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Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 8, Issue 1, Cumulated No. 47, January 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover Page (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0801

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CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Evaluation of mandibular bone segments changes with early versus delayed functional loading after symphyseal fracture fixation using resorpable bone plates.

 

Atef Abd El Hameed Fouda

 

Oral & Maxillofacial Dept.-Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding Author E-mail: atef_fouda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Improper fixation during fracture healing leads to malocclusion. Mandibular bone segments and subsequently occlusal changes that may result after mandibular trauma treatment interfere with establishment of stable occlusion in so-called adapted centric posture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate these changes during and after symphyseal fracture treatment with early versus delayed functional loading. Methods: Twenty four fully-dentate adult male patients with mandibular symphyseal fracture were divided into two equal groups. In the first group two poly lactic acid plates were used for fracture fixation, while the other group treated the same as first group and MMF were performed for one week postoperatively. To evaluate bone segments displacement the patients were subjected to antero-posterior cephalogram for measurement of inter-gonial distance. Results: significant bony segments displacement reported in group I patients. Conclusion: MMF recommended to be applied for one week after use of poly lactic acid (PLA) plates in symphyseal fractures fixation.

[Atef Abd El Hameed Fouda. Evaluation of mandibular bone segments changes with early versus delayed functional loading after symphyseal fracture fixation using resorpable bone plates. J Am Sci. 2011;8(1):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.01

 

Keywords: symphyseal fracture, malocclusion, resorpable plates, mandibular fracture

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2

Visibility Enhancement of Digital Dental X-Ray for RCT Application Using Bayesian Classifier and Two Times Wavelet Image Fusion

 

Bardia Yousefi 1, Hina Hakim 2, Nasiha Motahir 3, Paria Yousefi1, Mohammad Mehdi Hosseini4

 

1. Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IRAN
2. Khyber College of Dentistry, University of Peshawar, PAKISTAN

3. Peshawar Dental Colleges and Hospital, PAKISTAN

4. Department of electronic and computer engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood branch, Shahrood, Po box 36155/163 IRAN hosseini_mm@iau-shahrood.ac.ir

bardia.yousefi@ieee.org

 

Abstract: This paper presents the developing of digital dental X-ray by using the wavelet image fusion and Bayesian classifier. One of the bases of such systems are generating better concepts of location of teeth and canals in dentistry applications such as Root Canal Treatment (RCT), and Boneless which are common in dental treatments. Beside, many scientific and clinical decisions need to be made on these grounds. The aim of this paper will be summarized by improving the visibility of teeth, bone and canals in digital dental X-ray. For this purpose, the Laplacian transform will be applied to the image, and then structure element along with morphological operation will be used. Afterward, the obtained image will be fused by using wavelet transform with input image and the next step will be Bayesian classifier classifies teeth and canals from achieved image. Finally, the outcome image will be fused second time to original image by wavelet image fusion technique. The proposed approach applied to the 30 dental radiographs from 30 dental patients. Experiments of this novel technique indicate promising results which demonstrate efficiency of the proposed method for improvement algorithm of the X-ray images.

[Bardia Yousefi, Hina Hakim, Nasiha Motahir, Paria Yousefi, Mohammad Mehdi Hosseini. Visibility Enhancement of Digital Dental X-Ray for RCT Application Using Bayesian Classifier and Wavelet Image Fusion. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):7-13]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.02

 

Keywords: Dentistry; image processing; Laplacian; Structure Element (SE); Morphological Operation; Bayesian Classifier; Wavelet Image Fusion

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3

Comparative Study Between Different Techniques For Coverage Of Submerged Immediate Dental ImplantS

 

Khaled A. Elhayes

 

Associate Professor Oral& Maxillofacial Surgery, OMFS Department, Faculty of Oral & Dental Medicine, Cairo University. pdkae@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: The submerged immediate implant procedure was more effective than the non-submerged procedure in improving implant anchorage (osseointegration) in the early phase after implant placement. Aim: Evaluation of the best technique for Immediate Dental Implant coverage to fulfill the submerged concept for proper osseointegration. Material and Methods: This study involved 61 implants in 44 Patients aged 26-43 years old; 34 males and 10 females, all of them underwent immediate submerged dental implantation of different implant systems.18 implants were covered with labial or buccal advancement flap (BAF) in 14 patients.15 implants were covered by sub-epithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG) in 15 patients.14 implants were covered by titanium membrane (TM) in 7 patients.14 implants were covered by poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) membrane in 7 patients. All Patients were followed up clinically for undisturbed continuous coverage of submerged implants at time intervals of 1W, 2W, 4W, 2M and 3M post-surgically. Results: It was found that the PTFE membrane showed the highest percentage of undisturbed healing of supra-implant soft tissue coverage (92.9%) followed by labial or buccal advancement flap (83.3%), then the sub-epithelial C.T graft (73.3%) and lastly came the titanium membrane that was (57.1%). Conclusions: The PTFE membrane was the best used due to: It’s a non-reactive material, not affected by oral fluids or thermal changes. So, it can remain exposed to the oral cavity, no need for primary wound closure. It can be stretched and molded in two directions due to its plastic elasticity and tear-proof, it doesn’t obliterate the vestibules, It is a traumatic procedure and the membrane removal is easy and uncomplicated.

[Khaled A. Elhayes. Comparative Study Between Different Techniques For Coverage Of Submerged Immediate Dental Implants. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):14-22]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.03

 

Keywords: implant procedure; Dental; poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE); titanium membrane

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Early outcome predictors of post cardiac arrest patients

 

Abouelela Amr1, Imam Mohamed 2

 

1Alexandria University, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, physical medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation department, Alexandria, Egypt

amrela313@yahoo.com; imam_mohamed@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: When pulse and blood pressure return after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the brain may have already been critically injured. When severe, a post resuscitation anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy leaves patients comatose. Awakening generally takes place within 3 days after CPR, and neurological impairment is expected if a patient fails to do so. These patients are often left in a severely cognitively disabled and fully dependent state; some remain in a minimally conscious or vegetative state, and very few awaken neurologically. The aim of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of some clinical, radiological, electrophysiological and laboratory tests as early predictors of the outcome in post arrest patients. This study was carried out on 54 patients- in critical care department of Alexandria university main hospital in Egypt- who survived after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation for at least 12 hours after the event. All patients were subjected to the routine ICU care with emphasis on neurological examination and investigations in the form of CT brain, SomatoSensory Evoked Potential and serial serum creatinine measurement. Outcome evaluation was done using Glasgow- Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Categories (GP-CPC). Patients were categorized into two groups: group 1 (favourable outcome) including GP-CPC1and 2; group 2 (unfavourable outcome) included GP-CPC 3,4 and 5. Regarding the neurological assessment of patients (table3), it was found that 4 out of 24 patients (16.7%) developed myoclonus in group I versus 7 patients out of 30 (23%) in group II with no significant difference between the 2 groups. The (SEP) results were significantly better in group I compared to group II (p= 0.0001*). Significant higher creatinine level was recorded in day 2 in group II being 1.6±1.1 versus 1.31± 0.78 in group I (P =0.045*). No significant statistical difference was found between the 2 groups regarding the CT results. As a conclusion from this study, the duration of cardiac arrest, the SSEP and the changes in serum creatinine are the parameters which carry the highest ability to differentiate between patients with good prognosis from those with bad prognosis. No gold standard single test can be used to predict the prognosis in post cardiac arrest patients.

[Abouelela Amr, Imam Mohamed. Early outcome predictors of post cardiac arrest patients. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):23-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.04

 

Keywords: SSEP, post-arrest, Outcome predictors, GP-CPC

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Assessments of the effects of ZrO2 nanopowders on porosimetry and mechanical properties of concrete

 

Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha1 and Farzad Soleymani*,2

 

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

2. Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

* E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Flexural of concrete containing ZrO2 nanoparticles which were cured in saturated limewater have been optimized. ZrO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of Portland cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as nano-fillers. The specimens were cured in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting and then their strength was evaluated by flexural strength test. The results showed that replacement of Portland cement with ZrO2 nanoparticles up to 1.0 weight percent for the specimens cured in water and 2.0% for the specimens cured in saturated limewater produces concrete with the best strength. It has been obtained that curing the specimens in saturated limewater for 28 days and then in water until 90 days, produces more strengthened concrete than those cured only in saturated limewater for 90 days. Excess Ca(OH)2 crystals which forms after 28 days, when the specimens cured in limewater, reduces the effect of strengthening gels which form until the 90 days hence reduces the mechanical properties of the specimens. On the other hand, curing the specimens in water after 28 days produces more strengthening gel results in a concrete with higher strength. The pore structure of different mixtures was studied. The addition of nanoparticles improves the pore structure of concretes, the refined extent of pore structure increase with decreasing nanoparticles’ content. The pore structure of concretes which were cured in saturated limewater is better than that of concretes cured in water.

[Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha and Farzad Soleymani. Assessments of the effects of ZrO2 nanopowders on porosimetry and mechanical properties of concrete. J Am Sci. 2011;8(1):29-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.05

 

Key words: ZrO2 nanoparticles; flexural strength; optimized properties; pore structure; concrete.

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6

Echocardiography During Weaning From Mechanical Ventilation

 

Dr. Atta Ehab1, Abouelela Amr2, Hamdy Ahmed 3

 

1Alexandria university, chest diseases department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

3Gamal Abdelnaser Hospital, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

amrela313@yahoo.com; mohamedehabatta@yahoo.com; ahmed_elsaka888@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Weaning patients from the ventilator remains a crucial issue. The incidence of weaning failure, which is defined as a failed spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) or the need for a re-intubation in the 48 hours following extubation, reached 31%. Weaning failure remains a clinically relevant challenge because it may result in significant morbidity (prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, re-intubation) and may influence mortality. Even if its actual incidence is unknown, cardiac dysfunction is a leading cause of weaning failure. Although echocardiography allows the noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and LV filling pressures, its clinical value in the setting of ventilator weaning has yet to be determined. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the ability of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to detect the effects of spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) on central hemodynamics and to identify indices predictive of cardiac-related weaning failure. This study was conducted on 40 patients on mechanical ventilation admitted to The Critical Care Department of Alexandria Main University Hospital and to intensive care unit in Gamal Abdel Naser Hospital in Alexandria-Egypt. Trans thoracic echocardiography (TTE) was under taken just before and at the end of a 30-min SBT in patients fulfilling weaning criteria. Values of TTE parameters were compared between baseline (before weaning) and SBT (after weaning) in all patients. Clinical and ECHO parameters were compared between patients who succeed the weaning trial and those who failed. Ejection fraction (EF) was 50.2±4.25 before weaning and decreased to 41.1±4.88 after weaning in the failure group (p=0.01). The deceleration time of the E wave of the mitral flow (DTE) decreased significantly from 178.1± 10.5 before weaning to 160.4±10.2 after weaning in the failure group (p=0.042). We concluded from this study that EF and DTE could be used as predictive indices of cardiac-related weaning failure while right ventricular end diastolic area / left ventricular end diastolic area(RVEDA/LVEDA) and the pulmonary flow acceleration time did not show any predictive value. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of the echocardiography as a screening strategy on the weaning process and patient outcome.

[Atta Ehab, Abouelela Amr, Hamdy Ahmed. Echocardiography During Weaning From Mechanical Ventilation. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):36-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.06

 

Keywords: Weaning, Echocardiography, Cardiac dysfunction, SBT, Cardio-respiratory changes.

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Delirium in Critical Care Medicine Department in Faculty of Medicine Alexandria University incidence and relation with sepsis

 

Hassan A Abukhabar1, Amr Abdallah2, Ahmed Eltoukhy3

 

1Alexandria University, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

3Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

habukhaber@yahoo.com; amrabdalla1971icu@gmail.com, toukhy1810@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The intensivist should think of delirium, or acute central nervous system dysfunction, as the brain's form of "organ dysfunction." Delirium is extremely common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients due to factors such as co morbidity, critical illness, and iatrogenesis. The delirium is extremely hazardous in older persons and is associated with prolonged ICU stay. Lack of experience about delirium& instruments which should used to diagnose it, makes its diagnosis in ICU difficult. Sepsis associated delirium is not simply an unpleasant confusion or obtundation of the patient with sepsis, but a relevant and often severe organ dysfunction that is reflected by increase in mortality. Furthermore impaired cognitive function after critical illness, particularly in patient suffering from delirium, is increasingly being recognized. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of delirium in critical care units in Alexandria University Hospital, and to find out if there was any association between delirium and sepsis. The study was conducted on 385 adult conscious patients. All selected patients have been screened for delirium by (CAM-ICU score) daily until patients died, discharged, become unfit for score, or become positive for delirium. In selected patients, their different diagnoses was recorded, and laboratory and clinical sepsis profile was taken to found the association between sepsis and delirium. The following results were obtained: Incidence of delirium in critical care units in Alexandria university hospital is 18.4%.The age of patients with delirium was significantly higher with delirium. Duration of stay in ICU in delirious patients is higher than non delirious patients.56% of pneumonia patients developed delirium in their stay in ICU. There was a significant association between sepsis and delirium in ICU, as presence of sepsis in delirious patients was higher with delirium. Incidence of delirium in intubated or mechanically ventilated patients was significantly higher. Sepsis was found to be an important risk factor for developing of delirium in ICU. Confusion assessment method in ICU (CAM-ICU) was found to be an easy, quick, and effective tool to diagnose delirium in adult and conscious ICU patients. Respiratory tract infections is a common cause of sepsis associated delirium.

[Hassan A Abukhabar, Amr Abdallah, Ahmed Eltoukhy. Delirium in Critical Care Medicine Department in Faculty of Medicine Alexandria University incidence and relation with sepsis. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):44-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.07

 

Keywords: delirium, CAM/ICU, sepsis.

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A Review of Teachers’ Professional Development Initiatives and Associated Issues and Challenges in Higher Education Institutes of Pakistan

 

Hassan Danial Aslam 1,2, Tasawar Javad 3, Mohammad Hossein Mardani Nokandeh 4, Hamzeh Sharifi 5, Mehrdad Jalalian 6, Muhammad Arfan Lodhi 7

 

1. Lecturer, Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2. Senior Research Consultant, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society

3. Lecturer, Faculty of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4. Golestan University, Gorgan, Iran

5. Academic member of Babol Medical Sciences University, Babol, Iran

7. PhD Scholar & Visiting Lecturer, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

6. Editor-in-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Professional development of teachers is a necessary part of any country’s improvements of the educational system. Collaborative and interactive teaching can be compared with a tree where traditional, orthodox ideas are abandoned (like old leaves falling down) while innovative and provocative concepts are acknowledged, accepted, and implemented in the classroom. Teachers’ professional competency and personal development are the most important parts of the educational continuum. Accordingly, most universities in developed countries have established their own professional development wings to enhance the pedagogical and interactive skills of their faculty. The present study is descriptive in nature and attempts to provide a theoretical background of the importance of professional development, and the need for professional development for university teachers in Pakistan. Moreover, it has found a strong connection between enhancing the quality of education with the professional growth and development of teachers through various ways and means.

[Hassan Danial Aslam, Tasawar Javad, Mohammad Hossein Mardani Nokandeh, Hamzeh Sharifi, Mehrdad Jalalian, Muhammad Arfan Lodh. A Review of Teachers’ Professional Development Initiatives in Higher Education Institutes of Pakistan. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):54-60]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.08

 

Keywords: Professional Development; Higher Education; Quality of Education

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Antimutagenic Potential of Cynara scolymus, Cupressus sempervirens and Eugenia jambolana Against Paracetamol-Induced liver cytotoxicity.

 

Souria M. Donya1 and Nancy H. Ibrahim2

 

1-Genetics and Cytology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Division, National Research Center, Tahrir St., Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt

2-Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Corresponding author. Souria M. Donya. e-mail: DrSouria-Moustafa@ hotmail.com.

 

Abstract:Drug-induced liver injury is a potential complication of virtually every prescribed hot medication. Paracetamol (APAP) is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide for its analgesic and antipyretic effect. Although it is considered to be safe and effective in the therapeutic range, the overdose following accidental ingestion or suicidal attempt causes a toxic response leading to the centrilobular necrosis in liver. Consequently, the present study was designed to evaluate antihepatotoxic and antimutagenic activities of hydroethanolic extract of Cynara scolymus L., Cupressus sempervirens L., and Eugenia jambolana Lam in experimental rat model of paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats, comparing with silymarin as reference agent. The results revealed that the pre-treatment with either hydroethanolic extract (250 mg/kg/day, p.o) or silymarin (50 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 4 weeks has good safety profile in normal rats and exhibited a marked hepatoprotection against single toxic dose of paracetamol (4 g.kg-1b.wt, p.o.) as proved from marked decline in the DNA fragmentations and inhibition in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. These protection was decreased as silymarin ≥ E. jambolana > C. sempervirens > C. scolymus. In conclusion: E. jambolana may be applied as potential sources of natural antioxidant with hepatoprotective effect. Further investigations are needed to isolation and characterisation of the active principles responsible for hepatoprotective activity.

[Souria M. Donya; Nancy H. Ibrahim. Antimutagenic Potential of Cynara scolymus, Cupressus sempervirens and Eugenia jambolana Against Paracetamol-Induced liver cytotoxicity. J Am Sci. 2011;8(1):61-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.09

 

Key Words: antioxidant; antihepatotoxic; antimutagenic; Cynara scolymus L.; Cupressus sempervirens L.; Eugenia jambolana Lam; DNA fragmentation; chromosomal aberration.

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Warning to the Status of Critically Endangered Great Bustard Otis tarda in Iran

 

1Rahim Abdulkarimi and 2Naser Ahmadi Sani

 

1-Islamic Azad University, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran; 2-Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran. Rahim.abdulkarimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Great Bustard is the critically endangered species that classified in IUCN red list and in the current decade faced to several threat as losing of the natural refuge and habitat destruction by human interference in Iran. Updating data about population status and induced threat on the Great Bustard is necessary to design a action plan and conservation measure. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the status of Great Bustard population, with attention to the Mokryan region, NW Iran in January to December 2011. Based on final reports the Great Bustard habitats were destroyed in some parts of country except of Mokryan, in south of West Azerbaijan province. The sites around Boukan are the main refuge in Mokryan, where Great Bustard breeds in its dry land and survive the wintering time there. The results of this study indicated that optimal habitats in NW(Mokryan) approached to desolation and their Great Bustard population linearly has decreased than past years, whereas the largest number was only 33 individual birds which observed in winter. The induced change by human as destruction of grasslands and convert to cultivation of land, transformed dry to water land, establishment of industrialism, increasing in human density and those side effects are the main reasons to this tragedy. Regarding to this results, only 35-45 individual birds has been estimated in throughout of country. Thereafter the urgent plan to reserve of this species must be performed by DoE or responsible organs.

[Rahim Abdulkarimi and Naser Ahmadi Sani., Warning to the Status of Critically Endangered Great Bustard Otis tarda in Iran. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):68-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.10

 

Key words: Great Bustard Otis tarda, population status, Mokryan region, Northwestern Iran

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The Effect of By-pass Protein on Quantity and Quality Traits of Mohair in Iranian Angora (Markhoz) Goat

 

1Farzad Abdollahzadeh, 2 Rahman Ebne Abbasi, 1Rahim Abdulkarimi

 

1-Islamic Azad University, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran

2-Department of Animal Science, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Kurdistan Province, Sanandaj, Iran

Farzad.Abdolahzadeh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The effect of dietary varying levels of By-pass protein on fiber production and nutrients digestibility of Markhoz kid goats was studied. Sixteen castrate male Angora goats (about 6 months of age; 20±1.5 kg of initial BW), were assigned randomly to four isocaloric (9/8 MJ/ kg of DM intake) and isonitrogenous (11/9 % Cp of DM) diets differing in their fishmeal (Fm) content in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were supplemented by 0 Fm (or control), 50 (LFm), 75 (MFm) and 100 g/day (HFm) of Fm as a dietary By-pass protein resource. The inclusion of Fm in Angora goats' diet was associated with a higher greasy and clean fiber, fiber diameter, staple length, medullated and kemp fibers and lower true fiber than control diet. The higher supply of dietary Fm resulted in higher (P < 0.05) nutrients (DM, OM, CP and NDF) digestibilities but, no differences were observed among Fm levels. DM intake was highest for goats fed HFm and lowest for those fed control diet, however, differences among treatments were non-significant. Overall results indicated that, enrichment of Angora diets relatively high in concentrate with Fm as a source of By-pass protein improved nutrient digestibility and fleece characteristic of Angora goats. Additionally, the use of By-pass protein resource such as Fm is required for maximum fiber production and 50 g/d of Fm is recommended to feed on such diets.

 [Farzad Abdollahzadeh, Rahman Ebne Abbasi and Rahim Abdulkarimi. The Effect of By-pass Protein on Quantity and Quality Traits of Mohair in Iranian Angora (Markhoz) Goat. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):73-76]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.11

 

Key words: Angora goat, Markhoz goat, By-pass protein, fiber characteristic

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Determinants of non-farm income diversification among rural households in Nigeria

 

Olugbire, O.O1., Falusi, A.O2 and Adeoti, A.I2., Oyekale, A.S.2

 

1 Department of Forest Economics and Extension, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Jericho, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

adekola_toyin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Integrated rural development approach to poverty reduction has been reported to have limited success in Nigeria. This is because farming is considered as main source of income for rural households, despite their involvement in other non-farm income generating activities. Focusing on income derivable from farming alone may be partially responsible for the ineffective poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria. In this paper, we investigate the composition and determinants of non-farm income of rural households in Nigeria. The 2004 National Living Standard Survey (NLSS) data collected by the Nigeria’s National Bureau of Statistics was used for the analysis. The results from the study show that the share of farm, non-farm wage- and self-employment incomes in total household incomes were 24.3%, 43.0% and 23.7% respectively. Econometric analysis show that, households whose heads are male and had formal education, increased the likelihood of households’ participation in non-farm wage-employment activities, while access to credit and having larger farm size decreased it. Access to credit; community participation; larger family size and possession of capital assets increased the likelihood of participation in non-farm self-employment activities, while having larger farm size, being a non-indigene decreased it.

[Olugbire, O.O., Falusi, A.O. and Adeoti, A.I., Oyekale, A.S. Determinants of non-farm income diversification among rural households in Nigeria. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):77-82]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.12

 

Keywords: Non-farm income, wage-employment income, self-employment income, diversification, rural Nigeria.

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High biomass Chenopodium album L. is a suitable weed for remediation Cd-contaminated soils

 

Geeta Mahbubeh MazhariA and Bahare bahramianB

 

A Department of Soil Science, Agriculture and Natural Resources Faculty, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

BDepartment of weed Science, Agriculture and Natural Resources Faculty, mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, mashhad, Iran

scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Phyextraction is an in situ and cost-effective potential strategy for cleanup contaminated soils. The objective of this study was to find out if halophyte chenopodium album L. can be used for phytoextraction of cadmium from contaminated soils. Consequently, an extensive experiment was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction ability of one high biomass halophyte. The soils used in the experiment were contaminated with 5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 100 mg Cd kg−1 soil, in the form of cadmium chloride. Our results indicated that no injury symptoms in chenopodium album L. were observed even on 100 mg kg−1 soil Cd The Cd50 value (Cd at which the yield is reduced by 50%) for Chenopocium album L. evaluate 117 mg Cd kg−1 soils. The Cd transportation from soil to plant was increased by increasing soil cadmium content. At Cd concentration of 100 mg kg−1 which is 100 times more than EPA approved maximum level, only 40 percent reduction observed in wet shoots. Although the average Cd accumulation in shoots was not notably high (40.8 mg kg1 at 100 mg Cd kg-1 soil); its high biomass production resulted to overall high Cd removal (193.8 g ha-1 at 100 mg Cd kg-1 soil). The results were justifying this plant as a potential candidate for Cd phytextraction from the contaminated soil..

[Geeta Mahbubeh Mazhari and Bahare bahramian. High biomass Chenopodium album L. is a suitable weed for remediation Cd-contaminated soils. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):83-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.13

 

Keywords: Phyextraction; chenopodium album L; contaminated soils

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Nucleated red blood cells and eosinopenia as a high risk mortality marker in patients of the intensive care units

 

Amal Sabry1, Amr Abd Allah2, Lamiaa Salama3

 

1Alexandria University, anesthesia and surgical intensive care department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria University, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

3Alexandria University, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

amalsabry_m@yahoo.com; amrabdalla1971icu@gmail.com; drbungooo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Finding a reliable marker for mortality and morbidity in the intensive care will always remain a challenge in our daily ICU practice. Intensivists are always concerned with the appropriate time to stop treatment and when to relocate patients to ward. This mandates further research to find a reliable marker for morbidity and mortality that can guide the course of treatment in ICU. Among all, NRBCs and eosinopenia were the most interesting. Also, eosinopenia showed a strong correlation with infection, which is considered a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in ICU. Thus, in our study, we were interested in investigating the impact of these two available cheap parameters on mortality among intensive care patients. The current study was conducted on 230 patients admitted to ICU over a six month period. Patients below the age of 18, trauma patients and surgical patients were excluded from this study. On the day of admission, informed consents were obtained and APACHE II and SAPS II scores were calculated for all patients. NRBCs and eosinophils were measured using the automated blood analyzer Sysmex XE 2100 and results were confirmed with a peripheral blood smear. Mortality was monitored during the ICU stay period. Our results revealed that 27.39% of ICU patients were NRBC-positive, and nearly 31% of them showed NRBCs in their blood on the day of admission. The total mortality of NRBC-positive patients was 50.8%. When compared to the total mortality of the NRBC-negative patients (8.4%), we realize the high prognostic power of the mechanized NRBCs detection in blood as regards mortality, revealing sensitivity of 69.6% and specificity of 83.2%, thus, increasing the mortality risk by eleven folds. the length of ICU stay of the NRBC-positive patients (12.86 days), which was nearly double that of the NRBC-negative patients (5.42 days). NRBCs appeared around seven days before mortality, thus, could be considered an early marker. Patients with NRBC–positive blood profile or worsening eosinopenia should raise the suspicion for a deteriorating pathology and should not be relocated to ward or discharged to home, even if apparently healthy, unless fully investigated.

[Amal Sabry, Amr Abd Allah, Lamiaa Salama. Nucleated red blood cells and eosinopenia as a high risk mortality marker in patients of the intensive care units. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):88-95]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.14

 

Keywords: NRBCs, eosinopenia, APACHE II, SAPS II

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Effect of human resource management systems on organizational performance emphasizing mediate effect of intellectual capital in employees of Electric power Distribution company of Shiraz in I.R.IRAN

 

Dr. Alireza Mooghali

 

Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Economics and Social Science, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN. Tel:+989171117287, mooghali@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Although modern information-based technologies affect increasingly on the various aspects of human life, it is believed that human resource is the main capital of each organization, especially knowledge-based ones. This survey is mainly aimed to investigate the relationship between human resource management systems and organizational performance emphasizing the mediate effect of intellectual capital in employees of Electric Distribution Company of Shiraz. This is a descriptive correlation survey in which 173 person of 314 employees of Electric Distribution Company of Shiraz were randomly selected. Data was collected by use of Likrets multiple – choice questionnaire. In order to analyze data, descriptive and deductive methods were used. According to the results, all of hypotheses were accepted. Therefore, there is a direct relationship between the all aspects of human resource management system and the elements of intellectual capital. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between the elements of intellectual capital and organizational performance.

[Alireza Mooghali. Effect of human resource management systems on organizational performance emphasizing mediate effect of intellectual capital in employees of Electric power Distribution company of Shiraz in I.R. IRAN. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):96-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.15

 

Key words: human resource management system, intellectual capital, organizational performance, path analysis

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Synergistic anti-tumour effect of propolis against Ehrlich carcinoma

 

Mohamed O. T. Badr*, Nariman M.M Edrees, Amany A.M Abdallah, Mohamed A. Hashem, Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen, Ahmed N F. Neamat-Allah and Hager T.H Ismail

 

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 1 Alzeraa Street Postal Code 44511, Zagazig City, Sharkia Province, Egypt. *drosamabadr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two hundred and fifty female Swiss Albino mice were used to study synergistic anti-tumour activity of propolis to enhance methotrexate activity on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). They equal divided into 5 groups: 1st kept as negative control, 2nd was implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and kept as positive control and, 3rd implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and treated with propolis by dose (50 mg/kg body weight), were given by gastric intubations 2 hours prior to the intraperitoneal injection of EAC,4th implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and treated with methotrexate by dose (0.4 mg/kg body weight) and 5th implanted with the same count of the EAC cells and treated with combination of propolis and methotrexate(50 mg/kg body weight and 0.4 mg/kg body weight,respectively) for eleven successive days. Increasing mean survival time (MST), increasing life span (ILS %) and treated vs. positive control (T/C %) in the all treated groups with increased of the body weight, volume of ascitic fluid, total number of EAC cells, viable % cells and decreased of dead% cells in second group while in groups 3,4 and 5 which treated by trials of propolis, methotrexate and combination of the two compounds respectively, revealed decreasing in body weight, volume of the ascitic fluid, total number of EAC cells and the percentage of life cells. Histopathology revealed that least degree of malignancy was in combination group where malignant happens.

[Mohamed OT. Badr; Nariman MM Edrees; Amany AM Abdallah; Mohamed A Hashem; Nasr AMN. El-Deen; Ahmed NF. Neamat-Allah and Hager TH Ismail. Synergistic anti-tumour effect of propolis against Ehrlich carcinoma. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):102-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.16

 

Keywords: Protective, EAC,Biochemical, Egypt, Propolis, Methotrexate, Trexan

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­Pulmonary Function Changes in Allergic Rhinitis With or Without Bronchial Asthma

 

Nevine El-Helaly­­1, Samia M. Samy2, Tarek S. Ibrahim*2, William M. Morcos2, Hassan M. ElHoshy3 and Dina A. Mohamed2

 

1Pediatric­­­­­­­, 3 E.N.T. Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University and 2Child Health Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. tareksalah2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Allergic rhinitis is considered as a risk factor for asthma. It may aggravate the underlying asthma and worsen the pulmonary function. Asthma and allergic rhinitis frequently co-exist in the same patient and are thought to share common­ predisposing genetic factors which interact with the environmental influences. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure and compare pulmonary function tests in patients with allergic rhinitis alone, allergic rhinitis associated with bronchial asthma and bronchial asthma alone before and after treatment. Patients and Methods: This study included 60 children aged 6-12 years and were classified into 3 groups; group I: allergic rhinitis without asthma, group II: asthma without rhinitis and group III: allergic rhinitis with asthma (all asthmatic patients were in stable state). All patients were not given any anti-inflammatory medications three months prior to our study. Serum IgE level and pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV, FEF25-75 and PEF) were done for all patient. Our patients were given treatment in the form of antihistaminics and intranasal steroids for allergic rhinitis, inhaled corticosteroids for asthma and both treatment were given for asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis. After 3 months, pulmonary functions were repeated to assess the effect of treatment. Results: Our results revealed high significant rise of serum IgE level in all groups with the highest values in group III (255.23 + 38.79). The comparison between the studied groups in each parameter of the pulmonary function showed a significant increase after treatment in all groups with lowest values in group III. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of children with allergic rhinitis have impaired pulmonary functions, mainly reduced FEF25-75 values which were significantly improved with treatment by intranasal corticosteroids. Patients with both asthma and rhinitis show an increase in asthma severity and have the worst pulmonary functions with great improvement by proper treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

[Sahar Yassien. Effect of Web-Based Brain Training Program on Cognitive and Academic Functions of Student Nurses with Sickle Cell Disease. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.17

 

Keywords: Allergic rhinitis – Bronchial asthma – Pulmonary functions

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Effect of Web-Based Brain Training Program on Cognitive and Academic Functions of Student Nurses with Sickle Cell Disease

 

Sahar Yassien

 

Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Cognitive impairments associated with SCD are among the most devastating, and least studied complications. The use of web based brain training program as a remedial intervention was supposed to improve their cognitive and academic functions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of web-based brain training program on cognitive and academic functions of student nurses with sickle cell disease. A quasi experimental double control design was utilized in this study. Two matched groups; experimental and control groups were recruited conveniently, thirty students for each. Their mean age was (19.8±0.9years QUOTE ), and (19.7±1.1years) QUOTE  respectively. The experimental group students utilized the brain training program while the control did not. Academic and cognitive evaluation was applied for the two groups. The results revealed a non-significant difference between the two groups before program implementation, but revealed a highly statistical significant difference between the two groups regarding their cognitive functions after program implementation. There was a significant change in cognitive function within the experimental group after the program implementation. Concerning academic functions there was a non significant difference between the two groups and non significant change within the experimental group. In conclusion: a web-based brain training program was effective in improving cognitive functions, and provide some evidence of transfer of this improvement into the SCD student academic life.

[Sahar Yassien. Effect of Web-Based Brain Training Program on Cognitive and Academic Functions of Student Nurses with Sickle Cell Disease. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):115-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.18

 

Keywords: Sickle cell disease – Cognitive impairment – Neuroplasticity – Brain training

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The Difference between Right Side and Semi Recumbent Positions after Feeding on Gastric Residual Volume among Infants

 

Hewida Ahmed Hussein

 

Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University

hewida.Ahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered as an objective parameter for gastric emptying and tolerance of feeding. The effect of infant's position after feeding on gastric residual has been mostly conducted in infants. The aim of this study was to assess the difference between right side and semi recumbent positions after feeding on gastric residual volume among infants. A quasi experimental design was utilized. The current study was conducted in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at New Pediatric Specialized Hospital, Cairo University. A sample of 35 infants included in the study one day after being admitted to PICU and fulfilling the inclusion criteria, and two tools utilized to collect the required data: socio-demographic data sheet and GRV record sheet. The main results revealed that more than seventy percent of the infants were male, the mean age of infants was 6.5 ± 2.2 months and regarding to grade of respiratory distress more than half of infants with grade II. No significant difference was detected between infants positioned at right side and semi recumbent regarding amount of GRV after feeding. The current study recommended that nurses can place infants in semi recumbent position or right side after feeding. Replication of the study in bigger sample with different diseases.

[Hewida Ahmed Hussein. The Difference between Right Side and Semi Recumbent Positions after Feeding on Gastric Residual Volume among Infants. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):127-132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.19

 

Keywords: GRV; gastric empty; infants; right side; semi recumbent position; PICU

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Fault diagnosis of Spur gear using vibration analysis

 

Ebrahim Ebrahimi

 

Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran. e.ebrahimi57@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fault detection in gear train system is important in order to transmitting power effectively. Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machineries carries lot many information within them about the condition of the operating machine. Further processing of these raw vibration signatures measured at a convenient location of the machine unravels the condition of the component or assembly under study. In this paper we study the faults that occur in the spur gear and compare fault signs of them in the time and frequency domain signals.

[Ebrahim Ebrahimi. Fault diagnosis of Spur gear using vibration analysis. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):133-138]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.20

 

Keywords: fault diagnosis; spur gear; vibration analysis

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Transmission of Postcolonialism through Translation, Discourse Analysis of "Heart of Darkness" and Two of its Persian Translations at Micro and Macro Levels

 

Dr. Mansour Fahim1, Mandana Eftekhar Paziraie 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Department of English Language, Tehran, Iran

2Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Department of English Language, Tehran, Iran. scientificgroup@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This article mainly focused on transmission of post colonialism throughout translation, with particular emphasis on literary translation. For this purpose, the researcher employed the discourse analysis (DA) model in both micro and macro levels proposed by Halliday and Hasan (1976), and Hatch (1992), respectively to delve into probable differences of endophoric references, conjunctions, and reiterations on one hand, and characters on the other, in the two Persian translations of "Heart of Darkness." Moreover, the researcher examined footnotes and translator's judgments to see how the two translators faced with the issue of post colonialism in their translations. To carry out this qualitative, quantitative, descriptive corpus-based research, two translations of the English novel done by two different Persian translators were examined. The results clearly showed that the frequency use of characters at macro level, and endophoric references, conjunctions, and reiterations as grammatical and lexical cohesive devices at micro level have visibly affected the translation products and manifest signs of different manipulations within the micro level could be observed. Besides, the results showed that the frequency use of footnotes and prefaces affected the issue of postcolonialism.

[Dr. Mansour Fahim, Mandana Eftekhar Paziraie. Transmission of Postcolonialism through Translation, Discourse Analysis of "Heart of Darkness" and Two of its Persian Translations at Micro and Macro Levels. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):139-146]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.21

 

Keywords: translation, post colonialism, discourse analysis at micro and macro levels, cohesive devices

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Effects of light curing and remineralization on micro hardness of nano esthetic restorative materials

Sahar A. M. Abd El Halim

 

Assistant Professor, Department of operative dentistry, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding Author: s_saeed03@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of remineralization and light exposure on microhardness of Nano-composite FiltekTM Z 350 XT, Nano glass ionomer Ketac N100 and Micro-hybrid composite Filtek Z250. Materials and Methods: 96 samples were prepared in disc shaped stainless steel molds with uniform size of (6mm) diameter and (2 mm) thickness. Samples were divided according to materials used into three groups and then each group was subdivided into subgroup according to light of curing. A single operator prepared the samples. Each subgroup was divided into two groups(eight in each) according to used remineralizing agent (GC MI Paste Plus) or not. Two curing units were used to polymerize the samples halogen Cromalux 7050 [Mega-PHYSIK GmbH & Co KG, Megadenta, Germany] and LED [Bluephase C5, IvoclarVivadent] for 40Sec. Samples were stored in a dark container in distilled water for 24hr and then one group had Vickers microhardness test and put the other one in the remineralizing agent for 7 days before microhardness test. Statistical analysis for all data were analyzed by two way analysis of ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Results: In all the tested materials, LED curing, whether used alone or in combination with remineralizing mouse, resulted in greater microhardness, at both the top and bottom surfaces, compared to halogen light curing alone or in combination with remineralizing mouse. Glass ionomer N100, whether cured by LED or halogen light- showed the lowest microhradness compared to Z250 and Z350 Conclusions: LED curing were significantly influenced the microhardness values for all tested materials. Glass ionomer showed the lowest micro-hardness compared to Z250 and Z350.

[Sahar A. M. Abd El Halim. Effects of light curing and remineralization on micro hardness of nano esthetic restorative materials. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):147-151]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.22

 

Key words: light cure- remineralization- microhardness - nano-composite

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The Application of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the Classification of Egyptian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) Cultivars

 

Mohamed M. Sakr1, Wael M. Hassan*2, Isam M. Abu Zeid3, Abdel-Rahman E. Hassan3, Abd-Elghany E. Baz3

 

1Faculty of Science, North Jeddah Branch, King Abulaziz University, 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Omar Al-Mukhtar University, El-Beida, Libya, 3Faculty of Education, King Abulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.4Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. *hakros@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aims to classify date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) cultivars using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eight date palm genotypes; Amhat, Barhy, Bint Aisha, Zaghloul, Hayany, Amry, Kuboshy and Samany cultivars and one male genotype were analysed. Twenty random primers were used to screen the genotypes but five produced reproducible bands. The five primers yielded 179 bands (with an average of 36 bands per primer), including eleven polymorphic bands. The primer OPK4 in particular, produced a large number of strongly amplified and individual fragments (47 fragments), whereas, primer OPK1 produced the lowest number (21 fragments). Primer OPK1 gave the highest percentage of polymorphism (9.52), while OPK4 gave the lowest percentage of polymorphism (4.25). Two primers OPK4 and OPK5 produced amplification products that were monomorphic across all the female cultivars. Three primers OPK1, OPK3 and OPK7 revealed low polymorphisms (6.14%). Analysis of all the bands recorded showed 93.36% similarity (11 polymorphic fragments out of a total of 179). The results showed distinct variation in the profiles within the female cultivars and male genotype especially with primers OPK1, OPK3 and OPK. RAPD-PCR showed that the male genotype is different from the female cultivars and that there is a high degree of similarity among the female cultivars of the date palm.

[Mohamed M, Sakr, Wael M. Hassan, Isam M. Abu Zeid, Abdel-Rahman, E. Hassan, and Abd-Elghany E. Baz. The Application of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in the Classification of Egyptian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) Cultivars. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):152-159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.23

 

Keywords: RAPD - Egyptian Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) cultivars identification.

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An appropriate pattern to solving a parallel machine scheduling by a combination of meta-heuristic and data mining

 

Mohamadreza Kaviani 1,2, Majid Aminnayeri 1*, Seyed Nima Rafienejad 1, Fariborz Jolai 3

 

1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

kaviani.mr@aut.ac.ir, * mjnayeri@aut.ac.ir, sn.rafienezhad@aut.ac.ir

2 Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

fjolai@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Scheduling problems’ applications in nowadays competitive world and the rate of their result’s usage in industrial area demonstrate the importance of this problem. In this article, an identical parallel machine by the objective function of total weighted tardiness is considered. As the NP-hard nature of these problems, meta-heuristic algorithms are commonly applied to solve them. These kinds of algorithms are able to reach the near optimal solution in an acceptable time, but do not explain how a solution developed. It is tried, by Attribute-Oriented Induction and Clustering technique, to reveal proper patterns relied under these problems characteristics and with that justify the final solution found by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Moreover, these rules could applied to similar problems and provide solutions that are generally better than simple dispatching rules.

[Mohamadreza Kaviani, Majid Aminnayeri, Seyed Nima Rafienejad, Fariborz Jolai. An appropriate pattern to solving a parallel machine scheduling by a combination of meta-heuristic and data mining. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):160-167]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.24

Keywords: Parallel Machine Scheduling, Particle Swarm Optimization, Data Mining, Clustering, Validity Index

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English Language Teaching through the Translation Method at Secondary level Education in Bangladesh

 

Nitish Kumar Mondal

 

English Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Bangladesh

 nitish.english@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Teaching English to non-natives is always regarded as a difficult task, to which teaching English to Bangladeshi students especially secondary level learners’ accountants are no exception. Although English is largely used in Bangladeshi educational systems from primary to advance level, Bangladeshi students have to face difficulties in the world of English. After passing primary education (five years) it is observed that Bangladeshi students can not learn English well. As their field of English knowledge is not well-organized, they have to work hard to improve their English-language skills. Thus, the present paper aims to find out the merits and demerits of the translation method and the suitability of this method in context of Bangladesh for learning English at secondary level education.

[Nitish Kumar Mondal. English Language Teaching through the Translation Method at Secondary level Education in Bangladesh. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):168-173]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.25

 

Keywords: English language; Translation; Secondary; Education; Merits; Demerits

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Estimation of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollutants, No2, So2, Pm10 and Land Surface Temperature (Lst) of Nile Delta Region

 

M. I. El- Gammal1, R. A. Youssef*2, R. R. Ali2 and Amany, G. Madkour1

 

1Environmental Science Department, Faculty of Science, Damietta Branch, Mansoura University, Egypt

2 Soils and Water use Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*refatay1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Climate change can be driven by change in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of radiatively active gases and aerosols, human activities have affected concentrations, distributions and life cycles of these gases. Therefore, the objective of this study to estimate the impact of air pollutants (e. g. NO2, SO2, and PM10) on Land Surface Temperature (LST) at the Nile Delta region. In the present study, twenty sites located at the southeast of Nile Delta were selected. A total of twenty eight Landsat ETM+ images bands 6, of path (176) and row (39), acquired during the years from 2000 to 2009; are employed in the current study. The images were processed in ENVI 4.7 software to estimate the mean of LST for the warm and cold seasons over the study sites. The available analytical data of air pollutants (e. g. SO2, NO2, and PM10) have been collected from the monthly reports of Environmental Information and Monitoring Program published during 2006 year. The correlation between the LST and pollutants was worked out using SPSS software. The results indicate that the correlation between NO2, PM10 and LST is positive. Whereas, the results of SO2 show that the correlation is negative.

[M. I. El- Gammal, R. A. Youssef, R. R. Ali and Amany, G. Madkour. Estimation of Seasonal Variation of Air Pollutants, No2, So2, Pm10 and Land Surface Temperature (Lst) of Nile Delta Region]. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):174-182]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.26

 

Keywords: Climate change; Land Surface Temperature (LST); Pollutants, NO2, SO2, and PM10, Nile Delta.

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Ameliorative potential of Myristica fragrans extract as hypoglycemic agent on oxidative stress produced by diabetes mellitus in mice

 

Ayman A. Farghaly 1*, Zeinab M. Hassan2 and Souria M. Donya3

 

1, 3 Dept. Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki Tahrir Street, 12622 Giza Egypt.

2Dept. Chemistry of Natural Compounds, National Research Center, Dokki Tahrir Street, 12622 Giza Egypt.

* Corresponding author: Ayman A. Farghaly

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease affecting several million individuals worldwide. An increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and insufficient antioxidant activity is known in DM. Damage has been reported to occur on all components of biological systems (e.g., DNA, RNA, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, low-molecular-mass species, antioxidants) due to the high reactivity of many oxidants. Antioxidant compounds in the human foods or supplementary diets can be used to counteract several diseases. The treatment of DM with complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as dietary supplements and plant-based medicines is increasingly practiced. The myristica fragrans seeds usually used as spice and commonly known as nutmeg have anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidibetic and hepatoprotective activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the antigenotoxic effects of aqueous extract of M. fragrans on DNA damage induced by DM using micronucleus assay (MN) in liver cells and chromosomal aberrations in spermatocyte cells in mice. MN frequency and chromosomal aberrations was significantly increased in diabetic mice compared with the normal mice (p < 0.05). Oral administration of aqueous extract of M. fragrans (0.1ml/mouse) for 5, 10 and 15 days groups treatment in diabetic mice were significantly decreased MN frequency and chromosomal aberrations in a time dependent manner. According to our knowledge this is the first report on the antigenotoxic capacity of M. fragrans against DNA damage induced by DM in vivo.

[Ayman A. Farghaly, Zeinab M. Hassan and Souria M. Donya. Ameliorative potential of Myristica fragrans extract as hypoglycemic agent on oxidative stress produced by diabetes mellitus in mice. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):183-189]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.27

 

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Myristica fragrans water extract, Antigenotoxicity.

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Protective Effect of Cinnamomum Camphora Leaves Extract against Atrazine Induced Genotoxicity and Biochemical Effect on Mice

 

Asmaa S. Salman. 1*, Ayman A. Farghaly1, Souria M. Donya1, Fawzia Shata2

 

1- Dept. of Genetics and Cytology, National Research Center, Dokki Tahrir Street, 12622 Giza, Egypt.

 2- Dept. Anim. Reprod. & A. I., National Research Center, Dokki, Tahrir Street, 12622 Giza, Egypt.

* Corresponding author: Asmaa S. Salman

E. mail: Farghaly_5@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Atrazine (AT) is one of the most commonly used herbicides to control grasses and weeds. The widespread contamination and persistence of AT residues in the environment has resulted in human exposure. The present study was undertaken to investigate protective effect of Cinnamomum Camphora Leaves Extract (CLE) against AT-induced genotoxicity and biochemical changes in mice. Mice were given a 2% Cinnamomum Camphora hot water extract as their sole source of drinking water for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After consumption of CLE animals were orally treated with AT at a total dose of 420 mg/kg body weight on 3 consecutive days. Our results showed that administration of CLE significantly reduced the percentage of DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations induced by AT. Also, it regulates glutathione and lipid peroxidase enzymes. These findings clearly demonstrated the protective effect of CLE in attenuating AT-induced genotoxicity and biochemical changes.

[Asmaa S. Salman, Ayman A. Farghaly, Souria M. Donya, Fawzia Shata. Protective Effect of Cinnamomum Camphora Leaves Extract against Atrazine Induced Genotoxicity and Biochemical Effect on Mice. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):190-196]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.28

 

Keywords: Cinnamomum Camphora, Atrazine, Genotoxicity, DNA fragmentation, Micronucleus, Glutathione

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Improvement of Self-Organized Public Key Management for MANET

 

Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani 1, Bahador Shojaiemehr 2

 

1. Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

kuchaki@mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: This paper studies key management, a fundamental problem in securing Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and presents a description of a self-organized public key management scheme and a comparison among number of certificate-based authentication schemes for mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we improve self-organized public key management by combine features of self-organized schemes.

[Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani, Bahador Shojaiemehr. Improvement of Self-Organized Public Key Management for MANET. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):197-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 29

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.29

 

Keywords: Authentication; Cryptography; Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET); Certificate chain; Public key management

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Urban spirit and heritage conservation problems: case study Isfahan city in Iran

 

Ali Assari, Erfan Assari

 

Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Email: ali_assari1358@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: at the case of protecting heritage, urban spirit assessment and its value should be considered. In the case of historic cities, this assessment is more complex, because these areas are dynamic and evolving over time. This paper has shown existing problem that most of them have focused mainly on the physical characteristics of urban conservation and heritage protection in the context of urban development in Isfahan city. Such as Climate and environment, Historic cities structure, Formation of urban spaces and other factors. It describes the evolution of a conservation program for the historic centre of Isfahan city and provides an overview of urban conservation diagram and practices in numeric format. Finally, conclusions are drawn about the link between conservation and urban spirit.

[Ali Assari, Erfan Assari. Urban spirit and heritage conservation problems: case study Isfahan city in Iran. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):203-209]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.30

 

Key words: urban spirit, heritage conservation, heritage protection, urban development

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Investigating Related Factors To Women Addiction Of Tehran According To Agnew‘s strain theory

 

Habib Ahmadi1, Masoumeh Parsa nejad2, Leila Nickpoor Ghanvati 3, Reza Zare 4

 

1. Professor of Sociology in Shiraz University, Department of Sociology, Shiraz University, Tell: +989171114184, Email: hahmadi@rose.shirazu.ac.ir

2. Master expert in women study. IRAN

3. Department of social science Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN, E-mail: leilanikpoorghanavati@yahoo.com

4. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN, E-mail: rezazare77@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study has been done as testing power of Agnew‘s strain theory in specifying women addiction. Agnew’s idea is that the sources of strain do not have social class nature. And each person disregards to his social class base, if faces to strain, negative feelings may be created by him therefore committed social deviance like addiction to narcotics. As to answer to the question of “ why all people under strain do not commit social deviance, he has pointed to interfering factors such as religiosity and self-esteem which can reduce negative feelings and decrease social deviance like addiction. This project has been done by survey method. 180 of addictive women in quitting turned to centers of self-reagent of Tehran (Khorshid House, Martyr family, Martyr Mellat Doost) have been investigated. Research conclusion shows that addictive women faced to different kinds of psychological and social stains. By investigating interfering variables distinguished that self-esteem and religiosity done as decreasing factors of strain and consequently decreasing addiction.

[Habib Ahmadi, Masoumeh Parsa nejad, Leila Nickpoor Ghanvati, Reza Zare. Investigating Related Factors To Women Addiction Of Tehran According To Agnew‘s strain theory. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):210-215]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.31

 

Key word: Agnew’s General Strain Theory; Addiction; Self-esteem; Religiosity

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Biomechanical Studies on Femoral Fracture Repair Fixed By Different Fixation Methods in Dogs

 

Inas, N.EL-Husseiny1; Mostafa, M.B.1; El Habak, A.M2and Harb, H.F3

 

1Department of Veterinary Surgery, Anaesthesiology and Radiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

2 Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering. Cairo University

3Governmental Veterinary Hospital, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt

drinasnabil@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This work was carried out to study the influence of mechanical tension and bending fracture forces on 21 repaired femora in dogs after fixation with intramedullary pins, bone plates and screws and transkeletal fixation. Biomechanical evaluation proved that, in case of intramedullary pinning technique, there was no significant (P<0.05) difference in mechanical tension and bending force values compared with the normal values. During maximum mechanical tension, the site of the fracture lines were at the supra-condylar region and the shape was transverse and during bending forces, the fracture occurred at the mid-diaphysis with oblique fracture line. Repaired femora fixed with bone plates and screws showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the mean values of tension and bending mechanical forces compared with the normal values. The shape and site of the fracture patterns were observed at the sites of the screw holes either in the proximal or distal segments and the fracture lines were transverse. Repaired femora fixed with external transkeletal fixation showed no significant (P<0.05) changes in the tension force values compared with the normal values, while, there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the mean bending force values compared with the normal values. The shape and the sites of the fracture lines for both mechanical tension and bending forces were observed at the sites of the pin holes either at the proximal or distal bone segments and the shape of the fracture lines was transverse. In conclusion, the present study indicated that, the maximum mechanical fracture forces of the repaired femora were significantly influenced by the used fixation device. Treatment with intramedullary pinning had a better or minimal mechanical effect on the repaired femora, meanwhile, with the other two techniques, bone plates and screws as well as external skeletal fixation, the mechanical strength of the repaired femora decreased significantly. However, fixation with external skeletal acrylic fixation was better than fixation using bone plates and screws regarding the mechanical bone strength.

[Inas, N.EL-Husseiny; Mostafa, M.B.; El Habak, A.M and Harb, H.F. Biomechanical Studies on Femoral Fracture Repair Fixed By Different Fixation Methods in Dogs. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):216-222]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.32

 

Keywords: bone,biomechanics, bone fixation,fractures,biomechnical forces

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Comparison of the Performances of Biodiesel, Diesel, and Their Compound in Air Standard Diesel-Atkinson Cycle

 

Mojtaba Beigzadeh Abbassi1, Mohamad Hashemi Gahruei2 and Saeed Vahidi3

 

1 Department of mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan, Iran

2 Young Researchers Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran

mojtaba_beigzadehabbassi@yahoo.de

 

Abstract: Biodiesel is a fuel which due to its environmental friendly and renewability properties has established a proper place among researchers. There have been several researches on this fuel. But it has not been observed in a certain research on biodiesel to demonstrate, by using numerical simulators, the behavior of this fuel in an engine which performs a specific cycle. In this research it is considered to review the irreversible Diesel-Atkinson cycle of biodiesel fuel and its compounds by means of thermodynamics laws and finite time thermodynamics when the biodiesel fuel is applied as the operative fluid inside the cycle. The results from numerical simulation showed that applying biodiesel fuel and its compounds in this cycle proved to have similar or in some cases even better results from the traditional diesel fuel.

[Mojtaba Beigzadeh Abbassi, Mohamad Hashemi Gahruei and Saeed Vahidi. Comparison of the Performances of Biodiesel, Diesel, and Their Compound in Air Standard Diesel-Atkinson Cycle. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):223-229]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.33

 

Key words: Diesel-Atkinson, Finite-time thermodynamics, Biodiesel, Fuel

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Sequence analysis of the glycoprotein envelope gene of duck enteritis virus

 

Susan, S. El-Mahdy; Soliman, Y.A. Nermeen Mahmoud And Saher, M. Saber

 

Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary biologics, Abbasia, Cairo, Egypt.

prof.s.elmahdy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Duck enteritis virus ul35 gene was amplified from two strains and the nucleotide sequence alignment was done. Many substitutions were seen between the two sequences which resulted in minimum changes in the amino acids denoting the silent mutations. Several deletion mutations also seen in both sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that the conservative domain belongs to the fusion _gly_k protein superfamily which is essential in the viral attachment and assembly. Dot blot analysis of each gene against itself showed no inverted repeats but analysis of the genes against each other revealed the presence of difference at the 3’ end. Antigenicity profile of each protein using Kolaskar and Tongaonkar revealed some difference at amino acid position 80 – 110 which more antigenic profile of the UL35 antigen of the local strain. In conclusion the production of a DNA vaccine against this protein from the local strain would persumply potentiate the immune system to prevent the virus from attachment and /or release?

[Susan, S. El-Mahdy; Soliman, Y.A. Nermeen, Mahmoud And Saher, M. Saber. Sequence analysis of the glycoprotein envelope gene of duck enteritis virus. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):230-239]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.34

 

Keyword: Duck enteritis virus, ul35 gene, VP26 antigen

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Biofuel From Algae

 

Nnorom Achara

 

 MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield Braintree, United Kingdom

nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com

 

Abstract: The species of algae suitable for lipids production are the microphyites or phytoplankton. One of the key reasons why microalgae are considered for lipids production is the rapid growth rate. Some algal strains are capable of doubling their mass several times in the day. There are certain factors that are beneficial for healthy growth of algae and these include the right nutrients, light and temperature range. There are two main methods in algaculture and these are the open and the closed systems. The prevalent closed system in use is the photobioreactor. Open pond cultivation is limited to strains that are resistant to contamination by other micro organisms. When matured, the algae are harvested by the use of either microscreens, centrifugation, flocculation or froth flotation. Oil extraction is accomplished either by mechanical press or the use of chemical solvents.

[Nnorom Achara. Biofuel From Algae. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):240-244]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.35

 

Key Words: lipids, microalgae, microphytes, biofuel, nutrients, photobioreactor, raceway.

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Exploring main factors affecting on impulse buying behaviors

 

Hamid Reza Hadjali1, Meysam Salimi2, Mohsen Nazari3, Masoumeh Sadat Ardestani4

 

1,2,4Management of Economical Institutes Department, University of Economic Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3Associate Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Hamidreza.Hadjali@gmail.com, Miladsa1985@yahoo.com, Mohsen.nazari@ut.ac.ir, M.Ardestani@farasoutnegar.com

 

Abstract: The increasing growth in consumption and possibility of credit purchases around the world has provided an excellent opportunity to buy spontaneously (impulsively), however, there was little information about the Impulsive purchase in the eastern and transitional societies. The purpose of this investigation was to explore some main factors affecting on impulse buying behavior in conjunction with clothing market. In order to examine the offered model after creating a questionnaire, validity and reality of data have been tested. Results from SPSS software shows the level of self-esteem, irritability (impulsivity), Shopping environment, promotional tools and gender have significant impacts on impulse buying behavior especially for purchasing cloth. On the other hand, effectiveness of hypotheses ‘seller guidance’, ‘shopping with the others’ and ‘production’ not confirmed in this survey. [Hamid Reza Hadjali, Meysam Salimi, MohsenNazari, Masoumeh Sadat Ardestani. Exploring main factors affecting on impulse buying behaviors. Journal of American Science 2012;8(1):245-251]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.36

 

Keywords: clothing purchase, Consumer behavior, Consumer psychology, Sales management, Impulse buying.

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The relation between simple obesity, Asthma and the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) In Egyptian Children

 

Ahmed El-Shazly1, Ahmed Ezzat1, Safya Jlal1, Rania Ibrahim1, Anas Abdel Rahman2

 

Departments of 1Pediatric and 2Clinical Pathology, Benha University Hospital

om_said39@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: obesity is considered a risk factor for asthma, in spite of the mechanism of connection between the two conditions isn't clear. In this study we investigated the relationship between asthma, simple obesity and serum level of interleukin 6 (IL6). Patients and Methods: 51 Egyptian child, attending chest and allergy out patient Pediatric Clinics Benha University hospital aged from 3 to 15 years old. From June 2010 to June 2011. the studied group divided into 34 asthmatics (cases) and 17 healthy non asthmatic (control). Asthmatic and control subjects were divided into 2 main sub groups: obese and non obese. We did for all subjects: complete history taking, anthropometric measures (weight, height, calculation of BMI, Mid arm circumference), complete blood picture (CBC) including eosinophilic%, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) as one of pulmonary function test, measurement of serum interleukin 6 (IL.6). Results: IL.6 serum level was in asthmatic patients in general more than its level in controls. In obese asthmatics the IL.6 level was higher than non obese asthmatics and the same between obese and non obese controls. Increase IL-6 level was related to increase BMI percentiles. Increase IL-6 level and BMI percentiles related to increase the severity of asthma. PEFR is lower in asthmatics than the controls. PEFR is more lower with the severity of asthma. Conclusion: there is a relationship between IL.6 serum level and simple obesity and asthma. We found that obesity may precipitate asthma and so weight reduction of obese asthmatic patients may be helpful in the treatment of asthma.

[Ahmed El-Shazly, Ahmed Ezzat, Safya Jlal, Rania Ibrahim, Anas Abdel Rahman. The relation between simple obesity, Asthma and the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) In Egyptian Children. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):252-257]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.37

 

Key words: asthma, obesity, IL.6.

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Anxiety level and Difficult Patients in Prosthodontic Clinic

 

Amal A. El Sawy

 

Department of Prosthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University

amalsawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: In recent years, psychological factors such as anxiety have increased. The psychological status of an individual is an effective stimulus for unexpected behavior. Purpose: Evaluate the anxiety level for normal and difficult patients in prosthodontic clinic, and the relationship between anxiety level and the difficult patient. Determine the factors can increase the occurrence of difficult patients in the clinic. Material and method: One hundred patients, 65 male and 35 female, in the age range 30-65 years were randomly selected for the study. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to measure the anxiety level of the selected sample. The difficult patients were identified and classified according to Graves’s classification. Result: anxiety was influenced by the patients’ age, behavior and social problems. Patients aged less than 50 had higher anxiety levels than patients aged 50 years or over. The anxiety score for patients with abnormal behavior was higher than for patients with normal behavior. The social problems were a factor which increased the anxiety scores. The anxiety scores for difficult patients were higher than for normal patients, but this difference was statistically insignificant. The patients’ behavior and social problems were the main factors for creating the difficult patient (P-values < 0.05 were considered significant). Conclusion: The adult patients (age group less than 50 years) had higher anxiety levels than the old patients. The anxiety scores for difficult patients were higher than for normal patients. The patients’ behavior and social problems were the main factors for creating the difficult patient.

[Amal A. El Sawy. Anxiety level and Difficult Patients in Prosthodontic Clinic. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):258-263]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.38

 

Key words: State-Trait -Anxiety Inventory- Graves’s classification- Anxiety score- Patients’ age -Patient behavior- Social problem

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The Use of Technology by University Adolescent Students and Its Relation to Attention, Sleep, and Academic Achievement

 

Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy1 and Nagat Salah Shalaby2

 

¹Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University

²Obstetric and gynecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University

 

Abstract: Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relations between adolescents' self-reports of technology usage and their sleep patterns, attention difficulties, and academic achievement. Background. Many adolescents use the internet, cell phones, television, computer and video games on a daily basis. Therefore, an important question how is technology affecting adolescents sleep pattern, attention difficulties and their academic performance. Methods. The study was carried out in all seven faculties in Port Said city using a cross-sectional analytic design. A convenience sample of 683 students was recruited from the first and second grades of each faculty. Data were collected using two tools devised specifically for the study. Results. 84.5% of adolescents reported having computers at home and 50.1% in their bedrooms. There was a statistically significant relation between sleep insufficiency and nocturnal use of technology, particularly the use of SMS (p<0.001). Higher attention scores were found among those with frequent use of educational internet (p=0.040), and with rare sleep on TV (p=0.003). GPA scores were higher among those with rare use of educational internet (p=0.025), and those making calls after 10 pm (p=0.019). The highest attention score was among those feeling getting enough sleep (p<0.001), and the attention score had a decreasing trend with the decrease in scholastic achievement (p<0.001). Conclusion. The findings point to the importance of giving more emphasis to research in the area of technology use among adolescents and its consequences. However, the findings should be interpreted cautiously given the possible bias associated with self-reporting.

[Amal Ahmed Khalil Morsy and Nagat Salah Shalaby. The Use of Technology by University Adolescent Students and Its Relation to Attention, Sleep, and Academic Achievement. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):264-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.39

 

Key words: Academic performance, Adolescents, Attention difficulties, Sleep pattern, Technology use

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Mouth Development of Malaysian River Catfish, Mystus nemurus (C&V) Larvae

 

A. E. Ghada1, M. S. Kamarudin2, C. R. Saad2 and S. K. Daud3

 

1Department of Fisheries Science, Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fisheries Science, University of Alneelain, Khartoum, Sudan

2 Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Aquaculture, University Putra Malaysia,

3 Faculty of Sciences Universitiy Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor D. E., Malaysia

ghahmed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ontogenetic morphological development for the mouth of Malaysian river cat fish Mystus nemerus larvae from hatching to 21 days post-hatch (dph) was studied to facilitate and determine suitable food and food particle size for the growing larvae. The eggs began to hatch 2 days after fertilization (daf) and most of the larve hatched within 2-4 daf. The larval mouth opened at the end of the 1 dph and the commencement of external feeding began on 4 dph following the jaw movement. The barbels appeared on the upper jaw and lower jaw on 3 dph.Tow small barbels appeared around the olfactory pits by 5 dph. Free neuomasts were observed below the lower jaw on 7 dph and around the olfactory pits, eyes,and upper jaw operculum by 9 dph. Linear relationships between mouth size (at 45˚and 90˚ opening) and total length of fish were established.

[A. E. Ghada, M. S. Kamarudin, C. R. Saad and S. K. Daud. Mouth Development of Malaysian River Catfish, Mystus nemurus (C&V) Larvae. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):271-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.40

 

Key words: Malaysian river catfish; larvae; mouth development; Mystus nemerus

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Arthrocentesis with Injection of Tramadol and Cox-2 Inhibitor for the Management of Internal Derangements of the Tempromandibular Joint (A Comparative Study)

 

Tamer A. Hamed

 

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery – Faculty of Dentistry – Suez Canal University

tamer_bari@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to compare arthrocentesis using COX-2 inhibitor versus tramadol in management of internal derangements of the tempromandibular joint. Patients and Methods: Twenty four joints with anterior disc displacement with and without reduction were included in this study, they were randomly divided into two groups. Group (I) were arthocentesis was performed on twelve joints followed by intraarticular injection of COX-2 inhibitor and Group (II) where the other twelve joints were treated by arthrocentesis followed by intraarticular injection of tramadol solution. The pain was assisted by a visual analogue scale (VAS) preoperatively, three days, one month and six months post operative, the maximum mouth opening (MMO) and lateral excursion were also recorded preoperatively and at the same previously mentioned periods. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in mean VAS as well as a significant increase in both the maximum mouth opening and the lateral excursion through all periods in Groups I and II, however, Group II showed a significant improvement in VSA, maximum mouth opening and lateral excursion over those of group I. Conclusion: Intraarticular injection of tramadol is effective in management of clinical symptoms associated with internal derangements of the tempromandibular joint.

[Tamer A. Hamed. Arthrocentesis with Injection of Tramadol and Cox-2 Inhibitor for the Management of Internal Derangements of the Tempromandibular Joint (A Comparative Study). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):277-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.41

 

Keywords: Arthrocentesis Tramadol, Cox-2 inhibitor

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Thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects on MHD three-dimensional axisymmetric flow with Hall andion-slip currents

 

T. Hayat1 and F. A. Hendi 2

 

1Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-AzamUniversity, Islamabad, Pakistan

2Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, SaudiArabia

pensy_t@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD three-dimensional axisymmetric flow of a viscous fluid between radially stretching sheets in the presence of Hall and ion-slip currents, viscous dissipation, Joule heating and first order chemical reaction. Governing partial differential equations are obtained through four laws of conservation, Maxwell’s equations and generalized Ohm’s law. Obtained partial differential equations are made dimensionless by using similarity transformation. The re- sulting problems are solved byhomotopy analysis method (HAM). Convergence of analytic solutions is ensured. Effects of emerging parameters on dimensionless velocities, temperature and concentration fields are seen through plots. Behavior of different physical parameters on skin friction coefficients, Nusselt number and Sherwood number is analyzed.

[T. Hayat and F. A. Hendi. Thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo effects on MHD three-dimensional axisymmetric flow with Hall andion-slip currents. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):284-294]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.42

 

Key words: Soret and Dufour effects, skin friction coefficient, Nusseltnumber andSher-wood numbers

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Improvement of Voltage Stability in Interconnected Power Systems Using a Neural Network

 

Mohamed I. El-Sayed, El-Said Othman and Amir S. El-Khouly

 

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

D_eng2009@yahoo.com; mohamedakar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper provided a method for improvement of voltage stability in interconnected power systems using a neural network, this is because the present power systems is a complex network consisting of several sub-networks such as generation, transmission and distribution. Use of new technologies and the growth in Interconnections are continuously increasing the complexity of the system. These highly complex modern power systems operate in severely stressed conditions due to economical and environmental considerations rendering them vulnerable to frequent failures. Therefore, ensuring the stability of these systems has become one of the major concerns for the power engineers, especially the voltage stability. In this paper deals with critical buses to calculate the stability margins and the outputs of this technique are used to train and test the neural network. The trained NN architecture is capable of reducing the error values to acceptable value of about 5%. This method is applied on an IEEE-14 bus system.

[Mohamed I. El-Sayed, El-Said Othman, and Amir S. El-Khouly. Improvement of Voltage Stability in Interconnected Power Systems Using a Neural Network. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):295-301]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.43

 

Keywords: Voltage Stability, Voltage Collapse, Neural Network, Case Study

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Construct validity of Malcolm Baldrige TQM Questionnaire based on Bohrnstedt Model in Payame Noor University

 

1Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, 2Mohammad Hassan Seif, 3Saeed Talebi

 

1Associate Professor, Payame Noor University, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

2, 3 Lecturer, Payame Noor University, Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Maghjour11@gmail.com, sarmadi@pnu.ac.ir, Mhseif@pnu.ac.ir, Saeedtalebi@pnu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the construct validity of the TQM in Payame Noor University. The method of the study was measuring construct validity of Malcolm Baldrige Questionnaire using Bornstat methodology. A sample of 326 faculty members of Payame Noor university were selected using Morgan and Krejcie ‘s table by stratified categorical sampling method. The results of item’s factor analysis shows that the TQM is a 7 dimensional construct with the following dimensions: Leadership, the use of technology, planning, human resources, education, the results of institute performance, and costumer centricity. To assess the relationships between latent variables with the theoretical structure of Baldrige’s TQM, at the first, using factor analysis the above 7 dimensions were confirmed. Then for assessing the fit of the model, Jorskag and soriom statistics and indexes were used. From 60 items of the questionnaire, 9 items were deleted due to their low levels of factor loadings and 51items confirmed.

[Mohammad Reza Sarmadi, Mohammad Hassan Seif, Saeed Talebi. Construct validity of Malcolm Baldrige TQM Questionnaire based on Bohrnstedt Model in Payame Noor University. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):302-304]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.44

 

Keywords: Baldrige, Construct Validity, Payame Noor University, Total Quality Management

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Cyanoacrylate versus Vasoactive Therapy in Control of Post-Banding Ulcer Bleeding

 

Mohamed Akl Rady1, Ashraf El-jaky1, Hisham Samy Abdel-Fatah2

 

Departments of Hepatology 1, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

Internal Medicine Department 2, Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt. aklrady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bleeding related to post-banding ulcer is a rare, but severe complication. Aim of the work: We aimed to compare cyanoacrylate injection with octreotide vasoactive drug in controlling of postbanding ulcer bleeding. Patients&methods: This study was performed on fifty patients, with liver cirrhosis either bilharzial, post viral or mixed based on histopatholgy done at initial work up diagnosis before bleeding. Patients were presenting with upper GI bleeding caused by post-banding ulcer diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscoy. Patients were subjected to history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory, radiological investigations, Child Pugh classification to assess the severity of liver disease and endoscopic intervention in the form of banding ligation for varices or cyanoacrylate injection for post-banding ulcer bleeding. After resuscitative measures, 25 patients were treated with 0.5 ml cyanoacrylate diluted with 0.5 ml lipiodol injected in the esophageal varix just below bleeding post-banding ulcer (group 1), 25 patients were treated with octreotide 50 microgram IV bolus and then 50 microgram IV infusion hourly for 48 hours (group 2). Results: The bleeding control was 88% in the group1 compared with 56% in the group 2 (P<0.05). The recorded complications: pyrexia, bacteremia, dysphagia were found more in cyanoacrylate (group 1) (P<0.05), nausea and diahrrea were more in octreotide (group 2) but not statistically significant (>0.05). All patients with uncontrolled bleeding in both groups were managed with TIPS. Conclusion: Endoscopic management with cyanoacrylate injection for bleeding post-banding variceal ulcers is more effective, but associated with more complications. Further studies on larger scale of patients is recommended to compare cyanoacrylate injection with other modalities of treatment of postbanding ulcer bleeding to determine the optimum way to stop bleeding with least complications.

[Mohamed Akl Rady, Ashraf El-jaky, Hisham Samy Abdel-Fatah. Cyanoacrylate versus Vasoactive Therapy in Control of Post-Banding Ulcer Bleeding. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):305-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.45

 

Key words: oesophageal varices, portal hypertension,variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal ligation, postbanding ulcer bleeding, cyanoacrylate and vasoactive drugs.

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GA-Based Fuzzy State Feedback Controller applied to a Nonlinear Power System

 

Alireza Alfi1, *S.Ehsan Razavi2, Amir Hassannia1

 

 1Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Robotic Engineering, Shahrood 36199-95 2Department of Electrical Engineering, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Email: e_razavi_control@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, a pole placement problem in a nonlinear system is investigated. Changing the operating point of nonlinear system is effective on its linear model and leads to difficult performance of state feedback that is designed only for one operating point. In this paper, an optimal fuzzy state feedback controller is provided for a special nonlinear power system which aims to improve the performance of state feedback. In the core of this controller, to overcome the key drawback of fuzzy logic controller, i.e., the lack of systematic methods to define fuzzy rules and fuzzy membership functions, the fuzzy state feedback controller are optimised by GA. Simulation results illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal fuzzy state feedback controller.

[Alireza Alfi, S.Ehsan Razavi, Amir Hassannia. GA-Based Fuzzy State Feedback Controller applied to a Nonlinear Power System. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):313-320]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.46

 

Keywords: State Feedback, Pole Placement, Fuzzy Control, Genetic Algorithm, Nonlinear Power System

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Effect of personality characteristics on organizational commitment and job performance

 

Sayed Aliakbar Ahmadi 1, Somayyeh Zarei Baba Arabi 2, Reza Zare 3, Ali Reza Fathizadeh4

 

1. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

2. Department of Educational Science, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

3. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN,

E-mail: rezazare77@gmail.com

4. Department of Public Administration, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN

 

Abstract: This survey is mainly aimed to explore the relationship between personality characteristics and the employees' organizational commitment and job performance. In order to do so, the employees of Fars Agricultural Organization were selected as the population. The questionnaires used in this survey included some multiple-choice questions related to the personality characteristics, organizational commitment and job performance. The questionnaires were randomly distributed among the employees. Results show that there is a direct relationship between personality characteristics, such as being conscientious, and the organizational commitment and job performance. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between being agreeableness and organizational commitment of the employees, but there is no direct relationship between being agreeableness and job performance. As expected, there is a negative relationship between characteristics such as being neurosis and organizational commitment. According to the results, there is a positive relationship between extroversion and organizational commitment. On the other hand, there is no direct relationship between extroversion and job performance. Moreover, there is a direct relationship between organizational commitment and job performance.

[Sayed Aliakbar Ahmadi, Somayyeh Zarei Baba Arabi, Reza Zare, Ali Reza Fathizadeh. Effect of personality characteristics on organizational commitment and job performance. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):321-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.47

 

Key words: Personality Characteristics; Conscientiousness; Agreeableness; Neuroticism; Organizational Commitment; Job Performance

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Nocturnal Enuresis among School Children in Menoufia Governorate: a Hidden Problem

 

Mohammad Al-Kot1 and Mohsen Deeb2

 

1Family Medicine Department, Menoufia University Hospital, Shebien Elkoum, Egypt.

2Pediatric Department, Menoufia University Hospital, Shebien Elkoum, Egypt.

Mohammed_Elkott@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Nocturnal enuresis is a hidden problem that is crucial to be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible, as it can result in many psychological consequences and poor scholastic achievements. Objectives: The main objective was health promotion of school children with better scholastic achievements. However the specific objectives were to: determine the prevalence and risk factors of enuresis nocturna (EN) among school children in Menoufia governorate, and to examine its associations with behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional comparative study that conducted during the academic year 2009/2010 on 723 students aged 6-18 years in Menoufia governorate. A brief questionnaire was distributed to screen the primary enuretic children (No.83) who invited and their mothers, together with a matched control group (No.144) after their consent to fill a well designed questionnaire and Child Behavior Chick List (CBCL). Teacher Report Form (TRF) will be also filled by their teachers. Results: Prevalence of primary EN was 11.5 %, however secondary type was 2.3%. Bivariate logistic regression analysis showed that primary EN was significantly associated with positive family history (Odds ratio 2.76), history of urinary tract infection (Odds ratio 3.10) and an increased risk of internalizing, externalizing, total behavioral problems and academic problems (Odds ratio were 3.05, 3.63, 4.47 and 2.37 respectively). Out of enuretics, 57.8% of them and 61.4% of their parents were concerned about the impact of enuresis. Only 15.7% of the parents preferred medical treatment modalities, others preferred awaking the child for voiding, water restriction, diapering, alarm and bladder exercises in decreasing order. Conclusions: The family physician is in a prime position to screen, early detect and treat enuresis nocturna among school children as soon as possible to prevent its consequences as low self-esteem, psychological and behavioral problems and low school success.

[Mohammad Al-Kot and Mohsen Deeb. Nocturnal Enuresis among School Children in Menoufia Governorate: a Hidden Problem. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):327-334]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.48

 

Keywords: Enuresis nocturna, risk factors, internalizing; externalizing psycho-behavioral problems

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Protective Effect of Vitamin C against Carbofuran-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Albino Mice

 

Wael M. Al-Amoudi

 

Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: The effect of the carbamate insecticide "carbofuran" on testes of male albino mice and the possible protective role of vitamin C against the insecticide toxicity was assessed. Treating mice with carbofuran for 8 weeks induced a significant decrease in the diameters and germinal epithelial heights of the seminiferous tubules. The histological evidence showed inhibition of spermatogenesis. There was also a decline in sperm count. Histochemical results revealed that animals given carbofuran had decreased contents of carbohydrates and total proteins in the testicular tissue. Treating mice with carbofuran and vitamin C showed an improvement in the testicular damage. The seminiferous tubules appeared normal and the different stages of spermatogenic cells showed an advanced degree of activation.

[Wael M. Al-Amoudi. Protective Effect of Vitamin C against Carbofuran-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Albino Mice. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):335-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.49

 

Key words: Carbofuran- mice- testis- vitamin C

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Histomorphometric Analysis of the Postnatal Development and Growth of Rat Submandibular Glands in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers

 

1Zoba H. Ali and 1&2Rabab Mubarak

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Nahda University, Beni suef, Egypt

rawya_h2a@yahoo.com; rababmubarak2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Disturbances of the in utero environment may program for disease in later life. Exposure to a diabetic environment in utero is associated with a high risk of obesity and glucose intolerance. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes during pregnancy can adversely affect the development and growth of submandibular salivary gland in the offspring. Material and Methods Sixteen adult female rats were divided into two equal groups. Diabetes was induced in one group by alloxan and the other group was control. Both groups become pregnant by mating with four adult male rats. Submandibular salivary glands of 2 & 6 weeks old male offsprings from the two groups were examined by light microscope and morphometric analysis. Results:The submandibular glands of the offsprings of diabetic mothers revealed remarkable changes in serous acini and duct system throughout the experimental periods compared to the offspring of the control group. There was a significant increase in the total surface area of acini and ducts of the rat submandibular gland during the two and six weeks of postnatal life in comparison to the corresponding values of the control group. Conclusion: Maternal hyperglycemia revealed histomorphological changes in submandibular glands during postnatal period and hence maternal diabetes can be considered a very important risk factor to the development and growth of submandibular glands.

[Zoba H. Ali and Rabab Mubarak. Histomorphometric Analysis of the Postnatal Development and Growth of Rat Submandibular Glands in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):342-349]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.50

 

Keywords: maternal diabetes; development; histomorphometric changes; submandibular glands.

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Appraisal of Degradation Resistance at OptiBond All.In.One /Affected Dentin Interface

 

Moanes M. Abdelhameed1, Mohamed A. Ezzat2, Randa M. Hafez 3, Amal Sakr 4 and Heba A. Shalaby H5

 

1Faculty of Oral and Dental Surgery Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt, And Dean of Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Nahda University, Bani Sweif, Egypt.

2Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

4Department of Operative Dentistry Faculty of Oral and Dental Surgery Misr University for Science and Technology, Egypt

5* Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine Nahda University Bani Sweif, Egypt

dr_moanes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was aimed to assess degradation resistance of glycerol phosphate dimethacrylate GPDM based adhesive system (OptiBond All. In.One) with normal and affected dentin substrates at different storage period. Method: A forty orthodontically extracted caries-free human permanent third molars were used in this study. Buccal surfaces of teeth were ground to expose dentin at the maximum convexity using a grinding wheel under water coolant. Dentin depth was standardized using depth grooves and periodontal probe. The prepared teeth were divided into two groups (20 for each); group I: the prepared teeth were stored in distilled water while group II: the prepared specimens were subjected to pH-cycling (Demineralization and Remineralization cycling) to produce artificially affected dentin. The selected adhesive system was applied to the dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions followed by a light cured composite resin restoration. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for different storage periods; one day, one, three and six months. The specimens were subjected to µ-shear bond test. The degraded dentin adhesive interface was chemically analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). Data was calculated and statistically analyzed. Result: At one day the µ-shear bond strength to normal dentin with adhesive was found to be significantly higher than to that of affected dentin. Over the storage period µ-shear bond strength of normal dentin revealed a significant reduction while it was non-significant with affected dentin. On the other hand, affected dentin revealed significant improvement of degree of hybridization after six months rather than that of normal dentin. Conclusions: 1.The degradation resistance and the adhesive performance is a material and time defendant. 2. Using contemporary self -etch phosphorous containing adhesive improved the quality of the affected dentin and its degree of hybridization.

[Moanes M. Abdelhameed, Mohamed A. Ezzat, Randa M. Hafez, Amal Sakr and Heba A. Shalaby H. Appraisal of Degradation Resistance at OptiBond All.In.One /Affected Dentin Interface. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):350-359]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.51

 

Key words: degradation resistance, affected dentin, self etching adhesives

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Cytotoxic and Apoptotic effects of Chronic Amitriptyline Administration on Rat Parotid Salivary Glands

 

Rabab Mubarak1&2

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Nahda University, Beni sueif, Egypt

rababmubarak2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Depression is a chronic disorder that requires long-term treatment. Amitriptyline is one of the more commonly used tricyclic antidepressant drugs. Chronic administration of tricyclic antidepressants has been associated with numerous complains as tremors, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, blurred vision, urinary retention and dry mouth. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the histological changes (cytotoxic and apoptotic) resulted from chronic amitriptyline administration for 9 weeks on rat parotid salivary glands. Methods: Twenty male albino rats (190 ±10 g) were divided equally into group I (control) and group II (Amitriptyline). The rats of group II received a daily single oral dose of amitriptyline (Tryptizol®) equivalent to the therapeutic dose (10mg/kg b.wt.) using an oro-pharyngeal metallic tube for 9 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed. The parotid salivary glands were dissected out and prepared for histological and Fas immunohistochemical examinations. Results: Light microscopic examination of amitriptyline treated group revealed disfigurement, coalescence and shredding of the secretory portions. Some of the serous acini were completely missed leaving large vacuoles. The striated as well as excretory ducts appeared dilated with retained secretion. Widening of the connective tissue septa with numerous vacuolization was also detected. Immunohistochemical examination of experimental group showed increased Fas positive immunoreactivity indicating apoptotic changes. Conclusion: chronic administration of amitriptyline produced cytotoxication and apoptosis of parotid salivary glands.

[Rabab Mubarak. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic effects of Chronic Amitriptyline Administration on Rat Parotid Salivary Glands. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):360-365]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.52

 

Keywords: Amitriptyline; parotid salivary glands; histological changes; apoptosis.

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Effect of Red Bull energy drink on Rats’ Submandibular salivary glands (Light and Electron microscopic Study)

 

Rabab Mubarak1&2

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Nahda University, Beni Sueif, Egypt

rawya_h2a@yahoo.com, rababmubarak2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Energy drink consumption has continued to gain wide popularity. These drinks are marketed for young people as natural alternatives that improve physical and mental performance such as concentration, attention, and alertness. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the histological and ultra structural changes in rat submandibular salivary glands induced by Red Bull energy drink. Material and Methods: Twenty male albino rats (170 ±10 g) were divided equally into group I (control) and group II (Red Bull). The rats of group II received a daily single dose (3.57 ml/kg b.wt.) of Red Bull energy drink using an oro-pharyngeal metallic curved tube for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rats were sacrificed. The submandibular salivary glands were dissected out and prepared for light and transmission electron microscopic examinations. Results: Histological examination of submandibular glands of Red Bull group revealed swelling of the secretory portions with numerous intracytoplasmic vacuoles. The connective tissue capsule and septa showed extensive fibrosis and congested blood vessels. Nuclear atypism, pleomorphism, hyperchromatism as well as numerous mitotic figures were detected. The excretory ducts appeared dilated with retained secretion. The granular convoluted ducts appeared dilated with reduced granular eosinophilic content. Electron microscopic examination revealed abnormal divided nuclei and large coalescing electron lucent secretory granules in the secretory cells. Numerous vacuoles and electron lucent granules were detected also in the granular convoluted ducts. There were numerous dilated blood vessels with electron dense erythrocytes.

[Rabab Mubarak. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on Rats’ Submandibular salivary glands (Light and Electron microscopic Study). J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):366-372].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.53

 

Keywords: Energy drinks; Red Bull; salivary glands; histological changes.

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The Effect of Loss of P27 and Cdk2 on Cell Cycle Progression in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation in Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts

 

Eiman Aleem

 

Department of Zoology, Division of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Moharram Bey 21511, Alexandria, Egypt.

eiman.aleem@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It has been previously reported that ultraviolet (UV) radiation results in cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which may or may not be p53-dependent. Other proteins involved in DNA damage pathways induced by UV radiation include AKT and ERK. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of loss of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) and p27 on cell cycle progression in response to UV irradiation. To achieve this goal genetically modified mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Cdk2 or p27 were exposed to UV and the following parameters were investigated (1) the cell cycle kinetics of unsynchronized MEFs, (2) the cell cycle progression after first synchronization by serum starvation then UV treatment, and (3) the protein expression and activity after UV irradiation of unsynchronized MEFs. It was found that p27 and Cdk2 were required for apoptosis induced by UV. Increased expression, phosphorylation and activation of AKT in the p27-/- and cdk2-/- MEFs in comparison to wild type (WT) MEFs were observed. Similarly, the inhibitory tyrosine 15 phosphorylation of Cdk1 was increased in the p27-/- and cdk2-/- MEFs in comparison to wild type (WT) MEFs. The overall data from the present study provide clues towards understanding the role of p27 and Cdk2 in cellular response to UV radiation.

[Eiman Aleem. The Effect of Loss of P27 and Cdk2 on Cell Cycle Progression in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation in Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 373-382].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.54

 

Keywords: cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27KIP1, UVC, cell cycle, Checkpoint kinase 1, AKT, Cdc25C

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Optimization of quality parameters affecting changes in concentration of iron and manganese in water treatment plant

 

Reza Pirtaj Hamedany1*, Mohammad Manshouri1, Hossein Banejad2, Hossein Sedghi1

 

1. Department of Water Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

jateripazer@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of raw water treatment is supplying without any harmful chemical and pathogen agents, which can transfer via water. Each of raw water sources has its own contamination pattern. Therefore, water treatment should relate to desire standard of product. The existence of iron and manganese in water can cause considerable problem. Iron and manganese cause laundry and pipe become rusted, formation of sediment in water distribution system, dechlorination of water, interference in water treatment process such as disinfection, change the taste of water and also increase the growth of bacteria. In this study the temporal changes of concentration of iron and manganese during water treatment process in Ekbatan dam water treatment plant, has survived. By using Multiple Stepwise Regression, the relation between the concentration of iron and manganese in water treatment plant output and manageable water quality parameters that can have effect on the concentration of iron and manganese have been calculated. Sum of iron and manganese concentration in output of water treatment plant as objective function, minimized by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) method. Results show that temporal changes of iron and manganese during treatment process, with 95% probability are significant. The effective processes in decreasing the concentration of iron are axilator and gravity rapid sand filter. While only gravity rapid sand filter have had significant effect on decreasing of manganese. The effective parameters on concentration of iron and manganese concentration changes in output were changes of Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Turbidity (NTU) in input of treatment plant. However, changes of pH in below the filter and turbidity in input had effect on changes in concentration of manganese in output of treatment plant. Optimization by GA shows that if EC and turbidity in input and pH in below the filter were 333, 117 NTU, and 6.8 respectively, Sum of concentration of iron and manganese in output will be minimized. So, with suitable technical operation in special step in water treatment plant, occur of impermissible iron and manganese concentration in output, can be avoided.

[Reza Pirtaj Hamedany, Mohammad Manshouri, Hossein Banejad, Hossein Sedghi. Optimization of quality parameters affecting changes in concentration of iron and manganese in water treatment plant. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 383-391].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.55

 

Keywords: Water treatment plant, Iron and Manganese, Multiple Stepwise Regression, Genetic Algorithm

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A Stepwise Guide for Easy, Rapid and Accurate Oral Impression Taking for Newborn Cleft Lip/Palate Infants

 

Noha I. Abdel-Rahman*, Islam T. Abbas ** and Marwa AW. El-Kassaby ***

 

* Assistant Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

** Lecturer, Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

*** Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.Corresponding authors: noha.i.abdelrahman@gmail.com, itarek@msn.com

 

Abstract: In developing countries, awareness for proper management of newborn cleft lip/palate (CL/P) is not widely spread. Many CL/P infants arrive to clinic few weeks or sometimes months after birth and may need naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) therapy. NAM is an important treatment modality that should be initiated as early as possible after birth. Intraoral impressions are required for the fabrication of NAM devices. Therefore, rapid un-stressful cost effective intervention is crucial. Aim: To present an efficient and cost-effective method of impression taking to CLP infants. Material and methods: Cost of each impression of the three materials used, rubber base, alginate and impression compound was calculated in USD. Effectiveness was evaluated on the basis of the total number of impressions needed, by each type of material all through treatment and the number of dental models produced by each impression material. Statistical analysis: One-Way ANOVA and the One-Way ANOVA Post Hoc Tests were used to calculate difference between study groups and significance between study groups’ means. Results: Rubber base showed the least cost-effectiveness ratio (6.2), compared to alginate (23.41) and impression compound (23.36). Although all three materials produced similar number of dental models, yet the use of rubber base required the least number of impressions thus saving time and total cost. Conclusion: Intraoral impressions taken for CLP infants could be less stressful, rapid, accurate and cost effective using the described procedure and material.

[Noha I. Abdel-Rahman, Islam T. Abbas and Marwa AW. El-Kassaby. A Stepwise Guide for Easy, Rapid and Accurate Oral Impression Taking for Newborn Cleft Lip/Palate Infants. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 392-397]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.56

 

Key words: Oral impression technique, Cleft lip and palate, naso-alveolar moulding therapy.

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Evaluation of the Mineralized Tissue in the Pulp of Retained Human Deciduous Teeth (Histological and Immunohistochemical Study)

 

Zoba H. Ali

 

1Oral Biology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

rawya_h2a@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Retention of primary teeth beyond their expected exfoliation date in human is encountered relatively frequently. Little information is known about the apposition of mineralized tissue in the resorped dentine surface of the retained deciduous teeth. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to evaluate and investigate the histological structure of the mineralized tissue deposited on previous resorped coronal and radicular dentine surface in human retained deciduous teeth. Study design: Sixteen sound upper maxillary deciduous canines and second molars extracted for orthodontic reason used in this work, eight teeth were demineralized, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Some demineralized sections from each tooth were photographed and morphometric analysis was measured. Moreover other sections were stained with the primary antibody osteonectin for immunohistochemical examination. Ground sections of eight teeth were prepared and all sections were viewed in a light microscope. Results:. Dentin resorption of the retained deciduous teeth was often followed by deposition of various amounts of cementum-like repair tissue. The cells responsible for the formation of cementum-like tissue are believed to be undifferentiated ectomesenchymal cells of the vital pulp. Mineralized tissue with a varied morphology and thickness was observed. Mineralization seemed to start in the incisal region or at the pulp horns of canines and molars and the central part of the pulp appeared the last part to be obliterated. The whole pulp chamber was sometimes completely obliterated by the calcified tissue especially in case of retained canine. Cementum-like tissue was composed of multiple alternating and irregular light and dark bands. Immunohistochemical examination revealed positive osteonectin immunoreactivity in the deposited hard tissue that indicate this hard tissue is cementum-like tissue. Conclusions: In the pulp chambers and in the root canals of retained deciduous teeth resorption had often occurred, indicating that signals giving rise to odontoclasts were present in the pulp tissue. Cementum-like tissue can be deposited within these resorped areas. Also a longer retention time generated more cementum-like tissue deposition in the pulp of the retained deciduous teeth.

[Zoba H. AliEvaluation of the Mineralized Tissue in the Pulp of Retained Human Deciduous Teeth (Histological and Immunohistochemical Study). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):398-407]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.57

 

Keywords: Retained deciduous teeth; Cementum-like tissue; Osteonectin; Light microscope.\

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Fuzzy Logic Support System for Predicting Building Damage Due to the Association of Three Parameters of Pipeline Failure

 

Dina A. Emarah1; Manar, M. Hussein1*; Hamdy M. Mousa2 and Adel Y. Akl1

 

1Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

2Computer Science Department, Faculty of Computer and Information, Menofia University

manar.m.hussein@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, a fuzzy logic decision support tool (FLDST) was constructed for three parameters of sewer pipeline failure to get the total influence of these parameters on building damage. The effect of the shape and number of membership functions was investigated. The well-known computer program “ANSYS+ CivilFEM” is used to investigate the influence of pipeline settlement, settlement location, building location with respect to pipeline, soil stiffness and burial depth on the building damage category. The results were implemented in a fuzzy based assessment system for reinforced concrete building structures to evaluate the damage category of buildings due to the association of three parameters of pipeline failure. A criterion to define membership functions, their shape and their number, for each parameter as well as the rule base covering the whole range of all parameters was described. Several examples were run by MATLAB and were validated by ANSYS to evaluate the FLDST in predicting the damage category of building. The category of damage based on FLDST was consistent with that obtained from ANSYS calculations with great efficiency and time saving.

 [Dina A. Emarah; Manar, M. Hussein; Hamdy M. Mousa and Adel Y. Akl. Fuzzy Logic Support System for Predicting Building Damage Due to the Association of Three Parameters of Pipeline Failure. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):408-417]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.58

Keywords: Fuzzy logic support system; damage category; pipeline failure; settlement; membership functions and fuzzy assessment system

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Toxicological and Biochemical Studies on Development of Resistance in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) During Selection with Bacillus thuringiensis MVPII

 

Abd El-Aziz, S. Hanan1; El-Gohary, E.E.2; Mansy, M.S3. Desuky, W.M.1 and Hamed, M.S.2

 

1Plant Protection Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

2Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt

3Microbiology & Immunology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt

ggohary@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation studied the toxicity of five bacterial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) (MVPII, Dipel -2X, Ecotech-Bio and Dipel Es) and B. thuringiensis var. aizawai (Bta) (Xentari) to the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The LC50s for such formulations were measured as 0.08, 0.11, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.00045 %, respectively. The larvae were selected for resistance to MVPII for twelve generations and the resistance increased to12.5 folds higher than the susceptible parent strain. No correlation (cross resistance) between MVPII-resistant strain and the other Bt formulations was indicated. The levels of resistance fell in the range of vigour tolerance to be 1.82, 1.3, 1.67 and 3.78 fold for Dipel-2X, Echotech-Bio, Dipel Es and Xentari, respectively. The possibility of using protein as biochemical parameters to detect the development of resistance was also studied. The effect of different bacterial formulations was studied at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 9th day post treatment of 4th larval instar. Most of bacterial formulations were reduced the total protein contents particularly Dipel–2X showed none increasing in protein for any different days post treatment comparing with untreated control. The 9th day post treatment showed not only highly significant increase in total protein contents for the rest four treatments (MVPII, Ecotech-Bio, Dipel Es and Xentari) but also with MVPII treatment on different generations during selection. The electrophoretic analysis of proteins by SDS-PAGE was carried out for untreated normal strain and different days post treatment with LC50 of MVPII during selection. Twenty four bands were separated and their molecular weight ranged between 5.9 and 187.96 KDa. The number of separated bands varied among different generations according to the tested strain. The appearance of new protein might be due to increasing of protein synthesis while the disappearance of other could be attributed to their breakdown as a result of Bt infection or the resistance.

[Abd El-Aziz, S. Hanan; El-Gohary, E.E.; Mansy, M.S. Desuky, W.M. and Hamed, M.S. Toxicological and biochemical studies on development of resistance in Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) during selection with Bacillus thuringiensis MVPII. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):418-426]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.59

 

Key Words: Spodoptera littoralis – total protein – SDS-PAGE – Bacillus thuringiensis

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Experimental Study for the Behaviour of Footings on Reinforced Sand Beds Overlying Soft Clay Zone

 

Nagy A. El Mahallawy and Ahmad S. Rashed

 

Department of Soil Mechanics and Foundations, El Shorouk Academy.

cedc_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the work was to study the efficiency of using reinforcement layers in order to enhance the bearing capacity of soils that are characterized by the existence of localized soft clay zone. Small-scale model experiments using tank were conducted with beds created from well graded sand prepared with different dry densities. Soft clay was embedded at predetermined locations within the sand beds so as to represent localized soft clay zone. Various arrangements of soil reinforcement were tested and compared against comparable tests but without reinforcement. Tests were carried out in order to study the effect of the width and depth of the soft clay zone, the depth of reinforcing layers, the length, number and of reinforcing layers on the soil bearing capacity also,the spacing between reinforcement layers. The results show clearly that the ultimate bearing capacity reduces by up to 70% due to the presence of a soft clay zone. It was also noted that the proximity of the soft clay zone also influenced the bearing capacity. Reinforcing the soil with two layers or increasing the length of reinforcement is not as effective as was anticipated based on previous studies. However, bearing capacity increased significantly (up to 3 times) to that of unreinforced sand when four layers of reinforcement were embedded.

[Nagy A. El Mahallawy and Ahmad S. Rashed. Experimental Study for the Behaviour of Footings on Reinforced Sand Beds Overlying Soft Clay Zone. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):427-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.60

 

Key words: Bearing capacity, Ground variability, Soft clay zone, Soil reinforcement; Bearing capacity ratio; Geogrid reinforcement; Reinforced sand;

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Effects of Curcumin on Early Retinal Neuro-Degenerative Changes in Diabetic Albino Rats

 

Noha A. Salem1, Gamal M. Abdel-Rahman1, Mohamed Ewias2, and Amanuel Tesfay Tsegay1

 

Departments of 1 Anatomy and 2, Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. noha2805@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults and it remains a major cause of morbidity in diabetic patients. The gradual loss of neurons in diabetic retina suggests that the progression of the disease is ultimately irreversible, since these cells cannot be replaced. A single large dose of Streptozotocin can produce diabetes in rodents or alternatively, multiple small doses can be used, curcumin administration prevents the decrease in the antioxidant capacity that is induced by diabetes and It has been considered to have beneficial effects on the antioxidant defense system. Aim: To assess the effect of curcumin in early retinal neurodegenerative changes in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawely albino rats were divided into 3 groups (16 rats in each group). (1)Control group, (2) Diabetic group, (3) Diabetic and curcumin treated group. Each group was re-divided into 2 subgroups according to the duration of diabetes (4th and 8th weeks).Diabetes were induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg/b.wt) and after three days, fasting blood glucose level was measured. These rats with blood glucose level greater than 250mg/dl were confirmed as diabetic rats. Third group were received only powdered diet supplemented with curcumin 0.5 g/kg. This type of diet was initiated after establishment of diabetes till the scarification day. Eight rats from each group were randomly sacrificed in the 4th week and the rest were sacrificed in the 8th week. Their eyes were enucleated, fixed, processed for Heamatoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for (glial fibrillary acidic protein) GFAP. Results: Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in the thickness of the inner retinal layers, decrease in the retinal ganglion cells (RGC), reduction was increased in relation to the duration of diabetes. In group (3) there was a significant improvement in the thickness and in (RGC) numbers. The Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive processes in the diabetic groups were observed in the entire neural retina, while in the same curcumin treated group there was a significant reduction in the reactivity in the affected layers. Conclusions: Curcumin can inhibit diabetes-induced retinal abnormalities that are postulated in the development of early diabetic retinopathy. Thus, curcumin appears to be a useful therapy that may inhibit the development and progression of retinopathy, the main complication faced by diabetic patients.

[Noha A. Salem, Gamal M. Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ewias, and Amanuel Tesfay Tsegay. Effects of Curcumin on Early Retinal Neuro-Degenerative Changes in Diabetic Albino Rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):435-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.61

 

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, Curcumin, rats

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Directional Extension of the Domain of Attraction to Increase Critical clearing time of nonlinear systems

 

Sara Haghighatnia, Reihaneh Kardehi moghaddam *

 

Department of Electrical engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.

Sara.haghighatnia@mshdiau.ac.ir, Rkardehi.moghaddam@gmail.com

Corresponding Author E-mail, Rkardehi.moghaddam@gmail.com*

 

Abstract: In this paper a new approach for directional enlargement of domain of attraction based on design of the operating equilibrium of nonlinear dynamic systems and determining optimal values of controlling parameters is proposed. The method estimates domain of attraction with parameter dependant ellipses using quadratic Lyapunov functions, and finds these parameters such that they enlarge the estimated attraction region along the direction of interest. The problem of attraction region enlargement is defined in the form of a novel bi level optimization problem that focuses on extending elliptic area along fault running vector. In addition we show that the proposed method can effectively be applied for increasing critical clearing time of nonlinear systems. This application leads to the increase the maximum allowable time for removing the fault of nonlinear systems and the reduction the control cost. The efficiency of the proposed method is shown in the simulation part by some examples.

[Sara Haghighatnia, Reihaneh Kardehi moghaddam. Directional Extension of the Domain of Attraction to Increase Critical clearing time of nonlinear systems. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):444-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.62

 

Keywords: Domain of attraction, Directional enlargement, Designing controlling parameters, Lyapunov stability

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A Vision of New Cairo Districts as a Model of Sustainable, Walkable Urban Liveability

 

Baher Ismail Farahat and Ola M. Emad Bakry

 

Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt

baher.ismail@miuegypt.edu.eg, olabakry@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The concept of carbon footprint and the increasing awareness of green energy alternatives and the call to conserve resources has advocated walkable communities and planning for liveable communities to strengthen sustainability. Land use patterns, transport systems, public facilities, housing and design features of the built environment, all contribute to the planning process. A major concern is to consider the neighborhood framework and how the buildings within the territory form housing groups and communicate with the space they sit in. Planning should consider improved walkability and the critical factors enabling independence and autonomy in walking. A core principle recognizes transportation as integral to this vision leading to a greater community connectivity and liveability. This paper discusses how the planning framework could be used to enhance the sustainability of the built environment, an example is captured from New Cairo districts where sustainable issues are implemented. Guided by LEED for Neighborhood Development, this paper attempts to focus on the sustainable issues incorporated in the urban design of the captured example. The physical design issues are examined represented in the well connected system of streets and paths, the incorporation of a range of pedestrian oriented amenities, and the emphasis on the sense of community by providing a mixed housing type and the integration of common open spaces in the form of plazas and green spaces. A special focus is set on the integration of public transport and the accessibility to downtown as well as the incorporation of other alternative means of transport. Other sustainable urban design issues, such as water sensitive design, xeriscaping, the steep slope protection and respect of site topography, are presented.

By the demonstration of this example, planners and decision makers could visualize how to incorporate the principles of sustainability in planning urban communities.

[Baher Ismail Farahat and Ola M. Emad Bakry. A Vision of New Cairo Districts as a Model of Sustainable, Walkable Urban Liveability. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):450-460]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.63

 

Keywords: New Urbanism; Pedestrianism; Liveability; Alternative Transport.

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Risk Factors for the Development of Ventilator – Associated Pneumonia in Critically-Ill Neonates

 

Mona Afify*, Salha AI-Zahrani* and Maha A Nouh**

 

Department of Biology and Microbiology, Science College for Girls, King Abd-Elaziz University* and Pediatrics Department, Royal Commission Hospital in Yunbu**- Kingdom of Saudia Arabia.

drmonaafify@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), viewed as an inevitable consequence of critical illness, is increasingly accepted as an avoidable adverse health care incident. Whereas morbidity and mortality from VAP is well-documented in adults, it is poorly studied in children.This investigation was conducted to determine characteristics and possible risk factors for VAP, in critically ill neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). According to clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS), 33 neonates were selected as having VAP and 24 neonates who did not develop VAP were assigned as non-VAP group. All neonates were subjected to case history, clinical examination, ABG, chest X-ray, and laboratory investigations (CBC, serum albumin, serum CRP, and blood culture). Neonates with VAP were subjected to broncheo-alveolar lavage (BAL) sampling. The BAL samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as quantitative cultures. Obtained results revealed that indications for mechanical ventilation (MV) included respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), congenital pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), with nonsignificant differences between VAP group and non-VAP group. VAP rates were significantly increased with decreased body weight and gestational age and with increased duration of NICU admission, duration of MV and use of invasive maneuvers. VAP was significantly associated with hypothermia, mucopurulent endotracheal tube (ETT) secretions, and radiological findings. The use of inotrops and corticosteroids was significantly noted among neonates with VAP than that among non-VAP neonates. Raised serum C-reactive protein (CRP), hypoalbuminemia and positive blood cultures were significantly associated with increased VAP rates. Cultures of BAL samples revealed Klebsiella pneumoniae (in 33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (in 21%), Staphylococcus aureus (in 15%), Escherichia coli (in 15%), Pneumococci (in 6%) and Candida albicans (in 9%). There was nonsignificant similarity in the type of organisms cultivated from either blood or BAL. In conclusion risk factors for the development of VAP include; 1) decreased body weight and gestational age, 2) increased duration of NICU admission, MV, and use of invasive maneuvers, 3) hypothermia, mucopurulent ETT secretions and the use of inotrops/ corticosteroids, 4) raised serum CRP, hypoalbuminemia and positive blood cultures and 5) nosocomial infection by Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Staph aureus, E coli and Candida.

[Mona Afify, Salha AI-Zahrani and Maha A Nouh. Risk Factors for the Development of Ventilator – Associated Pneumonia in Critically-Ill Neonates. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):461-466]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.64

 

Key words: nosocomial infection-neonatal pneumonia-mechanical ventilation.

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Herbal Remedy used by Rural Adolescent girls with Menstrual Disorders

 

Shadia A.T. Yassin

 

Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

shadiayassin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study aimed to determine the herbal remedy used by rural adolescent girls with menstrual disorders. The study comprised 900 adolescent students (aged 12-18years old) from preparatory and secondary schools in rural village in Elbehira governorate, Egypt. An interview schedule was developed and used to collect the necessary data. The results revealed that 89.9% of the adolescent girls had suffered from dysmenorrhea. 78% of them had used herbal remedy for treatment. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) was experienced by 77.7% of the study subjects 72.7% of them had used herbal remedy for treatment. The type of herbs used in management of PMS and dysmenorrhea were fenugreek, peppermint and aniseed which were effective among almost all of the study subjects. Green tea, cinnamon and basil were moderately effective. Fenugreek, chamomile and cinnamon were effective in the management of amenorrhea. In spite of its high prevalence and enormous impact on their lives girls believed that dysmenorrhea is a normal part of the female menstrual cycle and only 16.1% sought medical treatment. A great number of adolescents obtained information from their mothers (62.7%) and peers (46.7%).These findings imply the need for educating adolescent girls on effective management of dysmenorrhea. Education should be extended to parents and school peer leaders to address the reproductive health needs of adolescents.

[Shadia A.T. Yassin. Herbal Remedy used by Rural Adolescent girls with Menstrual Disorders. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):467-473]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.65

 

Key words: Herbal remedy, adolescent girls, menstrual disorders

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Potato Chips and Roasted Bread Induced Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronuclei Formation in Albino Rats

 

Ramadan A.M. Ali*, Nadia H.M. Sayed and Dalia D. Abd El-Monem

 

Zoology Dept, Girls Collage for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams Univ.

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Detection of high concentrations of acrylamide (AA) in heated starch rich foodstuffs raises health concerns, particularly for children, because AA is relatively high in child-favoured foods such as potato chips, French fries, roasted bread and cereals. So, we investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic potentials of potato chips (FP) and roasted bread (RB) and the possible protective effect of curcumin (Cur) in albino rat bone-marrow cells, using chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (Mn-PCEs) assays.Animals feed on diet contained 15 % or 30 % of fried potato chips and/or fried bread and supplemented with/without 1%curcumin addition for 2 months. Results showed that, treatment with Cur alone did not induce significant increases in CAs and Mn-PCEs in comparison to the control level. Meanwhile, diet supplemented with 30 % of FP and/orb yielded13,16 and 8.33 damaged cell / 100 metaphase spreads and 18.67, 21.16 and 12.83 Mn-PCEs / 2500 PCEs, respectively. All the above increases were highly significant (P<0.001). Moreover, fried potato chips and/or fried bread caused cytotoxic action in the form of a significant reduction in the proportion between polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes. Meanwhile, addition of 1% Cur powder induced significant decrease in CAs and Mn-PCEs frequencies in comparison to those induced by FP and/or RB alone. The decreaseswere dose dependent.It is concluded that, curcumin exhibited antimutagenic properties against the mutagenicity induced by FP and/or RB which make it a promising chemopreventive agents.

[Ramadan A.M. Ali Nadia H.M. Sayed and Dalia D. Abd El-Monem. Potato Chips and Roasted Bread Induced Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronuclei Formation in Albino Rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 474-480]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.66

 

Key wards: Acrylamide, Curcumen, Chromosomes, Micronucleus, Rat, Potatoes chips, Roaster bread.

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Green chemistry 1: Simple and Efficient Synthesis -in Water- and Antibacterial Activity of 5-Arylidene Derivatives of Thiobarbituric and Barbituric acids.

 

Faida H. Ali Bamanie1, A. S. Shehata2, M. A. Moustafa1, 3, M. M. Mashaly*2

 

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, KSA.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science at (New) Damietta, Mansoura University, Egypt.

3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

mashaly54321@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: An efficient Knovenagel condensation of thiobarbituric and barbituric acids 1a, b with aromatic aldehydes 2a-f, in water, using ethanolamine as catalyst, afforded 5-arylidene derivatives 3a-f of 1a, b in 10-15 minutes reaction times, with 88-95% isolated yields and high purity. Derivatives 3b-f showed reasonable activity against gram (+ve) and gram (-ve) bacteria.

[Faida H. Ali Bamanie, A. S. Shehata, M. A. Moustafa, M. M. Mashaly. Green chemistry 1: Simple and Efficient Synthesis -in Water- and Antibacterial Activity of 5-Arylidene Derivatives of Thiobarbituric and Barbituric acids. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):481-485]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.67

 

Keywords: Thiobarbituric, barbituric acids, 5-arylidenes, green chemistry, antibacteria.

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Optimal Location of Facts Devices to Enhance the Voltage Stability and Power Transfer Capability

 

1 Mahmoud H. M; M. A. Mehanna2 and S. K. Elsayed2

 

[1]. Managing Director of Information System with the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company

2. Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, AL-Azhar University

engsasa2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper focuses on increasing stability and maximum loadability of a system by considering the optimal location of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices in multimachine power system. Identification of a suitable location for installation of (FACTS) costly device is a vital task; several criteria are to be satisfied before selecting the best location. Two types of (FACTS) devices, static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) can be installed on buses and transmission lines respectively. Improving the system's reactive Power handling capacity via (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse using continuation power flow (CPF) method to find the best location of shunt (FACTS) device then evaluate the effect of this device on the system. Also the continuous change in power demand and supply altered the power flow patterns in transmission networks which raise serious challenge in operating the power system, to prevent this problem series (FACTS) is used, using optimal power flow (OPF) method to find best location then evaluate the effect of this device on the system by using (CPF) method. It will perform the control of power flow with (FACTS) devices on the test system and also the time domain simulation for three phase fault applied, the simulation is made without and with (FACTS) devices. The effectiveness of the method is tested and illustrated on IEEE 14-bus system. Power System Analysis Toolset (PSAT), a computational tool under Matlab program for effective simulation and monitoring is used.

 [Mahmoud H. M.; M. A. Mehanna and S. K. Elsayed. Optimal Location of Facts Devices to Enhance the Voltage Stability and Power Transfer Capability. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):486-492]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.68

 

Key Wards: FACTS, SVC, TCSC, CPF, OPF, Hopf Bifurcations, Lodability Margin

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Using Simulated Patients to Develop Nursing Students Communication Skills

 

Safaa Mohamed El-Demerdash and Reda Abd El-Fatah SaidAhmed Abo Gad

 

Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt

dr.safaamohamed.@yahoo.com, redagad51@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Having an effective communication skills and being able to employ them in communicating to the patients is very essential for every nurse, including nursing students. Preparing nursing students to interact and create constructive communicative relationships with clients is essential to nursing practice. Effective communication trainings should equip (future) nurses with fundamental abilities for life-long professional development that help them in dealing with a diversity of patients having a wide range and constantly changing set of communicative needs. Objective: present study was carried out to use simulated patients to develop nursing students communication skills. Design: an experimental design was used. Methods the study was conducted at Faculty of Nursing at Tanta University. The sample consisted of 25 undergraduate female students in the last academic year in the above mentioned setting and willing to participate in the study. All nursing students had previously dealing with patient in real clinical setting. To achieve the aim of the present study three tools were used: (1) Knowledge questionnaire sheet (40) questions to collect data from undergraduate students for the purpose of assessing their knowledge about communication. (2) Communication Skills Attitude Scale was used to collect data from the subjects for the purpose of assessing their attitude toward communication skills. The (CSAS) consists of 26 items. (3) Observation checklist: was developed by the researcher based on reviewing recent literature for the purpose of assessing the studied group communication skills. The checklist was included 45 items divided on five parts namely: good starting, monitor body language, effective listening skills, ask questions, and give answers. Results: A statistical significant improvement (P ≤0.05) was found in student nurses level of knowledge, attitude about communication, and performance of communication skills on post program. Pre program, all nurses student were at low level in body language, active listening, give answers, and total communication skills, Post program, 92%, 88%, 68%, and 64% of nurses student level of communication skills were improved to be high level in body language, get start communication, ask questions, and all items of practicing effective listening skills, respectively. Conclusion: At pre program, the majority of student nurses level of knowledge and attitude on communication were low. Most of student nurses had low level in performing communication skills and were in need for training. Post implementation of a educational program student nurses' knowledge, attitude about communication and their performance of communication skills were improved. Recommendation: Based on the finding of this study it is recommended that, using of simulation as a teaching strategy to reinforce educational training activities and supplying the nursing staff specially new graduates with needed orientation knowledge and performance skills is needed.

[Safaa Mohamed El-Demerdash and Reda Abd El-Fatah SaidAhmed Abo Gad. Using Simulated Patients to Develop Nursing Students Communication Skills. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):493-503]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.69

 

Key wards: Simulation, communication skills, nurse-patient communication

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A Modified Decision Templates Method for Persian Handwritten Digit Recognition

 

Mohammad Masoud Javidi 1, Fatemeh Sharifizadeh 2

 

1. Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. javidi@mail.uk.ac.ir

2. Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. fSharifizade@mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In this paper a new method to combine multiple classifiers based on a static structure is presented. We establish our model based on decision templates (DT), as we do not only rely on similarity between a test sample QUOTE   and c decision template matrices, moreover to make a decision about pattern QUOTE   we construct QUOTE   wrong decision templates, and compute likeness between pattern QUOTE   and these matrices. We call this novel method Wrong Decision Templates (WDT). To evaluate our proposed model we use a very large dataset of Persian handwritten digit (HODA). The experimental results support our claim that constructing WDT matrices besides DT matrices, improves the performance of the conventional DT for Farsi handwritten digit recognition, such that the recognition rate of 98.16% is achieved, which has 60% decline of error rate with regard to DT method. Furthermore, Comparison other static combination methods indicates that the proposed model yields excellent recognition rate in handwritten digit recognition. Finally, the generalization capability of our proposed method is considered on two benchmark datasets from the UCI repository.

[Mohammad Masoud Javidi, Fatemeh Sharifizadeh. A Modified Decision Templates Method for Persian Handwritten Digit Recognition. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):504-512]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.70

 

Keywords: Decision Templates; Handwritten Digit Recognition; Combining Classifiers; Wrong Decision Templates; Classifier Fusion

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Using Hybrid Method for Strategic Planning of Construction Contractor Companies

 

Mostafa Khanzadi1, Shahin Dabirian2, Reza Taheriattar3

 

1. Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology

2. PHD Student in Construction Engineering and Management, Iran University of Science and Technology

3. M.Sc. Student in Construction Engineering and Management, Iran University of Science and Technology

khanzadi@iust.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Construction contractor companies are affected by internal and external environments, an important part of strategic Planning process. Strategic environment analysis indicates SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis has some deficiencies in measurement and evaluation steps. Analytic hierarchy process dispels these deficiencies but does not consider the possible dependencies between factors. Analytic Network Process (ANP) is a new tool for Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) assuming relationships associated together, in this way it improves the analytic hierarchy process. In this paper, the hybrid method has been developed. Therefore, ANP has been applied in SWOT to consider interdependencies among factors rather than AHP which is based on independent factors in different groups. Finally, dependency measurement possibility among strategic factors becomes feasible. The research used a case study to validate Hybrid method and illustrate how the contractors and decision makers in construction companies can apply SWOT analysis as a main tool in strategic Planning process, make a decision and find the best alternative among the strategies. In this study, it has been concluded that dependencies among the SWOT factors have effect on sub factors weights; they can also change the strategy priorities.

[Mostafa Khanzadi, Shahin Dabirian, Reza Taheriattar. Using Hybrid Method for Strategic Planning of Construction Contractor Companies. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):513-524]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.71

 

Key words: Construction Contractor Company, SWOT Analysis, Analytic Network Process, Analytic Hierarchy Process

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A Study on the Relationship between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

 

Khodeir, S. A.1; Abd E l Raouf, Y. M1; Farouk, G.2and Allam, W. A.3

 

Departments of Internal Medicine1 Clinical Pathology2 and Ophthalmology3 Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. masyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common microvascular complications and the leading cause of blindness in adults between 30 and 65 years of age worldwide. Also, unrecognized thyroid dysfunction may impair metabolic control and add to cardiovascular, and other chronic complication risk in diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and the development of retinopathy. The study was carried on 75 patients of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus, normotensive, without any apparent vascular complications. Our patients were divided into two groups. Group Ι included 48 patients who were euthyroid (futher divided int sub-groups Ιa with TSH level ≥2<4 µIu/ml and Ιb with TSH ≥0.4<2 µIu/ml., while group ΙΙ included 27 patients who were found to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, lipid profile, HBA1c, free T4, TSH and fundus examination were done to all patients. The obtained results revealed that diabetic retinopathy was associated with sub-clinical hypothyroidism, with statistical significant difference between group Ι and group ΙΙ. When group Ι and group ΙΙ compared, it was found that there had been significant difference in TSH level in different stages of diabetic retinopathy. In conclusion subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. There is a positive correlation between level of TSH and stage of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetics with subclinical hypothyroidism.

[Khodeir, S. A; Abd E l Raouf, Y. M; Farouk, G. and Allam, W. A. A Study on the Relationship between Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):525-530]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.72

 

Key words: Diabetic retinopathy, subclinical hypothyroidism, endothelial dysfunction

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Paraoxonase Gene Polymorphism and Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Microvascular Complications

 

Khodeir, S. A.1; Abd El Raouf, Y. M 1; Amer, A. EMAN2; El Fadaly, N. H. 2and Abd El Latif, E. Aml3

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University. 2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alahram Canadian University (acu), 6th October City and 3Clinical Pathology Department,

Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt. masyasser@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Paraoxonase (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme closely associated with HDL – cholesterol that protects LDL – cholesterol against oxidation. Less protection may therefore be supposed by decreased PON1 activity in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the association of PON1 gene polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy and the relationship of allelic polymorphism with PON1 activity in DM patients. The study was conducted on 36 patients with type 2 DM complicated with nephropathy, 24 patients without nephropathy, and 20 healthy subjects of matched age and sex to serve as control. Eight ml over night fasting venous blood were collected from every patient and control, distributed as such; 5 ml in plain tube to separate serum for estimation of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL, glucose and PON1 activity, and 3 ml on EDTA vacutainer tube for estimation of glycated Hb (HbA1c) and PON1genotyping. Obtained Results revealed that no gender or age influence was found on PON1 activity. Serum PON1 activity was significantly decreased in diabetic patients as compared with control. Also PON1 activity was significantly decreased in diabetic patients with nephropathy as compared with diabetic patients without nephropathy. The PON1 (55) LL genotype was the most frequent in healthy subjects, followed by the MM genotype, and then the LM genotype. In diabetic patients with nephropathy, the MM genotype was the most common, followed by the LL genotype, and then the LM genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the LL, MM, LM genotypes frequencies were 37.5%, 37.5%, and 25% respectively. The PON1 (192) QQ genotype was the most frequent in healthy subjects, followed by the RR genotype, and then the QR genotype. In diabetic patients with nephropathy, the RR genotype was the most common, followed by the QR genotype, and lastly the QQ genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the RR genotype was the most common, followed by the QQ genotype, and lastly the QR genotype. The PON1 activity in relation to genotyping showed insignificant difference in genotype LL, MM, LM, QQ, QR, and RR. Higher PON1 activity was found in diabetic patients with nephropathy, genotype LL than LM, and MM. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, the PON1(55)LL genotype showed significant increase in PON1 activity than MM and LM genotype. In diabetic patients without nephropathy, PON1 (192) higher activity was found in QQ, followed by RR, and lastly QR genotypes. In diabetic patients with nephropathy significant higher activity of PON1 was found in genotypes RR as compared with QQ, and QR genotypes.

[Khodeir, S. A.; Abd E l Raouf, Y. M; Amer, A. EMAN; El Fadaly, N. H.and Abd El Latif, E. Aml. Paraoxonase Gene Polymorphism and Activity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Microvascular Complications. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):531-537]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.73

 

Key words: Paraoxonase, type 2 diabetes mellitus, microangiopathy

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Comparative analysis of brain executive functions in girls and boys and determination the relationship of executive functions with depression disorder

 

Shahabi ziba 1، Mehrinejad Abolghasem 2 ، Yazdi Monavare 3 ، Khosravi Zohreh 4 ، Ameri Farideh 5

 

1.Alzahra University، faculty of psychology ،Iran ، Tehran ، vanak Sq.

2. Alzahra University، faculty of psychology ،Iran ، Tehran ، vanak Sq.

3. Alzahra University، faculty of psychology ،Iran ، Tehran ، vanak Sq.

4. Alzahra University، faculty of psychology ،Iran ، Tehran ، vanak Sq.

5. Alzahra University، faculty of psychology ،Iran ، Tehran ، vanak Sq.

ziba.shahabi@yahoo.com, ab-mehrinejad@yahoo.com ، yazdimahin@yahoo.com, zohreh-khosravi@yahoo.com، ameri-farideh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of current study is comparative analyzing of executive functions in girls and boys and also determination the relationship of executive functions with depression disorder. Method: the sample includes 1200 students (600 girls, 600 boys) of elementary school who were selected through multi step cluster sampling from all of students of Tehran. Sample group of depression disorder includes 45 students (24 girls and 21 boys) who were selected through a questionnaire. Gathered Data were analyzed by behavioral ranking inventory of executive functions and the questionnaire of morbid symptoms of children through statistical descriptive and inferential methods. Results: in comparison of executive functions of girls and boys by behavioral ranking inventory of executive functions (Brief), girls were better than boys in all of functions except emotional control. The results of analysis of relationship between executive functions with depression disorder showed that there were a negative relationship between preventive functions, emotional control, directing in behavior regulating dimension, functions of starting and supervision in meta-cognitive dimension depression disorder. Discussion: It seems that brain executive functions are different in girls and boys because of shared activity of this region with cortical and sub cortical regions, anatomical substructures and dissimilar growth processes of the brain in girls and boys. Since we can trace some cognitive emotional disorders in depression, most of executive functions are associated with depression.

[Shahabi ziba, Mehrinejad Abolghasem, Yazdi Monavare, Khosravi Zohreh, Ameri Farideh. Comparative analysis of brain executive functions in girls and boys and determination the relationship of executive functions with depression disorder. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):538-543]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.74

 

Keywords: executive functions, depression disorder, gender

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Effect of Phytogenic Biosurfactant on the Microbial Community and on the Bioremediation of Highly Oil-Polluted Desert Soil

 

Ali Diab* and Maram Sandouka

 

Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Egypt. Alidiab.maramsan@live.com

 

Abstract: The effect of a phytogenic surfactant on the microbial community and on the biodegradation of crude oil in a highy polluted desert soil (8%) were investigated. The addition of this biosurfactant increased total heterotrophie bacteria (THB) to reach the range of 4.3 – 20.3 CFUx108g dried soil, with increased factor of 7.18 – 10.38. Oil-degraders were in the range of 2.48-30.2 CFUx107 in presence of the biosurfactant, this in a range of 27.2-143.8 increased factor Higher percentages of 5.7-17.6% of the oil degraders were recorded in presence of biosurfactant. In presence of biosurfactant the biodegradation rate of the oil increased to reach 23.8-30.0% after 90 days, this is in contrast to 3.8-10% in the absence of this biosurfactant. The maximum biodegradation of the saturates and the aromatic fraction were 92.8% and 41.8% respectively in presence of the biosurfactant. Based on these results it is advisable to use this cost-effective phytogenic surfactant for cleaning the highly oil-polluted sites especially in the absence of NP fertilizer.

[Ali Diab and Maram Sandouka. Effect of Phytogenic Biosurfactant on the Microbial Community and on the Bioremediation of Highly Oil-Polluted Desert Soil. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):544-550]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.75

 

Key Words: Phytogenic, surfactant, biodegradation, heavily polluted soil, microbials communit

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The Impact of Collaborative Work Climate on Knowledge Sharing Intention

 

Reyhane Mosalla Nejad[i], Mahdi Saber[ii]

 

1MA of Public Administration, Shiraz Payam-e-Noor University, Iran

2MA of Accounting, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

msmsc86@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The current study investigated the relationship between collaborative work climate and intention to share knowledge in Fars Regional Power Distribution Company (FRPDC), Iran. Using stratified random sampling method, a sample of 214 employees selected for further analysis. The analysis of the data showed that the relationship between the perception of collaborative work climate and intention to share knowledge is significant and positive. The results also indicated that there are significant relationships between dimensions of collaborative work climate (work group support, immediate supervisor support, business unit culture and employees attitude) and intention to share knowledge. The values of R square also indicated that workgroup support, business unit culture, immediate supervisor and employees’ attitudes have moderate, moderate to high, low and moderate impact on intention to share knowledge respectively.

[Reyhane Mosalla Nejad, Mahdi Saber. The Impact of collaborative work climate on knowledge sharing intention. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):551-553]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.76

 

Keywords: Collaborative work climate, Knowledge, Knowledge Sharing, Climate

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Spectral Information Adjustment Using Unsharp Masking and Bayesian Classifier for Automatic Building Extraction from Urban Satellite Imagery

 

Seyed Mostafa Mirhassani1, Bardia Yousefi1, Alireza Moghaddamjoo2

 

1Department of Electrical and Robotic Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, IRAN

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, IRAN

bardia.yousefi@ieee.org

 

Abstract: Building extraction in remote sensing images of urban areas is based on various classification techniques, demands development of various image processing and pattern recognition algorithms. Current techniques have poor performances in low local contrast conditions and require preprocessing methods for improving local contrast. In this novel approach, Unsharp Masking [USM] and Motion based Unsharp Masking [MUSM] methods are introduced to increase the local contrast in class images. In the proposed classification techniques, wherever spatial relationships drawn from buildings are imperative, the structural pattern recognition is properly utilized. In very high resolution remote sensing images where, the Bayesian classifier performs recognition of very small building and other cluttered areas, USM techniques are essential in amplifying the high frequency components of the original image which is used for building discrimination. The novelty of this paper is performing preprocessing technique which modifies frequency components of satellite image. In order to benchmark the algorithm, some of the Google Earth three bands (RGB) images were used. It is comprehend able from the results that the accuracy of small and large building classification using unsharp masking technique increases as compared with the methods without any preprocessing steps.

[Seyed Mostafa Mirhassani, Bardia Yousefi, Alireza Moghaddamjoo. Automatic Building Extraction from Urban Satellite Imagery Using Bayesian Classifier and Unsharp Masking as Spectral Information. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):554-564]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.77

 

Keywords: Building Extraction; Classification of Urban Areas; Motion Based Unsharp Masking [MUSM]; Unsharp Masking [USM]; Bayesian Classifier

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Predicting Garment Appearance Quality from Fundamental Measures of Fabric Tailorability

 

F.Fathy Saied Ebrahim¹’²

 

1Academy of Specific Studies, Worker University

2Home Economic Dept., Faculty of Science &Education, Taif University, Kingdom Saudi Arabia f_wutext@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The appearance of a garment is affected by the quality of the fabrics used in its manufacture, as well as a number of factors determined by the technology of the garment manufacturing process. Since fabric quality, as the most important element of garment appearance, is determined by its mechanical properties, it is obvious that these properties directly impact fabric processing properties. It can be seen through various forms of fabric behavior under the loads that occur in sewing. Investigations of the correlations of the stress and fabric behavior are aimed at constructing a method to predict fabric behavior in garment manufacturing processes, as well as to predict the appearance of the garment to be manufactured. The investigation presented here deals with the impact of fabric mechanical properties on the quality of garment appearance, as defined by seam puckering and work-piece flotation. A group of semi-skilled evaluators and experts in the field of garment engineering were evaluating appearance quality. This system of evaluation and comparison of the grades obtained are key factors in the development of the predicting models using the algorithms. It is founded on previous knowledge of correlations among the quality grade of a particular factor of garment appearance quality and the parameters of mechanical properties of the analyzed fabrics, incorporated into the garments. The workings of the method designed result in a prediction of garment appearance quality grade, presented separately for each individual factor of appearance quality defined.

[F. Fathy, Saied Ebrahim. Predicting Garment Appearance Quality from Fundamental Measures of Fabric Tailorability. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):565-569]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.78

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Reviewing the communicative variables between university students and the members of Scientific Board in Marv dash Azad University

 

 Reza Zarei1, Davood Kianoosh2, Seyed Vafa meshkat3

 

 1-Department of Educational management,Islamic Azad University Marvdasht branch Marvdasht, Iran.

 2- Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University Natanz branch, Natanz, Iran.

 3-Sama technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch,Shiraz, Iran.

Email: scientificgroup22@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The influential elements in relations between students and Professors and educational effecting have been studied. Through stratified sampling, 5100 students were selected from Marv Dasht Azad University and they were given a questionnaire as a data colleting with the survey method. The instrumentation is questionnaire which has been given to 5100 students as a sample. The sample has been chosen through stratified sampling. Variables in the case for improving relations between students and professors are: age, gender, nativity, marital status, family earning rate, social stance of the family, total average, parent's level of education and career, professor's openness, trust toward students, empathy toward students, positivism, professor's supportiveness, forbearance and scientific knowledge. After analyzing the data according to experimental or inferential method, it was proved that student's tendency toward professors' openness was at the average level, but their tendency toward professor's empathy was at a very high level. Whereas their tendency about professor's trust and supportiveness toward students was at medium level, they show a high level of tendency toward professor's forbearance and knowledge.

 [Reza Zarei, Davood Kianoosh, Seyed Vafa meshkat. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):570-576]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.79

 

Keywords: Educational effectiveness, human interaction, students, supportiveness, empathy, equality, possessiveness, Marv Dasht

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Research and technology, prerequisite for economic growth and improvement

(Iran Case Study)

 

Davood Kianoosh1, Reza Zarei2, Arvin Tavakoli3, Seyed Vafa meshkat4

 

1- Department of Accounting, Islamic Azad University Natanz branch, Natanz, Iran.

2- Department of Educational management, Islamic Azad University Marvdasht branch Marvdasht,Iran.

3- Department of Educational management, Islamic Azad University Marvdasht branch Marvdasht,Iran.

4-Sama technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch,Shiraz, Iran.

scientificgroup@hotamil.com

 

Abstract: Today, the role and position of research and technology in countries development and especially in less developed countries is evident to everybody. It can be said that, one of the main factors of development, self-sufficiency, independency and comprehensive security of each country relates to the rate of its technology and searching, in such a way that policy makers of 4th and 5th economic, social and cultural Development Plan, have stressed on an approach based on knowledge –based improvement. According to Iranian Documents of 20 years, Iran should reach to a higher position in searching and technology in the Middle East up to 2025. It is evident that this can be achieved just by investment and especial attention to research and technology in the future. So, with regarding to the fast change in the competitive and globalization world, in this article the comparison and statistical analysis of the influential factors on technologies of the 8 Asian selected countries to level of income (high - upper medium - under medium - low) were studied and also Turkey because of the neighborhood situation and similar development Index and France and America in 2008 were also noticed, and finally the empirical procedures for gaining the 1404 goals were presented.

[Davood Kianoosh, Reza Zarei, Arvin Tavakoli, Seyed Vafa meshkat. Research and technology, prerequisite for economic growth and improvement(Iran Case Study). J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):577-580]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.80

 

Keywords: Searching, Technology, Development, GERD, FTE

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Impairment of Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreatic Functions in Copper-Deficient Rats and the Amelioration Role of Aminoguanidine or/and N-Acetylcysteine

 

Mona, I.M. Shahin

 

Zoology Department, Women's College for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University

semsma.mona2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element that is found in a wide variety of tissues in the human and animal bodies. Copper is essential for several variety of biochemical processes in the body to operate normally, so it must be a part of the diet. Moreover, copper is involved in numerous enzyme systems that break down or build up body tissues. A deficiency of this element can cause a variety of disorders. This study was conducted on male albino rats to elucidate the harmful effects of copper deficiency on some biochemical variables of blood and liver tissues of rats which fed on a copper deficient diet. The same measurements were also measured in rats fed the same diet and supplemented with copper with or without AG or NAC separately or in combination for one month in order to assess their effectiveness for treatment the impacts of copper deficiency. The obtained results revealed that a significant decrease(p<0.05) in the body weight, the pancreatic weight, DNA and RNA levels with a considerable decrease in the activities of pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase and trypsin) associated with a remarkable decrease in insulin level in copper-deficient rats group compared with those fed a copper sufficient diet. On the other hand, induced copper deficiency caused a significant (p <0.05) elevation in the protein content and glucose and HbA1C levels. When copper deficient rats group treated with copper alone, copper with aminoguanidine (AG), copper with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or copper with a mixture of AG and NAC led to a considerable amelioration in all previous studied parameters dependent on certain mechanisms which were discussed according to available references. The highest effectiveness in correcting the copper-deficiency induced perturbations was noticed when mixture was supplemented concomitantly with copper.

[Mona, I.M. Shahin. Impairment of Endocrine and Exocrine Pancreatic Functions in Copper-Deficient Rats and the Amelioration Role of Aminoguanidine or/and N-Acetylcysteine. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):581-590]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.81

 

Key wards: Copper deficiency – Pancreas –Aminoguanidine – N-Acetylcystein

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Islam and Democracy

 

Jafar kabiri Sarmazdeh

 

Islamic Azad University-Mashhad Branch. Jafarkabiri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the past the link between Islam and Democracy was very much of questionable; because the main element in democracy was its anti tyrannical and popular nature. No government could gain people’s satisfaction unless they could respect their cultures, customs, and believes and try to gratify their religious needs along with other requirements. Today, some thinkers try to present the above mentioned elements, they instead try to emphasize on secularism as an important basis of democracy. They face the problem of the incompatibility between Islam and democracy; such thinkers usually come to the conclusion that a religious government cannot be democratic. This article tries to show that such a problem is quite non scientific and artificial, also secularism is not basic foundation of democracy nor is religion incompatible with democracy.

[Jafar kabiri Sarmazdeh. Islam and Democracy. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):591-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.82

 

Key words: Islam, Democracy, Secularism, compatibility, incompatibility

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Clinico-Pathological Patterns of Adrenal Masses among Patients with Adrenal Diseases

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal

 

Departments of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective, to determine the clinic-pathological patterns of adrenal masses among patients having adrenal diseases in our patients. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 30 patients having adrenal masses at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from October 2004 to April 2010. The patient`s medical records were reviewed for demographic details, clinical presentations, and histopathological diagnoses and management. Results: Thirty patients were presented with different adrenal lesions. Nine (30%) were Pheochromocytoma (5 males and 4 females) with mean age was 29.5 years (range 14-45 years), and mean tumor size was 6.18 cm. Seven (23.3%) were Incidentiloma (3 males and 4 females) with mean age was 48 years (range 31-65years), and mean tumor size was 9.5 cm. Five (16.7%) were Cushing`s disease (4 males and 1 females) with mean age was 33.5 years (range 23-44), and mean tumor size was 8.5 cm. five (16.7%) were Conn`s disease (2 male and 3 females) with mean age was 50.5 years (range 36-65), and mean tumor size was 4.1 cm. four (13.3%) were non-functioning adenoma with mean age was 43 years (range 17-69) and mean tumor size was 2.3 cm.Conclusion: Pheochromocytoma is the most common adrenal disease in patients with adrenal lesions in the studied area. It present in younger age group when compared with other adrenal diseases. Testing for pheochromocytoma is recommended for all patients with adrenal masses.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal. Clinico-Pathological Patterns of Adrenal Masses among Patients with Adrenal Diseases. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 596-599].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.83

 

Keywords: Adrenal mass, Pheochromocytoma, Incidentiloma, Adenoma, Conn’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome

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Comparative study of Quercetin or/and Urate Oxidase against Gentamicin -induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat kidneys

 

Marwan Abdel-Lattif Ibrahim1 and Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh 2

 

1Medical Laboratories Department, Faculty of Science, Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia Kingdom.

2Zoology Department, Women's Colleage, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

afafabas1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to show whether quercetin and urate oxidase would offer ameliorating effects against abnormal alterations in kidney function tests in gentamicin induced nephrotoxic rats. Two experiments were carried out, the first one showed that daily injection of 80 mg gentamicin /kg b. wt interaperitonealy (I.P) for two weeks induced acute renal failure indicated by significant elevation in serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, inorganic phosphorus and Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and a significant decline in serum sodium, total and ionized calcium associated with a remarkable decrease in the content of glutathione (GSH) and in the activities glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and catalase (CAT) and in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the kidney of nephrotoxic rats when compared with their corresponding values in saline injected rats (Normal animals group). In the second experiment, four comparisons were made between gentamicin induced nephrotoxic rats and other nephrotoxic groups received daily i.p. injection of quercetin (50mg/kg b.wt) and urate oxidase (10mg/kg b. wt) for 2 & 4 weeks after the incidence of nephrotoxicity. A remarkable correction was occurred in the levels of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, potassium, sodium, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and PTH in quercetin or urate oxidase treated groups exhibited significant reduction than nephrotoxic untreated rats dependent on the time of treatment (2 & 4 weeks). In the kidney tissues, a considerable amelioration effect was occurred in the content of the levels of GSH and in the activities Gpx and CAT and in the concentration of TBARS after the nephrotoxic rats treated with quercetin or urate oxidase. These corrections were dependent on the time of treatment (2 & 4 weeks). Thus, it may be concluded that quercetin or urate oxidase can be applicable as therapeutic agent with gentamicin therapy. The best beneficial effect was more prominent when nephrotoxic rats treated with both agents (quercetin or urate oxidase) at last interval (4 weeks). The obtained data were discussed according to available obtained researches.

[Marwan Abdel-Lattif Ibrahim and Afaf Abbass. Comparative study of Quercetin or/and Urate Oxidase against Gentamicin -induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat kidneys. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 600-607].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.84

 

Key words: Quercetin, urate oxidase, Oxidative Stress, Nephrotoxicity, Rats.

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Cytogenetic, histological and histochemical studies on the effect of gibberllin A3 in albino rats

 

*Samir A. Nassar, *Fawzya Ab.Zayed, ***Ahmed M. Hegab, **Mohamed N. Mossaad and ***Asmaa S. Harfoush

 

* Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

** Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt.

*** Harmful Animals Dept., Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt.

sanassar@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Gibberllic acid (GA3) is an endogenous plant growth regulator used worldwide (particularly in Egypt) in agriculture. The goal of this work was to screen the possible genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of GA3 in adult male albino rats. The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN) and sperm abnormalities were used as endpoints for genotoxicity. In addition, bone marrow activity has been investigated. Kidney histological and histochemical studies were performed to detect the cytotoxic effect of GA3. Image analysis was used to quantify the histochemical detection of protein as a bioindicator for GA3 toxicity in the renal tissue. A single daily close of 500 mg GA3 (⅓LD50)/kg body weight was orally administrated in male albino rats for 6 continuous days. An increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (structural & numerical), micronuclei production and sperm abnormalities was observed in most treatments with GA3 with a comparable increase in bone marrow activity. Also, administration of GA3 induced many histopathological alterations in the kidney such as glomerular vacuolization, shrinkage and degeneration, necrosis and atrophy in the epithelia of the renal tubules leading to increased intertubular spaces. Congested and damaged blood vessels leading to concomitant hemorrhage were also observed. Histochemical observations supported by image analysis revealed a significant decrease in the total protein content of the renal epithelia as compared to controls. Therefore, kidney histological and histochemical studies confirmed the cytogenetical parameters to conclude that the exposure of rats to GA3 has a genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. The increase in the genotoxic effect corresponds to a decrease in the mitotic activity of bone marrow cells.

 [Samir A. Nassar, Fawzya Ab.Zayed, Ahmed M. Hegab, Mohamed N. Mossaad and Asmaa S. Harfoush. Cytogenetic, histological and histochemical studies on the effect of gibberllin A3 on albino rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 608-622].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.85

 

Key words: Gibberllin A3, Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, Albino rats.

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A Comparative study between National Innovation System in Switzerland and Iran

 

Seyedreza Haghi1, Dr. Ahmad Sabahi 2, Mahshid Hejazi 3, Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti 4

 

1 Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Economy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of English Language, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

4 Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

srhaghi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this article, the innovation policy of one OECD country will be studied. This country has got a successful National Innovation system in Europe. This study focuses on the existing National Innovation System of Iran to analyze the conditions of Iran's NIS with paying attention to the classification based on Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development related to the national innovation system. Finally some policies for solving the problems of national innovation system of Iran will be recommended. In this research, a field research investigation through designed questionnaires, and a series of interviews with policymakers, officials, executives in the network of institutions in Iran have been implemented.

[Seyedreza Haghi, Ahmad Sabahi, Mahshid Hejazi, Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti. A Comparative study between National Innovation System in Switzerland and Iran. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):623-627].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.86

 

Keywords: Innovation policy, institutional mapping, SWOT Analysis, OECD Countries

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Role of Testosterone in Glucose Homeostasis in Immobilization Stressed Rats

 

Mona A. Ahmed

 

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

drmona_agha70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of testosterone in glycemic responses induced by immobilization stress. The study was conducted on male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups: control group, testosterone-treated control (unstressed) group, immobilization-stressed group and testosterone-treated immobilization-stressed group. Chronic immobilization stress caused significant decrease in plasma testosterone levels, significant increase in plasma glucose, glucose output by kidneys and significant decrease in glucose uptake by diaphragm. Plasma insulin was significantly decreased and G/I ratio significantly increased. This was associated with impaired β-cell function as indicated by low HOMA-β but absence of insulin resistance as shown by insignificant differences in HOMA-IR. Plasma MDA was significantly increased. Testosterone treatment in immobilization-stressed rats resulted in significant amelioration of β-cell dysfunction as shown by the high HOMA-β together with significant decrease in plasma glucose, glucose output and significant elevation in glucose uptake. Plasma insulin increased significantly and G/I ratio decreased significantly. Plasma MDA decreased significantly. Correlation studies showed that plasma testosterone levels were negatively correlated with plasma glucose levels (r=-0.536, P<0.005), glucose output by kidneys (r=-0.451, P<0.05) and plasma MDA levels (r=-0.383, P<0.05) and positively correlated with plasma insulin levels (r=0.524, P<0.05), glucose uptake by diaphragm (r=0.380, P<0.05) and HOMA-β (r=0.437, P<0.05). Histological examination of pancreas from immobilization-stressed rats revealed degeneration, edema, mononuclear cellular infiltration and cytoplasmic vacuolations. Also, significant increase in caspase-3 immunoreactivity, an apoptotic marker, was observed in pancreatic islets of Langerhans and acinar cells. Testosterone treatment prevented the pancreatic histological damage and attenuated cellular apoptosis. In conclusion, testosterone treatment prevented the development of a diabetes mellitus-like metabolic syndrome associated with immobilization stress. Also, testosterone treatment protected the pancreas against damage and β-cell dysfunction, enhanced insulin secretion and nullified oxidative insult induced by stress. Hence, testosterone could be potentially considered as an adjunct in the treatment of diabetic state in males exposed to stressful situations.

[Mona A. Ahmed. Role of Testosterone in Glucose Homeostasis in Immobilization Stressed Rats. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):628-638]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.87

 

Key Words: Stress, immobilization, testosterone, glucose, insulin and rats.

Abbreviations: G/I (glucose to insulin), MDA (malondialdehyde), HOMA (Homeostasis model assessment), IR (insulin resistance).

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Historical and Social psychology of Iranian people Social factors of Iranians' special temperament

 

Habib Ahmadi1, Ali Ruhani2, Somaye Hashemi3, Mohsen Zohri4, Leila Nikpoor Ghanavati5

 

1 - Professor of Sociology in Shiraz University, Department of Sociology, Shiraz University, Tell: +989171114184, Email: hahmadi@rose.shirazu.ac.ir

2 - PhD student in Sociology of social changes, Department of Sociology, Shiraz University, Tell: +989356404711, Email: aliruhani@gmail.com

3 - M.A student in Tourism Management, Department of Sociology, Tehran University

4 - PhD Student in Sociology of Iranian social problems, Department of Sociology, Shiraz University

5 - Department of Social sciences, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, IRAN Email: Nikpoor_l@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main concern of this study is a transition from the stage of questioning and theoretical analysis toward the domain of delineating the cultural dimensions as well as the socio-historical and psychological constitution in Iran, and in doing so it tries to analyze the cultural dimensions as well as psychological, socio-historical structures in Iran. Moreover it reinvestigates various relationships between the cultural system and political geography in socio-historical contexts and historically collective psychology of Iran. To this end, first, a theoretical approach is taken to have a critical analysis of scientists' opinions and arguments. Second, Iran's territorial strategy and politics theory, which are regarded as having a stronger explanatory power among the existing theories, was selected to investigate Iranian individual's social psychological structure. Finally, the study makes a brief review of Iranian individuals' socio-psychological characteristics which indicates that Iranian individuals' properties result from the dialectic from micro, mid, and macro levels of historical changes in Iran's territory.

[Habib Ahmadi, Ali Ruhani, Somaye Hashemi, Mohsen Zohri, Leila Nikpoor Ghanavati. Historical and Social psychology of Iranian people Social factors of Iranians' special temperament. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):639-647]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.88

 

Key words: Iranians' special temperament; historical sociological theories; Iranian individual's social psychology; Iran's territorial strategy and politics theory

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[Journal of American Science 2012; 8(1):648-654].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 89

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Sense of Community and Citizen Participation in Neighborhood Council in Iran

Zinab Barati1, Bahaman Abu Samah2, Nobaya Ahmad2

 

1. Institute for Social Science Studies, Putra University, Serdang Selangor 43400, Malaysia

2. Institute for Social Science Studies, Putra University, Serdang Selangor 43400, Malaysia

2. Department of Social and Development Sciences, Putra University, Serdang Selangor 43400, Malaysia

zeinabbrt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This paper was explored to understand the effects of sense of community on citizen participation in Neighborhood Councils of Tehran city, Iran. There is a variation in study results regarding citizen participation, therefore understanding the effective factors (e.g. sense of community) can help to make citizen participation efforts successful in neighborhood organization. The analysis of data uses SEM to determine the effects of sense of community on citizen Participation in neighborhood organization. The findings revealed that 66% variance in citizen participation explained by sense of community. The findings of the study imply that residents who have a sense of community with their neighbors are more likely to participate in neighborhood associations.

[Zinab Barati, Bahaman Abu Samah, Nobaya Ahmad. Sense of Community and Citizen Participation in Neighborhood Council in Iran. J Am Sci. 2012;655-661]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.90

 

Keywords: Citizen Participation, Sense of Community, Neighborhood Council

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Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism With Multidetector Row CT in Clinically Suspected Patients

 

Manal Hamisa and Raghda Ghonimy*

 

Radio-diagnosis and Medical imaging unit and Cardiology Tanta University

asmaa.Habsa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life threating disease. Objective testing for PE is crucial, because clinical assessment alone is unreliable and the consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The aim of this study is: To evaluate the role of multi-detector row helical CT in diagnosis of PE in clinical suspected patients. Subjects& Methods: 64 patients were clinically suspected of having acute PE. patients underwent: Full clinical study, ECG and echocardiography study. Duplex for lower limbs, Chest X- ray, ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy, CT pulmonary angiography and pulmonary angiography (for 3 patients). Results: The presence of PE was confirmed with concordance of positive results of CT pulmonary angiography and a high or moderate probability V/P scintigram this found in 31.2%patients. The absence of PE was confirmed with the concordance of negative results D-dimer test, negative CT pulmonary angiography, a normal or very low probability V/P scintigram that found in 53% patients. Discordant interpretation of V/P and CT pulmonary angiography made pulmonary angiogram necessary in 4.6 % patients. Pulmonary angiography was done in three cases as there is disconcordant interpretation of V/P and CT pulmonary angiogram. Conclusion: Thin collimation multidetector row CT is an excellent imaging technique in detection of PE.

[Manal Hamisa and Raghda Ghonimy. Diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism with multidetector row CT in clinically suspected patients. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 662-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.91

 

Key wards: Acute pulmonary embolism, Multidetector CT, pulmonary angiography.

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The Impact of Peak Flow Meter Training in Enhancing Self-Efficacy of Asthmatic Children

 

Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr1&2

 

1Department of pediatric nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA. Sahar.Khedr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asthma a common lung disease of childhood throughout the world. Children and parents education about asthma management including Peak Flow Meter enable them to cope adequately with disease and make asthma controllable. Self-efficacy is defined as the people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance. The best way to help children feel good about themselves is to provide them with opportunities to learn what their strengths are and to help them to cultivate the belief that they can rely on their strengths when facing a challenge. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of peak flow meter training in enhancing self-efficacy of asthmatic children. This study was conducted at In-patient Pediatric Chest Unit at Tanta University Hospital. Patients were followed up in the Outpatient Pediatric Chest Clinic of the same hospital. A convenient sample of 60 asthmatic children and their mothers, were admitted to the study. The results showed that, The mean age of children was 11.47 + 1.66 years. Slightly less than half of the children (48.33%) were aged from 12- >14 years,46.67 % of the samples were males and 53.33 % were females. The mean age of the mothers were 36.33 + 4.64 years. Thirty five percent of the mothers were secondary education, 20 % were university level and only 8.33 were illiterate. Slightly more than half of the children (55.0 %) had the onset of asthma since 6- >8 years. Mothers' knowledge regarding asthma and peak flow meter showed statistical significant differences pretest and two months post test. Equal percentage of 75 % of children were satisfactory, one month post test and, good two months post test. There were statistical significant differences. As regards to self efficacy, the majority of the sample (78%) were not at all, and 3.33% were moderately true pre test. Exactly true response was occurred in 6.67% of children one month post test and, in 35 % two months post test. There were statistical significant differences regarding self efficacy, pre test, one month, and two months post test. It can be concluded from this study that, Peak flow meter training enhance self efficacy of asthmatic children. The ability to manage health problems and practice proper technique raises children confidence in their own capabilities. It is recommended to foster a training program for teachers to enforce self-efficacy of asthmatic children.

 [Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr. The Impact of Peak Flow Meter Training in Enhancing Self-Efficacy of Asthmatic Children. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 671-682]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.92

 

Key words: Self-efficacy, Peak flow meter and Asthma

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Right Ventricular Apical versus Septal Pacing Impact on Left Ventricular Synchrony and Function

 

Ibraheem Attia, Abdo Azab; Khaled Hussein; Nashwa Abed and Hassan Khaled

 

Critical Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

khaledccu@hotmail.com, khldsalama@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Right ventricular (RV) pacing alters left ventricular (LV) mechanical activation, resulting in adverse impacts on LV function. Alternative RV septal pacing results in narrower QRS duration and may be more physiologic than RV apical pacing. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of RV apical (RVA) and septal pacing (RVS) on LV synchrony and function. Patients and methods: 40 patients clinically indicated for dual chamber pacing were included, subjected to conventional M-mode and 2-D echocardiography with following parameters looked for: left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), ejection fraction (EF%), fractional shortening (FS%), cardiac output (CO L/m) and tissue Doppler imaging to assess LV dyssynchrony baseline study on temporary RV apical pacing. Then patients were divided randomly into two groups: GroupI: 20 patients underwent permanent RV apical pacing. GroupII: 20 patients underwent permanent RV septal pacing. QRS duration, Electrical parameters including RV stimulation threshold, R wave, and ventricular lead impedance together with fluoroscopic time were measured in every patient. Both groups were followed up within one week and at least 6 months after implantation by echocardiography, and tissue Doppler imaging. Results: QRS duration was significantly narrower in pts with septal pacing compared to RV apical pacing (148.85+6.89 Vs 162.1+5.98, P < 0.001). Electrical parameters at implant were satisfactory for all patients and no patients required lead repositioning. There were no significant differences in the RV mean stimulation threshold, R-wave sensing, lead impedance and fluoroscopic time between the RV apical and RV septal lead positioning. Within one week following implantation there was no significant difference in LVEDD, LVESD, LVEF, CO and LV mechanical delay. On follow up, in RV septal paced patients compared to RV apical paced patients LVEDD(cm) was lower (4.73±0.59 Vs 4.94±0.61, P value= 0.27), LVESD(cm) was significantly lower (3.02±0.37 Vs 3.42±0.45, P value= 0.004), LVEF(%) was significantly higher (69±8Vs 62±7, P value= 0.006), CO (L/min) was significantly higher (4.88±0.29 Vs 4.5±0.62, P value= 0.019),LV lateral to septal delay was significantly lower (72±5 Vs 83±6, P value< 0.001). Conclusion: Long term RV septal pacing is feasible, reliable and efficient associated with less adverse effects on LV synchrony and function compared to long term RV apical pacing.

[Ibraheem Attia, Abdo Azab; Khaled Hussein; Nashwa Abed and Hassan Khaled. Right Ventricular Apical versus Septal Pacing Impact on Left Ventricular Synchrony and Function. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 683-690]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.93

 

Key words: RV septal pacing, RV apical pacing, LV dyssynchrony.

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A critical review of financial reporting standards in European companies- Differences and Similarities with GAAP in UK

 

1Abbas Sadeghi, 2Moosa Rahimi, 3Vahid Gholipoor


1,2Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch,Shiraz, Iran

3Islamic Azad University, Larestan Branch, Larestan, Fars, Iran

coactionjournal@gmail.com, abbasisadeghi@yahoo.com, shoja598@yahoo.com, vahid_gh81@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The adoption of international financial reporting standards across the European Union from 1st January 2005 is one of the biggest events in the accounting history. This is especially important after the capital markets were rocked by some big accounting frauds in recent years. In the first phase, 7000-plus listed European companies had to implement new financial reporting standards from January 2005. This paper discusses this reporting system, its capabilities, opportunities and challenges and the main differences between this system and United Kingdom GAAP (as an optimized system).

[Abbas Sadeghi, Moosa Rahimi, Vahid Gholipoor. A critical review of financial reporting standards in European companies- Differences and Similarities with GAAP in UK. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):691-700]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.94

 

Keywords: Reporting, Financial, Accounting, System, Europe, EU

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Patient with Huge Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

(Case Report and Review of Literature)

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal1, Salim Bazara2, Hanaa M.Tashkandi 1 and Osama A. Samargandi1

 

Departments of 1Surgery and 2Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign hepatic tumor usually affecting reproductive age of females and also has association with oral contraceptive. A few cases have been reported of co-existent FNH and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the liver in the literature. We are dealing with a case of a 72-year-old, male patient, diagnosed HCC shortly after resection of a huge focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal, Salim Bazara, Hanaa M. Tashkandi, Osama A. Samargandi. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with huge focal nodular hyperplasia (Case report and review of literature). J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):701 -704]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.95

 

Keywords: Hepatic tumor; liver mass; hepatocellular carcinoma; focal nodular hyperplasia.

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Impact of Proposed Nursing Rehabilitation Program on Self management of Selected Side Effects of Chemotherapy for Elderly Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer

 

Heba Ahmed Mohammed1*; Khairia Abo Baker Elsawi1; Magdi Mohammed Saber2 and Manal Mohammed Mostafa1

 

1Medical- Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Medical oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

heba200897@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Elderly cancer patients that are receiving chemotherapy may face many challenges as co morbidity, polypharmacy and chemotherapy toxicity that may affect their nutritional and functional status; so nursing rehabilitation program is crucial to overcome these complications and improve quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of proposed nursing rehabilitation program on self management of selected side effects of chemotherapy for elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer. To fulfill the aim of this study the following research hypotheses were tested: H1: The study group will have a decreased intensity of chemotherapy adverse effects as compared to control group. H2: The post test mean knowledge scores of the study group will be higher than that of a control group. H3: The post test mean self management scores of the study group will be higher than that of a control group. Quasi-experimental design was utilized in this study. A convenience sample of 60 elderly male and female patients. Patients were randomly divided into two equal and matched groups (study and control). Four tools were utilized for data collections; 1) Socio- demographic and medical profile data tool, 2) Chemotherapy induced toxicities tool, 3) Oral care assessment tool, 4) Pre- post knowledge assessment and self management tool. The study results revealed the followings: there was statistical significant difference between study and control group in relation to incidence of chemotherapy“s adverse effects as nausea and vomiting, mucositis and diarrhea after the last chemotherapeutic cycles. Post test mean knowledge scores related to chemotherapy, functions, adverse effects, elimination, mucositis, oral care and balanced diet and post test mean self management scores related to elimination, mucositis, nausea and vomiting, oral care practice were higher in the study group than control group. In conclusion nursing rehabilitation program seemed to have a positive impact on gastrointestinal elderly patient's outcomes.

[Heba Ahmed Mohammed; Khairia Abo Baker Elsawi; Magdi Mohammed Saber and Manal Mohammed Mostafa. Impact of Proposed Nursing Rehabilitation Program on Self management of Selected Side Effects of Chemotherapy for Elderly Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1): 705-714].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.96

 

Key words: gastrointestinal elderly patients, chemotherapy toxicity, nursing rehabilitation program, self management and patient's outcomes.

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Assessment the Role of L-Carnitine in Improving Hepatic Encephalopathy Using MR Spectroscopy

 

Hanan H. Soliman1, Dina H. Ziada1, Mohamed Hefeda2, Manal Hamisa2 and Samy A. Khodeir3

 

Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases1, Radiology2, Internal Medicine3, Departments, Faculty of Medicine Tanta University-Egypt

dhz646@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background and aim: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is related to abnormal cerebral metabolites. MR Spectroscopy (MRS) can demonstrate neurometabolites changes associated with therapy. The aim was to evaluate the influence of L-carnitine on mental Conditions, serum ammonia and neurometabolites on patients with HE using MRS. Patients and methods: Ten control subjects and 54 patients with grades II to III HE, were randomized into (GI) receiving lactulose 30ml/t.d.s as standard therapy and(GII) receiving L-Carnitine1000mg/twice in addition. Clinical assessment, fasting Ammonia level, and nuerometabolites using proton MRS were calculated and compared at base line and after one week. RESULTS: After one week, 25% of HE patients were reversed in group I versus 42.3% in group II. fasting ammonia levels were significantly decreased in both groups compared to pretreatment levels and significantly lower in L-carnitine group compared to lactulose group(P=0.041). neurometabolites mI/Cre, Cho/Cre, Gx/Cre, and (Cho+mI)/Gx ratios were significantly improved in both groups compared to pre treatment levels, but L Carnitine added group(II), showed a significant increase in mI/Cre, and (Cho+mI)/Glx ratios and decrease in Glx/Cre ratio in comparison to lactulose group(p=0.002-p=0.003-p=0.002 respectively). CONCLUSION: Adding L Carnitine to (lactulose) therapy for treatment HE hastened the clinical improvement and was associated with significant improvement in serum ammonia and neurometabolites specially mI/Cre, and (Cho+ mI)/Glx and Glx/Cre ratios.

[Hanan H. Soliman, Dina H. Ziada, Mohamed Hefeda, Manal Hamisa and Samy A. Khodeir. Assessment the Role of L-Carnitine in Improving Hepatic Encephalopathy Using MR Spectroscopy]J ournal of American Science 2012; 8(1): 715-721].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.97

 

 Key words: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), L-Carnitine, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), neurometabolite.

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Detection of Genotoxicity of Phenolic Antioxidants, Butylated hydroxyanisole andtert-Butylhydroquinonein Multiple Mouse Organs by the Alkaline Comet Assay

 

Ramadan, A.M. Ali1, 2 and Takayoshi Suzuki3

 

1Zoology Dept., College for Girls for Science, Arts and Education, Ain-Shams Univ., Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt.

2Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, 3Division of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan.

ramadanali27@gmail.com

 

Abstract:In this study we tested the genotoxicity of two widely used phenolic antioxidants, butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) andtert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ) in multiple mouse organs using the alkaline comet assay. Tissue samples from four organs (stomach, liver, kidney and bone marrow) were collected from male mice at 3 and 24 h post treatment with BHA (800 mg/kg) or t-BHQ (400 mg/kg) and examined for genotoxicity. The two compounds induced significant increase in DNA migration in a time dependant manner in specific organs. Extensive DNA damage was observed in stomach cells at 24 h post treatment in treatment groups. In addition to stomach, t-BHQ treatment induced significant increase in DNA migration in liver and kidney cells. Although increased DNA damage was found in kidney cells of treatment groups at 3 h time point, at later time point it was persistent only in mice treated with t-BHQ and in other treatment group (BHA) it appeared to be recovered with time. Evidently, bone marrow cells did not show genotoxicity in response to treatment with t-BHQ and BHA.Considering these findings, although t-BHQ and BHA are generally considered non-genotoxic, the DNA damage observed in this experiment may be related to their indirect action on DNA via ROS mechanism. Since toxicity of these compounds are often ascribed to their metabolic products such as quinonethioethers and hence differences in the metabolism of these compounds may play an important role in determining the target organ of toxicity. The present work draws our attention to revising the genotoxicity of the widely used antioxidants and accepted as safe artificial antioxidants.

[Ramadan, A.M. Aliand Takayoshi Suzuki. Detection of Genotoxicity of Phenolic Antioxidants, Butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinonein Multiple Mouse Organs by the Alkaline Comet Assay. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):722-727 ] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.98

Key wards: BHA; t-BHQ; comet assay; mice; bone marrow; liver; kidney; stomach; ENU.

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Psychological Studies for Women and Men with Sexual Dysfunction

 

Peimaneh Nemati 1*, Soori H. 2, Seyedreza Haghi3,

Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Tafti 4

 

1. Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University,Mashhad, Iran

2. Department of Epidemiology Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Research Center-Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3-Department of Management, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University,Mashhad, Iran

4- Department of Psychology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

 p.nemati99@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The prevalence of female and male sexual dysfunction is high and it may significantly affect self-esteem and quality of life. Even sexual dysfunction of short duration can create frustration and anguish. When chronic, it may lead to anxiety and depression, harm relationships, and cause problems in other aspects of life. The goal of the present research is to study the effect of cognitive-behavioral counseling on the level of anxiety in women and men with sexual dysfunction. In this research, Cognitive behavior therapy during 8 individual weekly sessions and 4 group therapy weekly sessions used for subjects group and it focused on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques. Spilburger’s Anxiety questionnaire was used as the pre-test and post- test for subject group. Finally data analysis will be shown that the cognitive behavior therapy has significantly effect on reduction of anxiety. The mean scores of anxiety in post-test of subject group were significantly lower than mean scores in pre-test. Cognitive counseling as a therapeutic method can have a significant role in improvement of women and men suffering from anxiety which is resulted from sexual dysfunction.

[Peimaneh Nemati, Soori H., Seyedreza Haghi, Fahimeh Fallahzadeh Taft. Psychological Studies for Women and Men with Sexual Dysfunction. J Am Sci. 2012;8(1):728-733] (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.99

 

Keywords: Sexual Dysfunction, Anxiety, Cognitive Behavior Counseling

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Prevalence of Gall Stones in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

 

Eljaky, M. A.1, M S. Hashem1, Osama El-Bahr1, Hossam Abd El-Latif1, Hassan El-Shennawy1 and Samira Abo El-Kher2

 

Hepatology Dept.1 and Community Medicine Dept.2, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Egypt. ashrafeljaky@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis are risk factors for inflammation of gall bladder. Aim of the work: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD) in Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease. The secondary aim was to study the risk factors and the association of GSD with the severity and underlying aetiology of liver disease. The prevalence of gallstones in Egypt with high rate of hepatic infection especially HCV was studied. Methods: 1260 patients included in this study with liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis based on histological diagnosis or compatible clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. All patients underwent ultrasound abdominal scanning. The presence of gallstones, its number and size were noted. Results: There was highly significant difference regarding the presence of gallstones in chornic HCV group (5%), in chronic HBV group (1%), in HCV-induced cirrhosis group (33.7%) and in HBV-induced cirrhosis group (15.7%). Conclusion: Our study suggests that chronic HCV infection is an important risk factor for the development of GSD in Egyptian patients with chronic liver disease.

[Eljaky, M. A., M S. Hashem, Osama El-Bahr, Hossam Abd El-Latif, Hassan El-Shennawy and Samira Abo El-Kher. Prevalence of Gall Stones in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Liver Disease. J Am Sci. 2012; 8(1):734-737]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.100

 

Keywords: Chronic liver disease, Gallstones, HCV, HBV

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Mothers’ Satisfaction with the quality of Maternal and Child Services (out patient Pediatric unit) in Assiut and Beni-Suef Governorates

 

Mervat A. Elkader Ahmed Mohamed

 

Community Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Beni-Suif University

M_Rahma2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, quality of life is one of the important aspects in promotion, prevention, and referral of at risk infancy is the major component of MCH services. Primary health-care centers provide outpatient health care and primary preventive activities for people in general and for mothers and children in particular. Medical care aims not only to improve health status, but also to respond to patients’ needs and wishes and to ensure their satisfaction with care. The patient-clinician relationship is a central feature of primary care. Health services and health education are the basic services provide to babies and mothers to achieve many objectives for example; protect our children, prevent any complication during life and maintain normal growth and development. Primary health care have many elements which facilities are established to provide communities with basic diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitate health services and medical outcomes, and are greatly influenced by client satisfaction with health care services. Client satisfaction has become a specific organizational goal and is used as an indicator of provider performance. This study aimed to assess mother' satisfactions regarding services in pediatric outpatient clinic and recommended how improve its quality. Subject and Methodology: the studied clients were 240 mothers, 126 mothers of them were from MCH centers at Assiut governorate (Kolta and El-Walidia) and 114 mothers from MCH centers at Beni-Seuf governorate (El Reiadi and El-Shorafa). The total sample were selected randomly which they attendant to these centers (Mothers attendant for seeking medical care or follow up of vaccinations for their children). Descriptive cross sectional research design was used in this study. This study is divided to two tools; was consists of demographic data of services health providers' team in the four studied centers, and observation checklist: of the place and persons that give services to the child. A cross sectional study was conducted during six months from January to June 2010. Was used in collecting data for this study, a descriptive study has been chosen, and the Maternal and Child Health Units selected randomly. The Results revealed that. The most of health care providers spent many years working in this facility (OPD). The majority of the clients were satisfying from follow up service, regarding geographic accessibility; most of interviewed clients in the studied were about the time reach to the center, the major number from them needs less than 15 minute (47% in Kolta, 49% in El Reiadi, 38% in El-Walidia and 41% in El-Shorafa). And they were satisfying from the waiting time tell see the doctors, it was short time for most of the interviewed clients as follow (82. 4%, 82. 8%, 93.8% & 75.5%) in Kolta, El Reiadi, El-Walidia and El-Shorafa). And there is no satisfaction significant difference between the MCH and RHCs as P.value = >0.05. And all of them satisfying from "doctors and nurses listen in good way" as follow (91%, 61.5%, and 86 % and 94%) in (Kolta, El Reiadi, El-Walidia, and El-Shorafa). It’s concluded OPD services in MCH have high quality and large number of the clients receive the services are more satisfactory, this is probably due to increase the health awareness and educational status among clients in urban areas. Still low/ lack of training courses of the health care providers. Increase the price of the service after renovation of this centers, lack of health education, especially in rural area. Until now the worker personnel lost motivating development factors. Recommendation; Health education sessions should be planned for increase awareness of the mothers about ideal baby care methods, available a new trends /follow up training program for health care providers and should be suitable to the duty, supervision system should be adequately developed.

[Mervat A. Elkader Ahmed Mohamed. Mothers’ Satisfaction with the quality of Maternal and Child Services (out patient Pediatric unit) in Assiut and Beni-Suef Governorates. J Am Sci 2012; 8(1):738-747]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.101

 

Key Words: Assess, mother, satisfactions, pediatric, outpatient clinic, services, improve, quality

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Patient Safety: Assessing Nurses' Compliance

 

1Rabab M. Hassan and 2Soheir T. Ahmed

 

1Nursing Administration Department, 2Medical-Surgical Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Soheir2010@windowslive.com; drabab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Patient safety is a major challenge for quality improvement and enhancing provider’s performance. Protecting patients and staff members from harm is fundamental responsibility of all hospitals, which must devote their attention to manage the safety of patients. Sometimes unintentional harm comes to patient during a clinical procedure, this harm can lead to death. Aim: The study aims to assess nurses' compliance to patient safety parameters at intensive care unit and examine socioeconomic factors affecting it. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted at ICU in the Ain-shams University hospital using a descriptive design. 30 nurses were included in the study. Tools of the study included 1) Interview questionnaire sheet to collect the study subjects characteristics data. 2) An observational checklists that developed based upon review of International Patient Safety Goals accredited by Joint commission International Standards for Hospitals (2008). Results: The mean score of nurses' compliance to parameter related to reducing the risk of health care associated infection has the highest score, while safety of high alert medication has the lowest score. There was statistically significant relation between nurses' compliance to most parameters of patient safety and their age, qualification, years of experience and attending training courses. Conclusion: nurse's compliance highest score in reducing the risk of healthcare associated infection, the second highest mean scores was improve effective communication parameter and the parameter of correct patient identification was third high mean score. While, the parameter of reducing the risk of patient harm from falls had low mean score, and the lowest score in improving the safety of high alert medication. In addition, there are clear discrepancy in relation between total means scores of nurses' compliance toward patients' safety parameters and their socio-demographic characteristics. Recommendation: development programs for nurses working in ICU related to patient safety parameters improve and support a blame-free and forgiveness environment enhance patient safety culture. Further studies are needed for testing the influence of safe work environment on nurses' performance and productivity.

[Rabab M. Hassan and Soheir T. Ahmed Patient Safety: Assessing Nurses' Compliance. J Am Sci 2012;8(1):748-755]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.102

 

Keywords: Patient safety, Nurses' compliance.

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The Effect of Educational Program on Caregivers (Knowledge and Practicing) Toward Their Autistic Children

 

1Howyida S. Abd El Hameed, 1Eman N. Ramadan, 2Inas H. Elshair and 3Hanan E. Abd El Aziz

 

1Community Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing Benha University

2Community Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing Cairo University

3Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Faculty of Nursing Cairo University

elmokhtar.mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Autism is a developmental disorder that causes severe impairment in the areas of language development, communication, and social interaction, the diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in early childhood has increased drastically in recent years. Aim: Evaluate effect of educational program on caregivers (knowledge and practices) toward caring of their autistic children. Subject and methods: A quasi-experimental research design was used,The presents study included 100 caregivers and their 100 autistic children aged between 4-12 years, they were recruited from two different settings El – Abasia mental health hospital and social & preventive centre,Cairo University Tools of study, socio-demographic data sheet for caregivers and their children. an interviewing questionnaire to assess the caregivers knowledge and an observational checklist for assessing the caregivers practices for their autistic children as basic self – care, fin and gross motor skills social and emotional skills speech and language skills. By Grejory,(2007) Results: Caregivers in the present study demonstrated a significant improvement in knowledge and practices that reflect on their children's skills in motor, emotional and language skills, before and after program implementation as regard (35.5±12.1), (46.1 ± 15.0) for knowledge and (30.6+ 16.3), (39.3 ± 11.4) for skills Conclusions. The study concluded that, educational program was effective for caregivers to improve their knowledge and practice regarding their autistic children Recommendation: Continuous educational program is needed specially for illiteracy caregivers to raise their awareness toward their autistic children regarding knowledge and practice through home visits, mass media should play a significant role to disseminate the needed information about caring for autistic children., nurses should receive adequate training programs, in autistic children care (physically, emotionally and socially). In order to provide comprehensive care for those children and their families.

[Howyida S. Abd El Hameed, Eman N. Ramadan, Inas H. Elshair and Hanan E. Abd El Aziz. The Effect of Educational Program on Caregivers (Knowledge and Practicing) Toward Their Autistic Children. J Am Sci 2012;8(1):756-764]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.103

 

Keywords: Educational program Autistic Children, Caregivers Knowledge and practice

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Incidence and Risk Factors of HCV Recurrence after Living Donor Liver Transplantation 

 

Mohsen M. Maher1, Mahmoud S. El-Meteini2, Mohamed F. Abd Al-Ghaffar2, Tark M. Yousef, Maha M. Hussein1, Ahmed I. El-Shafie1, 1

 

¹Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology- Ain Shams University. ²Department of Liver Surgery- Ain Shams University, Egypt

Tarekyosef31@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common indication for liver transplantation worldwide. Recurrence of HCV post transplantation is one of the major challenges which is associated with poor graft and patient survival. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of clinical HCV recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) and identify possible factors affecting it. The study was conducted on 122 recipients of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to HCV related liver cirrhosis. Clinical HCV recurrence was diagnosed by elevated liver enzymes, increased viral load and confirmed by histopathology of liver biopsy. Several factors related to recipients, donors, operative and postoperative period were analyzed for their relation to recurrent HCV. Our results showed that the clinical HCV recurrence was diagnosed in 22.7 % (28 patients) of LDLT recipients with 75% of them (21 patients) diagnosed in the first year post transplantation. Less graft recipient weight ratio (GRWR) and rejection episodes following surgery were the only factors significantly related to the development of recurrent disease.

 [Mohsen M. Maher, Mahmoud S. El-Meteini, Mohamed F. Abd Al-Ghaffar, Tark M. Yousef, Maha M. Hussein, Ahmed I. El-Shafie. Incidence and Risk Factors of HCV Recurrence after Living Donor Liver Transplantation. J Am Sci 2012;8(1):765-772]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.104

 

Key Words: Recurrent HCV, Incidence, Risk factors, Egypt

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105

Spinal aneurismal Bone Cyst, surgical Treatment and follow up (A Study of 8 Cases)

 

Hazem Abul-Nasr1, Magdy Samra1, Basem Ayoub2 and Mohamed Heshame Ghoname3

 

Neurosurgery1 and Orthopedic2 Departments; Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Radiology Departement3, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University

mh.ghoname@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Eight cases of primary spinal aneurysmal bone cyst were analyzed with regard to sex, age, site, clinical pictures and radiographic findings. Surgery in the form of radical curettage was performed for all lesions without need for fixation. Patients with neurological deficits improved after surgery with no mortalities. No recurrence was detected along 1-2 years follow up period, and radiological healing and ossification was found in 75% of cases.

[Hazem Abul-Nasr, Magdy Samra, Basem Ayoub and Mohamed Heshame Ghoname. Spinal aneurismal Bone Cyst, surgical Treatment and follow up (A Study of 8 Cases). J Am Sci 2012;8(1):773-779]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.105

Keywords: spinal aneurismal; bone cyst; sex; age; site; clinical picture

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106

Spinal aneurysmal Bone Cyst, surgical Treatment and Imaging (A Study of 8 Cases)

 

Hazem Abul-Nasr1, Magdy Samra1, Basem Ayoub2 and Mohamed Heshame Ghoname3

 

Neurosurgery1 and Orthopedic2 Departments; Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Radiology Departement3, Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University

mh.ghoname@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Patient with primary spinal aneurismal bone cyst was selected as regard to clinical presentation and radiographic findings. Surgical treatment with spinal radical bone curettage was performed for all patients without fixation. Neurological deficits marked improved after surgery in all paient. No radiological recurrence was detected along two years follow up period. Healing and ossification was found in 75% of cases.

[Hazem Abul-Nasr, Magdy Samra, Basem Ayoub and Mohamed Heshame Ghoname. Spinal aneurismal Bone Cyst, surgical Treatment and Imaging (A Study of 8 Cases). J Am Sci 2012;8(1):780-786]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas080112.106

 Key words: Bone cyst. Surgical treatment

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The manuscripts in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review, starting from September 27, 2011. 
 
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