation effectively protected the microorganisms from the hostile environment and gastrointestinal tract, thus potentially preventing cell loss. The survival rate of encapsulated bacteria at pH 2.0 increased and attained a mean value of 58.9 % as compared with the corresponding value for non-encapsulated strains, being 46.9 %. Encapsulated cultures attained the highest tolerance % at different bile concentrations up to 1.0 %. Continuously, the survival percent of the double effects of pH and bile salt showed higher values and ranged from 34.15 % to 57.71 % for encapsulated bacteria, while free cells ranked lower figures varied from 17.15 % to 43.20 %. The assimilative reductions of cholesterol by non-encapsulated and encapsulated strains were clearly differed and varied from 32.6 % to 89.3 % and 27.9 % to 85.1 % respectively. The survival of encapsulated tested cultures in simulated gastric environment (SGJ) was noticeably better than those of non-encapsulated strains. In contrast, either free cells or encapsulated bacteria survival well in simulated intestinal juice (SIJ). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):810-819]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.95

 

Keywords: encapsulated lactic acid; bifidobacteria; human digestion tract; simulated gastric environment (SGJ)

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Influence of Some Citrus Essential Oils on Cell Viability, Glutathione-S-Transferase and Lipid Peroxidation in Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma Cells

 

Amal A. Mohamed * 1, Gehan A. El-Emary2, Hanaa F. Ali 3

 

1Plant Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo- Egypt

2Institute of Productive Efficiency, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

*Corresponding author: amin_amal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Essential oils are the volatile fraction of aromatic and medicinal plants after extraction by steam or water distillation. They have been used for their pharmaceutical potential since early times, and even now are still subject to a great deal of attention. In this study citrus essential oils isolated from mandarin (C. reticulate), orange (C. aurantium), lemon (C. limon), and tangerine (C. aurantium) species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Main constituents separated in mandarin oil were dl-limonene (20.88%), neo-dihydrocaveol (4.96%), and allo-ocimene (4.78%). In orange oil, the principal compounds were linalool (10.5%), α-terpinolene (7.06%), and nonyl-aldehyde (4.79%). In lemon oil, camphene (19.31%), α-citral (17.13%), citronellal (13.64%), and limonene (6.55%) were among the principal components. Major constituents presented in tangerine oil were limonene (14.08%), citronellal (9.56%), and α-terpinene (4.68%). The chemical compositions of citrus essential oils were highly different which may be due to the difference in their genetic make up. The effect of different concentrations (25-150l/ml) of citrus essential oils on the viability of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EACC) was tested in vitro. Generally, it was found that incubation of tumor cells with different concentrations of essential oils reduced the viability of these cells. The activity of glutathione-S- transferase (GST), glutathione content (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were studied in EACC tumor cells treated by essential oils. The essential oils treatments increased the activities of GST, increased the cellular GSH level and inhibited lipid peroxidation. These findings support the hypothesis that citrus essential oils may possess significant antitumor and antioxidant effects on EACC cell lines. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):820-826]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.96

 

Keywords: Essential oil; glutathione; GC/MS; limonene; lipid peroxidation

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Mistletoes and their hosts in Karnataka

 

M.C. Thriveni*, C.R. Vijay, G.R. Kavitha, K.N. Amruthesh and G.R. Shivamurthy

Department of Studies in Botany, Manasagangothri, Mysore-570 006, Karnataka, India

*Email: thrivenimc@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mistletoes (Loranthaceae and Viscaceae) constitute the most important parasitic plants that have been recognized as damaging agents of many of our fruit yielding, timber yielding and commercial trees. Their damaging effects make the parasitic angiosperms true agronomic threats, especially in developing countries. The mistletoes are represented by 8 genera and 20 species in Karnataka. A total of 242 species belonging to 38 families of dicotyledons are recognized as hosts parasitized by mistletoes. The present paper enlists the binomials and family of host plants parasitized by the particular species of mistletoes. Host range, host preference and host specificity are discussed under the light of previous literatures. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):827-835]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.97

 

Key Words: Host Generalists, Host Preference, Host Range, Host Specificity, Mistletoes

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98

Effect of Encapsulation on some Probiotic Criteria

 

*Khater, K. A. A., Ali, M. A. and Ahmed, E. A. M.

 

Dairy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alazhar University, Cairo, Egypt

*khater_abdelfatah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the ability of twelve non-encapsulated and encapsulated lactic acid and bifidobacteria strains to withstand environmental conditions similar to the human digestion tract. Selection criteria employed included the ability of these strains to survive at low pH and relatively high bile concentrations. Cholesterol assimilation and the effects of exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices were also investigated to explore the effect of encapsulation on health beneficial effect of the tested strains. The results obtained clearly declared that encapsulation effectively protected the microorganisms from the hostile environment and gastrointestinal tract, thus potentially preventing cell loss. The survival rate of encapsulated bacteria at pH 2.0 increased and attained a mean value of 58.9 % as compared with the corresponding value for non-encapsulated strains, being 46.9 %. Encapsulated cultures attained the highest tolerance % at different bile concentrations up to 1.0 %. Continuously, the survival percent of the double effects of pH and bile salt showed higher values and ranged from 34.15 % to 57.71 % for encapsulated bacteria, while free cells ranked lower figures varied from 17.15 % to 43.20 %. The assimilative reductions of cholesterol by non-encapsulated and encapsulated strains were clearly differed and varied from 32.6 % to 89.3 % and 27.9 % to 85.1 % respectively. The survival of encapsulated tested cultures in simulated gastric environment (SGJ) was noticeably better than those of non-encapsulated strains. In contrast, either free cells or encapsulated bacteria survival well in simulated intestinal juice (SIJ). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):836-845]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.98

 

Keywords: lactic acid; bifidobacteria strain; withstand environmental condition; digestion tract

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Experimental and Simulation study of dye adsorption on micro and natural polymeric beads

 

A. A. Elzatahry1, M. S. Mohy Eldin1, E. A. Soliman1, M. Elsayed Youssef*2

 

1 Polymer materials research department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute. MuCSAT, New Boarg El-Arab City 21934, Alexandria, Egypt.

2 Computer Based Engineering Applications department, Informatic Research Institute, MuCSAT, New Boarg El-Arab City 21934, Alexandria, Egypt.

* (elsayed168@yahoo.com).

 

Abstract: Beads of alginate are prepared from naturally occurring biopolymers, sodium alginate (an anionic polysaccharide). The beads are formed using technology, which based on the principle that a laminar liquid jet is broken into equally sized droplets by a superimposed vibration. The prepared beads have been tested for the removal of Methylene blue (MB) dye from colored effluents in dynamic batch mode. The parameters that affect the beads surface modification process such as particle size, pH, and kinetic study were studied. The prepared alginate beads show higher affinity towards MB adsorption where removed 85% of the dye content after only twenty minutes from the start point. Also a mathematical model has been developed to give an extensive look for the mechanism of dye removal by the porous polymeric beads. The flow pattern around the porous particle will be resolved using Navier Stock equations and couple the equations of motion and the mass balance equations through the multi physics module (COMSOL). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):846-851]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.99

 

Keywords: dye removal; encapsulator; Mathematical modeling; hydrogel; alginate beads; adsorption; methylene blue

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100

Modified technique of Scleral Fixation Intraocular lens implantation

 

*Ayman Shouman, Hisham A. Hashem, Mohamed Marzouk and Ehab Zakzook

 

Ophthalmology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

*shoumanaaes@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Background: The 1ry indication for scleral fixation of intraocular lenses (IOL) is dislocation as a principal complication of cataract surgery. Inadequate capsular support is the most common cause of IOL dislocation. Other indications include traumatic phakic lens dislocation (cataractous or clear), surgically aphakic eyes or anterior chamber IOL with complications (persistent hyphema, uveitis). Methods: 20 eyes of 20 patients were done, surgery was done only when the IOL was dislocated peripheral to the visual axis and was causing symptoms of visual loss sufficient to interfere with the patient’s activities of daily living, or patients who were left aphakic for a 2ry implantation procedure. A modification of the technique was done which made the procedure faster and preserved the surrounding conjunctiva. Results: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) preoperatively ranged from 1/60 -6/60 and postoperatively between 6/60 – 6/6. Statistical analysis of the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) between the preoperative and postoperative visual acuity revealed significant improvement (p≤0.05 ). Intraoperative complications included one case of accidental iris injury, two cases of mild vitreous hemorrhage, two cases of moderate vitreous hemorrhage. Early postoperative complications included pupillary block. Midterm post operative complications occurred in one case with the occurrence of cystoid macular edema. Conclusion: Scleral fixation of IOL is a safe procedure with minimal complications, but needs surgical skills to be managed optimally. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):852-859]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.100

 

Key words: Scleral fixation, Intraocular lenses, Aphakia, IOL dislocation

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Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations in the Somatic and Germ Cells of Mice after Long-Term Exposure to Low-Dose-Rate Gamma-Irradiation

 HALA F. ABDEL HAMID a, ADEL ASHOURb, HASSAN MOAWADc AND ABDELMOHSEN M. SOLIMANd*


a Chemistry of Pesticides Dept. b Clinical Genetics dept. cAgricultural Biotechnology Dept. d Therapeutic Chemistry Dept. National Research Centre, El-Behoos St., Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. P.O.Box: 12622

*solimanmohsen@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The induction of chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow and spleen (as somatic cells) and in the spermatocytes (as germ cells) was used to evaluate the mutagenic effects after long-term exposure to low-dose-rate gamma-irradiation in mice. Chromosome aberration rate in mouse splenocytes after long-term exposure to low-dose-rate (LDR) gamma-rays was serially determined by conventional Giemsa method and the fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique. Incidence of dicentrics and centric rings increased almost linearly up to 8000 mGy following irradiation for about 100 days at an LDR of 20 mGy/day. It was found that long-term exposure to (LDR) gamma-rays induced a marked changes in the percentage of aberrations in both somatic and germ cells. Clear dose-rate effects were observed in the chromosome aberration frequencies between dose rates of 40 mGy/day and 200 Gy/day. Furthermore, the frequencies of complex aberrations increased as accumulated doses increased in LDR irradiation. Chromosome aberrations seem to be induced indirectly after radiation exposure and thus the results indicate that continuous gamma-ray irradiation for 100 days at LDR of 20 mGy/day induced chromosomal instability in mice. These results are important to evaluate the biological effects of long-term exposure to LDR radiation in humans. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):860-866]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.101

 

Keywords: chromosomal aberrations, low dose radiation LDS, FISH, chromosome instability, micronucleus

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Some Legume Crops Effect on Soil Nitrogen Recovery in the Degraded Soils of North Ethiopia

 

Fassil Kebede

 

Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University; P.O.B-231, Mekelle, Ethiopia

E-mail: fyimamu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An experiment was conducted to detect the effect of some legume crops on soil nitrogen recovery in the degraded soils of north Ethiopia. Faba beans, field peas, vetches, lentils and alfalfa were sown. The effect was observed by measuring plant dry matter production, nodule numbers, soil N contents before and after plantation and N content of leaves. All data from crops were taken at 50% flowering. The study showed a significant difference between treatments on dry mater production and nodule numbers. There was also a positive correlation between dry matter production and nodule numbers (r=0.97*, r= 0.855*, r=0.98*, r=0.45* and r=0.51* for faba beans, field peas, vetches, lentils and alfalfa, respectively). Faba beans have produced the highest dry matter and largest number of nodules per plant. The highest soil N was also recovered from the plots where faba beans were grown. Moreover, the highest content of N was found in the leaves of faba beans. Despite the fact that faba beans performed better than other legumes for soil N recovery producing the highest dry matter, they failed to survive and bear grains due to inadequate rainfall encountered during the grain formation period of the growing cycle. Thus, this study concludes that firstly growing legume crops on the degraded soils will help restored soil fertility quickly and inexpensively thereby crop productivity can be enhanced. Secondly, lentils and field peas were screened as the most suitable legume crops for the study area as both withstood drought conditions comparatively. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):867-870]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.102

 

Keyword: Degraded soils, legume crops, dry matter production, nodules, soil nitrogen recovery

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Effect of Poultry Manure on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties, Leaf Nutrient Contents and Yield of Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) on Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria.

 

Adeleye, E.O1., Ayeni, L.S1 And Ojeniyi, S.O2

1. Department of Agricultural Science Education, Adeyemi College of Education, P.M.B. 520, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

  1. Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

1leye-sam@yahoo.com

 

Abstract-The main effect of poultry manure on soil physico-chemical properties, leaf nutrients contents and yield of yam (Dioscorea rotundata) was investigated in a factorial experiment involving tillage at five levels- ploughing, ploughing plus harrowing, manual ridging, manual heaping and zero-tillage; poultry manure at 0 t/ha and 10 t/ha laid out in a split-plot design at two locations in Ondo, Nigeria. The data obtained indicated that poultry manure application improved soil physical properties; it reduced soil bulk density, temperature and also increased total porosity and soil moisture retention capacity. It also, improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity; nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam significantly. The use of poultry manure in crop production is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure; improve soil organic matter status, nutrients availability and high crop yield. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):871-878]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.103

 

Key words: Bulk density, moisture retention, organic matter, nutrient uptake, exchange acidity

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First record of a mixed viral infection among cultured common carp in Egypt

 

M.K. Soliman1, Safinaz G. Mohamed2, Mona S Zaki3and W.D4 Salah

1 Dept. of Poultry and Fish Diseases, Fac. of Vet. Med. El Bostan, Alexandria Univ. Egypt.

2 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Alexandria Branch, Egypt

3 Head of Dept. of Hydrobiology,Veterinary Research Division, National Research Center, Cairo Egypt.

4Dept. of Microbiology, Fac. of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

Elzahra2002@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The commercial production of fish is a rapidly growing industry. Concurrent with this growth, fish culturing is expanding worldwide, especially in Egypt. One of the main factors affecting fish production and efficiency is disease that results from both viral and bacterial infections. In Egypt, spring viremia of carp (SVCV) was recently reported, and it causes severe economic losses among cultured common carp. In the present study, a mixed viral infection was recorded during an outbreak in cultured common carp. Primary isolation was achieved using a common carp ovary cell line. The first isolated virus was identified as SVCV by immunohistochemistry with the aid of a specific monoclonal antibody, as well as by the presence of heleck shapes upon electron microscopic examination. The second virus was identified as Rhabdovirus carpio (RHC), which presents in the form of electron-dense particles with a clear halo. Of 60 examined common carp, 20 fish were positive for SVCV, and two displayed mixed infections (SVCV and RHC). Cytopathic effects on the carp's ovaries were assessed, and histopathological examinations were carried out. This mixed viral infection is considered to be the first ever recorded in Egypt. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):879-885]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.104

 

Keywords: Spring viremia of carp, Viral infection, Rhadbdovirus carpio

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105

 Experimental Study on Scour Depth in Around a T-shape Spur Dike in a 180 Degree Bend

 

Alireza Masjedi1, Vahid Dehkordi2, Mehdi Alinejadi2, Amir Taeedi3

 

1. Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University Ahwaz Branch, Ahwaz, Iran

2. MSc, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran

3. MSc,, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran, (Email:Taeedi@yahoo.com)

Drmasjedi.2007@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study results of experimental study on scour depth around a T-shape spur dike in a 180 degree channel bend are presented. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory channel to measure the variations of bed topography under a clear water condition. Experiments were conducted for different locations, lengths and wings of T-shape spur dikes at the bend with various Froude number. In this study, the time development of the local scour around the T-shape spur dike plates was studied. It was found that by increasing the Froude number and length and wing length of T-shape spur dike the amount of scour depth increases and increases depth of scour occurs at location of 60 drgree. Measuring depth of scouring based on experimental observation, an empirical relation is developed with high regression coefficient 97%. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):886-892]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.105

 

Keywords: T-shape spur dike; Scouring; 180degree channel bend; Equilibrium scour

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ٍControl of local scour at single L-shape spur dike with wing shape in flume bend

 

Alireza Masjedi 1, Abdolmajid Nadri 2, Amir Taeedi 3, Iman Masjedi 4

 

1. Assist. Prof., Islamic Azad University Ahwaz Branch, Ahwaz, Iran, (Email:Drmasjedi.2007@yahoo.com)

2.MSc Student, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahwaz, Iran

3.MSc Student, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz, Iran, (Email:Taeedi@yahoo.com)

4.P.S, Islamic Azad University Shoushtar Branch, Shoushtar, Iran, (Email:Flyiman@Gmail.com)

 

Abstract: In this study, investigation of effect of wing shape on control of local scour at a L-shape spur dike in a 180 degree flume bend are presented. Spur dikes are structures constructed in rivers to maintain a suitable measures for bank protection and flood control. In this study, the time development of the local scour around the L-shape spur dike plates was studied. The study was conducted using in a 180 degree laboratory flume bend. Experiments were conducted for three wing shapes of L-shape spur dikes (Rectangular, Oblong, Rectangular chamfered) at the bend with various Froude number. The results of the model study indicated that the maximum depth of scour is highly dependent on the experimental duration. It was observed that, as Froude number increases, the scour increases. All Froude numbers, oblong wing at location of 60 degree results maximum reduction in scour depth. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):893-897]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.106

 

Key words: Local scour; Wing shape; L-shaped spur dike; Froude number; Time development

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107

Noise Immune Conditional Footer Domino WIDE-OR Logic Design

 

Ali Peiravi1, Farshad Moradi 2

 

1.Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad IRAN

Ali_peiravi@yahoo.com

2 Nanoelectronics Group, Department of informatics, University of Oslo

moradi@ifi.uio.no

Abstract: In this paper, a novel circuit design idea is proposed for improving the noise immunity of domino logic circuits that are especially useful for wide fan in gates. Leakage current is the most important issue in ultra deep submicron technologies. This is the main motivation for proposing a new idea for decreasing sub-threshold leakage current in domino logic circuits for deep submicron technologies. The proposed circuit design enhances the noise immunity at least by a factor of 2.02X to 8.16X compared with other conventional domino circuits and does not suffer from the disadvantages of our previously proposed design. The proposed circuit design has been simulated using the Predictive Technology Models (PTM) for 70nm CMOS technology. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):898-903]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.107

 

Keywords: Domino logic, Noise immunity, wide gates, high performance

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108

Effect of Melatonin and/ or Propylthiouracil on Hyperthyroidic Male Rats

 

Ghada Zaghloul Abbass Soliman*1, Nehal Mohammad Bahgat 2 and Gehane M. Hamed2

 

*1 Biochemistry Dept. National Nutrition Institute, Cairo, Egypt

2 Physiology Dept, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*amr_soliman2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The mutual relationships between the pineal gland and the thyroid have for a long time been a subject of intensive research. Thus, this study was performed in order to determine the effect of melatonin and/or propylthiouracil on oxidative stress in a model of hyperthyroidism. This study was carried out on 35 adult male albino rats (245-276 g) divided into 4 groups: G1: control rats, G2: hyperthyroid rats fed with standard chow diet, G3: hyperthyroid rats treated with propylthiouracil, G4: hyperthyroid rats treated with propylthiouracil & melatonin. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anaesthetized and electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings were obtained. Hearts & liver were subjected to histopathological examinations. Blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin (Hb), serum total tT3, tT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and blood superoxide dismutase (SOD), plasma glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). ECG recording revealed significant increase in HR and R voltage in G2 compared to control rats. Biochemical studies showed significant decrease in blood SOD, Hb and serum TSH in the three experimental trial groups compared to the control group. Plasma MDA level showed significant increase in G2 and G3 compared to control group, as well as significant decrease was observed in G4 compared to G2 and G3. Concerning GSH a significant decrease was observed in G2 compared to control group, upon addition of melatonin, significant increase was observed compared to G2 and G3. As regard serum tT4, significant increases was observed in the three trial groups compared to control group. Concerning serum tT3 level, a significant decrease in its level in treated hyperthyroid rats (G3) compared to G2. Histopathological examination of hearts of G2 showed vacuolation of cardiac myocytes and myolysis. These changes were ameliorated upon addition of melatonin to propylthiouracil than propylthiouracil alone. Histopathological examination of liver of hyperthyroid rats showed kupffer cells activation, focal area of hepatic necrosis and leucocytic cell infiltration. Rats treated with propylthiouracil showed only congestion of central vein. Upon addition of melatonin to propylthiouracil, no change was observed in the liver except a slight congestion of central vein. These findings indicate that hyperthyroid associated-oxidative stress contributes to early cardiac & hepatic complications of hyperthyroidism and that addition of melatonin to anti-thyroid drugs could be beneficial in amelioration of these complications. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):904-914]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.108

 

Key words: Propylthiouracil, melatonine, oxidative stress

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109

Antimicrobial Agent Producing Microbes from some Soils' Rhizosphere in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA

 

Maha Abd Al-Rahman Abo-Shadi*1; Nagwa Mahmoud Sidkey2 and Abeer Mohammad Al-Mutrafy3

1Microbiology and Immunology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

2 Botany & Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

3 Biology Dept., Faculty. of Science (Girls), Taibah Univ., KSA

*m_a_shadi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In the present investigation, a trial was done to find a new antimicrobial agent producing microbe from soil microbiota of local habitats to control the problem of multiple drug resistance. Isolation of different microorganisms from some soils' rhizosphere in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, viz. corn (Zea mays), datepalm (Phoenix dactylifera), catnip (Mentha piperita), sunflower (Helianthus), balessan (Amyris gileadensis), nabk-tree (Ziziphus Spina-Christi Willd), basil (Marrubium vulgare) was carried out. All microbial isolates were then screened for their antagonistic activity against the most resistant eight target bacteria isolated from caesarean section site infections (E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Citrobacter spp., Acinetobacter spp., methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, and coagulase negative Staphylococcus). Among the total 86 fungal and bacterial isolates, only 15 of them (17.44%) were capable of biosynthesizing antimicrobial metabolites. One of the actinomycetes that was obtained from catnip rhizosphere, Al-Ouayna district in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, found to exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity and it matched with Streptomyces ramulosus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces ramulosus, A-MM-24. Therefore, microorganisms isolated from Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah's soil could be an interesting source of antimicrobial bioactive substances. In addition, they are promising enough to deserve further purification, characterization and separation of the active metabolites from them. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):915-925]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.109

 

Key words: Antimicrobial agent producing microbe, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, resistant bacteria, soil microbiota, Streptomyces ramulosus A-MM-24

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Screening of Microorganisms Isolated from some Enviro-Agro-Industrial Wastes in Saudi Arabia for Amylase Production

 

Nagwa Mahmoud Sidkey 1; Maha Abd Al-Rahman Abo-Shadi 2; Abeer Mohammad Al-Mutrafy3; Fatma Sefergy3; and Nouf Al-Reheily3

 

1Microbiology and Immunology Dept., Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

2 Botany & Microbiology Dept., Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

3 Biology Dept., Faculty. of Science (Girls), Taibah Univ., KSA

*m_a_shadi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Wastes from food and drinks industries are becoming an increasing problem. The present study was focusing on the possibility of using different fermented enviro-agro-industrial wastes as very cheap and available substrates for obtaining microbial α-amylases that are of great industrial importance. Seventy three fungi and bacteria were isolated from twenty different wastes, e.g. food-industrial wastes, daily home wastes, expired foodstuff wastes, and some agricultural wastes from Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Using these wastes as the sole carbon source, 38 fungi and 11 bacteria were isolated at 30 C; 23 bacteria and one fungus were isolated at 55C & 45C, respectively. All isolates were then screened for α-amylase production and isolate Aspergillus flavus, F2Mbb was selected as the most potent. Some environmental and nutritional parameters affecting the biosynthesis of α-amylases from Aspergillus flavus, F2Mbb using bran as a sole carbon source were studied. It exhibited maximum amylase production at the following optimal conditions: incubation temperature, 37˚C; pH, 6.0 using phosphate buffer; shaking condition at 200 rpm; incubation period, 6 days; inoculum size of 13.0108 spore/ml on Modified Czapek-Dox wheat bran agar medium (MCDWB); a substrate concentration of 20% bran; chemical treatment of bran with 6 N phosphoric acid; carbon source, corn gluten; nitrogen source, NaNO3; amino acid, methionine; and mixture of different salts (100 ppm MgSO4; 200 ppm KCl; 50 ppm K2HPO4 and 50 ppm NiSO4). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):926-939]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.110

Key words: enviro-agro-industrial wastes, α-amylase production, Aspergillus flavus, KSA, environmental parameters, nutritional parameters

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Effect of Extracts of Ginger Goots and Cinnamon Bark on Fertility of Male Diabetic Rats

 

*Dalia A. Hafez

 

Home Economics Department, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt

*daliaij_2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was performed to investigate the effects of ginger roots and cinnamon bark extracts on fertility of male diabetic rats and levels of blood glucose as well as serum insulin and testosterone hormones. The experiment was carried out on sixty mature male Sprague Dawley rats distributed into 6 groups of 10 rats each. One group was kept as normal control, while rats of the other five groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan in a dose of 120 mg/kg b.wt., as a single daily dose for 3 days. Group (2) was left as diabetic control, while rats of groups (3) and (4) were given orally ginger extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, daily for 65 days to cover the period of spermatogenesis in the rat. Rats of groups (5) and (6) were given orally cinnamon extract at the same doses of ginger and for the same period. The results showed that oral administration ginger extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg and cinnamon extract at 500 mg/kg to diabetic male rats for 65 days increased the weight of testes and seminal vesicles; improved semen quality and quantity; decreased blood glucose level and increased serum insulin and testosterone levels. The extracts also ameliorated the degenerative lesions which seen in the testes of diabetic rats. This study recommends that intake of ginger roots or cinnamon bark as a drink may be beneficial for diabetic patients who suffer from sexual impotency as their extracts induce antidiabetic activity and enhance male fertility in diabetic rats. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):940-947]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.111

 

Keywords: Ginger, Cinnamon, Male fertility, Diabetes, Biochemistry, Histopathology, Rats

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112

The Efficacy of Thyme Oil as Antitoxicant of Aflatoxin(s) Toxicity in Sheep

 

Abdel-Fattah, Shaaban. M.*1; Abosrea, Y.H1; Shehata, F.E.2; Flourage, M.Rady2 and Helal, A.D.2.

 

1 Department of Food toxins and Contaminants. National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Biochemistry Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.

*shaabanmostafa@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study is an attempt to prevent or minimize the negative effects due to ingesting feed contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs). An exposure study extended for two different stages was conducted using eighteen Egyptian male sheep. The 1st stage (pre-treatment) was suggested to compare the performance of animal groupings under the normal conditions before receiving any treatment, either level of contamination(s) or dosage(s) of additive, such stage extended for 2 weeks. The 2nd stage (treatment), animals received aflatoxin(s)-contaminated diets (10 mg/kilogram concentrated diet) and / or the thyme oil at two levels (250 and 500 mg / head / day), such stage extended for 4 weeks. The average body weights, body weight gains and feed conversion ratios were dramatically affected during the exposure stage to AFs. The thyme oil treatment reduced the adverse effects of aflatoxins and improved the rumen activity and motility and animal performance in general, either at low or high dose. The activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes, were significantly elevated during exposure to aflatoxins. Also, serum uric acid level was increased; but the levels of serum glucose and albumin were decreased by dietary aflatoxin. On the other hand, the use of thyme oil either 250 or 500 mg / head / day; approximately normalizing such levels. The major excretory route of aflatoxins and their metabolites was found to be the urine (accounting for 39.71% to 68.32% of the tatoal AFs-excretion forms, whereas less than 10% of these forms were excreted in the feces. Only about 52% of the dose was recovered in the feces and urine in identifiable forms, mainly aflatoxin B (AFB) and unchanged aflatoxin B1(AFB1) without any detectable amount of aflatoxicol. In conclusion, our results may lead us to suggest that there is a significant liver dysfunction in these groups, 10 mg of aflatoxin/kg of diet was sufficient to impair performance and cause liver damage in male sheep, the thyme oil could be considered a potential natural antitoxicant for sheep and could protect sheep from hepato-toxicities which induced by aflatoxin-contaminated diet when used as a sole diet. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):948-960]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.112

 

Keywords: aflatoxins (AFs); Egyptian; sheep; gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT); aspartate aminotransferase (AST); alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

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113

Genotoxic Studies of yeast Cell Wall (YCW) and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) on the DNA Damage and Chromosomal Aberrations Induced by Aflatoxin in Broiler

 

Shebl, M. A. 1 Naglaa A. Hafiz*2 and Motawe, H. F. A. 1

 

1Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agric. Res. Center, 2Department of Cell Biology, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

*naglahafiz2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aflatoxins are the most potent natural mutagen known. They induce genotoxicity and cytotoxicity to all the farm animals and poultry. This investigation is conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity effect of yeast cell wall and clay hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate and their ability to protect against Aflatoxin-induced cell damage in vivo. Total number of 224 one-day old unsexed Ross chicks was randomly distributed among eight treated groups. Five birds from each group were selected randomly and slaughtered. Samples from bone marrow of the femurs were collected to carry out micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations. Meanwhile, liver samples to assay the percentage of DNA fragmentation. Aflatoxin induced significant increase (P<0.05) in the frequency of micronucleated cells, mean percentage of DNA fragmentation in liver cells and chromosomal aberrations as compared with all negative control groups. In addition to, they have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in bone marrow and liver cells of chickens. In conclusion, the results suggested that the YCW and HSCAS, either singly or in combination, had antigenotoxic effect against Aflatoxin in poultry as monitored by significant decrease in the mean percentages of DNA fragmentation of liver cells, frequencies of micronucleated in bone marrow cells and the incidence of chromosomal aberrations. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):961-967]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.113

 

Key Words: Aflatoxicosis, Poultry, YCW, HSCAS, Genotoxicity, DNA Fragmentation, micronucleus, chromosomal aberrations.

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The Effect of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee on serum glucose, insulin and serum lipid profile in diabetic rat models.

Eman A.Sadeek*, Hala, A. Abd El;-Rahman* *, Waffa,Sh.Ali***

*Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition -Women's College –Ain –Shams University.** Food Tech. Res. Ins. Agric. Res. Center. Cairo Egypt.*** College of Home Economics, Helwan University. Cairo, Egypt

#Corresponding author, e-mail: dr_emansaddeek@yahoo.com

Abstract: Aim of the work: Assessing the Effect of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee on serum glucose, insulin and serum lipid profile in diabetic rat models. Methods: Design of the study: Thirty female wistar rats weighing 124.5 5.41g (mean S.D)were divided into 5 groups. The first group served as a control and consumed a standard diet according to ( AIN – 93). The other 4 groups were injected intraperitoneally with 105 mg / kg body weight of alloxan. One group was kept without further treatment and served as a positive diabetic control. Groups 3, 4, 5 consumed 5% green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee in drinking water, respectively. The feeding trial continued for four weeks. At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and the liver, kidney, spleen and heart were separated, washed, dried and weighed. Laboratory investigations Consisted of serum glucose, insulin, calcium, phosphorus and complete lipid profile was determined to test the magnitude of antioxidant potential green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee. Results: The present study show a significant difference (p > 0.05) in body weight gain and food intake between all treatment groups, with non significant difference in water intake, relative weight of organs including liver, kidney, spleen and heart. the study also shows significant elevation (p > 0.05) in serum glucose and insulin in diabetic control group as compared to normal control group. This indicates uncontrolled hyperglycemia in alloxan diabetic rats. While consumption of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee resulted in a decrease in serum glucose and insulin (p > 0.05). There is a significant decrease (p > 0.05) in serum calcium and serum phosphorus in groups 3,4 and 5 fed green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee respectively indicating an association between coffee consumption and bone health. our results also shows that alloxan injection produced a significant increase(p > 0.05) in serum total- cholesterol(TC); triacylglycerol(TAG); LDL-C; VLDL-C and in LDL\ HDL ratio and TC \ HDL ratio however a significant decrease (p > 0.05) in serum HDL-C is observed; In diabetic rats compared to normal control green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee resulted in a significant decrease (p > 0.05) in triacylglycerol(TAG); LDL-C; VLDL-C and in LDL\ HDL ratio and TC \ HDL ratio on the other hand a significant increase (p > 0.05) in serum HDL-C is observed in green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee groups compared to diabetic rats compared to normal control with the highest value for green coffee. Non significant effect on serum total- cholesterol(TC) reported in this study. Conclusion: The observed improvement in glucose,insulin profile, triacylglycerol and HDL-C confirm the potent biological action of green, roasted and decaffeinated coffee and suggest that chlorogenic acid (a component in coffee ) might have an antagonistic effect on glucose transport. Suggesting a novel function of coffee on lowering the risk factors of diabetes and delaying the progress of diabetes complications as well. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):968-977]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.114

Key words: green, roasted, decaffeinated coffee, glucose, insulin and lipid profile

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The Protective Effect Of Vitamin E Against The Neurotoxic Effect Of Aluminum Cholorid In Male Albino Rat.

 

Manal, SH. Hussein1, Azza, H. Abd-El-Rahman2 and Eman Taha Mohamed3

1Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Dept, 2 Clinical Pathology Dept, and 3Biochemistry Dept, Fact of Vet. Med. Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

*Manamol_mhmd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aluminum (Al) is an important element with known toxicity in the human body, mainly in the central nervous system. Vitamin E (Vit E) is known as antioxidant, free radical scavenger and metal chelator. This study was aimed to investigate the neurotoxic oxidative damage of aluminum chloride(AlCl3) and the protective effect of vit E on neurotoxic effect of AlCl3 on brain of male albino rats exposed to the metal. Sixty male rats were divided into three treatment groups. The first group treated with AlCl3 1600 mg/L. In the second group, the rats were given AlCl3 with vitamin E in a dose of 2.5 mg/kg BW orally. The third group was received no treatment and was kept as control group. Administrations of AlCl3 with or without Vit E were carried out daily for one month. The present data revealed a significant increase in acetylecholinesterase (AchE) activity and malondialdhyde content (MDA) while the enzymatic antioxidant activities as glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly decreased in aluminum treated group. Also in the same group significant elevation in nitric oxide(NO) content and amino acid concentrations (glutamic acid, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), tyrosine, methionine, aspartic acid, leucine, alanine, valine, phenylealanine and isoleucin were recorded,with marked histopathological changes as focal and diffuse gliosis with pericellular edema in cerebral cortex in addition to neurophagia and neuronal degeneration. Vit E supplementation resulted in a marked appreciable improvement in all previous abnormal alteration observed in AlCl3 treated rats. Therefore, the study revealed that Vit E has a potential ability to exhibit neuroprotective role in conditions of Al-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxic effect in rat brain. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):978-991]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.115

 

Keywords: Aluminum (Al); Vitamin E (Vit E); aluminum chloride(AlCl3); acetylecholinesterase (AchE); glutathione reductase (GR); nitric oxide(NO)

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Protective Effect of some Antioxidants against Ccl4-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells from BRL3A Cell Line.

 

Kamel, H.H.1, Azza, H. Abd-El-Rahman1, Walaa, M.S. Ahmed1 and Amira, H. Mohamed2

 

1Clinical Pathology Dept., 2Clinical Pathology Dept., Fac. of Vet. Med. Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt

*Manamol_mhmd@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: An in vitro experiment was conducted to investigate the protective effect of ascorbic acid, mannitol and aminoguanidine at different concentrations against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity and oxidative stress in hepatocytes cell line (BRL3A) from buffalo rats. Results were compared with those of vitamin E as standard hepatoprotective agent. Treatment of BRL3A with CcL4 lead to generation of free radicals detected after two hours incubation using ESR technique and produced cell injury demonstrated by increased leakage of LDH, ALT and AST to the media. Exposure to CcL4 caused apoptosis to cells but did not induce lipid peroxidation as tested by the TBARS technique. Treatment with vitamin E has significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the leakage of intracellular enzymes, reducing the oxidation of proteins and decrease incidence of apoptosis. Ascorbic acid, mannitol and aminoguanidine were ineffective against CcL4 toxicity. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):992-1003]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.116

 

Keywords: in vitro; ascorbic acid; mannitol; aminoguanidine

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117

Study of Resistin and YKL-40 in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

 

Elham Kassem *1, Layla Mahmoud 2and Wesam Salah 3

 

Rheumatology& Rehabilitation 1, Internal Medicine 2and Clinical Pathology3 Departments, Tanta University, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta, Egypt

 

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum and synovial fluid levels of both resistin and YKL-40 with markers of inflammation, disease activity and radiographic joint damage and to determine if they have a role in the pathogenesis of RA. This study was conducted on 30 patients with RA and 15 healthy controls with acute post traumatic knee effusion. Serum and synovial fluid levels of both resistin and YKL-40 were measured in patients and controls using ELISA technique. Plain x-ray of hands, wrists and feet were done for all patients and assessed according to Larsen score. Serum levels of resistin and YKL-40 were significantly higher in RA patients than controls and in active RA than in non active patients. Also, their levels significantly correlated with CRP, ESR, RF, disease activity parameters and Larsen score. Synovial YKL-40 levels showed significant correlation with CRP, ESR, RF, disease activity parameters and Larsen score. On the other hand, resistin synovial levels significantly correlated with CRP, ESR, RF and synovial leucocytic count. As a conclusion, serum and synovial resistin and YKL-40 provided new and direct information on local disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Our data supported the hypothesis that resistin and YKL-40 are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Also, serum resistin and YKL-40 could be considered as a prognostic marker in RA as they predict radiographic progression of joint damage. The identified properties of resistin and YKL-40 make each of them a novel and interesting therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1004-1012]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.117

 

Key words: resistin, YKL-40, rheumatoid arthritis

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Exercise versus Estrogen Therapy in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women with Endothelial Dysfunction

 

Mervat El-Sergany*1, Abeer Shahba2 and Lamia Al-Ahwal3

 

Departments of Rheumatology & Rehabilitation1, Internal Medicine2 and Obestetric & Gynecology3, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*sergany3@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Both exercise and estrogen augments bone metabolism and endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Osteoprotegrin (OPG) appears to represent the molecular link between bone resorption and vascular calcification.This study was conducted to determine the effects of acute bouts of dynamic exercise and oral estrogen on serum osteoprotegrin (OPG) and endothelial dependent flow mediated dilatation of brachial artery (FMD); to assess if these two interventions independently or together achieve same improvement and finally to find any relation between OPG and FMD. Twenty early osteoporotic postmenopausal women with endothelial dysfunction, their mean age (539 years) and 20 healthy premenopausal female controls with mean age (292 years) were included. All subjects were subjected to assessment of OPG and FMD before the beginning of the study. Then OPG and FMD were quantified after 60 minutes of treadmill exercise for one hour, this protocol was repeated after 4 weeks of oral estrogen therapy. We found that serum OPG was elevated significantly in postmenopausal women after exercise( post-ex) approximating double baseline value (4.80.3 vs 2.90.3). There was a significant difference between OPG level post exercise and estrogen (post ex-est) vs post estrogen (post-est) alone (5.30.2 vs 4.30.2) while there was no significant difference between post exercise (post-ex) versus post-est (4.80.3 vs 4.30.2). Regarding FMD there was a significant difference between post-ex vs baseline (11.40.4 vs 6.10.5), post-est vs baseline (11.51.5 vs 6.10.5), also between post ex-est and baseline value (10.51.6 vs 6.10.5), while there was no significant difference between all interventions. Our results suggested that both exercise and estrogen augment bone metabolism and vascular reactivity to nearly equal values. So, this study reinforces the importance of exercise as a non pharmacological and alternative to oral estrogen in postmenopausal women and consider exercise as one of the mechanisms that protect against osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1013-1018]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.118

 

Keywords: estrogen; Osteoprotegrin (OPG); flow mediated dilatation (FMD); women; atherosclerosis

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In vitro propagation of Gigantochloa atroviolaceae Widjaja through nodal explants

 

Prabha Bisht*, Manu Pant and Abhinav Kant

 

Tissue Culture Discipline (Botany Division), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun-248006 (Uttarakhand, India.)

 *Corresponding author: bishtprabha@rediffmail.com

 

Abstract: A procedure for the regeneration of complete plantlets of Gigantochloa atroviolaceae through axillary shoot proliferation is described. Axillary bud break was accomplished in full strength liquid MS medium fortified with 25.0 M BAP. Axillary shoots produced were multiplied on semi-solid MS medium supplemented with BAP (20M) + NAA (3.0M) giving a multiplication rate of 2.39. In vitro shoots were rooted on full strength MS medium supplemented with varying concentrations of auxins. Optimal rooting was achieved on medium supplemented with 35.0M IBA. Regenerated plantlets were successfully hardened and acclimatized under net house conditions with over 80% survival. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1019-1025]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.119

 

Keywords: Gigantochloa atroviolaceae, in vitro propagation, nodal explants, axillary shoot multiplication

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Voltammetry Determination Of Some Trace Elements In Tap Water Samples Of Jeddah Area In The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia

 

Asia Alshikh2 Sana Arab1,

 

1Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, King Abdulaziz University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jeddah.2Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jizan University, Deanship of Scientific Research, Girl’s College of Educational, Jizan.

 Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The estimation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Se concentration in the tap water of Jeddah in Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia city was accomplished using electrochemical methods. The obtained results were lower than the average range of these elements in the maximum concentration as they were allowed to be by The World Health Organization (WHO). [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1026-1032]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.120

 

Keywords: tap water; voltammetry; Saudi; trace elements

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Rapid Micropropagation of Plumbago zeylanica L. An Important Medicinal Plant

 

 

Kalidass Chinnamadasamy 1*, Daniel Arjunan 2, and Mohan Veerabahu Ramasamy 1

1Post Graduate Research Department of Botany, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin,

2Division of Plant Biotechnology, IFGTB, Coimbatore- 641002, Tamil Nadu, India.

 

Corresponding author: kalidassindia@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An effective protocol for in vitro shoots multiplication and plant regeneration of Plumbago zeylanica L. was reported here. A rapid shoot proliferation was observed on the nodal explants of P. zeylanica in MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/L BA and 1.0 mg/L GA3. The highest length of shoot (5.880.44) was achieved after 1 week of incubation. Regenerated shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L IAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully established in soil with 100 percent survival rate.

[Kalidass Chinnamadasamy, Daniel Arjunan, and Mohan Veerabahu Ramasamy. Rapid Micropropagation of Plumbago zeylanica L. An Important Medicinal Plant. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1027-1031]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.121

 

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica, medicinal plants, micropropagation

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Synthesis and Characterization of Some N-Protected Amino Acid Complexes

 

Soha F. Mohammed*

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

*Corresponding author Dr. Soha F. Mohamed

E-mail: sofahim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Metal complexes of N-phthaloyl glycine with Cu(II), Ag(I), Cd(II), Hg(II), and Pb(II) have been prepared in aqueous methanolic solution. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis (TG, DTG), and mass, infrared and 1H-NMR spectra. Infrared spectra were detected concerning, the final residual of the thermal decomposition of all the N-phthaloyl glycine complexes. N-phthaloyl glycine (Gly) molecule coordinated to the metal ions through its carboxylic group.

[Soha F. Mohammed. Synthesis and Characterization of Some N-Protected Amino Acid Complexes. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1032-143]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.122

 

Key words: N-protected amino complexes, Infrared spectra, 1HNMR, Mass Spectra, Thermogravimetric analysis

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Effect of Fertilization and Low Quality Feed on Water Quality Dynamics and Growth Performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

 

M.A. Elnady*1, A.I. Alkobaby1, M.A. Salem1, M. Abdel-Salam2 and B.M. Asran2

 

1 Department of animal production, Faculty of agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

2 Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring, Delta Barrage National Center for Water Research, Ministry of Irrigation.

*melnadyahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation was conducted to know the effect of low, medium and high doses of either chemical or organic fertilizers along with supplementary feeding on water quality in rearing tanks and growth performance of Nile tilapia. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in organic fertilizer treatments (10.03-10.71 mg/L) were lower than those of chemical fertilizer treatments (10.23-12.38 mg/L). Carbonate alkalinities were higher in the organic fertilizer treatments (42-53.8 mg/L) than those of the chemical fertilizer treatments (31.9-51.2 mg/L). This reflected a higher photosynthetic activities and increased algae production in the organic fertilizer treatments. Total Phosphorus concentrations had intermediate values in all treatments (0.214- 0.276 mg – P/L) except for that of the high organic fertilizer treatment (0.513 mg – P/L) which was significantly higher compared to all treatments (P < 0.05).Soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations were similar among all treatments (0.061 – 0.093 mg- p/L) except for that of the high organic fertilizer treatment which had significantly higher orthophosphate concentration (0.256 mg-P/L) (P<0.05). In the water quality experiment, growth rates of Nile tilapia were higher in organic fertilizer treatments (0.54-.62 gm/fish/day) compared to those of the chemical fertilizer treatments (0.47-0.51 gm/fish/day). In the fish production experiment, growth rate in terms of daily weight gain, was generally higher in Nile tilapia raised in the medium organic fertilizer treatment (0.92 gm/fish/day), followed by those of the medium chemical fertilizer and control treatments(0.83 and 0.82 gm/fish/day, respectively). The lowest daily weight gains were observed in the high chemical and high organic fertilizer treatments (0.46 and 0.58 gm/fish/day, respectively).

[M.A. Elnady, A.I. Alkobaby, M.A. Salem, M. Abdel-Salam and B.M. Asran. Effect of Fertilization and Low Quality Feed on Water Quality Dynamics and Growth Performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1044-1054]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.123

 

Key words: semi-intensive aquaculture, water quality, growth performances, fertilizers, Nile tilapia

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Nutritional Evaluation and Functional Properties of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Flour and the Improvement of Spaghetti Produced from its

 

Esmat A. Abou Arab*, I. M. F. Helmy and G. F. Bareh

 

Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

*eabouarab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chemical composition of chickpea raw flour proved that protein, fat and ash contents were higher than that recorded in wheat flour. However, crude fiber and total carbohydrates were detected in wheat flour at higher levels than that found in chickpea raw flour. Protein, total nitrogen, non protein nitrogen content, and in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) as well as mineral content, functional properties, amino acid composition and amino acid scores were affected as different chickpea flour processing (traditional, microwave and fried).Wheat flour (72 % extraction) was replaced with different processed chickpea flours (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %.) to produce spaghetti. Chemical composition, cooking quality, color attributes and sensory evaluation of produced spaghetti were determined. Different treatment for chickpea flours tend to reduced the content of protein in all processed chickpea flours, lowered the contents of fat and ash by 7.96 % and 4.40 %, respectively. Generally, protein solubility values of all processed flours decreased in water and NaCl solution as compared with raw flour. As the replacement level in spaghetti samples with different processed chickpea flours increased, all the contents were increased except fibers and total carbohydrates contents where, values of fibers lowered with increasing the replacement level of samples with raw and fried chickpea flours. The content of minerals was high in spaghetti samples contained microwave cooking chickpea flour at different levels as compared with spaghetti samples contained traditional cooking and fried chickpea flours. The reduction in cooked weight and cooked volume was greater in spaghetti samples replaced with microwave cooked chickpea flour than samples replaced with the other different forms of chickpea flours. Cooking loss of replaced spaghetti was increased gradually with increase the level of replacement compared to the control spaghetti. Replacing wheat flour with different processed chickpea flours tend to reduced lightness and yellowness values, increased redness values of spaghetti samples from control. Spaghetti samples replaced with microwave chickpea flour at all levels had a better color values than those found in samples replaced with different processed chickpea flour. The highest values for all sensory characteristics were observed in control sample. Spaghetti samples replaced with microwave cooking flour at all levels were found to be the highest values for all evaluated sensory characteristics.

[Esmat A. Abou Arab, I. M. F. Helmy and G. F. Bareh. Nutritional Evaluation and Functional Properties of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Flour and the Improvement of Spaghetti Produced from its. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1055-1072]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.124

 

Key words: Chickpea, functional properties, microwave, cooking and spaghetti

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Effect of microbien and compost on growth and chemical composition of Schefflera arboricola L. under salt stress

 

*El-Quesni, F.E.M., ** Sahar, M. Zaghloul and **Hanan, S.Siam

 

Ornamental Plants and Woody Trees Dept. and **Plant Nutrition Dept., National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Azza856@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted during 2008 and 2009 seasons at National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to study the effect of biofertilizer microbien which is Rhizobia sp (multi-strain) bio-fertilizer at 10 gm incolum /pot or compost (Nile compost) 100 gm/pot on the growth and chemical composition of Schefflera arboricola L. seedlings. Water salinized with NaCl and CaCl2 (1:1) by weight (0, 1000 and 2000 ppm) were used for irrigation after 3 weeks from transplanting for six months. Results indicated that plants which treated with saline water had decreased all growth parameters. Total carbohydrates, N, P and K percentages were decreased at 2000 ppm saline water. On the other hand salinity levels increased Na percentage and proline concentration in shoots. Microbein or compost treatments gave the highest growth parameters, carbohydrates content, and N, P and K percentages. The interaction effects between biofertilizer microbien or compost and salinity levels showed a markedly decrease on Na percentage and proline concentration of shoots and increased all growth parameters, as well as N, P and K percentages increased at low level of salinity, similar trend was obtained for the uptake of concerned nutrients as previously mentioned for their concentrations. It can be concluded that microbien or compost application had decreased the hazard effect of salinity; also it had a favourable effect on growth and availability of chemical composition of Schefflera arboricola L. seedlings.

[El-Quesni, F.E.M., Sahar, M. Zaghloul and Hanan, S.Siam. Effect of microbien and compost on growth and chemical composition of Schefflera arboricola L. under salt st. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1073-1080]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.125

 

Keywords: Schefflera – Mocrobien – compost – salinity

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Assessment of Metalloproteinase-3, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Bone Sialoprotein and Chondroitin Sulphate as Markers of Extracellular Matrix Turnover in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Correlation with Degree of Bone Erosion.

 

Ali El-Deeb*1, K.Issa 2 and El Sorogy H. 3

 

 Departments of Physical medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation1, Orthopedic Surgery 2and Clinical Pathology3, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study aimed to assess extracellular matrix turnover in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to find the relationship between serum and synovial fluid levels of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3), tissue inhibitor of metallo-proteinase (TIMP-1), chondroitin sulphate (monitior of cartilage degradation) and bone sialoprotein (monitor of bone degradation) and the degree of bone erosion of the knee joints. Fifty six human subjects subdivided into three groups have participated in this study. Group I included ten apparently healthy individuals to represent the control group. Thirty RA patients were chosen to represent group II while sixteen patients with osteoarthritis were chosen to represent group III as a reference arthritis disease group. All patients of group II and III were presented with effusion of knee joints. Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), tissune inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and bone sialoprotein were assessed by ELISA technique while chondroitin sulphate was measured by a colorimetric method. All parameters were assessed in serum and synovial fluid. All indices were significantly higher in both serum and synovial fluid when compared to controls. Also serum levels of all parameters were correlated with synovial fluid levels. MMP-3 levels of both serum and synovial fluid were significantly higher in RA patients than OA patients. Such difference was not observed in other parameters indicating higher MMP3/ TIMP-1 in RA patients than OA patients. Synovial fluid levels of MMP3, TIMP-1, chondroitin sulphate and bone sialoprotein were all positively correlated with the degree of bone erosion indicating a strong role of MMP-3 in joint degradation in patients with RA. [Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1081-1089]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.126

 

Keywords: extracellular matrix turnover; patient; rheumatoid arthritis (RA); metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3); metallo-proteinase (TIMP-1)

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Nutritional studies on some different sources of iodine on productive performance, ruminal fermentation and blood constituents of Buffalo. 1 – Effect of two different iodine levels on productive and reproductive performance of buffalo cows.

 

Kh. I. I. Zeedan1, O. M. El-Malky2, Kh. M. M. Mousa1, A. A. El.Giziry1 and K. E.I. Etman1

 

1- Department of Animal Nutrition Research.

2- Department of Buffalo Research.

Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

khzeedan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding buffalo cows on ration supplemented with two levels from iodine (I) during late pregnancy (three months before parturition) and postpartum period (six months after parturition) on nutrients digestibility, some blood constituent, birth weight of their offspring, Concentrations of immunoglobulin in colostrums, milk (yield and composition) and reproductive parameters. Eighteen buffalo cows (2-4 lactations) in late pregnancy period were selected to carry out the experimental work. The animals were divided into three similar groups (6 female buffaloes in each). Concentrate feed mixture (CFM), berseem hay (BH) and rice straw (RS) were given to animals as a control ration (I0) without supplementation, while the other groups I1 and I2 received the control ration with iodine at levels of 0.3 and 0.5 mg I per kg DM intake /h/d, respectively. Results indicated that supplementation ration of buffalo cows with different levels of I had improved the digestibility of all nutrients, TDN, DCP at pre and post partum, feed efficiency, increased milk yield, 7% fat correct milk yield and its composition. Birth and weaning weight of calves in treated groups were higher than that control group. Immunoglobulin concentration in colostrums indicated higher values with animals feed supplemented rations than those fed the control. Moreover, addition of I improved RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, plasma total protein, globulin, glucose, T3 and T4. Supplemented rations of buffalo cows with 0. 5 mg I/ h/ d tend to significantly (P< 0.05) higher in actual milk yield, 7% FCM yield, fat %, protein %, lactose %, SNF % and TS %, while supplemented with 0. 3 mg I/ h/ d appeared to the same higher trend with no significantly differences. Moreover, better feed efficiency was observed with animals fed supplemented rations. The periods required for fetal membrane expulsion was significantly reduced in I2 group when compared to I1 or control groups. Moreover, only control group showed a case of abortion and still birth, while treated dams delivered 100% healthy calves. Buffaloes of group I2 had the least (P < 0.05) calving interval due to the shorter intervals for uterine involution, onset of the 1st postpartum heat and days open. Iodine supplementation showed significant differences among groups in studied parameters such as NSPC and CI. Mean period elapsed from calving until placenta drop significantly decreased I2 than the control group. Generally, it concluded that I supplementation for ration of buffalo cows improved immunity, nutrients digestibility, calves birth weight and increased milk (yield and composition) and showed better feed efficiency as well as higher some traits of reproductive performance.

[Kh. I. I. Zeedan, O. M. El-Malky, Kh. M. M. Mousa, A. A. El.Giziry and K. E.I. Etman. Nutritional studies on some different sources of iodine on productive performance, ruminal fermentation and blood constituents of Buffalo. 1 – Effect of two different iodine levels on productive and reproductive performance of buffalo cows. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1090-1106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.127

 

Keywords: buffalo cows, iodine, performance, reproductive parameters, blood components, milk yield, digestibility, immunity

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Isolation and Identification of Eimeria from Field Coccidiosis in Chickens

 

M.M. Amer1, M.H.H. Awaad1, Rabab M. El-Khateeb2, Nadia M.T.N. Abu-Elezz2, A. Sherein-Said 3, M.M. Ghetas 4 and M.A. Kutkat*4

 

1Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases,, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

4Department of Poultry Diseases, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

*kutkat55@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Oocysts of Eimeria species were collected from 8 Native breed chicken flocks aged 7-8 weeks. These chickens were suffering from bloody dropping, loss of weight, low conversion rate and variable mortalities 3-12% in 6-10 days. Eimeria species' oocysts were sporulated and tested for their infectivity and pathogenicity in male commercial chicks aged 14 days old. The infected chicks showed general signs of ruffled feathers, off food, huddling together with loose dropping and/or bloody dropping with total mortality reached to 90%. The post mortem examination showed hemorrhagic foci in the duodenum, hemorrhagic mucosa in mid intestine and bloody caecal core in two caeci. Eimeria species developmental stages in duodenum, intestine and caecum were histopathologically detected at the 6th day post infection. The obtained sporulated oocysts were identified according to morphological features, and the calculated shape index were 1.14, 1.19, 1.25 and 1.23 suggestive to be E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. acervulina and E. praecox; respectively. Chicks kept individually in a wire cage were inoculated with one sporulated oocyst for obtaining pure isolate from morphologically identified 10 isolates and for detection the site of infection and histopathological features. Egyptian four local isolates in a pure form were obtained. These isolate, including E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. necatrix, and E. praecox. This isolates were passed in the chicks 14th day old from increasing their number.

[M.M. Amer, M.H.H. Awaad, Rabab M. El-Khateeb, Nadia M.T.N. Abu-Elezz, A. Sherein-Said, M.M. Ghetas and M.A. Kutkat. Isolation and Identification of Eimeria from Field Coccidiosis in Chickens. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1107-1114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.128

 

Keywords: Oocysts; Eimeria species; sporulated oocyst; morphological features

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Novel Ion Selective Electrodes for Determination of Lisinopril: A Study of Plasma and Plasma Proteins Effect.

 

Laila Abdel-Fattah1, Amira El-Kosasy2, Lobna Abdel-Aziz 2, Mariam Gaied 2*

 

1Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University. Cairo, Egypt.

2Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University. Cairo, Egypt.

*dr_mariamhany@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Three lisinopril-selective electrodes were developed with different techniques and in different polymeric matrices. Precipitation based technique with bathophenanthroline-ferrous as cationic exchanger in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used for the fabrication of sensor I (classical electrode) and sensor II (coated wire electrode). Hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin-based techniques were used for the fabrication of sensor III using tecoflex (graphite electrode).Linear responses were obtained for the three sensors in the concentration ranges 10-7 – 10-4 M, 10-6 – 10-3 M and 10-6 – 10-4 M with slopes of 36.62, 32.66 and - 50.37 mv/decade for sensors I, II and III; respectively. The average recoveries are of 99.75 1.141 %, 99.51 1.198% and 99.79 1.261% for sensors I, II and III respectively The effect of pH and temperature were studied for the three sensors. The sensors show good selectivity to the drug in presence of a variety of inorganic and organic interferents including drugs of related substances. The proposed procedures were compared to the British pharmacopoeial method and showed no significant difference. The effect of serum levels of electrolytes (145 mmol/L Na+, 4.3 mmol/L K+ and 1.26 mmol/L Ca2+) was also studied and was found to be negligible. The behavior of all three sensors in presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), globulins and human plasma was studied. The three sensors were then used to determine lisinopril in plasma with average recoveries of 88.45 1.284 %, 83.42 1.6% and 99.64 0.972 % for sensors I, II and III; respectively.

[Laila Abdel-Fattah, Amira El-Kosasy, Lobna Abdel-Aziz, Mariam Gaied. Novel Ion Selective Electrodes for Determination of Lisinopril: A Study of Plasma and Plasma Proteins Effect. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1115-1121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.129

 

Keywords: lisinopril-selective electrode; polymeric matrice; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); graphite electrode

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Optimization of microbial biomass production as biocontrol agent against root knot nematode on faba plants

 

Zeinat, Kamel M., 1; Nagwa, M. Atef1; El-Sayed, S.A.2 and Abd El-Wahab G.S.3

 

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, GizaEgypt

2 Soils, Water, Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt

3 National Organization for Drug Control and Research (NODCAR), Egypt

dr_mona_zaki@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Our objective was to optimize nutritional and environmental conditions of the isolated Serratia marcescens Ba-2 and Pseudomonas fluorescens Ba-11 for biomass production and to evaluate the bio-control agents against the root knot disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita on Faba bean plants under greenhouse conditions. Glycerol at 10.2 g/L and peptone as a nitrogen source were the most suitable for biomass and antagonistic efficiency of S. marcescens or P. fluorescens against Meloidogyne sp. Cultures of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens supplemented with 10 g/L peptone, reduced larvae to 91% and 95% respectively. Optimum biomass and antagonistic activity of either bacteria against larvae was at pH 7.6, and incubation temperature at 30oC. 100% reduction of larval density was achieved when S. marcescens or P. fluorescens cultures were shaken at 120 and 160 rpm respectively. S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were very effective as biocontrol agaents to reduce the root – knot nematodes. Our data also indicate a marked effect of the biocontrol agents and Rhizobia on the growth response of faba plants. The obtained results showed that both bacterial treatments significantly increased the growth parameters as well as shoot and root dry weights and number of pods.

[Zeinat, Kamel M.; Nagwa, M. Atef; El-Sayed, S.A. and Abd El-Wahab G.S. Optimization of microbial biomass production as biocontrol agent against root knot nematode on faba plants. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1122-1132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.130

Keywords: Biological control, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, root-knot nematode, rhizobia

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Development of Agro-technology for the Cultivation and Conservation of Arnebia benthamii - A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of North West Himalaya

 

Khursheed A Ganaie1, Shabana Aslam2 and Irshad A Nawchoo2

1. Department of Botany, Islamia College of Science and Commerce Srinagar, J&K India

2. Department of Botany, University of Kashmir Srinagar, J&K India

khursheedtrali@yahoo.co.in

 

Abstract: The domestication of Arnebia benthamii was carried out successfully at low altitude. The species was exposed to a varied complex of conditions to screen conducive conditions for the cultivation and ex-situ conservation of the species. The species performed well under sunny conditions and grew nicely in soils of varied textures. The maximum survival was achieved on loamy soil followed by sandy and clayey textures. The species can be grown on acidic as well as alkaline soils within a PH range of 5-9. The species requires a good amount of moisture and therefore plants under exposed sunny conditions need to be irrigated twice a week. Frequent irrigations under shady conditions mar the survival of plants. Besides, waterlogging also proves detrimental for the species. The addition of fertilizers enhanced the herbage yield, with NPK mixture displaying maximum value in plants grown on loamy soil. Under sunny conditions in the hot summer input of potassium fertilizers reduced wilting and number of leaves showing wilting. Plants treated with potassium fertilizers showed luxuriant growth during hot summer. The cultivation time is from March to July with March to May being the ideal period of transplantation. For raising nursery, seeds should be sown to a depth of 0.5 cm in a 1:1 sand soil mixture.

[Khursheed A Ganaie, Shabana Aslam and Irshad A Nawchoo. Development of Agro-technology for the Cultivation and Conservation of Arnebia benthamii - A Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant of North West Himalaya. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1133-1141]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.131

 

Keywords: Domestication, Arnebia benthamii, agro-technology, medicinal plants, Kashmir, cultivation

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Identification of Genetic Variation among Bread Wheat Genotypes for Lead Tolerance Using Morpho – Physiological and Molecular Markers

 

Awaad, H. A. 1, Youssef, M. A. H.*2, Moustafa, E. S. A. 3

 

1. Crop Sci. Dept., Fac. of Agric. Zagazig Univ., Egypt. 2. Genetics Dept., Fac. of Agric., Zagazig Univ., Egypt.

3. Plant Genetic Resources Dept., Desert Res. Center, El-Matariya, Cairo, Egypt.

*bakr2000us@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two field experiments were conducted with ten bread wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) evaluated in their sensitivity to lead pollutant under lead stress and normal conditions. The results showed that there were great differences among wheat genotypes for proline content, leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf area as well as yield and its attributes. Wheat genotypes ACSAD 903, Sakha 94, ACSAD 939, Prl(S)/Pew(S), Tom(S)/Pew(S) and Gemmeiza 5 were classified as tolerant to lead stress as they exhibited lead sensitivity index less than unity with high values of proline content, leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf area and yield attributes in most cases. Whereas, ACSAD 925 was ranked in the first order in sensitivity to lead stress followed by Sids 6 and Tsi(S) while, Line 1 was relatively moderate sensitive to lead stress. Heritability estimates in broad sense were high under normal and moderate under lead stress conditions for proline content, leaf chlorophyll content and flag area, however it was moderately high for yield attributes and low for grain yield/fed. under normal and stress conditions. Negative and significant association was observed between lead sensitivity index of grain yield and each of proline content, leaf chlorophyll content, flag leaf area and number of productive tillers plant. Path coefficient analysis indicated that, the maximum direct effect on lead sensitivity index of grain yield was accounted for leaf chlorophyll content (22.268%) followed by flag leaf area (12.250%), proline content (5.697%) and then number of productive tillers/plant (1.397%).The highest indirect effect was registered for proline content via leaf chlorophyll content (12.241%) followed by leaf chlorophyll content via flag leaf area (7.795%) and flag leaf area via number of productive tillers/plant(5.235%), therefore, simultaneous selection for the foregoing pair characters may have resulted in enhancement lead tolerance in wheat. The genetic variation and relationships among 10 wheat genotypes with different responses to lead tolerance were evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) markers to establish specific DNA markers associated with lead tolerance.. A total of 40 DNA fragments were generated by 5 random primers, with an average of 8 easily detectable fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments produced per primer ranged from 6 to 10 and size of the products ranged from 254 bp to 1930 bp. The total number of polymorphic fragments and the percentage of polymorphism were 33 and 82.5 respectively. The greatest similarity was observed between ACSAD 903 and ACSAD 939 genotypes, whereas the lowest similarity showed between ACSAD 925 and Gemmeiza 5. The dendrogram separated all genotypes into three clusters. The patterns obtained with primer OPB-10 for genotypes suggested that this primer has the ability to produce lead tolerant markers. These results will be helpful in future wheat breeding programs.

[Awaad, H. A., Youssef, M. A. H., Moustafa, E. S. A. Identification of Genetic Variation among Bread Wheat Genotypes for Lead Tolerance Using Morpho – Physiological and Molecular Markers. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1142-1153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.132

 

Keywords: Wheat genotypes; lead tolerance; RAPD-PCR; Dedrogram; Moro-physiological characters

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Exercise versus Estrogen Therapy in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women with Endothelial Dysfunction

 

Mervat El-Sergany*1, Abeer Shahba2 and Lamia Al-Ahwal3

Departments of Rheumatology & Rehabilitation1, Internal Medicine2 and Obestetric & Gynecology3, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

*sergany3@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Both exercise and estrogen augments bone metabolism and endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Osteoprotegrin (OPG) appears to represent the molecular link between bone resorption and vascular calcification.This study was conducted to determine the effects of acute bouts of dynamic exercise and oral estrogen on serum osteoprotegrin (OPG) and endothelial dependent flow mediated dilatation of brachial artery (FMD); to assess if these two interventions independently or together achieve same improvement and finally to find any relation between OPG and FMD. Twenty early osteoporotic postmenopausal women with endothelial dysfunction, their mean age (539 years) and 20 healthy premenopausal female controls with mean age (292 years) were included. All subjects were subjected to assessment of OPG and FMD before the beginning of the study. Then OPG and FMD were quantified after 60 minutes of treadmill exercise for one hour, this protocol was repeated after 4 weeks of oral estrogen therapy. We found that serum OPG was elevated significantly in postmenopausal women after exercise( post-ex) approximating double baseline value (4.80.3 vs 2.90.3). There was a significant difference between OPG level post exercise and estrogen (post ex-est) vs post estrogen (post-est) alone (5.30.2 vs 4.30.2) while there was no significant difference between post exercise (post-ex) versus post-est (4.80.3 vs 4.30.2). Regarding FMD there was a significant difference between post-ex vs baseline (11.40.4 vs 6.10.5), post-est vs baseline (11.51.5 vs 6.10.5), also between post ex-est and baseline value (10.51.6 vs 6.10.5), while there was no significant difference between all interventions. Our results suggested that both exercise and estrogen augment bone metabolism and vascular reactivity to nearly equal values. So, this study reinforces the importance of exercise as a non pharmacological and alternative to oral estrogen in postmenopausal women and consider exercise as one of the mechanisms that protect against osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.

[Exercise versus Estrogen Therapy in Osteoporotic Postmenopausal Women with Endothelial Dysfunction Mervat El-Sergany, Abeer Shahba and Lamia Al-Ahwal. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1154-1159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.133

Keywords: estrogen augments; bone metabolism; endothelial function; postmenopausal women; Osteoprotegrin (OPG); flow mediated dilatation of brachial artery (FMD)

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Technological Properties of some Egyptian New Wheat Varieties

 

Ahmed M. S. Hussein, *Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal H. Ragab

 

Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*ResearchTeamMMK@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Whole meal and flour (72%) of Gemmeiza 7, Gize 168, Sohage 3 and Sakha 93 wheat varieties were evaluated to produce pan bread, pasta and biscuits. Pan bread of whole meal wheat varieties had higher contents of moisture, protein, fat, ash and fiber than wheat flour 72% of the same varieties. Pan bread of Sakha 93 was characterized by its higher baking quality (weight, volume and specific volume) than pan breads of other varieties. Crust color of pan bread was slightly affected with whole-meal wheat varieties, where its color score was maximized in case of Sakha 93 (7.7) and Sohage 3 (6.7). This result agreed with the obtained color parameter of Hunter, where lightness (L) was maximized to 55.95 and 49.79 in pan bread crust of Sohage 3 and Sakha 93, respectively. Pasta was characterized by its higher protein (13.12%), fat (2.59%) and crude fiber (2.82%) in case of using whole meal of Sohage 3, Giza 168 and Gemmeiza 7 varieties, respectively. Pasta cooking quality ranked first in case of using Sohage 3 whole meal, where its weight increase, volume increase and cooking loss reached to 265%, 305.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Pasta color parameter showed that, wheat flour 72% and whole meal of Sakha 93 were characterized by their higher lightness (L). Sensory evaluation showed that, pasta of wheat flour (72%) accepted slightly more in appearance and color if compared with whole meal pasta of the same variety. In addition, there were no significant differences between pasta of wheat flour (72%) and whole meal in flavor, tenderness and stickiness. Biscuit of whole meal was characterized by its higher content of protein, fat, ash and crude fiber than wheat flour (72%). Whole meal biscuit of Sohage 3 was characterized with its higher protein (12.13%), fat (31.0%) and ash (2.51%) contents; and lowest carbohydrate content (52.18%). Biscuit of Sakha 93 variety (whole meal or flour 72%) was higher in baking quality. Hunter color parameter and sensory evaluation showed that, biscuit of whole meal varieties was slightly darker than biscuit of wheat flour 72%. In addition, biscuits flavor, taste, texture, appearance and overall acceptability of wheat flour (72%) was not affected significantly in case of using whole meal flour of the same variety.

[Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal H. Ragab. Technological Properties of some Egyptian New Wheat Varieties. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1160-1171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.134

 

Keywords: Egyptian wheat varieties – technological properties - Pan bread – Pasta – Biscuit - whole meal – wheat flour 72%

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[Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1172-1178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.135

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Assessment of Temporal Fluctuations in Water Quality of the Coastal waters of Training Mole, Tarkwa Bay, Nigeria.

 

Edokpayi, C.A1., Saliu, J.K.2, Eruteya, O.J.3

1,3Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

2 Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Nigeria.

1klemedokpayi@gmail.com, 2jksaliu@yahoo.com, 3 jonathaneruteya@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hydrochemistry of the coastal waters of Training Mole, Tarkwa Bay was studied for a period of one year. The general water quality was found to be affected by a suite of physicochemical factors such as temperature, pH, salinity, BOD5, DO, conductivity, precipitation, freshwater influx and nutrients (PO4-P, NO3-N and SO42-). The environmental parameters were assessed monthly, compared seasonwise, and found to fluctuate with seasons. The general distributions of nutrients; PO4-P, NO3-N and SO42- in raining season were within the range of 1.12-3.00mg/L, 6.95-10.00mg/L respectively compared to a range of between 1.24-2.30mg/L, 5.24-8.03mg/L and 20.10-26.30mg/L during the dry season for PO4-P, NO3-N and SO42- respectively. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on dataset during the raining produced three significant principal components accounting for >75% cumulative variance in water quality; PC1, PC2 and PC3 contributed 59.78%, 18.78% and 16.10% variance in water quality respectively. During the dry season PCA likewise produced three significant PCs; PC1, PC2 and PC3 accounting for 54.10%, 27.38% and 13.03% variance in water quality respectively. Monthwise Cluster Analysis (CA) was used to discriminate the months with similar physicochemical behaviour. The study will be very useful for the determination of annual nutrient budget of Training Mole coastal waters and for the management of aquatic resources in the region.

[Edokpayi, C.A, Saliu, J.K., Eruteya, O.J. Assessment of Temporal Fluctuations in Water Quality of the Coastal waters of Training Mole, Tarkwa Bay, Nigeria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1179-1185]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.136

 

Keywords: Training Mole, Nutrients, Water quality, Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis

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Enhancing the Long-term Durability of Historical Wool Textiles Using Water Dispersed Nano Polymers

 

1Omar Abdel-Kareem, 2Hanaa Nasr

 

1Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Polymer and Pigment Department, Chemical Industry Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

* hanaa_nasr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Polymers are common used in conservation of museum textiles. This study aims to evaluate some selected nano polymers in conservation of museum wool textiles. Nano polymers used in this study are microemulsion polymers prepared from Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomers using Eco-friendly initiation system represented as ultrasonic mechanism. Wool textile samples were treated with different types of prepared nano polymers, to evaluate the long-term effect of these polymers on the physical and chemical properties of these materials. Two different types of accelerated ageing methods, heat and light were used in this evaluation. The change of the physical and chemical properties of the untreated and treated wool textiles after ageing was assessed by different methods. The results showed that all selected polymers improve the long-term durability of treated wool samples. However the results show that both treated and untreated wool samples became progressively darker and showed progressive losses in tensile strength after ageing by different methods. The results of this study will assist a conservator who seeks information about nano polymers suggested to be used in conservation of wool textiles.

[Omar Abdel-Kareem, Hanaa Nasr. Enhancing the Long-term Durability of Historical Wool Textiles Using Water Dispersed Nano Polymers. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1186-1194]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.137

 

Keywords: Wool textiles; Methyl methacrylate (MMA), Hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA),Nano Polymers, Ageing methods, Tensile Strength, FTIR, SEM, TG, Colour changes

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In Situ Emulsion Polymerization of Terpolymer / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites using redox initiation system

 

*H.E.Nasr and W. S. Mohamed

Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo Egypt

*Hanaa_nasr@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Intercalated modification of MMT clay was carried out using cetyl ammonium bromide (CAB) in the presence of hydrochloric acid to produce modified MMT clay. The modified clays were characterized by XRD and SEM. The data shows an increase in d-spacing of modified clay as a result of cationic exchange. Modified MMT clay was used in the preparation of terpolymer/clay nanocomposites using emulsion polymerization of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA), methylmethacrylate (MMA) and butyl acrylate (BuA) with different monomer composition ratios and constant weight percentage of the modified clay. The structure and properties of the prepared terpolymers and nanocomposites were done by XRD, TGA, and SEM. The results clarified that increasing the MMA monomer content had positive effect for improving the thermal stability of the prepared terpolymers. Moreover, nanocomposites samples were higher thermal stability than its mates prepared in absence of modified clay. It is also obvious that the XRD and SEM show that the clay is more homogenous and produce exfoliated nanocomposite at higher BuA monomer ratio.

[H.E. Nasr and W. S. Mohamed. In Situ Emulsion Polymerization of Terpolymer / Montmorillonite Nanocomposites using redox initiation system. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1195-1201]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.138

 

Keywords: Montmorillonite – Cetyl ammonium bromide – terpolymer – Emulsion

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Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol of Different Molecular Weights as Protective Colloids on the Kinetics of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

 

K.A. Shaffie *1,A.B.Moustafa2, N.H. Saleh2, H. E. Nasr 2

 

1Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Helwan Univ, Helwan, Egypt.

2Dept. of Polymers& Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*Khaled.shaffei2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The kinetics of emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) of different molecular weights as protective colloid using potassium-persulphate / acetone sodium bisulphite as a redox initiation system was studied. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the rate of polymerization, maximum conversion as well as the morphological characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the rate of polymerization was found to be dependent on the initiator, protective colloid, and monomer concentrations to the powers 0.81, 0.65 and 0.60 respectively, for polyvinyl alcohol of lowest molecular weight and to the powers 0.90, 0.61 and 0.66 for the medium molecular weight, also to the powers 1.20, 0.51 and 0.63 for the highest one. The activation energies values for the emulsion polymerization of VAc using different molecular weights are as follows 0.946x 104, 1.0613 x 104, and 0.932 x 104 J / mol for PVA of molecular weights (9000, 34000, 125000 ) respectively. The morphological studies of some prepared polyvinyl acetate latex particles reveal that increasing the initiator concentration decreases the volume average diameter (v) of some prepared latex particles and increases the number of polymer particles per unit volume of water. Also the v of some prepared latex particles increases with increasing the molecular weight of the protective colloid, while the number of polymer particles per unit volume of water decreases. The viscosity average molecular weights Mv of some prepared latices decreases with increasing the initiator concentration.

[K.A. Shaffie,A.B.Moustafa, N.H. Saleh, H. E. Nasr. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol of Different Molecular Weights as Protective Colloids on the Kinetics of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1202-1212]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.139

 

Key words: Emulsion polymerization, kinetics, morphology, vinyl acetate, poly (vinyl alcohol), redox initiation system

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Age and gender differences and construct of the children’s emotional intelligence

 

Mojgan Mirza, Ma’rof Redzuan*

 

Department of Social andDevelopment Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

 *Corresponding author: e-mail: marof@putra.upm.edu.my; Tel: +600389467064

 

Abstract: With respect to the age and gender the children’s emotional intelligence construct is still being developed with little empirical support. Hence, this research follows a specific objective for determination of the differences between construct of the children’s’ emotional intelligence (EI) and their personal characteristics such as age and gender. The present study was carried out among 107 Iranian students in the Iranian primary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The students (girls and boys) were clustered in three different age groups, 8, 9, and 10 years old. Data were collected using the Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version (Bar- on EQ-i; YV, 2000) and demographic questionnaire. The statistical findings, with respect to gender and ages, indicated that there was a noticeable difference between emotional intelligence of girls and boys in groups of ages.

[Mojgan Mirza, Ma’rof Redzuan. Age and gender differences and construct of the children’s emotional intelligence. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1213-1221]. (ISSN:1545-1003)

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.140

 

Keywords: Children’s Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Quotient Inventory Youth Version

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Selection of Most Potent A. niger Isolates Growing on Different Carbohydrate by-Products for Citric Acid Production

 

Husseiny, S.M.*1; Helemish, F.A. 1; Younis, N.A. 2and Farag, S.S.2

 

1Womens College, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

2Plant Research Dept., Nuclear Research Center, AEA.

 

Abstract: Twenty strains isolates of A. niger were isolated from different sources, screened for their capacity to produce citric acid. All the isolated strains were able to produce All isolates were able to produce citric acid in different quantities at different time intervals i.e. 4, 8 and 12 days on indicator medium. The best incubation period for production for all isolates was 12 days. The best production obtained by isolates A1, A4 & A5, while A8, A16, A18 & A19 recorded weak production on that medium. Citric acid productivity was obtained by all strains isolates when using different concentrations of four carbohydrate by-products (maize straw, potato peel wastes, sugar beet pulp and molasses) when each used alone without any additions after 12 days incubation and the production enhanced when the fermentation medium amended with the same concentrations of the mentioned substrates. Type and concentration of carbohydrate by-product affect the production of citric acid by A. niger strains isolates under the study. Increasing substrate concentration led to increase in production, the best concentration for production was 25% for all carbohydrate by-products. As recorded with indicator medium, A1, A4 & A5 recorded the best production when growing on the four carbohydrate by-products supplemented to the basal medium, while A8, A6, A16 A18 & A19 recorded the weak production with the carbohydrate by-products used. Further studies will be carried out as a trail to improve the production using the obtained (most potent & the weak) isolates after exposure to mutagenic agents.

[Husseiny, S.M.; Helemish, F.A.; Younis, N.A. and Farag, S.S. Selection of Most Potent A. niger Isolates Growing on Different Carbohydrate by-Products for Citric Acid Production. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1222-1229]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.141

 

Keywords: A. niger; citric acid; carbohydrate; by-product

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Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Typical and Atypical Cases of Retinitis Pigmentosa

 

Hisham A. Hashem, Mostafa M. Salaheldine, Sherif S. Karawya. & Hisham F. Kamal.

Ophthalmology Dept, Research Institute of Ophthalmology.

 

 

Abstract: Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to characterize the intra-retinal changes associated with typical and atypical cases of retinitis pigmentosa. Design: Observational case series. Settings: Research Institute of ophthalmology Cairo- Egypt. Methods: 24 eyes of 16 patients complaining of night vision and diagnosed as RP by fundus, field of vision, FFA, and electrophysiological examinations. Their retinae were imaged by OCT using Humphrey2000 OCT system (Humphrey Co., SanLenardo, California). The following parameters were assessed; Retinal & nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness.-Retinal pigment epithelium layer (RPEL) especially subfoveal area. -Presence of maculopathy (atrophic, cystoid, cellophane). Optic disc changes. Results: 16 cases, 24 eyes, 10 males, 6 females. Mean age 24, 5 y (range 10-38’). BCVA was 3/60-, 6/36. Fundus photography of 10 eyes of 5 patients had typical appearance of RP with gliotic waxy pallor of the optic nerve head, attenuation of the retinal arterioles, exaggerated choroidal pattern and mid peripheral bone specules. FFA showed delayed filling of the vessels, RPE transmission defect extending to the retinal mid-periphery, areas of blocked fluorescence corresponding to the bone specules in the mid periphery. OCT findings included: Retinal thickness was reduced in cases with typical as well as atypical fundus presentation. The macula showed total macular volume reduction, decrease central foveal thickness (ranging from 87 to 150 microns) with enlargement of central foveal depression. Cases which had cystoid macular edema (CMO) had increase thickness One Case which had epiretinal membrane showed increase retinal thickness above average normal in the central quadrant, while the inner and outer retinal quadrant showed decrease thickness. There was no correlation between RPEL thickness and either degree of retinal pigmentation seen in fundus photos or the change in NFL thickness. RPE under the fovea was not affected in all typical cases. Findings in atypical cases: Eight eyes of 5 patients had cystoid macular edema. Three of these patients had bilateral CME which was evident as intra-retinal cystic spaces with pooling of the dye in FA. OCT disclosed increased retinal thickness, with areas of low intra-retinal reflectivity prevailing in the outer retinal layers, and loss of foveal depression. One case with 2 eyes had mottled fundus appearance with absence of bone specules (RP sin-pigmenti). OCT showed generalized reduction of the retinal thickness, generalized RPE atrophy with partial sparing of subfoveal RPE. Another atypical case of retinitis pigmentosa albescence showed white dots scattered thought the mid periphery of the fundus. OCT showed thinning of the RPE within the macular area with enlarged central foveal depression and generalized reduction in foveal thickness. The sister of a typical RP case presented with a bilateral fundus picture of Bull’s eye maculopathy with waxy pallor of the optic disc. OCT showed total macular volume reduction, with marked decrease in NFL thickness and generalized RPE atrophy. Conclusion: OCT characterized the intra-retinal morphological changes in typical as well as atypical cases of RP.

[Hisham A. Hashem, Mostafa M. Salaheldine, Sherif S. Karawya. & Hisham F. Kamal. Optical Coherence Tomography Study of Typical and Atypical Cases of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1230-1236 (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.142

 

Keywords: Retina, Retinitis pigmentosa, OCT

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Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Affected by some Lactic Acid Bacteria

 

Abou-Arab, A.A.K1; Abou-Bakr Salim1; Maher, R. A*2; El-Hendawy, H.H.2 and Awad, A.A.2

 

1Food Toxicology and Contaminants, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.

2Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals composed of two or more fused aromatic rings that are formed from the incomplete combustion or high-temperature pyrolysis of coal, oil, gas, wood, fossil fuel, garbage or other organic substances, such as tobacco, charbroiled meat and exhaust from automobile and trucks. They enter the environment and release to air, soil, water and food. Some PAHs have shown to have toxicological, carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on animals and humans. Biodegradation of PAHs in the presence of the three types of lactic acid bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidium, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) were studied during the different incubation periods (2, 4, 6,8,10,12,24,48 and 72 h) at 37˚C. The reduction of PAHs concentration proved that these compounds were affected by the previous lactic acid bacteria. At the end of incubation period (72 h), the reduction percent were 46.6, 87.7 and 91.5% with Bifidobacterium bifidium, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, respectively. These results could be explained as the bacterial cell is a high proteinous material and so may adsorbs PAHs which could interfere with cellular metabolism. Also, the variation of pH values during the incubation periods may control in the adsorbed PAHs on the cells. The biodegradation of PAHs by yoghurt starter during yoghurt manufacture were studied. Slightly reduction was observed during the incubation periods (1, 2 and 3 h). The reduction percent was 3.46 at the final product. It could be revealing that the persistence of PAHs depend on a number of factors such as the type of microorganism, the interaction between microorganisms, the microbial concentration, the composition of the medium, and the microbial growth conditions of temperature and pH. The foregoing information reveal that extra care must be taken when comparing the results since in-vitro studies are not always relevant to real situation in food products.

[Abou-Arab, A.A.K; Abou-Bakr Salim; Maher,R. A; El-Hendawy, H.H. and Awad, A.A. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Affected by some Lactic Acid Bacteria. Journal of American Science 2010;6(10):1237-1246]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas061010.143