Loading

 

Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003, Monthly

Volume 7, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 46, December 25, 2011

Cover Page (online), Cover Page (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0712

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

For Microsoft Documents: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc or .docx

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

The effects of limewater on flexural strength of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended limestone aggregate-based concrete

 

Farzad Soleymani

 

Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of limewater on flexural strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved flexural strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

[Farzad Soleymani. The effects of limewater on flexural strength of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended limestone aggregate-based concrete. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.01

 

Key words: TiO2 nanoparticle; flexural strength; concrete

Full Text

1

2

Effect of resin composite composition, shade and curing system on fracture toughness

 

Dalia M. A. Mohamed1, Dalia Y. E2., Gihan A. H. Abdel Rahman1, Tamer M. H. Mahmoud2

 

1Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

2Restorative and Dental Materials Research Department, National Research Centre, Cairo- Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: Evaluation of the effect of resin composite composition, shade and curing system on fracture toughness. Methods: A total of 40 nanohybrid resin composite specimens; 20 of each resin composite type; 10 of each shade, were prepared. One of the two nanohybrid resin composites was ormocer-based resin composite (Ceram X) and the other one was di-functional methacrylates-based resin composite (Artiste). Light and dark shades (A1 and A3.5) of each material were chosen. Half of these specimens (20 specimens) were activated by halogen light curing unit and the other half was activated by light emitting diode (LED) light curing unit. The fracture toughness values were determined by the universal testing machine using the Single Edge Notched Beam (SENB) specimens. Results: The three-way (ANOVA) test revealed that the ormocer-based resin composite (Ceram X) showed significantly higher fracture toughness values (2.61±0.2 MPa.m1/2) than the di-functional methacrylates-based resin composite (Artiste) (2.36 ±0.3 MPa.m1/2). Furthermore, the lighter shade (A1) showed significantly higher fracture toughness values (2.59 ±0.3 MPa.m1/2) than the darker shade (A3.5) (2.38 ±0.3 MPa.m1/2) for both resin composite types. However, there was no significant difference between the fracture toughness values of both types of resin composites when cured with either LED or halogen light curing system. Significance: Ormocer-based nanohybrid resin composite restorative material is a strong treatment option for stress bearing areas. Moreover, lighter shade of resin composites demonstrates better fracture toughness than its darker one of the same brand; this should be considered during curing.

[Dalia M. A. Mohamed, Dalia Y. E., Gihan A. H. Abdel Rahman, Tamer M. H. Mahmoud. Effect of resin composite composition, shade and curing system on fracture toughness. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):5-10]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.02

 

Keywords: Resin composite; Nanohybrid; Difunctional methacrylates; Ormocer; Fracture toughness; LED; Halogen; Light curing unit

Full Text

2

3

Effect of folic acid administration on In vivo motor nerves regeneration.

 

Atef Abd El Hameed Fouda.

 

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. E-mail: atef_fouda@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Peripheral nerves injury may occur due to trauma or surgical procedures. It can result in loss of muscle function, impaired sensation and/or painful neuropathies. Successful nerve regeneration requires the concerted interplay of non neuronal cells, growth factors and regenerating axons. Foliates are vitamins essential to the development of the central nervous system. Furthermore, it was shown that parenteral folic acid produces up to 10-fold dose-dependent improvement in axon re-growth and functional recovery after injury to the adult CNS. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of folic acid administration on the regeneration of motor nerves after its severance with 15 mm gap between nerve endings. Rabbits were evaluated by clinical examination, nerve conduction velocity, and electron microscopic examination of the regenerate. Results showed that folic acid administration improves neural regeneration and help in its rapid maturation.

[Atef Abd El Hameed Fouda. Effect of folic acid administration on In vivo motor nerves regeneration. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):11-19]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.03

 

Keywords: Folic acid, entubation nerve repair-Gore-Tex-experimental, nerve regeneration

Full Text

3

4

Prevalence of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in Animals and Chickens in Quena Governorate, with Special Reference to RAPD-PCR Patterns of the Isolates

 

1Shimaa Abou-Elmagd, 2Hosam Kotb, 3Khalid Sabry and 4Mohamed Refai

 

1Directorate of Veterinary Medicine, Qena, Egypt

2Department of Reproductive Diseases, Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

3Department of Plant Microbiology, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

randaarousi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to isolate the different yeast types, particularly Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, that can infect different animal species and chickens in Qena Governorate (Upper Egypt). For this study, samples were collected from animals and chickens. The mycological examination of (4527) samples of faecal samples, rectal swabs, nasal swabs, vaginal swabs, ear swabs, milk samples, conjunctival swabs, blood samples taken from buffaloes, cattle and sheep and chicken samples yielded (535) positive samples for different yeast strains in a percentage of (11.81%). The percentage of positive yeast samples of chicken (24.86%) was higher than that of animals (6.65%). It is evident that, out of the total samples examined in the present study Candida species were obtained in a highest percentage of (6.44%), followed by Cr. neoformans (2.54%). The percentage of samples positive for Candida albicans was higher in chicken (12.15%) than that obtained from animals (3.2%). Also the number of samples positive for Cr. neoformans was obtained in a higher percentage in chicken (6.31%) than that of animals (1.04%). The use of RAPD-PCR for C. albicans strains isolated from different sources using OPA-18 primer indicated the presence of 2 constant bands in all stains tested. The primer OPE-18 indicated the polymorphism in the banding pattern of all stains tested. The results of RAPD-PCR on C. neoformans isolates using R2 primer indicated 100% similarity of banding patterns of buffalo, chicken and sheep isolates.

[Shimaa Abou-Elmagd, Hosam Kotb, Khalid Sabry and Mohamed Refai. Prevalence of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in Animals and Chickens in Quena Governorate, with Special Reference to RAPD-PCR Patterns of the Isolates. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):20-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.04

 

Key words: C. albicans, C. neoformans, Animals, Chickens, RAPD-PCR

Full Text

4

5

Modelling of Economical Design of Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger Using Specified Pressure Drop

 

M. M. El-Fawal*1, A. A. Fahmy2 and B. M. Taher3

 
1National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt

2Reactor Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo, Egypt

3Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*mohamed_elfawal@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Shell and Tube-type heat exchanger have wide application in nuclear industry where they play an important role in the transfer of heat from core to the heat sink, their cost minimization is an important target for both designers and users. In this paper a computer program for economical design of shell and tube heat exchanger using specified pressure drop is established to minimize the cost of the equipment including the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping. The design procedure depends on using the acceptable pressure drops in order to minimize the thermal surface area for a certain service, involving discrete decision variables. Also the proposed method takes into account several geometric and operational constraints typically recommended by design codes, and may provide global optimum solutions as opposed to local optimum solutions that are typically obtained with many other optimization methods. While fulfilling heat transfer requirements, it has anticipated to estimate the minimum heat transfer area and resultant minimum cost for a heat exchanger for given pressure drops. The capability of the proposed model was verified through two design examples. The obtained results illustrate the capacity of the proposed approach through using of a given pressure drops to direct the optimization towards more effective designs, considering important limitations usually ignored in the literatures.

[M. M. El-Fawal, A. A. Fahmy and B. M. Taher. Modelling of Economical Design of Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger Using Specified Pressure Drop. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):32-40]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.05

 

Keywords: Heat exchanger; Shell-and-tube; Economical design; Single phase flow

Full Text

5

6

A Study of Seam Performance of Micro-Polyester Woven Fabrics

 

Thanaa Mustafa AL Sarhan

 

Faculty of Art & Design, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

 

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the seam performance of micro-polyester woven fabrics. In this study plain micro-polyester fabrics were woven with three different weft densities. Three different seam types were used during the sewing of the fabrics, each with three stitch densities. Therefore, 27 samples having different specifications were obtained. Seam strength, seam elongation, sewing needle penetration force and seam efficiency were determined for these fabrics for seam performance. The purpose of this study was to identify the suitable sewing conditions in order to achieve good seam performance.

[Thanaa Mustafa AL Sarhan. A Study of Seam Performance of Micro-Polyester Woven Fabrics. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):41-46]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.06

 

Keywords: Fabric sewability, Seam efficiency, seam strength, seam elongation, penetration force, micro fiber, micro polyester fabric.

Full Text

6

7

Septic Cardiomyopathy: Role of Echocardiography and Brain Natriuretic Peptide

 

Hassan Abu-Khabar 1, Mohammed Moustafa Abdel Salam Megahed 1and Ashraf Essam Roshdy 1

 

1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt.

ashrafroshdy76@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Myocardial dysfunction occurs in about 40% of patients presenting with sepsis and septic shock. The most important hypothesis to explain it is based on a circulating myocardial depressant substance. Hypothesis: To evaluate the possibility of early diagnosis of myocardial dysfunction in patients in sepsis or septic shock using the transthoracic echocardiography or the brain Natriuretic peptide (BNP). Methods: 46 patients presented with severe sepsis or septic shock according to the criteria of the 2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS sepsis definition were included in the study. The patients undergone serial transthoracic Echocardiographic examinations, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score) and BNP measurements on admission to the ICU and till death or discharge. The patients were retrospectively divided into survivors and non survivors for statistical analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Echocardiographic data and the BNP in correlation to the SOFA score and the prognosis. Results: The mortality of patients with systolic left ventricular failure (LVEF < 55%) was 82.4%, in contrast to 51.7% in patients with normal systolic function. (p=0.037) Patients who had diastolic dysfunction on admission represented 39.1%. In the non survivors group 44.8% of them had diastolic dysfunction in comparison to 29.4% in the survivor group. The BNP in the survivor group ranged from 345.01±222.10 pg/ml on admission and increased till it reached a mean of 406.2±295.39 pg/ml at day 3 before decreasing to 163.69±134.39 pg/ml at discharge. The non-survivors had a higher mean which ranged from 708.62±305.17 pg/ml on admission to 1022.11±363.41 pg/ml at the third day. The BNP had a significant correlation with both the SOFA score (p=0.037) and delta SOFA score (p=0,025). A BNP level of 250.5 has a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 64.7% in predicting the mortality of patients in our study. Conclusion: BNP is sensitive but not specific for the diagnosis of heart failure and is correlated to the prognosis and SOFA score in patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis and septic shock. A cut off value of 250 pg/ml has a sensitivity of 82.8% and specificity of 64.7% in detecting the mortality of such patients.

[Hassan Abu-Khabar, Mohammed Moustafa Abdel Salam Megahed and Ashraf Essam Roshdy. Septic Cardiomyopathy: Role of Echocardiography and Brain Natriuretic Peptide. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):47-62]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.07

 

Keywords: sepsis; shock; critical care; BNP; echocardiography.

Full Text

7

8

Effect of Spandex Ratio on the Properties of Woven Fabrics Made of Cotton / Spandex Spun Yarns

 

Mofeda Abdul Rahman AL-ansary

 

Fashion Design Department, Design and Art College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, kingdom of Saudi Arabia. m_ansary2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Woven fabrics made of core- spun yarns containing spandex gained great attention in the last decade due to its extensibility and comfort properties. The key factor in producing such fabrics is the spandex ratio. The present study focuses on the effect of spandex ratio on different fabric physical and mechanical properties such as: breaking strength, breaking extension, shrinkage %, fabric growth and air-permeability. The findings of this study revealed that the ratio of spandex had a significant influence on the physical properties of woven fabrics. The statistical analysis detected a very good correlation between spandex amount ratio and physical properties of fabrics woven from cotton/ spandex core- spun yarns.

[Mofeda Abdul Rahman AL-ansary. Effect of Spandex Ratio on the Properties of Woven Fabrics Made of Cotton / Spandex Spun Yarns. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):63-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.08

 

Keywords: Spandex, Spandex ratio, Core-spun yarn, Woven fabrics, Drawing ratio, Physical properties

Full Text

8

9

Stroke Knowledge and Awareness among Hospital Workers in Fayoum University

 

Naglaa A. El Sherbiny1, Hadeer M. Abdel Ghaffar2 and Sherine El-Mously 3

 

Departments of Public Health 1, Pediatric2, Neurology 3, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Stroke is a life-altering public health problem in Egypt, hospital workers are important source of knowledge on health issues towards stroke. We aim to assess knowledge of Fayoum University hospital workers about stroke. Methodology: A cross sectional hospital based survey conducted on (202) of Fayoum University hospital workers; divided into two groups: health care providers (HCPs) and non health care providers (NHCPs). The two groups interviewed using a structured questionnaire related to; knowledge of stroke in both adults and children. Results: The (HCPs) represented (65.8%) of the study sample, (93.6%) of our sample had knowledge about stroke while (30.7%) only knew that stroke might occur in the pediatric age group. The main source of information was through dealing with someone having stroke in both groups (34.6%, 21.7% respectively). The first action during a stroke attack was going to a hospital (85% of HCPs and 40.6% of NHCPs). Conclusion: Huge gap of knowledge about stroke symptoms was present between the HCPs and NHCPs indicating the urgent need for community awareness program of stroke.

[Naglaa A. El Sherbiny, Hadeer M. Abdel Ghaffar and Sherine El-Mously. Stroke Knowledge and Awareness among Hospital Workers in Fayoum University. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):68-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.09

 

Keywords: Stroke, knowledge, health workers

Full Text

9

10

Women’s Participation for Rural Educational Development in Iran

 

Abrisham Aref *, Khadijeh Aref **

 

* Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran; abrishamaref@yahoo.com

** Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran; banafsheharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This research set out to explore the participation of women in rural educational development in Iran. In developed countries women have important role in the processes of rural educational development. But, in Third World countries there are some important barriers in face of women’s participation in rural educational development. This paper looks at the barriers of women’s participation in educational development in rural areas of Iran. The findings indicated that there are some barriers in women’s participation towards rural educational development. This research draws from our scientific experience in a variety of disciplines namely; anthropology and education and psychology

[Abrisham Aref & Khadijeh Aref. Women’s Participation for Rural Educational Development. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):73-75]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.10

 

Keywords: participation, rural development, rural education

Full Text

10

11

The Effect Of The Trigger Variable On The Ineffective Triggering Index In Mechanically Ventilated Patients

 

Aboukhabar Hassan, Abouelela Amr, Abdou Mohamed

 

Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

habukhaber@yahoo.com; amrela313@yahoo.com; medicine_man12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ineffective triggering of a ventilator-delivered breath may occur in as many as one-third of inspiratory efforts. There is a considerable and growing interest in optimizing the patient-ventilator interaction. The ineffective triggering is the commonest form of patient-ventilator dyssynchrony. The aim of this study was To determine the correlation between high rates of ineffective triggering within the first 24 hours of mechanical ventilation with the duration of mechanical ventilation and ventilator free survival and to study the effect of the trigger variable on the ITI (Ineffective Triggering index) in mechanically ventilated patients. The study was carried out on 150 mechanically ventilated adult patients in Alexandria University Main Hospital (EGYPT). Patients undergo a 10-minutes observation period within the first 24 hours of mechanical ventilation to identify (ITI) (=number of ineffective breaths/number of total breaths). The number of days on mechanical ventilation out of 28 days in the pressure triggering group was 6.89 ± 5.73 with ITI < 10% while it was 17.44 ± 9.0 with ITI 10% (Z = 4.954*, p < 0.001*) while the results in the flow triggering group was 8.10 ± 6.87 with ITI < 10% while it was 14.29 ± 9.11 with ITI 10% (Z = 3.180*, p = 0.001*). The ITI < 10% in pressure triggering group was 36/75 (48%) while 39/75 (52%) had ineffective triggering ≥10%. The ITI < 10% in flow triggering group was 41/75(54.7%) while 34/75 (45.3%) had ineffective triggering with no significant statistical difference between the 2 groups (x2 = 0.667, p = 0.414). We conclude that the number of days on mechanical ventilation out of 28 days was significantly higher with ITI 10%.

[Aboukhabar Hassan, Abouelela Amr, Abdou Mohamed. The Effect Of The Trigger Variable On The Ineffective Triggering Index In Mechanically Ventilated Patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):76-81]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.11

 

Keywords: Ineffective triggering, Ventilator asynchrony, Mechanical ventilation, COPD weaning

Full Text

11

12

The effect of Mentha extract(Mentha piperita) on immune response in Broiler Chickens

 

1Rahim Abdulkarimi and 1Farzad Abdullahzadeh

 

1- Islamic Azad University, Boukan Branch, Boukan, Iran

Rahim.abdulkarimi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of Mentha extract (Mentha piperita) on the relative weight of the immune organs and serum antibody titer against Newcastl disease viruse and infectious Bronchitis viruse. One hundred and sixty mixed one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) in four groups and 10 birds for each based on a completely randomized design were used. All the chickens were fed the similar starter (day 1-21 of age) and grower (day 22-42 of age) diets in pellet form, but received 0.0 (ZM), 0.2 (LM), 0.4 (MM) and 0.6% (HM) alcoholic extract of Mentha piperita in drinking water during the experimental period. At 21 and 42 days of age, two birds per pen were selected, weighed and killed by decapitation to obtain the immune organs relative weight such as spleen and bursa fabricius. Consequently blood samples were collected and blood serum was separated to measure of Newcastle and Bronchitis disease viruses antibody titers by using the elaisa reader. All experimental data were subjected to the GLM procedure of SAS as a complete randomized design and the mean values were compared by Tukey Multiple Range Test (P<0.05). No significant difference between treatments was observed for the measured factors at 21 and 42 days of age. The results of this study revealed that Mentha extract consumption in drinking water could not stimulate the immune system response in broiler chickens.

[Rahim Abdulkarimi and Farzad Abdullahzadeh. The effect of Mentha extract(Mentha piperita) on immune response in Broiler Chickens. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):82-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.12

 

Key words: Mentha piperita, immune response and broiler chickens

Full Text

12

13

The Impact of Value Added and Regulatory Framework on the Adoption of Internet Banking in Iran

 

Mohammad Ali Molaei 1, Rohollah Dehghan Manshadi 2, Bozorgmehr Ashrafi 3

 

1. Faculty of Industrial Engineering & Management, Shahrood University Of Technology, Shahrood, Iran. malimolaei@yahoo.com; 2. Faculty of Industrial Engineering & Management, Shahrood University Of Technology, Shahrood, Iran. rohollah.dehghan@yahoo.com; 3. Faculty of Industrial Engineering & Management, Shahrood University Of Technology, Shahrood, Iran. bozorgashrafi@ymail.com

 

Abstract: The motivation for this study is the belief that the poor response to Internet banking in Iran springs from an inadequate regulatory framework for customer protection and the lack of initiatives on the part of the banks in promoting this new delivery channel. In addition to the two key factors mentioned above, this study also tries to examine the impact of other factors such as the customers’ attitude towards risk, trust in the service provider, customers’ perceived value of Internet banking, and the interface design of the bank web site on Internet bank adoption. Results showed that the scope and quality of the innovations in services provided by banks and financial institutions in their internet-banking systems ought to be reinforced if they aim to persuade their customers to apply such new services more frequently. Establishment of sufficient (as well as efficient) regulations for internet-banking can also prompt the traditional bank customers to move up to this higher technology. With regard to the significant role of the value added in facilitating the process of accepting a new technology, one may claim that exposing the customers to the advantages of internet-banking has a considerable positive effect on expanding the use of this innovative banking system.

[Mohammad Ali Molaei, Rohollah Dehghan Manshadi, Bozorgmehr Ashrafi. The Impact of Value Added and Regulatory Framework on the Adoption of Internet Banking in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):86-93]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.13

 

Keywords: Value added, Regulatory Framework, Bank Initiatives, Internet Banking

Full Text

13

14

Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Two Elastomeric Impression Materials during Working Time

 

Mona El Sayed El Deeb*, Gihan Hafez Waly and Nour El Dine Ahmed Habib

 

Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

*mona_el_deeb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives. Evaluation of rheological properties of two elastomeric impression materials, in their light and medium consistencies in terms of: viscosity, flow and development of elasticity, and their relation to the working time.

Materials:Two elastomeric impression materials were used; one polyether material, and one addition silicone (VPS), both in light and medium (regular) consistencies. Methods: Oscillating rheometer (Bohlin rheometer) in cone-plate configuration was used to monitor the viscosity, phase angle, tan delta, and elastic modulus throughout the working time recommended by the manufacturer. Also, the shark fin device was used to evaluate the flow properties of the tested materials. The height of the shark fin (measured by a micrometer) indicates the flowability of the material. Results: It was found that the light-bodied polyether material maintained the lowest viscosity values as well as the most viscous (plastic) behavior through the working time, compared to the other material-consistency combinations (P ≤ 0.05). The medium-bodied polyether showed the highest viscosity and the most rigid (elastic) behavior among the tested material-consistency combinations (P ≤ 0.05). The shark fin device results were consistent with the rheological parameters for most groups. It reflected the combined effect of the material’s viscosity as well as its plasticity.

[Mona El Sayed El Deeb, Gihan Hafez Waly and Nour El Dine Ahmed Habib. Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Two Elastomeric Impression Materials during Working Time. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):94-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 14. doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.14

 

Keywords: Elastomeric impression materials, Vinyl Polysiloxane, Polyether, Working time, Rheology, Flow, Shark fin test

Full Text

14

15

Biochemical Study on Vibriosis in Cultured Eels (Anguilla Anguillal.)

 

Khalil, R. H1.; Hana R. El-hofy2 and Nadia B. Mahfouz3*

 

1Fish and Poult. Diseases Dept. Fac. of Vet. Med. Alex. Univ.

2Anim. Health Res. Inst., Damanhour

3Dept. Fish Diseases and Management. Fac. of Vet. Med. Kafr El-Sheikh Univ.

nbmahfouz@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and twenty cultured eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) were collected from Behera Governorate was investigated for the isolation of Vibrio species. The isolation of Vibrio spp. was achieved from the ulcers, blood, liver, kidney and spleen of naturally infected eels (alive and freshly dead). The recovered bacteria were studied for the virulence, pathogenicity and antimicrobial sensitivity. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum aspartate amino transferease (S.AST) serum alanine aminotransferase. (S.ALT), total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, cortisone, Glucose, direct and indirect bilirubin. Forty eight isolates of Vibrio species were obtained from all investigated eels summarized as follows; 22 isolates of V.anguillarum (7 from kidney, 5 from spleen, 4 from blood, 4 from ulcers and 2 from Liver), 12 isolates of V.ordalii (5 from kidney, 3 from spleen, 3 from ulcers and one from blood), 7 isolates of V. parahaemolyticus (4 from Liver and 3 from ulcers), 4 isolates of V.vulnificus from Liver and 3 isolates of V.algnolyticus from spleen. The results of LD50 in eels (A. anguilla) injected with V.anguillarum was 10-2 cfu / ml, while the sub lethal dose 1/10 X LD50 equal 10-3 cfu/ml. The experimentally infected eels showed severe hemorrhages over the body and congestion of the head. Internally, enlargement of spleen which became cherry red and loss its sharp edges as well as severe congestion of kidney. Histopathology, the V.anguillarum, during the acute phase of the disease, induced hepatic cell necrosis and hyper activation of the melanomacrophage centers of kidneys, while in the chronic stage, thrombus formation in the branchial artery of gills and severe glycogen deposition in Liver. The five recorded isolates of the Vibrio species were sensitive to Ampicillin, Doxycycline, Colistin sulphate and Amoxicillin, but totally resistant to Oxytetracycline and Nalidixic acid. The Antibody titers in A. anguilla injected with booster dose of bacterin of V.anguillarum were higher than in group injected by one dose of bacterin. Significantly increase in enzymatic activity SAST, SALT, hypoproteinaemia,hypoalbuminaenia and hypoglobulinaemia. Significant increase level of adrenocorticotrophic hormone,glucose and cholesterol in chronic infection (1/10LD50).

[Khalil, R. H.; Hana R. El-hofy and Nadia B. Mahfouz. Biochemical Study on Vibriosis in Cultured Eels (Anguilla Anguillal.). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):101-110]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.15

 

Key words: Vibio,, LD50, Pathogenicity virulence, chronic infection, sensitivity, histopathology

Full Text

15

16

Immunocytochemical Studies of Cyclin D1 and P16 INK4a in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Patients

 

Abdel- Azim Ahmed Ismail1, Magda Mohammed Sultan2, Ashraf Hussen El-ghandour3, Eman Ahmed Youssef 1*, and Lutfi Abdul Salam A. Al- Maktari2

 

1Department of Histochemistry & Cell Biology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

2Department of Hematology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

3 Internal Medicine &Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University

*eman_khalifa_124@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Acute lymphobalstic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer found among children. It is a systemic, neoplastic proliferation of lymphocyte progenitor cells in bone marrow or thymus. The present work was planned to study the immunocytochemical expression of cyclin D1 and P16INK4a in acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients before and after induction chemotherapy. This study was conducted on 25 patients having acute lymphoblastic leukemia and ten subjects as controls with matched age and sex. Blood smears from all cases were subjected to Leishman's stain, French American British (FAB) classification, immunophenotyping and immunocytochemical stain of cyclin D1 and P16 INK4a. Results showed leishman׳s stained blood smears of ALL cases revealed L1, L2 and L3 subtypes according to the French–American–British classification (FAB) and decreased percent of blast cells after induction chemotherapy. Immunophenotyping showed B-lineage phenotype was observed in 16% of patients, common-ALL in 44%, pre-B in 20%, pro-B in 12%, and T-cell ALL in 8%. The immunocytochemical expression level of cyclin D1 before induction chemotherapy showed positivity ranged from 5% to 90% with a mean of 37.08±25.71.While after induction chemotherapy, it ranged from 0% to 90 % with a mean of 9.6±25.12 with relapsed patients. The immunocytochemical expression of P16INK4a before induction chemotherapy showed positivity ranged from 0% to 88% with a mean of 26.88±26.76. While after induction chemotherapy, the percentage of positivity ranged from 0% to 94% with a mean of 10.2±27.0 with relapsed patients. It was concluded that cyclin D1 and P16INK4a could be considered of the most important prognostic factors and important parameters as a panel of diagnostic markers for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Their expressions before and after chemotherapy could be considered one of the multisteps oncogenic process of ALL evolution and progression.

[Abdel- Azim Ahmed Ismail, Magda Mohammed Sultan, Ashraf Hussen El-ghandour, Eman Ahmed Youssef, and Lutfi Abdul Salam A. Al- Maktari. Immunocytochemical Studies of Cyclin D1 and P16 INK4a in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):111-121]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.16

 

Key Words: ALL, FAB classification, immunophenotyping, immunocytochemistry, Cyclin D1 and P16INK4a

Full Text

16

17

Postpartum Depression: Prevalence and Predictors among Women at El Eman's Specialized Hospital

 

Naglaa A. Mohamed1; Ghadah A. Mahmoud 2; Nadia A. Said 1 k Hamida A. Abdelhafez 2 and Ahmed M. A. Maklof 2

 

1Department of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing. Assiut University

2Department of Obstetric and Gynecological, Faculty of Medicine. Assiut University

*noga_abdo69@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Postpartum depression is a serious public health concern because of its demonstrated adverse consequences on the development of maternal confidence and the cognitive, emotional and social development of their infant. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and severity of postpartum depression among women at El Eman's Specialized Hospital and examine the main predictors for postpartum depression among these women during the first three months postpartum. The study was carried out in the Family Planning out patient's Clinic, El Eman Specialized Hospital at Assiut City, Egypt. The study sample comprised 110 pregnant women. Three tools were used for data collection, namely: Sociodemographic Data Structured Interview schedules, postpartum depression predictors inventory (PDPI), and Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale. The main results yielded by the study proved that, 42.73% of the studied sample were in the age group from 25 to 30 years, the majority of sample were house wives (84.5 %), 29.1 % of sample feeling of depression during pregnancy, 50% of them suffering from anxiety during pregnancy, 44.5% of them feeling of maternity blues and 80.7% of women had post- partum depression. the study recommended to help women to improve the outcome of families suffering with post-partum depression by engaging in routine screening and providing education and referral sources to women.

[Naglaa A. Mohamed; Ghadah A. Mahmoud; Nadia A. Sayed; Hamida A. Abdelhafez and Ahmed M. A. Maklof Postpartum Depression: Prevalence and Predictors among Women at El Eman's Specialized Hospital. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):122-128]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.17

 

Key words: Post partum depression, Predictors, prevalence rate

Full Text

17

18

The Contribution of Rural Cooperatives in Building Empowerment in Rural District of Bakhtegan, Fars, Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi & Khadijeh Aref

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com; banafsheharef@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of rural cooperatives in building rural empowerment in rural district of Bakhtegan, Fars, Iran. Empowerment is the process of enhancing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Capacity building for rural development requires a range of empowerment. Hence, it is expected that the rural cooperatives contribute to building rural empowerment. The paper is based on the survey questionnaire carried out among 185 rural cooperatives members in rural district of Bakhtegan in Fars, Iran. The findings revealed that rural cooperatives have a little contribution in building empowerment for rural development in rural district of Bakhtegan.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi & Khadijeh Aref. The Contribution of Rural Cooperatives in Building Empowerment in Rural District of Bakhtegan, Fars. Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):129-132]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.18

 

Keywords: empowerment, participation, rural cooperatives, rural development

Full Text

18

19

Potential Carcinogenic Risk of Formaldehyde Due To the Occupational Exposure in a Chemical Manufacturing Plant

 

Mahmoud A. Hassanien1, Nasser M. Abdel-Latif*1, Abdelhameed M. Othman2, Alia A. Shakour1, and Yasser H. Ibrahim1

 

1Air Pollution Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt;

2Genetic Engineering Institute, Menoufia University, Sadat City, Egypt

*nabdellatif@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Formaldehyde exposures are common and epidemiologically linked to cancer. Workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde in industrial and medical fields have a significant probability of acquiring degenerative diseases. The main objective of this study was to determine formaldehyde in the occupational environment of a chemical manufacturing plant in Egypt and assess its risk for the exposed workers. Formaldehyde was monitored in workplace environment of a chemical manufacturing plant. Formaldehyde concentration (mg m-3) was determined and the exposure (E) for an individual worker due to intake process (inhalation), chronic daily intake (CDI) and carcinogenic risk (CR) were calculated for the different cases according to the US EPA Carcinogenic Assessment Section of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Formaldehyde concentration was variable between different production departments with a range from 0.11 to 5.7 mg m-3. The calculated exposure results were coincided with the high formaldehyde concentrations at the concerned departments. Formaldehyde cancer risks for all reported concentrations were greater than the acceptable cancer risk 1×10-6. Consequently, inhalation exposure to formaldehyde has a critical influence on workers of this factory. The results prove that risk assessment estimation is a powerful assisting tool in developing abetment plans to reduce pollutants emission and improve air quality. The lack of quality epidemiological studies on exposed populations emphasizes the need for more extensive studies on formaldehyde and its related health effects in Egypt.

[Mahmoud A. Hassanien, Nasser M. Abdel-Latif, Abdelhameed M. Othman, Alia A. Shakour, and Yasser H. Ibrahim. Potential Carcinogenic Risk of Formaldehyde Due To the Occupational Exposure in a Chemical Manufacturing Plant. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):133-140]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.19

 

Keywords: Formaldehyde; exposure calculation; cancer risk; chronic daily intake; uncertainty

Full Text

19

20

A Synthesis and Evaluation the Hypnotic and Anticonvulsion Activities of Some Aminopyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine derivatives

 

El Kousy S. M. *1, Omar R. H. 2, Omer A. H. 3, Abdelazim T.R. 4, Amin S.W. 3

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minufiya University

2Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University

3Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minufiya University

4Hospital of Students, Minufiya University

Sozan.wageeh@yahoo.com Sozan.123@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present work compress the synthesis of 5-amino2,4-dimethyl-11H-pyrido[2,3b][1,5]benzodiazepine derivatives3 by condensation of 2-chloronicotinic acid 1 with o-phenylenediamine 2 which react with malononitrile to form 4 and with phenylisocyanate to give phenyl urea 5 and react with some aromatic and heterocyclic aldehyde to produce Schiff bases which react with formaldehyde to producehydroxymethyl derivatives that converted into chloromethylderivatived,then reacted with prop0anolamine and with diethanolamine.Some of the prepared compounds were preliminary screened for CNS depressant andanticonvulsant activities.

[El Kousy S.M., Omar R.H., Omar A.H., Abdelazim T.R., Ameen S.W. Synthesis and Evaluation the Hypnotic and Anticonvulsion Activities of Some Aminopyrido[2,3-b][1,5]benzodiazepine derivatives. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):141-147]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.20

 

Keywords: Pyridobenzodiazepine-CNS depressant- Anticonvulsant

Full Text

20

21

Assessment of heavy metal Levels in the Environment, Egypt

 

Yasser H. Ibrahim, Alia A. Shakour and Nasser M. Abdel-Latif and Nadia M. El-Taieb

 

Air Pollution Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: The air pollution in Cairo is a matter of serious concern. Particulate and heavy metals are particularly high air pollutants. Soil represents a huge sink for heavy metals ions, which can then enter the food chain through plants or leach into ground water. The present study was designed to investigate heavy metals in the environment. Samples were collected from three compartments, air, soil, and the selective cultivated plant (cucumber), at three different districts of Egypt, and their contents of heavy metals, including Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Aluminum(Al) and Cadmium (Cd), were analyzed. The six heavy metals were selected from points of public concern. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption. The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the plant part (root, leaf, and fruit).

[Yasser H. Ibrahim, Alia A. Shakour and Nasser M. Abd Ellatief and Nadia M. El-Taieb. Assessment of heavy metal Levels in the Environment, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):148-153]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.21

 

Key words: Air Pollutants, Heavy Metals, Soil, and Plant

Full Text

21

22

Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):154-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.22

This article has been withdrawn.

Full Text

22

23

The filler effects of TiO2 nanoparticles in concrete

Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha1 and Farzad Soleymani*,2

 

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

2. Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Payame Noor University, P.O. 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran.

* E-mail: farzad.soleymani52@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of limewater on compressive strength permeability of TiO2 nanoparticles binary blended concrete has been investigated. TiO2 nanoparticles with partial replacement of cement by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 weight percent have been used as reinforcement. Curing of the specimens has been carried out in water and saturated limewater for 7, 28 and 90 days after casting. The results indicate that TiO2 nanoparticles up to maximum replacement level of 2.0% produces concrete with improved compressive strength when the specimens cured in saturated limewater with respect to the specimens cured in water. TiO2 nanoparticles can improve the filler effect and also the high pozzolanic action of fine particles increases substantially the quantity of strengthening gel. Although the limewater reduces the strength of concrete without nanoparticles, curing the specimens in saturated limewater results in more strengthening gel formation in TiO2 nanoparticles blended concrete causes high strength.

 [Mohammad Mehdi Kaykha and Farzad Soleymani. The filler effects of TiO2 nanoparticles in concrete. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):158-161]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.23

 

Key words: TiO2 nanoparticle; compressive strength; concrete.

Full Text

23

24

Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats

 

Manar E¹. Selim and Hayam I. Gad²

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, and Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University. manar.selim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that complicates approximately 5% of all pregnancies, making it perhaps the most common glomerular disease in the world. The current study was carried out on 125 female Wistar rats divided into five equal groups. Group I included virgin non-pregnant rats. Group II included pregnant rats that were received saline solution (0.5 ml/100 g body weight) from day 7 to day 20 of gestation. Group III included pregnant rats that were treated with L-NAME dissolved in sterile saline solution in a dose of 10 mg/0.5 ml/100 g body weights subcutaneously and daily starting from the same day of gestation and for the same duration as mentioned for group II. Group IV included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and urocortin-1, in a dose of 5 µg/kg body weight/ day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Group V included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and ABT-627, 5 mg/kg / day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Ultrathin sections from the kidney were processed for electron microscopic examination. The ultrastructural examination of group III showed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsules, thickening of the capillary endothelial wall and fusion of the foot process of the podocytes. Mesangial cells and matrix were greatly increased. Moreover, the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) showed degeneration of the brush border and its lumina appeared with hyaline casts. The distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) were affected also as represented by destruction of the basal infoldings, mitochondria and the apical microvilli. The electron microscopic results revealed that the treatment of preeclamptic rats with urocortin-1 lead to apparent repair of the injured renal tissues rather than ABT-627 that might suggest its use as helpful therapeutic line for alleviation nephrotoxicity in preeclampsia.

[Manar E.Selim and Hayam I.Gad. Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):162-171]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.24

 

Keywords: Pregnancy, preeclampsia, PCTs, endothelial cell, podocyte.

Full Text

24

25

Neurolytic Inferior Hypogastric Plexus Block: An Alternative Technique for Treatment of Lower Pelvic and Perineal Cancer Related Pain

 

Mohamed A. Bakr1; Sahar A. Mohamed2; Mohamed F. Mohamad2; and Doaa G. Ahmed2*

 

1Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

2South Egypt Cancer Institute, Anesthesia, Intensive care, and Pain management South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut, Egypt.

drsaher2008@yahoo.com mfaroukma@gmail.com *doaagomaa78@yahoo.com

 

abstract: The inferior hypogastric plexus block through the transsacral approach under fluoroscopy, using a local anesthetics/ steroid combination for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain conditions involving the lower pelvic viscera was first described by Schultz in 2007. Neurolysis of the inferior hypogastric plexus may be useful for pelvic and perineal pain caused by cancer. We described two cases in whom the block performed by Injection of 6-8 ml of phenol 10% bilaterally, by passing a spinal needle through the sacral foramen to treat their intractable lower pelvic and perineal pain. We assessed them for VAS, and their oral morphine (MST) consumption pre and post-procedural and if there is any complication or side effect of the block. Both patients had significant pain relief and reduction of their analgesic consumption. The neurolytic inferior hypogastric plexus block may be a good alternative technique for treatment of lower pelvic and perineal cancer related pain.

[Mohamed A. Bakr; Sahar A. Mohamed; Mohamed F. Mohamad; and Doaa G. Ahmed. Neurolytic Inferior Hypogastric Plexus Block: An Alternative Technique for Treatment of Lower Pelvic and Perineal Cancer Related Pain. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):172-175]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.25

 

Key words: Inferior hypogastric plexus block, Neurolysis, Cancer pain, Pelvic pain, Perineal pain.

Full Text

25

26

Coeducation versus Single Sex Education: Impact on Self Esteem and Academic Achievements among Nursing' Students

 

Amal I., Khalil1, Mohamad O., Abou-Hashish2; Eman S., Dawood3

 

1Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing, Menoufyia University, Egypt

2Adult Nursing, Al-Isra University, Jordan

3Psychiatry and Mental Health Nursing, Menoufyia University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Single sex education is to educate males and females in separate school setting, whereas coeducation is the integration of both in a one educational environment. Linguistically, the term Co-ed" is a shortened form of "co-educational", and is also sometimes used as an informal and increasingly old reference to a female college student, particularly in the United States. Despite the fact that modern education is primarily coeducational, many single sex educational institutions still exist and are regaining popularity especially in nursing field as it was encouraged by the Hashemite Jordanian king Dom. Aim: The aim is to investigate the impact of educational type on the students’ self-esteem and academic achievements. Methods: A quantitative-non-experimental correlational research design was utilized to accomplish the purpose of this current research. The study was conducted at Queen Alia and Al Arabia Community Colleges affiliated to Al- Balqa Applied University in Jordan, where a convenient sample of 100 nursing students participated in the study. Students’ self-esteem was assessed by using the self-esteem instrument designed and developed by (Jebril) in 1984. Validity of the instrument was obtained and reliability has been demonstrated (0.84). Results: The analysis of obtained data revealed that there is a significant relationship between self esteem and academic achievement for the favor of (85-100%) achievement category). In other words, students who display high self-esteem have high academic achievement; moreover, self-esteem is notably high among students who are satisfied in learning nursing. On the other hand, there were no statistical significant differences found related to self esteem and gender as well as related to self esteem and type of education among study sample. Conversely, self-esteem is higher among female students in co-education than others in single sex education. Conclusion: We would acknowledge that the academic progress of boys is probably improved by coeducation, while that of girls is not affected. When other factors, such as self esteem, satisfaction with the performance and learning nursing are taken into account, the research clearly supports coeducation. Finally, the research has implications to the importance of personality characteristics, especially self-esteem, communication style and self-concept due to their positive impact on academic progress, satisfaction of performance and quality of provided nursing interventions.

[Amal I., Khalil, Mohamad O., Abou-Hashish; and Eman S., Dawood Coeducation versus Single Sex Education: Impact on Self Esteem and Academic Achievements among Nursing' Students. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):176-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.26

 

Keywords: Co-education, single sex education, self-esteem, academic achievement.

Full Text

26

27

Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Accumulation of the Sunrise-Troubadour Fields, northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia

 

Suliman Ahmed Hamid Fadul1,2, Ye Jia Ren1, Cao Qiang1,Yousuf Ahmed Hamid Fudol3

 

  1. Key Laboratory of Tectonics and Petroleum Resources, China University of Geosciences

MOE, Wuhan 430074, China

 2. Sudan, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Technical Education Corporation

3. Oil&Gas Field Development Engineering, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences

marfsud@yahoo.com, jrye@cug.edu.cn, charleycq@163.com and sudanplus@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Sunrise-Troubadour Fields are located in Sahul Platform, northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. Wells Toubadour-1, Sunrise-2, Sunset-1, Heron-1 and Seismic Line N11612 are selected to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential, timing of generation and expulsion, determine migration pathways and accumulation and predict trap efficiency with respect to migrated and accumulated hydrocarbon heads. Basin Mod 1D, 2D and 3D techniques are used for modeling. Plover Formation represents the main source and reservoir rocks and currently in mid-mature oil window in Sunrise-Troubadour Fields and in wet-gas window in well Heron-1 with dominant OM Type II& III. The average TOC in Troubadour-1, Sunset-1, Sunrise-2, Heron-1 and Seismic line N11612 are 1.53wt %, 0.685wt %, 1.25wt%, 1.885wt% and 2.08wt %, respectively. In Sunrise-Troubadour Fields the average thicknesses of the reservoir, porosity and permeability are 80m, 11.43%, and 68.98md, respectively. In well Heron-1 the average thicknesses of reservoir, porosity and permeability are 316.196m, 9.15% and 188.7md, respectively. Field-wide porosity-permeability correlation has shown a reducing trend with depth. In Sunrise-Troubadour Fields the onset for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion occurred during Late cretaceous and reached the peak at Quaternary, whereas it is occurred during the late Cretaceous and reached the peak at the end of Late Cretaceous in well Heron-1. The intensities of gas generation and expulsion are greater than that of oil generation and expulsion. Oil and Gas are charged to Sunrise-Troubadour Fields from Malita Graben and Troubadour Terrace. Migration pathways are directing towards the low hydrocarbon heads. The traps are efficient to accommodate the migrated hydrocarbons.

[Suliman Ahmed Hamid Fadul, Ye Jia Ren, Cao Qiang, Yousuf Ahmed Hamid Fudol. Characteristics of Hydrocarbon Accumulation of the Sunrise-Troubadour Fields, northern Bonaparte Basin, Australia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):185-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.27

 

Keywords: Hydrocarbon Generation; Expulsion; Migration; Accumulation; Sunrise Troubadour Fields

Full Text

27

28

Application of Artificial Intelligence in Predicting Weld Properties of Nuclear Installations

 

Eman Sarwat, M.A. and Shafey Harnza

 

National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control

 

Abstract: Predicting weld properties such as Ferrite, Austenite and Martensite content in stainless steel welds is desirable in order to estimate the welded properties for safety of nuclear installations like (reactor vessels and piping system). Several methods have been used over the last years to estimate the Ferrite content as a function of the alloy composition. A new technique is developed which uses a neural network analysis to determine different phases of steel properties. The ِArtificial Neural Network (ANN) was trained on the same data set that was used to generate the Schaeffler constitution diagram. The accuracy of the neural network prediction is compared to that for the Schaeffler diagram. The results show that the neural network model was more accurate than that measured by Schaeffler diagram.

[Eman Sarwat, and M.A. Shafey. Harnza Application of Artificial Intelligence in Predicting Weld Properties of Nuclear Installations] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):203-210]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.28

 

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network – Weld Properties – Schaffler Diagram

Full Text

28

29

Study on performance enhancing effect of Rare Earth Elements as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives for Japanese Quails

 

Eleraky, A. Wafaa and Rambeck, W.*

 

Department of nutrition and clinical nutrition, Faculty of Vet. Med., Zagazig University

*Institute for animal nutrition and nutritional deficiency diseases, Faculty of Vet. Med., Munich University, Germany.

 

Abstract: The presents study was designed to determine the effect of different levels of rare earth elements (REE) on growth performance of Japanese quails. A total of 300 one day old j. quails were nearly of the same live body weight and divided into equal four triplicate groups, each replicate contained 25 birds.Control group fed on basal diet (isonitrogenous and isocaloric) and the three quail groups were fed the same diet, which supplemented with 50,100 and 200 mg /kg of REE-citrate, lanthanide mixture. The quail chicks were reared in plastic reticular boxes for four weeks and during it feed and water was ad-libitum.The results showed there were a significant differences in the final body weight and body gain between quail groups. The REE supplements increased the weight gain of Japanese quails compare to control group by 18.5-22% during the experiment. The feed consumption and the feed conversion improvement were not significantly affected by REE. REE-citrate improved the feed conversion ratio by 8.06-10.22%. The lowest concentration of REE-citrate (50 mg/kg) improved the efficiency of protein and energy utilization by 12.61% and 10.89% compare to control group Based on the results of present study, the optimum concentration range of REE- citrate for improving both growth performances and efficiency of protein and energy utilization was 50-100 mg/kg of feed.

[Eleraky, A. Wafaa and Rambeck, W. Study on performance enhancing effect of Rare Earth Elements as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives for Japanese Quails. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):211-215]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.29

 

Keywords: Alternative growth promoter, rare earth elements, quails, feed conversion

Full Text

29

30

Impact of Tremendous Consumption of Tea Drink on Blood Lead

 

Eman Abd El Baset Mohamed 1 and Adly Abd El Aziz2

 

1Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

2Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

 

Abstract: Heavy metals especially lead, are considered to be one of the important sources of pollution of foods and drinks. Tea is a very common drink and could be a source of some heavy metals particularly lead. Objectives:1- To determine lead traces in the samples of packed tea; collected from the local market of Egypt; one of EMR countries; by using two techniques, a) the differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) at a hanging mercury drop electrode and b) the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). 2- To evaluate level of plasma lead in heavy and chronic consumers of tea drink. Materials: Reasonable amounts of different tea (black and green) packets, were collected from the local market to determine its lead content. Subjects: 103 randomly chosen Sohag residents; in different work places; who tremendously used to consume tea and other beverages; being guards, carpenters, constructors and iron workers in constructions. All were informed about the research aim and their verbal consents were approved; they subjected to: a) full history reporting for their habits of tea drinking, b) medical examination and c) determination of lead in their plasma by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. On staistical analysis, plotting the current signals against the lead ion concentration added to the sample gave straight line. From this linear relationship, each concentration, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient values were obtained. SPSS program, version 10 was used to elucidate the statistical correlations. Results: lead element level ranged from 0.027 to 0.603 μg g−1; in tea packets samples by using (DPASV) and from 0.028 to 0.607 μg g−1 by using (AAS), but was within the tolerated amount set by FAO/WHO. The concentrations in chronic consumers plasma were above maximum permissible figures; 18.4 % had about 40-150 μg/dl and they were symptomatizing.

[Eman Abd El Baset Mohamed and Adly Abd El Aziz. Impact of Tremendous Consumption of Tea Drink on Blood Lead. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):216-221]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.30

 

Keywords: Analytical Determination; Pb; Tea; Boiling tea; Heavy consumption

Full Text

30

31

Agriculture for Poverty Reduction in Rural District of Bakhtegan in Fars Province, Iran

 

Khadijeh Aref & Davod Eslamian

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

banafhseharef@gmail.com; davodeslamian@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In most developing countries, especially in Iran, majorities of the population live in rural areas where their main economic activity is agriculture. The evidence that growth in agriculture is on average at least twice as effective in reducing poverty as growth outside agriculture is thus no surprise. The study looks at the positional of agriculture for poverty reduction in rural district of Bakhtegan in Fars province, Iran. The data for this study collected through focus group discussion. The participants were the farmers in rural district of Bakhtegan. The finding of this study indicated that, due to lack of capacity building in agricultural sector, agriculture does not have an important role in poverty reduction. The finding can assist the agricultural organizations for planning in agricultural development policies for poverty reduction.

[Davod Eslamian & Khadijeh Aref, Agriculture for Poverty Reduction in Rural District of Bakhtegan in Fars Province, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):222-225]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.31

 

Keywords: Poverty reduction, agricultural development, rural development

Full Text

31

32

The Cranial Nerves 0f Mabuya quinquetaeniata IV: Nervus Facialis

 

Ali, R. S.; *Abdel-Kader, T. G.; and Ibrahim, N. M

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

tgabdelkader@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study deals with the nervus facialis of Mabuya quinquetaeniata. The nervus facialis leaves the cranial cavity through the facial foramen to enter the geniculate ganglion. The ramus palatinus passes through the vidian canal. There is no palatine ganglion. The medial palatine ramus carries the ethmoidal ganglion which is represented by two parts. The main part lies on the medial palatine ramus. The ramus hyomandibularis carries the fibres of the medial cranial sympathetic nerve and receives those of the lateral cranial sympathetic ramus. It separates into the ramus hyoideus, the chorda tympani and the head sympathetic trunk. The ramus hyoideus innervates the depressor mandibularis, constrictor colli and the mandibulohyoideus muscles.

[Ali, R. S.; Abdel-Kader, T. G.; AND IBRAHIM, N. M. The Cranial Nerves 0f Mabuya quinquetaeniata IV. Nervus Facialis] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):226-237]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.32

 

Keywords: Mabuya, Cranial nerves, Nervus facialis

Full Text

32

33

"Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats."

 

Manar E¹.Selim and Hayam I.Gad²

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, and Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University. manar.selim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that complicates approximately 5% of all pregnancies, making it perhaps the most common glomerular disease in the world. The current study was carried out on 125 female Wistar rats divided into five equal groups. Group I included virgin non-pregnant rats. Group II included pregnant rats that were received saline solution (0.5 ml/100 g body weight) from day 7 to day 20 of gestation. Group III included pregnant rats that were treated with L-NAME dissolved in sterile saline solution in a dose of 10 mg/0.5 ml/100 g body weights subcutaneously and daily starting from the same day of gestation and for the same duration as mentioned for group II. Group IV included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and urocortin-1, in a dose of 5 µg/kg body weight/ day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Group V included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and ABT-627, 5 mg/kg / day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Ultrathin sections from the kidney were processed for electron microscopic examination. The ultrastructural examination of group III showed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsules, thickening of the capillary endothelial wall and fusion of the foot process of the podocytes. Mesangial cells and matrix were greatly increased. Moreover, the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) showed degeneration of the brush border and its lumina appeared with hyaline casts. The distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) were affected also as represented by destruction of the basal infoldings, mitochondria and the apical microvilli. The electron microscopic results revealed that the treatment of preeclamptic rats with urocortin-1 lead to apparent repair of the injured renal tissues rather than ABT-627 that might suggest its use as helpful therapeutic line for alleviation nephrotoxicity in preeclampsia.

[Manar E.Selim and Hayam I.Gad. “Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 238-248]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.33

 

Keywords: Pregnancy, preeclampsia, PCTs, endothelial cell, podocyte.

Full Text

33

34

Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography and Multifocal ERG Changes in Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema

 

*Sherif H. Emerah MD, Ehab S. El Zakzouk MD, Onsy A. Badie MD

 

Ophthalmology Department, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt

*sherifemera@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To detect and correlate retinal morphological changes measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and functional changes recorded with Multifocal ERG (mf-ERG) in diffuse diabetic macular oedema. Materials and Methods: the study included 33 diabetic patients with diffuse macular oedema as documented by fluorescein angiography (FA). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was detected for every patient. Central and pericentral macular thickness was measured by OCT. Macular functional changes were recorded with multifocal electroretinogram. Results: 85.7% of our cases with bad BCVA (worse than 0.5) had increased central foveal thickness. 71.4% of our cases with bad BCVA had increased pericentral macular thickness. There is a highly significant negative correlation between BCVA and central and pericentral macular thickness. For mfERG; we found significant changes in patients with bad BCVA and the changes were in the latency rather than amplitude. So, we did not find significant changes in mfERG in patients with good BCVA (better than 0.5). Patients with increased central and pericentral macular thickness had increased P1 latency of ring 3. Conclusion: OCT and mfERG are valuable diagnostic techniques that can help to assess morphological and functional changes in diffuse diabetic macular oedema.

[Sherif H. Emerah, Ehab S. El Zakzouk, Onsy A. Badie. Correlation between Optical Coherence Tomography and Multifocal ERG Changes in Diffuse Diabetic Macular Oedema. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 249-253]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.34

 

Keywords: Diabetic macular oedema, mfERG, OCT.

Full Text

34

35

Some Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Oshar Extract and Abamectin Biocide on Male Albino Rats

 

El- Shafey1, A. A. M.; Seliem1, M. M. E.; El-Mahrouky2, F.; Gabr2, W. M. and Kandil2, R. A.

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Egypt

2Plant Production Research institute, Agric. Res. Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Rosy.mohamed78@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The impact of the two natural products; extract of oshar leaves (Calotropis procera) and Vertimic biocide (abamectin) were studied on some physiological and biochemical parameters of mature male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 was determined for both compounds and its values were 95.52 and 8.7 mg/kg for oshar and abamectin, respectively. Animals were treated orally with (1/4 LD50) of each compound as a single dose. Blood and semen samples were collected after 1, 2, 3 and 7days of treatment. Plasma was separated and stored at -20°C until analysis for biochemical and hormonal parameters. The results revealed that total count of red blood corpuscles (RBCs) and white blood corpuscles (WBCs) were non significantly decreased in animal group treated with oshar extract compared to control group. Total count of RBCs was significantly decreased, while that of the WBCs was significantly increased post abamectin treatment compared to control ones. Haemoglobin content was significantly decreased, while haematocrit value was significantly increased post extract and abamectin treatments compared to control group. Plasma levels of ALT, AST, total protein, urea, uric acid, creatinine, GST, CAT and testosterone were significantly decreased post extract and abamectin treatments compared to control group. Sperm count was non significantly decreased post extract treatment, while the decrease was significant post abamectin treatment compared to control group. Sperm motility was significantly decreased in animal groups treated with oshar and abamectin compared to control group. In conclusion, abamectin was found to be more effective than oshar on the measured parameters so, abamectin was more toxic for rat.

[El- Shafey, A. A. M.; Seliem, M. M. E.; El-Mahrouky, F.; Gabr, W. M. and Kandil, R. A. Some Physiological and Biochemical Effects of Oshar Extract and Abamectin Biocide on Male Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 254-261].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.35

 

Key words: Oshar, abamectin, RBCs, WBCs, Hb, Hct, GST,CAT, testosterone, sperm count

Full Text

35

36

Morphological and morphometric characterization of a new digenetic trematode, Proenenterum sp.n., infecting the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus from the Red Sea in Egypt

 

Kareem Morsy; Sayed Abd El-Monem and Abdel-Rahman Bashtar

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Kareemsaid156@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Proenenterum sp. (family: Lepocreadiidae), a new digenetic trematode infecting the pyloric portion of the stomach and the middle part of the intestine of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus fish, were described by light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time from the coasts of Gulf of Suez and Hurghada city of the Red Sea in Egypt. Numerous specimens were collected during the year of 2010. Out of 140, examined fish, only 46 (32.8%) were found to be naturally infected. The adult worms exhibited an elongated body with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends. The adult worm measured 2.30- 3.84 (mean 3.25±0.20) mm in length and 0.42- 0.54 (mean 0.48±0.02) mm in width. The present Proenenterum species is characterized by its smaller dimensions and the presence of a large ventral sucker, two lobed testes. The recorded parasite herein has the same general morphology of its family but with different characteristics than their members. The genus Proenenterum was included firstly within family Enenteridae but after that, it is separated from this genus as a separate family Lepocreadiidae due to the presence of distinct morphological criteria that specify organisms to be enenterids, these are presence of anal aperture, processes on oral suckers and an external seminal vesicle which are not present in the current study.

[Kareem Morsy; Sayed Abd El-Monem and Abdel-Rahman Bashtar. Morphological and morphometric characterization of a new digenetic trematode, Proenenterum sp.n., infecting the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus from the Red Sea in Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):262-267]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.36

 

Key words: Proenenterum sp.n. – Lepocreadiidae – Pagrus pagrus – Light and scanning electron microscopy

Full Text

36

37

Evaluation of Three Resin-Based Root End Filling Materials in Surgical Endodontics

 

Mohamed Sherif Mohamed Salah El Din Hassan Farag1* and Nagwa Mohamed Aly Khattab2

 

1Associate Professor of Pediatric and Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University.

2Associate Professor of Pediatric and Community Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia Universiy

*msherifsfarag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Surgical endodontics becomes necessary when conventional therapy is not feasible or successful. The most frequently performed procedures; in this situation is apicoectomy and retrograde filling in the resected root end. The purpose of this study was to compare between the sealing abilities as well as the working time of three root end filling materials; self-adhesive cement (Rely X Unicem) and composite resin (Tetric Ceram composite resin) combined with two different types of two-step bonding agents, etch-and-rinse (Excite- Ivoclar- Vivadent) versus self-etch (Clearfil SE-Bond-Kuraray) systems. Methodology: thirty recently extracted human, permanent single-canalled teeth were selected for this study. Endodontic access cavity preparation was done in all teeth, and finally coronal access was sealed with composite. Teeth were randomly assigned into two equal groups: Group A (no bevel): 3 mm of the roots were resected in a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth with no bevel, and then Class I root-end cavities were prepared using fissure bur to the depth of 3 mm parallel to the long axis of the root. Group B (450bevel): 3 mm of the roots were apically resected using high-speed carbide bur at 45o beveled plane labio -lingually and then Class I root-end cavities were prepared. Each group was further subdivided into 3 subgroups of 5 teeth each according to the material used. Teeth were immersed in2% methylene blue dye for a period of twenty four hours, after which they were retrieved, washed, sectioned and the apical dye penetration measured. Also the working time was measured for each material. Results: the results showed that RelyX groups had the best sealing abilities and the minimum working time, followed by Clearfil SE-Bond and Excite groups.

[Mohamed Sherif Mohamed Salah El Din Hassan Farag and Nagwa Mohamed Aly Khattab. Evaluation of Three Resin-Based Root End Filling Materials in Surgical Endodontics. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 268-274]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.37

 

Keyword: Evaluation, Three Resin-Based Root, Filling Materials, Surgical Endodontics.

Full Text

37

38

canning Electron Micrioscopic Investigation Of “Adhesive Apparatus Epidermis” Of Glyptothorax Pectinopterus (McClelland) (Sisoridae)

 

S.C. Joshi, Hoshiyar Singh, Ila Bisht, and S.K. Agarwal

 Department of zoology, Kumaun University, S.S.J. Campus, Almora – 263 601, India. joshi.drsuresh301@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Surface architecture of the epidermis of adhesive apparatus of Glyptothorax. Pectinopterus (McClelland) (Sisoridae) examine by scanning electron microscopy. The hill-stream fishes have developed specialized organs for adhesion in several strategic regions of the body. Adhesive apparatus are the modifications of the skin on ventral surface. The epithelial cells have been demonstrated in the epidermis of adhesive apparatus of G. pectinopterus, by scanning electron microscopic methods, to study its structural and functional organization with special reference to adhesion. The epidermis of groove of G. pectinopterus is equipped with epithelial cells and mucous cells. The epidermis of ridges of G. pectinopterus consists of mainly keratinized cells. The secretion of amount of mucus by the epidermis covering the groove. This might help in maintaining the vacuum creating by the muscles under margins and thus preventing the entrance of water and air.

[S.C.Joshi, Hoshiyar Singh, Ila Bisht, and S.K. Agarwal. Scanning Electron Micrioscopic Investigatio Of “Adhesive Apparatus Epidermis” Of Glyptothorax Pectinopterus (McClelland) (Sisoridae). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 275-280]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.38

 

Key words: Fish, G. pectinopterus, Epidermis, Adhesive Apparatus, SEM.

Full Text

38

39

Prediction Of Outcome Of Poly Traumatized Patients Using Different Trauma Scoring Systems

 

Okasha A.S1, Abouelela Amr2, Hashish Walid 2

 

1Alexandria university, Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

amrela313@yahoo.com; asokasha@yahoo.com; d_walid11@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trauma remains the third largest cause of death in all regions of the world. If young people only are considered, trauma becomes the leading cause of death and is thus the greatest source of potential years of life lost. Scoring systems have been developed in response to an increasing emphasis on the evaluation and monitoring of health services. These systems enable comparative audit and evaluative research of intensive care. For the trauma outcomes researcher the scores are risk stratifiers, used to divide patients into subsets of risk so that other predictors of outcome may be evaluated. To administrators, score-based measures are a first step toward quality control “report cards” and improvements in health care delivery or injury prevention. The aim of this study was to compare the validity of six current trauma scoring systems [ Glasgow coma scale (GCS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Revised Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and Therapeutic Intervention Score (TISS)] in predicting the outcome in critically ill polytraumatized patients. The study was carried out on 175 polytraumatized patients who were admitted to Critical Care and Emergency Medicine Departments at Alexandria University Main Hospital from 1st of July 2010 to the end of December 2010. All patients are subjected to the routine care and management of trauma patients and The previously mentioned six scoring systems were applied to all patients. The patient outcome was assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score, in hospital &one month mortality. Correlation of the outcome with the different individual score results and comparison between different individual scores were done. It was found that all the six scores correlate significantly with the outcome parameters with different degree of significance and It was also found that the most significant sensitive and specific score was the combined score (anatomical& physiological) TRISS (sensitivity 95.0%, specificity 96.0% and accuracy 95.0%), while the grading of the other scores was in the following sequence: APACHEII, RTS, GCS, TISS (All are physiological) and finally ISS score (Anatomical score). The different scores were compared as regards sensitivity, specificity & accuracy & the comparison revealed that TRISS had the highest sensitivity, specificity & accuracy of all the scores in this study(95, 96, 95%) respectively, while, ISS had the lowest values (68, 70, 68%). Comparison also revealed that APACHEII score had higher sensitivity (92%) than RTS but the latter had better specificity (94%) &accuracy (92%)than the former (88% and 90%) respectively. In general, the physiological scores in this study tend to have a better performance than the anatomical one &the combined scores had the best performance.

[Okasha A.S, Abouelela Amr, Hashish Walid. Prediction Of Outcome Of Poly Traumatized Patients

 Using Different Trauma Scoring Systems. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 281-291]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.39

 

Keywords: Trauma Scores, RTS, TISS, TRISS, Trauma Outcome

Full Text

39

40

Life cycle of Eimeria rousetti sp. nov. (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the frugivorous bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus Geoffroy, 1810 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Egypt.

 

Hamed Mohamed Fayed; Mohamed Abd-Allah Shazly and Sayed Abd El-Monem

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

Kareemsaid156@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Developmental stages of the life cycle of Eimeria rousetti sp. nov. were described for the first time from the frugivorous bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus in Egypt. The infection rate was 32%. Oocysts were collected and identified from naturally infected bats. They were subspherical to ovoid in shape; measured 24.43 x 19.33 µm and limited by a smooth colourless double-layered wall; no micropyle but a polar granule was observed. Events of sporulation were described and sporulation time was found to be 85-90 hrs. at 28±3oC. An oocyst residuum was also observed. The sporocyst measured 11.34 x 6.62 µm with sporocyst residuum; Stieda and substieda bodies were also observed. Experimental inoculation of sporulated oocysts was carried out and the developmental endogenous stages (merogony and gamogony) were followed up and described. The prepatent period was 4 days, while the patent period was 12-14 days. Merogony took place in the lamina propria and epithelial cells of the middle third of the small intestine of the experimentally infected bats at 25-60 hrs. p.i. Only one generation of meronts was observed. Early uninuclear meronts were seen 25-30 hrs. p.i. and measured 4.40 x 3.69 µm, while the mature meronts measured 9.44 x 7.10 µm and contained 6-15 fully- differentiated merozoites. Gamogony occurred at 60-96 hrs. p.i. and took place at the same site. The microgamonts measured 8.60 x 6.62 µm and contained 7-18 small nuclei. At the same time, macrogamonts measured 9.12 x 8.22 µm, while mature macrogametes measured 10.25 x 9.68 µm and contained 2 types of wall-forming bodies (types I&II). At 90-96 hrs. p.i., newly-formed zygotes or young oocysts were observed in the epithelial cells of the experimentally infected bats. In the present study, fusion of the wall-forming bodies (types I & II) to produce the bilayered wall of the oocyst could be observed at the periphery.

[Hamed Mohamed Fayed; Mohamed Abd-Allah Shazly and Sayed Abd El-Monem. Life cycle of Eimeria rousetti sp. nov. (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) infecting the frugivorous bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus Geoffroy, 1810 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Egypt. A light microscopic study. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 292-305]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.40

 

Keyword: Eimeria rousetti, life cycle, Oocysts. Subspherical, merogony and gamogony

Full Text

40

41

Effect of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination and Transplant Growth of Tomato

 

Abou El-Yazied1, A.; Shalaby2, O. A.; A.M. El-Gizawy1; S.M. Khalf2 and A. El-Satar3

 

1Hort. Dept., Fac. Agric., Ain Shams Univ. Hadayek Shoubra, Cairo, Egypt

2Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

3Physics. Dept., Fac. Science, Ain Shams Univ. Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cv. Castlrock seeds were exposed to different magnetic strengths (0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 Tesla) for periods of 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes and the treated seeds were germinated under distilled water or in saline concentration levels of 2500, 5000 and 7500 ppm. The results indicated that the magnetic field treatments led to a significant increase in the germination percentage reduced the time needed for germination and improved seed germination under saline conditions. The best results were found by magnetic seed treatment with 0.1 Tesla for 15 min. On the contrary, high salinity concentrations decreased the germination of seeds, as for the saline concentration of the 2500 ppm activated the seed germination. In the nursery experiment, applying the optimal magnetic seed treatment (0.1 T for 15 min) and/or irrigation with magnetized water gave significant increases in transplant stem length, stem diameter, leaf area and fresh and dry weight than those in the control treatment which grew by untreated seeds and irrigated by ordinary (untreated water) water.

[Abou El-Yazied, A.; Shalaby, O. A.; A.M. El-Gizawy; S.M. Khalf and A. El-Satar. Effect of Magnetic Field on Seed Germination and Transplant Growth of Tomato] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):306-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.41

 

Key words: Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, Germination, Transplant, Magnetic field, Magnetic seed treatments, Magnetic water treatment, Magnetize water.

Full Text

41

42

Propolis Protects Against Methotrexate Induced Hepatorenal Dysfunctions during Treatment of Ehrlich Carcinoma

 

Mohamed O. T. Badr*; Nariman M.M Edrees; Amany A.M Abdallah; Mohamed A. Hashem; Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen; Ahmed N F. Neamat-Allah and Hager T.H Ismail

 

Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 1 Alzeraa Street Postal Code 44511, Zagazig City, Sharkia Province, Egypt. *drosamabadr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two hundred and fifty female Swiss albino mice were used to study the ability of Egyptian propolis to protect methotrexate induced dysfunction to liver and kidneys of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). They equal divided into 5 groups: 1st kept as negative control, 2nd were implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and kept as positive control and, 3rd implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and treated with propolis by dose (50 mg/kg body weight), was given by gastric intubations 2 hours prior to the intraperitoneal injection of EAC,4th implanted intraperitoneally with 2.5×106 EAC and treated with methotrexate by dose (0.4 mg/kg body weight) and 5th implanted with the same count of the EAC cells and treated with combination of propolis and methotrexate(50 mg/kg body weight and 0.4 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for eleven successive days gastric intubations. Antioxidant analysis revealed a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) and an increase in malondialdhyde (MAD) in second and forth groups, the opposite in third group, while fifth group showed reverse in antioxidant level toward the normal control group. Biochemical analysis of serum showed that implantation of EAC in Swiss mice without treatment revealed a significant decrease in total protein and albumin levels without change in globulin level and a significant increase in creatinine level and ALT, AST activities, while the third group that received propolis revealed an improvement in these biochemical parameters compared to the normal control group. Forth group revealed a significant increase in ALT, AST activities and creatinine level and decrease in total proteins, albumin and globulin while fifth group revealed amelioration of these parameters and confirmed with histopathological examination of liver and kidneys.

[Mohamed O. T. Badr; Nariman M.M Edrees; Amany A.M Abdallah; Mohamed A. Hashem; Nasr A.M.N. El-Deen; Ahmed N F. Neamat-Allah and Hager T.H Ismail. Propolis Protects Against Methotrexate Induced Hepatorenal Dysfunctions during Treatment of Ehrlich Carcinoma. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):313-319]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.42

 

Keywords: Protective, EAC, Biochemical, Egypt, Propolis, Methotrexate, Trexan, ALT, AST and Creatinine

Full Text

42

43

Degenerative effect of dimethyl disulfide on central neurons of cockroach Periplaneta americana

 

Amina, E. Essawy 1,2, Jehan, M. Sorour 1,2 and Abir, S. Al-Nasser 1

 

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences for Girls, Um Al Qura University, Makah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

amina_essawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the degenerative effect of dimethyl disulfide, extracted from Allium porrum, on the mesothoracic neurons of Periplaneta americana. Examination of the mesothoracic ganglia of male cockroach treated with 1/4 LC50 of DMDS revealed severe ultrastructural alterations in their neurons. These alterations included: pyknotic nuclei, vacuolized cytoplasm with degenerated and indistinct organelles, Peripheral accumulation of multivesicular bodies and dilated and disorganized extracellular space. Degeneration of synaptic vesicles and swelling of the mitochondria were observed in axons of the neuropile. On the other hand, the nuclear envelope of glial cells nuclei showed deep invagination, while the cytoplasm appeared with abundant and aggregated mitochondria. These results indicate that DMDS has an insecticidal neurodegenerative effect and could be used in pest control.

[Amina, E. Essawy, Jehan, M. Sorour and Abir, S. Al-Nasser. Degenerative effect of dimethyl disulfide on central neurons of cockroach Periplaneta Americana. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):320-324]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.43

 

Key words: Periplaneta americana, DMDS, neurons, ultrastructural alterations.

Full Text

43

44

Construction and validation of a scale for the measurement of alexithymia in university – students

 

*Behnam Makvandi1, Alireza Haydarei2, Manijeh Shehni yailagh3, Bahnam Najarian4 and Parviz Askery2

 

1- Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Khuzestan IRAN

2- Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

3- Professor in Education Psychology, Department of Education and psychology, Shahid Chamran University, IRAN

4- Professor Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University Khuzestan IRAN.

*Corresponding Author: Makvandi_b@yhoo.com

Abstract: This text reports a research that is construction and validation of a scale for measurement of Alexithymia in students coordinated to cultural – social characteristics of society, and factor analysis method mean 175 girls and 205 boys students of Ahvaz Islamic Azad University were selected for this research by stratified random sampling method. At the firs step of research, 65 articles were written for measuring peculiarities of alexithymia by psychology method that 20 articles of them were removed by psychologists within stages of investigation of articles and introductory study. Factor analysis of data indicated that 26 articles were based on single factor scale and hence an alexithymia single scale was made. Coefficient of internal consistency and test – retest were satisfactory and were significant at the level of P = 0.001. Simultaneous execution was used for evaluating the validity of alexithymia scale made of Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS).

[Behnam Makvandi, Alireza Haydarei, Manijeh Shehni yailagh, Bahnam Najarian and Parviz Askery. Construction and validation of a scale for the measurement of alexithymia in university – students. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):325-329]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.44

 

Keyword: construction, validation, Alexithymia.

Full Text

44

45

The comparison between motherhood depression, couples' intimacy and satisfaction in both working and non-working (housewife) mothers

 

Alireza Heydarie1, Parvin Ehtesham Zadeh2, Fatemeh Vazir Nia3

1- Instructor of Psychology, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2- Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University- Khuzestan, Iran

3- M.A in Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Corresponding Author: Fardan2011@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Present study has been conducted to consider and compare the motherhood depression, marital intimacy and satisfaction in both working and non-working (housewife) mothers in Ahvaz. For this purpose, 220 people (110 working and 110 non-working mothers) among the women who referred to 4 urban medical centers located in Ahvaz were chosen and classified in form of multi-process random sampling. The Radloff’s motherhood depression (CES-D) questionnaires, Intimacy Scale and Enrich's marital were applied too. To analyze the data, the descriptive statistic approaches, multivariable variance (MANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient and multi-variable regression methods were all utilized. The significance level was determined to be P<0/05. The research results showed that a significant difference exists between working and non-working (house wife) mothers at least in the terms of one of dependent variables (motherhood depression, intimacy and marital satisfaction). It was also found that and working mothers suffer from higher motherhood depression than the non-working housewives, but they had approximately the same intimacy and marital satisfaction.

[Alireza Heydarie, Parvin Ehtesham Zadeh, Fatemeh Vazir Nia. The comparison between motherhood depression, couples' intimacy and satisfaction in both working and non-working (housewife) mothers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):330-335]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.45

 

Keywords: motherhood depression, marital intimacy, marital satisfaction, working & non-working mothers

Full Text

45

46

The effect of non-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and its effects

 

Chitra Iranpour1, Chakaveh Iranpour2

1- Dietitian 2- Homeopathy. Corresponding Author: diet_nutrition_1380@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Carbohydrates, starch and sugar in it as most people know one of the three major sources of energy and food makes up the largest component. Sometimes up to 90% of dietary energy supply is a poor source of carbohydrates (especially in tropical areas), while only 40 percent energy diets may be the source of the rich class. Carbohydrates, about 43 power plants in the world live animals for food, it depends on the form. Green plants under the influence of sunlight to make carbohydrates from water and carbon dioxide are. This test was performed on 25 patients at different ages. They were removed from the carbohydrate diet and weight loss in a 3-month period they were studied. Results showed that people with moderately high weight (>100 Kg), the process was so quick weight loss in a 45-day period of weight loss was 9 kg. In individuals with lower weight (<75 Kg), 4 kg in a 25-day period showed weight loss.

[Chitra Iranpour, Chakaveh Iranpour. The effect of non-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and its effects. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):336-338]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.46

 

Keywords: diet, weight loss, carbohydrates 

Full Text

46

47

Identification of Adulteration with Camel Meat Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

 

Alaa El-deein El- Morshedy, El-Saied A. El-daly, Adel I. El-Atabany, and Ahmed E. Tharwat

 

Food Control Department (Meat Hygiene). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University

ahmed_tharwat1983@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Meat species adulteration is a common problem in the retail market. This study investigated the validity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the adulteration of camel meat even in low level and heat treated meat emulsion of camel meat. The primer pair was designed based on mitochondrial D-loop gene for detection of adulteration of camel meat in admixed meat and meat products by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Amplification of 208-bp DNA fragments was observed from camel, without any cross-reaction with cattle, sheep, goat and chicken. The amplification was further confirmed by endonuclease enzyme Taq I restriction enzymes. No adverse effect of processing was found on PCR amplification of camel meat DNA extracted from processed meat and meat products, even from meat emulsion autoclaved at 121 °C, for 15–20 min. The detection limit for camel meat was found to be 0.05% in the admixed meat and meat products; however, very faint and inconsistent results were obtained in autoclaved meat emulsion at 0.05% level. The developed PCR assay was found to be specific for camel and could be a useful tool for detection of meat adulteration.

[Alaa El-deein El- Morshedy, El-Saied A. Eldaly, Adel I. El-Atabany, and Ahmed E. Tharwat Identification of Adulteration with Camel Meat Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):339-343]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.47

 

Keywords: Meat species. Adulteration. Detection. Processed meat products. Species-specific PCR assay

Full Text

47

48

Tourism Impact on economic growth of Asian countries During the years from 1992 to 2004

 

Seyed vafa. Meshkat1, Davood Kianoosh 2

 

1. instructor of shiraz Islamic Azad University – sama,Iran

2. instructor of Natanz Islamic Azad University,Iran

meshkatpub@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tourism industry can be considered as a major activity to achieve economic growth. Some of the world countries can attract tourists according to their natural recourses and ecotourism but the others introduce their ancient precedence based on their rich cultural background. It is interesting that nowadays most of countries without these kinds of natural recourses and time honored attempts to attract foreign tourists. All these indicate the importance of tourism in the country's economy. By developing tourism in a country, increased employment and production as well as attraction more foreign exchange will be promised. In this research, considering to importance and oldness of Asia continent, the effect of tourism on some of given countries has been studied. For this purpose, the data had been achieved during the period of 1992 to 2004 from these countries and economic growth model was used. Estimated results indicated that in low income countries the effect of per capita tourism on per capita economic growth is positive and significant. In middle-income countries, per capita tourism had a negative effect on economic growth which is not statistically valid. Also in high-income countries, the effect of per capita tourism on per capita economic growth was estimated positive and statistically valid.

[Seyed vafa. Meshkat, Davood Kianoosh. Tourism Impact on economic growth of Asian countries During the years from 1992 to 2004. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 344-351]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.48

 

Keywords: Tourism, Economic growth, cross-sectional data, GDP, Gross domestic investment, Public expenditures, General cost of education.

Full Text

48

49

Histological Evaluation Of The Temporomandibular Joint After Mandibular Osteodistraction And Mandibular Advancement Osteotomy

 

Mohamed A. Katamish 1, Awatef Abdul- Hamid Mady2

1Lecturer of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University.

2Researcher in Research centre & Bilharzias Researches, Faculty of medicine, Ain shams university

 Corresponding author: E-mail: Katamish72@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Is to compare between histological results of the temporomandibular joint after mandibular advancement versus distraction osteogenesis. Materials and methods: Sample of the study was 21 adult male goats, the animals were divided into 3groups (9 animals in each); group A(two surgical groups (Distraction group), group B (Orthognathic group), and group C (control group which contained 3 animals). In group A especial design distraction device was applied extra-orally after osteotomy at right angle of mandible. While in group B Unilateral Sagittal Split Osteotomy with mandibular advancement and screws fixation was done. In the third group scarification of the animal. Histological evaluation using stained sections with Heamatoxylin Eosin (H&E).Results: There were a variations in structures of the joint in each group and at each week. Most of these variations were in thickness of the fibrocartilagenous layer of the temporal bone, number of multinucleated giant cells, chondrocytes that form the articulating disc. No signs of bone denudation or erosion were observed. Conclusions: The gradual lengthening of the mandible through distraction osteogenesis have smooth effects on the joint, but finally after a sufficient time both distraction and sagittal split osteotomy showed the same results.

[Mohamed A. Katamish, Awatef Abdul- Hamid Mady. Histological Evaluation Of The Temporomandibular Joint After Mandibular Osteodistraction And Mandibular Advancement Osteotomy. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):352-362]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.49

 

Keywords: Temporomandibular Joint, Distraction Osteogenesis, Orthognathic Surgery

Full Text

49

50

A Theoretical Study of Social Capital in Agricultural Cooperatives

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.com

Abstract: Does agricultural cooperatives generate positive influences on social capital? This question has important theoretical and policy implications for the contemporary world, especially for the developing countries. This research explores how agricultural cooperatives may influence networks among members and consequently the influence of that social capital on the cooperatives activities. This article attempts to determine the important indicators of social capital in development of agricultural cooperatives. It also demonstrates that the cooperatives in six indicators can increase the level of social capital for rural development..

[Fatemeh Aref. A Theoretical Study of Social Capital in Agricultural Cooperatives. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 363-366]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.50

 

Keywords: social capital, agricultural cooperatives, rural development

Full Text

50

51

Embedding Binary Tree and Bus into Hex-Cell Interconnection Network

 

Mohammad Qatawneh1

 

Department of Computer Science, KASIT, University of Jordan, P.O. Box 13047, Amman 11942, Jordan

1mohd.qat@ju.edu.jo

 

Abstract. The Hex-Cell network is an interconnection network that is recursively defined and has excellent properties for scalable distributed systems. Amongst the attractive features of the hex-cell network is the embedding capability of topological structures such as binary tree and bus. In this paper, we present algorithms for embedding a binary tree and bus topologies into hex-cell interconnection network with dilation and congestion of one for tree and bus.

[Mohammad Qatawneh. Embedding Binary Tree and Bus into Hex-Cell Interconnection Network. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(12):367-370] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.51

 

Key words: Embedding, Hex-Cell network, Dilation, Congestion, Tree.

Full Text

51

52

[Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 371-382]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Withdrawn

Full Text

52

53

Bond strength of different intraoral repair systems for metal-ceramic restorations

 

Mohamed M.K. El-Hosary1, Tamer E. Shokry1*, Dalia Y. Zaki2, Ahmed S. Abd El-Shakour3

 

1Department of crown and fixed prosthodontics, Faculty of dental medicine, Al-Azhar University

1*Fixed Prosthodontics Dept., College of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University& Chief Dental Department, Magrabi Hospital, Jeddah

2Restorative and Dental Materials Research Department,National Research Centre

3Fixed and Removable Prosthodontics Dept. National Research Centre

Corresponding author: sameh4@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: When clinical fractures of the ceramic veneer on metal-ceramic prostheses can be repaired, the need for remake may be eliminated or postponed. Different ceramic repair materials are available, and bond strength data are necessary for predicting the success of a given repair system. The aim of this study was evaluation of the shear bond strength of three intra oral repair systems for metal-ceramic restorations applied on exposed metal and porcelain surface. Material and methods: Nickel-chromium alloy and feldspathic porcelain were used to fabricate 60 cylindrical specimens (9 × 3 mm). Specimens were embedded in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ring and received one of the following bonding and resin composite repair systems: indicated that the highest mean shear bond strength values among repair systems with metal surface, were recorded using CoJet repair system, followed by Bistite II DC and the lowest value were obtained for Clearfil type. On the other hand the highest mean shear bond strength values were recorded for Clearfil type, followed by CoJet and the lowest value were obtained for Bestite II DC type. Conclusions: In this study, CoJet repair system produced the highest shear bond strength to the exposed metal surface, while using Clearfil repair system achieved the highest shear bond strength to the exposed porcelain surface.

[Mohamed M.K. El-Hosary, Tamer E. Shokry, Dalia Y. Zaki, Ahmed S. Abd El-Shakour. Bond strength of different intraoral repair systems for metal-ceramic restorations. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 383-388]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.53

 

Keywords: Shear bond strength, alloys, thermocycling, ceramo-metallic, intraoral repair

Full Text

53

54

Effect of Various Daily Consumption Agents on Tooth Extraction Wound Healing: Radiographic and Histological Experimental Study

 

Walaa Samir*1, Mushira Mohamed Abdel- Latif Dahaba2, Mohamed Ayad Abdel- Hamid3, Gihan Omar2 and Amal Hassan2

 

1Oral Radiology, Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt

2Radiology Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3Surgery, Anaesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

*walaa8824@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current radiographic and histopathological study was conducted in an attempt to demonstrate the effect of some irrigants and daily used agents on the healing process of sockets following teeth extraction in Mongrel dogs. Thirty two extraction sites were investigated in eight healthy, mature male Mongrel dogs. Extraction sockets were grouped according to the cleaning mode of each socket into, saline, water, and tea-irrigated sockets. A fourth group acted as a control group and was not irrigated at all and left to heal normally. The sockets were studied and analyzed y histopathologically and radiographically using digital densitometric analysis. The results of this study revealed progression in radiographic bone density during healing of extraction wound with the highest value demonstrated at week 3 after extraction for the saline group, then for the control group at week4.The saline –irrigated sockets demonstrated the highest levels of bone tissue at the end of the study period.

[Walaa Samir, Mushira Mohamed Abdel- Latif Dahaba, Mohamed Ayad Abdel-Hamid, Gihan Omar and Amal Hassan. Effect of Various Daily Consumption Agents on Tooth Extraction Wound Healing: Radiographic and Histological Experimental Study. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):389-399]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.54

 

Keywords: extraction socket; bone density; irritants; healing of socket wound

Full Text

54

55

The Choice Between Mandibular Advancement Devices And Bite Openers For Treatment Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

 

Maged Mohamed El Sayed, Dr. Essam Adel Aziz, Dr. Iman Abd El-Wahab

 

Clinical demonstrator, Department of removable prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

Assistant professor, Department of removable prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

Assistant professor, Department of removable prosthodontics, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University.

dressamaziz@msn.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of changing either the amount of mandibular protrusion or the vertical jaw separation on apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) and snoring index (SI) In patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Material and methods: Twenty fully dentulous patients were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: In which patients were treated by screw-type adjustable two-piece mandibular advancement devices (MADs) that were initially adjusted at 50% (1st stage), then readjusted at 75% (2nd stage) of the maximum protrusion, and group II: in which patients were treated by two ready-made bite openers (BOs); the first provides 7 mm (1st stage), while the second 11mm (2nd stage) vertical jaw separation. Polysomnography (PSG) was used to evaluate AHI and SI and to compare between both groups and between the stages within each group. Data were collected to calculate the mean values for all stages and the mean differences between both stages in each group. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA test to detect significant differences between both groups. On the other hand, Pearson’s correlation test was used to compare between the stages within each group. Results: Regarding the AHI mean differences the comparison among different stages of group I and II revealed a statistically significant difference among all stages except stage I of group I and stage II of group II, while regarding SI mean differences, no statistically significant difference was found among them except stage II of group I and stage I of group II. Within each group, a statistically significant difference was found between the base line and both stages regarding AHI and SI. On the other hand, the comparison between the stages revealed a statistically significant difference regarding the SI mean differences only. Conclusion: MADs are capable of achieving better results than BOs regarding AHI, while both appliances can achieve comparably equal results regarding SI. Clinical implication: For patients complaining of OSA, it is recommended to use MADs adjusted at 50% advancement rather than 75% to minimize the possible side effects and the possible extra annoyance that may happen. On the other hand, for snorers, it is advisable to use BOs rather than MADs as they are simpler, more tolerable and cheaper.

[Maged Mohamed El Sayed, Dr. Essam Adel Aziz, Dr. Iman Abd El-Wahab. The Choice Between Mandibular Advancement Devices And Bite Openers For Treatment Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):400-406]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.55

 

Keywords; Mandibular advancement devices (MADs), Bite openers (BOs), Polysomnography (PSG), Apnea\hypopnea index (AHI), Snoring index (SI), Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Full Text

55

56

Biochemical and Ultra Structure Studies of the Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the Nephrotoxicity Induced by Organophosphorous Pesticide (Malathion) on the Adult Albino Rats

Hala H. Mossalam 1 -*Olfat A. Abd-El Aty 2- Enas N. Morgan 3 - Sahar M. S.Youssaf 4 - Amal M H. Mackawy5

1, 2, 4 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar –University (girls).

3 Department of Physiology,5Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig, University.

*Olfat_fair@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Organophosphorous (OP) pesticide is applied to numerous crops, including wheat and corn. Residual amounts of organophosphorous pesticides have been detected in soil, vegetables, grains and other food products. Several mechanisms of the OP toxicity have been proposed, including the induction of cellular proliferation, oxidative stress and immune-toxicity. Roselle (ROS, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., family Malvaceae) is an annual shrub commonly used to make jellies, jams and beverages. Many biological activities have been recorded for ROS, such as anti-atherosclerosis, anti-carcinogenic, hepato-protective and anti-oxidative properties. The Aim: this study was set to evaluate the possible protective effect of Roselle on nephro-toxicity induced by sub-lethal dose of Malathion in rats. Material and Methods: 24 adult male albino rats were used and divided into four groups of 6 rats/each. Group I: animals were given corn oil at a dose of 0.2 ml per animal via gavage once a day for one month and served as a control. Group II: animal received only aqueous extracts of Roselle at a daily dose of (500 mg /kg/day). Group III: animal were given Malathion at a sub lethal dose of 27mg/kg/day. Groups IV: animal were given both of aqueous extracts of Roselle as the same dose of group II three hours before the administration of Malathion. At the end of the experimental period the kidney function and markers of oxidative stress were investigated. Moreover, histopathological examination of the renal tissue was carried by light and electron microscopes. The results of the present study showed that treatment with Malathion alone caused increase in the kidney weight (P=0.000), cellular degeneration, necrosis of the renal tissues and increase in the serum urea and creatinine (P=0.000 for both). However, administration of aqueous extract of Roselle prior to Malathion resulted in a significant alleviation of the kidney injuries evidenced by a decrease of the kidney weights when compared to the Malathion-treated (P=0.000) and biochemical indices; urea and creatinine (P=0.000; P>0.05) for both when compared to the Malathion-treated and control groups respectively. Furthermore, there was significant improvement of the histological picture toward the normal among the Malathion+ROS-treated group. All these effects may be due to the antioxidant effect of the Roselle as treatment with the extract of Roselle significantly elevated (P=0.000) the decreased CAT activity observed with Malathion treated rats. Moreover, treatment with the extract of Roselle significantly elevated the SOD levels when compared to the Malathion-treated animals (P=0.000). Furthermore, the GSH level reduced significantly (P=0.000) along with increased in MDA concentration (P=0.000) in the Malathion treated group as compared to the control group. However on treatment with Roselle extract, the GSH level was found to be enhanced significantly (P=0.000) and the MDA contents were reduced (P=0.000) when compared to the Malathion treated group. Conclusion, the results of the current study showed that the aqueous extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa possess a potent protective effect from the oxidative stress induced by sub lethal dose of Malathion on the kidney.

[Hala H. Mossalam -Olfat A. Abd-El Aty- Enas N. Morgan - Sahar M. S.Youssaf - Amal M H. Mackawy. Biochemical and Ultra Structure Studies of the Antioxidant Effect of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on the Nephrotoxicity Induced by Organophosphorous Pesticide (Malathion) on the Adult Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):407-421]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.56

 

Keywords: kidney, Malathion, Roselle, ultra structure, anti oxidant protective effect.

Full Text

56

57

The Protective role of brown alga (Sargassum crassifolia) against the degenerative toxic effects induced by Nimbecidin in muscles of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.

 

Hawazin H. Mutawie* and Asmaa M. Hegazi**

 

*Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Corresponding author: e-mail hhmutawie@uqu.edu.sa

**Department of Aquatic Pathology, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Al-Qanater, Cairo, Egypt. e-mail dr.amhegazy@gmail.com, sabsak@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential effect of the brown alga Sargassum crassifolia against biochemical and histological alterations in the muscles of fresh water fish, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to 1/10 LC50 (0.03 ppm) of Nimbecidin (azadirachtin). S. crassifolia was added to the basal diet of fish in different proportions (0, 10 and 25%) and the experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Exposure of fish to Nimbecidin induced significant decrease in the activity of reduced glutathione, catalase and in the total protein content of fish muscles. Also many histopathological changes including degeneration and necrosis, disorganized myofibers with chromophobic cytoplasm, haemocytic infiltration, oedema and inflammations were noticed in Nimbecidine - treated fish. Exposing fish to Nimbicidin and Sargassum crassifolia (10% and 25%) led to marked improvement in the examined biochemical parameters together with the histological structure of muscles. This improvement was more obvious at high concentration of Sargassum crassifolia. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that the brown alga Sargassum crassifolia had ameliorative effect against muscle damage induced by Nimbicidin and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant activities.

[Hawazin H. Mutawie and Asmaa M. Hegazi. The Protective role of brown alga (Sargassum crassifolia) against the degenerative toxic effects induced by Nimbecidin in muscles of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):422-431]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.57

 

Key words: Sargassum crassifolia, Oreochromis niloticus, antioxidant, neem, Nimbecidin, muscles, Glutathione, Catalase, Total protein.

Full Text

57

58

Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Patients in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

 

*Amal MH Mackawy 1, Mohammed Abd-Alrahman Alzohairy2, Entisar Abd –Alfarag Ahmed3, Mohammed EH Badawy 4

 

1-Lecturer of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University and Assistant Professor of Medical Biochemistry, Medical Laboratory department Qassim University

2- Assistant Professor of Microbiology and the Head of Medical Laboratory department, Qassim University.

3- Assistant Professor of Clinical Chemistry and the organizer of Medical Laboratory department, Qassim University.

4- Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University and Consultant of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Qassim KSA.

 

Abstract: Obesity posses a global health care problem and is considered a major risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes (type2 DM). In the Gulf States, diabetes is reported to be an epidemic with a high prevalence in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The roles of adipose tissue and obesity are of paramount significance via secretion of adiponectin hormone, the protein product of the APM1 gene. Adiponectin has been claimed to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. However, contrasting results have been emerged on the genetic variability in APM1 and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and adiponectin plasma levels. Objectives: Our aim is to determine the frequency of 276G→T of the adiponectin gene and plasma adiponectin levels in obese patients with and without type 2 DM to identify the effects of this polymorphism on insulin sensitivity, type 2 DM and obesity in Saudi Society mainly in Qassim region. Subjects:1 20 volunteers were included and divided into: Group I: 40 healthy volunteers. GroupII: 40 obese patients not suffered from type 2 DM. Group III: 40 obese patients suffering from type 2 DM. Methods: Fasting blood samples were collected for routine and research investigations. ELISA technique was used to estimate plasma adiponectin levels, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to examine the adiponectin gene SNP276 G>T polymorphism. Results: There was a significant association of the T allele frequency in group II and group III patients when compared to controls (X2=12.86, P = 0.000), (X2 =36.95, P= 0.000) respectively with more significant increase in group III when compared to group II (X2 =8.052, P=0.005). The Fasting blood glucose (FBG), plasma insulin levels and HOMA index were significantly higher in patients carrying the TT than in GG carriers of each group II and III (P< 0.05). In group III patients, carriers of TT genotypes having a significant decrease in plasma adiponectin levels than GG carriers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Obese and diabetic patients had lower plasma adiponectin levels than healthy controls. It was the T allele and TT genotypes of 276G>T SNP that was associated with lower plasma adiponectin, higher risk of obesity, Insulin resistance and higher parameters of metabolic syndrome and type 2 DM.

[Amal MH Mackawy, Mohammed Abd-Alrahman Alzohairy, Entisar Abd –Alfarag Ahmed, Mohammed EH Badawy. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Obese Patients in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):432-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.58

 

Key Words: Adiponectin SNP276, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus.

Full Text

58

59

Impact of Utilizing Nursing Guideline Protocol on Minimizing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Children at Zagazig University Hospital

 

Amal Eldakhakhny 1 and Hala Zaiton 2

 

Departments of 1Pediatric Nursing and 2Medical –Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University, Egypt. dr_amal2001@yahoo.comhala_zaton@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Responsibilities of nurses for minimizing the rate of mechanical ventilator pneumonia may differ among different countries as it is a serious complication of mechanical ventilator. Mechanical ventilator pneumonia increases children’s length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit and overall length of hospitalization. This study aims to identify the impact of utilizing nursing guideline protocol on minimizing ventilator-associated pneumonia among children. A quasi- experimental design was used in this study. The present study was conducted in both Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units at Zagazig University Hospital. The study subjects included two groups. Group I, consisted of 30 nurses providing direct nursing care for children receiving mechanical ventilation. Group II, included all children admitted to both Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units during a period of three months on mechanical ventilation and free from any sign of pneumonia during admission. The total number of children included in the study was 60, and they were divided into two groups, 30 children received routine nursing care (control group) and 30 children received the nursing guideline protocol to minimize ventilator-associated pneumonia (study groups). Two tools to collect the data were used; the first tool was child assessment sheet. The second tool was an observational checklist for nurses' performance. The study findings concluded that, the rates of VAP, duration of mechanical ventilation in days, as well as the length of stay in the hospital decreased significantly among children subjected to nursing guideline protocol. The main study recommendations:1- Development of training program should be conducted periodically for nursing staff in ICU.2- Nursing guideline protocol should be available and implemented in Egyptian ICU settings.

[Amal Eldakhakhny and Hala Zaiton. Impact of Utilizing Nursing Guideline Protocol on Minimizing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Children at Zagazig University Hospital] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):444-453]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.59

 

Key ward: Guideline protocol - ventilator associated pneumonia – children.

Full Text

59

60

The Effect of an Assertiveness Training Program on Assertiveness Skills and Social Interaction Anxiety of Individuals with Schizophrenia

 

1Amal A. Mousa, 2Sanaa A. Imam, 2Amira Y. Sharaf

 

1Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, Damanhur University, Faculty of Nursing, Egypt

2Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, Alexandria University, Faculty of Nursing, Egypt

 

Abstract: This study aimed to determine the effect of an assertiveness training program on assertiveness skills and social interaction anxiety of individuals with schizophrenia. A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Sixty-two male individuals with schizophrenia were recruited from inpatient wards of El-Maamoura hospital for Psychiatric Medicine in Alexandria, Egypt. Patients who had duration of illness ranging from 5 to 15 years and were able to read and write comprised two matched groups with 32 in the study group and 30 in the control group. Patients in both groups received their psychotropic medications, but only those in the study group received group training sessions of assertiveness skills, one session every other day, 60 minutes each for ten sessions. Both groups were pre and post-tested. As for the study group, an additional assessment was done after the fifth session (intra-test). Patients were interviewed on individual base using reliable adapted versions of both assertiveness and social interaction anxiety scales. The results indicated that although the mean scores of assertiveness skills tended to increase in the study group and decrease in the control group at post-test, there were no significant changes between the study and the control group (t = 0.81, p =.42). Patients receiving the assertiveness training program had less initiation anxiety than those in the control group (t = 3.34, p =.001). Social interaction anxiety had shown a tendency to gradually decrease with the lengthening of the group treatment time. The findings documented that although assertiveness training program led to insufficient acquisition of assertiveness skills, it was demonstrated to be effective in reducing the social interaction anxiety in individuals with schizophrenia. Implications for further improving the effectiveness of the assertiveness training program are suggested.

[Amal A. Mousa, Sanaa A. Imam, Amira Y. Sharaf. The Effect of an Assertiveness Training Program on Assertiveness Skills and Social Interaction Anxiety of Individuals with Schizophrenia. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):454-466]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.60

 

Key words: Assertiveness skills; Assertiveness training; Schizophrenia; Social anxiety.

Full Text

60

61

Political Relation of the Saljuqid and Qarazmshahian

 

Ali mahmodi alami

 

Meshkatpub@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Saljuqid were tribal people who dwelled on the other part of Jeyhoun; although after a short time, they gained great power and formed a conquerors’ empire. They succeeded in dominating the Qaznavid and by pushing Al-e-Buyeh aside, they gained control over Abbasid caliphate and expanded their sovereignty from Seyhun to Mediterranean Sea borders. That expansion urged relationships with neighboring rulers and in this approach, the bureaucratic organizations of Saljuqid that rooted in Sassanid Era played an effective role in those relations. The political communications were performed through an ambassador who had already received necessary trainings and Khajeh Nezamolmolk who had a deep knowledge on political organizations played roles. Khajeh believed that an ambassador must have characteristics such as wisdom, good memory, brave and good-looking. In addition to the political system of the Saljuqid, one must not underestimate the flourished Christianity beliefs beyond eastern borders of Iran and the efforts of Iranian Christians in introducing Christianity; for, in less than two centuries, it became the most important issue in establishing relationship between Iran and western countries.

[Ali mahmodi alami. Political Relation of the Saljuqid and Qarazmshahian. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):467-470]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.61

 

Keywords: Byzantine, Qarazmshahian, Political Relations, Bureaucracy, Saljuqid, Qaznavid, Qorian

Full Text

61

62

Agricultural Production Cooperatives in Iran: Challenges and Opportunities

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi & Kobra Aref

 

Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@gmail.comkobra.aref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Agricultural production cooperatives are certainly a major contributor to agricultural development in many countries. But, there are a number of barriers to effectively using agricultural production cooperatives as a tool for agricultural development in Iran. The results obtained from qualitative research, indicated that there are some barriers at the national, local and organizational levels towards agricultural production cooperatives. Dependency of cooperatives to government and lack of cultural capacity for group collaboration, lack of resources, lack of cooperatives leaders’ knowledge, were an important element contributing to limited production cooperatives in agricultural development and rural development as well. The findings of this study can assist agricultural developers in the implementation of educational strategies towards develop the production cooperatives in rural areas of Iran. This paper also will serve as a catalyst for further thought and discussion on how agricultural production cooperatives can enhance income and quality of life for their members.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi & Kobra Aref. Agricultural Production Cooperatives in Iran: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):471-474]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.62

 

Key words: Production cooperatives, rural development, agriculture

Full Text

62

63

Comparison of Fuzzy and (PID) Techniques in controlling a HVAC System

 

Khaled M. K. Pasha

 

Mechatronics Department, Faculty of Engineering, October 6, University, Egypt

khmki1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The performances of four fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) techniques were investigated and compared with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, Four user-defined-functions (UDF's) were written and attached to code, ANSYS 12.1 64 bit to simulate the (FLC) actions of four different membership functions (MF's). In all cases, it is required to keep the temperature and humidity in a test room almost at certain setpoints using a simple heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC). The results showed that, the performance of (FLC) in most cases was more stable with a very low oscillations around the set points. The temperature response with (FLC) was faster and more stable than that of the (PID) for all the four cases. The humidity response with the (PID) was slightly faster than all (FLC) cases. When defining the fuzzy sets in a power interval, the controller showed an oscillatory temperature response and a slower humidity response than that of all used control techniques.

[Khaled M. K. Pasha. Comparison of Fuzzy and (PID) Techniques in controlling a HVAC System. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):475-482]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.63

 

Keywords: Energy management, HVAC, temperature, humidity, control.

Full Text

63

64

The Association between Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Lymphoma

 

Hydi Ahmed1, Medhat Ismail1, Samir Abdel Maguid2, Usama Ahmed Arafa3, and Sayed Mostafa4

 

Departments of 1Clinical Pathology, 2Surgery, 3Internal Medicine and 4Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: To identify the frequency of HCV infection among patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin’s disease (HD). Subjects and Methods: The study involved 152 patients; 111 with NHL and 41 with HD proved by lymph node biopsy and a control group of 50 individuals attending the internal medicine clinic of Sohag University hospital. ELISA technique was used for detection of antibodies against HCV. HCV RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of viral RNA in blood. Results: HCV antibody positivity was significantly higher (p = 0.017) in NHL (36%) and HD (31.7%) groups compared to the control group (14%). There was no significant difference in HCV antibody positivity between NHL and HD groups (p = 0.495). Using RT-RCR, HCV RNA was detected in 8 control subjects, 44 patients with NHL and 12 patients with (p = 0.011). Conclusion: Despite the high prevalence of HCV in the general population in Egypt, HCV is significantly more frequent in patients with NHL and Hodgkin’s disease. Further larger studies are needed to establish this epidemiological relationship between HCV and lympho-proliferative disorders.

[Hydi Ahmed, Medhat Ismail, Samir Abdel Maguid, Usama Ahmed Arafa, and Sayed Mostafa. The Association between Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Lymphoma. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):483-487]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.64

 

Keyword: Association between, Hepatitis C Virus, Infection, Lymphoma.

Full Text

64

65

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment amongst School Teachers in Shiraz, Iran

 

Khadijeh Aref & Abrisham Aref

 

Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars Iran

 banafsheharef@gmail.comabrishamaref@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment amongst school teachers in rural districts of Shiraz, Iran. Employees’ productivity is largely related to their level of job satisfaction. Therefore, it is important for an organization to study the relationships between Job satisfaction and organizational commitment. A survey questionnaire was made to collect the information for job satisfaction and organizational commitment of each employee. One hundred fifty teachers responded to the survey. After analyzing the data, we found that there is a relatively strong correlation between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Generally, higher level of job satisfaction will lead to higher level of organizational commitment. The Results of the study also show that the mean values of job satisfaction and organizational commitment are at low side.

[Khadijeh Aref & Abrisham Aref, The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment amongst High School Teachers in Shiraz, Iran, Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):488-491]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.65

 

Keywords: Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, school teachers, education

Full Text

65

66

Relationship between accountability and public trust from the view point of staffs and clients: A survey in Electric power distribution company of Shiraz in I.R.IRAN

 

Hojat Moshtaghian Abarghoei 1, Reza Zare 2 Hossein Hosseini 3 Bahram Esmaeili 4

 

1. Department of Public Administration, PhD student of Human Resource Management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN

2. Department of Public Administration, PhD student of Organizational Behavior, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN. rezazare77@gmail.com

3. Department of Public Administration, M.sc of HR management, Payame Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, IRAN

4. M.sc of HR management, The Holy Prophet Higher Education Complex, Tehran, IRAN. 0098 (0)7117335087; fax: 0098 (0) 7112281090

 

Abstract: Regarding the Electric power distribution company of Shiraz as the sample, this survey is aimed to examine the various aspects of accountability and to define its importance relative to the public trust toward the public organizations. Accountability includes six parts: moral, financial, legal, functional, and informing accountability. Due to the results, research hypotheses (using Pearson correlation) were confirmed and it was clear that there was a meaningful relationship between accountability along with its six fold dimensions and public trust. The degree of trust was medium. In order to determine the coefficient of various dimensions of accountability, the step by step regression method was used and it was clear that there were meaningful relationships between 4 out of 6 as peats of accountability and public trust.

[Hojat Moshtaghian, Abarghoei, Reza Zare, Hossein Hosseini, Bahram Esmaeili. Relationship between accountability and public trust from the view point of staffs and clients: A survey in Electric power distribution company of Shiraz in I.R. IRAN. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):492-499]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.66

 

Keywords: Trust; Accountability; Inter organizational trust; Extra organizational trust; Hierarchical analysis method

Full Text

66

67

The Effect of Postoperative Pain Assessment and Management Monitoring Program on Surgical Nurses’ Documentation, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Patients' Satisfaction at Mansoura University Hospitals

 

Karima Elshamy1 and Eiad Ramzy 2

 

1Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Department of Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

Karima_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Introduction: Post operative pain is an expected adverse outcome following surgery and it often delays mobilization and overall recovery. Acute post operative pain is subjective and cannot be measured objectively. Aims: The aim of this study was to: 1- Assess nurses' postoperative pain assessment and management documentation of pain in the first three days postoperatively in the surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals. 2-Assess nurses’ knowledge of and attitudes toward pain in the surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals.3- Assess nurses’ communication with patients and their satisfaction of pain management, and 4-Evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a postoperative pain assessment and management program (POPAM) on improving nurses’ documentation, knowledge, attitudes, communication with the patients and their satisfaction of pain management. Materials and Method: The POPAM program was implemented for six months from 10 November 2010 to 10 April 2011.Data were collected by interviewing 18 nurses working in surgical wards at Mansoura University Hospitals. The program was evaluated by means of a quasi-experimental pre-post test design Documentation of pain in the first three days postoperatively in the patients' records were audited, nurses’ knowledge of and their attitudes toward pain, and, assessment of nurses’ communication about pain with patients and their satisfaction about nurses’ intervention were assessed before and after implementing the program. Results: The findings illustrated that the implementation of an educational program for nurses was successful. First of all, the patients’ records showed a significant difference in the amount and the quality of nursing documentation which reflected the fact that nurses became more aware about the importance of documentation and might also means that they change their practices toward better postoperative pain management. Secondly, the nurses developed the habit of assessing postoperative pain intensity using numeric rating scales, in addition to the assessment of other pain characteristics. Thirdly, the nurses improved their knowledge about postoperative pain, and their attitudes toward it were evidently changed. Finally, the quality of communication with patients about pain and pain management was significantly improved. Conclusions and Recommendations: The study concluded that nurses in Mansoura University Hospitals which included in this study possess moderate knowledge and positive attitude towards post operative management. Continuous education in pain management is crucial to improve nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards post operative management. The results of this study provided a framework for the development and implementation of continuing education programs for nursing staff which can enhance the quality of patient care in post operative pain management. Therefore, it is imperative that pain assessment should be included as the fifth cardinal vital signs in the nursing curriculum. Another implication related to nursing management is that this study might increase the awareness of the health care professionals and the health institutions administration toward the establishment of team work to induce change with a common purpose in upgrading the quality of pain assessment and management. Managers and supervisors can facilitate the application of educational programs and incorporate with the team to move more quickly in the desired change. Implications of the study may be relevant to nursing education and in continuing education of health care institutions.

[Karima Elshamy and Eiad Ramzy. The Effect of Postoperative Pain Assessment and Management Monitoring Program on Surgical Nurses’ Documentation, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Patients' Satisfaction at Mansoura University Hospitals] Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):500-516]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.67

 

Keywords: postoperative pain, nurses“ knowledge, nurses“ attitudes, surgical wards, pain management program, acute pain

Full Text

67

68

Effect of Peer Education Intervention and Procalcitonin Detection on Peripheral Intravenous Catheter- Related Blood Stream Infections and Associated Complications among Selected Patients at Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt

 

Karima F Elshamy*1 and Maggie R Mesbah 2

 

1Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University, Egypt

2Microbiology and Medical Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. *Karima_elshamy2002@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine whether peer education using group approach focusing on knowledge and practice aimed at improving the insertion and management of peripheral intravenous catheter and procalcitonin detection could decrease the rate of peripheral intravenous catheter- related blood stream infections and associated complications. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted during nine months from January 2010 to September 2010 in medical, surgical, neurology, and orthopedic departments at Mansoura University Hospitals. Two categories of subjects were included in the study; A- Nurses, including (8 peer trainers, were selected based on certain criteria and 60 trainees). B-130 Patients.Three research tools were used in the study: 1-Nurses' Knowledge questionnaire regarding the insertion and management of peripheral intravenous catheter and peripheral intravenous catheter- related blood stream infections and associated complications.2- Nurses' practice checklist regarding the correct procedures for the insertion and management of peripheral intravenous catheter, and 3-Surveillance of patients with peripheral intravenous catheter- related blood stream infections and associated complications. Results: There was a significant increase of peer trainers and trainees 'knowledge and practice in all items before and after training (p<0.05). There was a significant reduction in the percentage of infections in the surgical and Medical departments (p value was < 0.001 and 0.009) while there were no significant reduction in the percentage of infections in both neurosurgery and orthopedic departments. The total isolated organisms from PCABSI were 61 microorganisms most of them were Gram negative. Detection of procalcitonin by EIA showed that there was significant high level among patients with Gram negative bacterimia versus patients with Gram positive and also patients with candidal bacterimia (P-value < 0.001). Limitations for the study: This study was based only on peer trainers and trainees of Mansoura University hospitals, so, findings can not be generalized for peer trainers and trainees of all university hospitals. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, peer education program and procalcitonin detection was found to be effective in improving knowledge and practices of both trainers and trainees, reduction in the percentage of infections in the surgical and medical departments and no significant reduction in the percentage of infections in both neurosurgery and orthopedic departments. Recommendations: Training for peer educators needs to be an on-going process; refresher and more advanced training should be offered periodically. Retesting study should be done on a larger sample using a control group. A follow-up study could describe the aspects of the relationship that seem important from both the trainers and the trainee's perspective, this data could be used to further refine effective teaching and learning protocols. More research is necessary to assess long-term impact evaluations. A broader study across several health institutions is also recommended so as to get a sample that will be the best representative of all nurses' level could reduce morbidity and the costs of care associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections.It is hoped that this study will help in planning and improving policies for addressing issues related to the insertion and management of peripheral intravenous catheter at Mansoura University hospitals.

[Karima F Elshamy and Maggie R Mesbah. Effects of Peer Education Intervention and Procalcitonin Detection on Peripheral Intravenous Catheter- Related Blood Stream Infections and Associated Complications among Selected Patients at Mansoura University Hospitals, Egypt] Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):517-532]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.68

 

Keywords: Peer Education - Procalcitonin - Peripheral Intravenous Catheter- Blood Stream Infections

Full Text

68

69

Perceived issues and challenges to professional development of faculty members in tertiary academic institutes of Punjab, Pakistan

 

Anam siddiqui 1, Hassan Danial Aslam 2, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan 3, Mehrdad Jalalian 4

 

1. MS Scholar & Visiting Faculty Member, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2. Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

3. Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

 4. Editor-in-Chief, Electronic Physician Journal, Mashhad, Iran

hassan.danial@iub.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Professional development of faculty members is an emerging concept in developing countries. It has been embraced quickly in developed nations unlike developing and under developing nations. The major purpose of this paper is to explore various perceived issues and challenges to professional development of faculty members and to provide suggestions to improve such emerging problems. This paper provides suggestions and recommendations for the universities where professional development practices have not yet started or have been started but facing some problems. Author has explored various perceived issues and challenges highlighted by prior studies that have further served as basis to design structured questionnaire and semi-structured interview questions for this study. Four renowned universities of Punjab were selected from which sample of 108 respondents were chosen for data collection. Data has been analyzed by taking simple means and standard deviations through SPSS. The findings of this paper reveal that the issue that is most alarming and has got lowest mean score is granting rewards and incentives and level of satisfaction of faculty members to professional development programs. Author has provided various recommendations as to conduct proper need assessment before training, to properly plan quality training programs and take input of trainees as well, to increase grants and funds for training, to create positive working environment for teachers, to train the trainers, to provide financial and non financial benefits to trainees and to properly scheduling training programs. This study could be beneficial for policy makers, managers and administrators of universities who could device better policies and practices to promote quality teaching in institutes.

[Anam siddiqui, Hassan Danial Aslam, Hafiz Muhammad Farhan, Mehrdad Jalalian. Perceived issues and challenges to professional development of faculty members in tertiary academic institutes of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):533-538]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.69

 

Keywords: Professional Development; Higher Education; Pakistan

Full Text

69

70

Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Lingual Mucosa of Rat Pups of Phenylketonuria Mothers

 

Somaya Shalaby

 

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

sshalaby66@Yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study aimed to describe the morphology and structure of lingual mucosa of albino rat at 7 & 21 days pups. Specimens taken from tongue of pups of both control and experimental PKU mothers and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae appeared as small finger-like projections with rounded tips, its peripheral epithelial coat showed early keratinization. With the advancement of growth at 7 & 21 days postnatal, three types of filliform papillae were distinguished associated with much more keratinization of their free ends. At the same time, the gustatory fungiform papillae were more differentiated at 7 &21days, fungiform papillae is more differentiated form and became identical in morphology to that in the adult. The experimental rat pups of PKU mothers at 7 & 21 days, showed a considerable reduction of lingual keratinization. The stratification pattern of both filliform and fungiform papillae showed apparent degeneration of their cellular elements including vacuolar degeneration and necrotic cells with pyknotic nuclei. The outermost cells showed apparent cell loss. The lingual muscles were distorted and degenenerated. Leukocytic infiltrations were abundant in between the lingual muscles. Fungiform papillae lacked differentiation.

[Somaya Shalaby. Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Lingual Mucosa of Rat Pups of Phenylketonuria Mothers. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):539-546]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.70

 

Key words: Lingual mucosa -rat pups -Phenylketonuria - SEM

Full Text

70

71

Variations in Polyamines and Growth Regulators under Different Conditions of Water Stress in Cell Suspension Cultures of Two Acacia Species

 

Magda M. El-Araby*, Somia S. El-Akad, Abla H. Nassar, Hebatollah A. Ismail

 

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

*magda_elaraby2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Changes in polyamines and growth regulator contents were investigated as associated with water stress exerted on cells of two Acacia species namely A. farnesiana and A. nilotica. This has been conducted in cell suspension cultures established from the callus cultures of both species as mentioned in the methods. Cells of both species were subjected to different levels of water stress induced by PEG as well as control cells grown in PEG-free medium were transferred to different levels of water stress to evaluate tolerance potential of the selected cells upon the non-selected cells. Some of the cells were transferred to PEG-free medium for recovery (recovered cells) to asses physiological activity on relief of the stress. On the other hand, cells of both species were exposed directly (shocked cells) or gradually (adapted cells) to high levels of water stress. The most interesting results were the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the selected and non-selected cell lines of both Acacia species exposed to low and moderate levels of water stress. Stressed cells of both Acacia species contained higher concentrations of all polyamines than the recovered cells. Shocked cells of Acacia farnesiana accumulated high levels of putrescine, spermine and total polyamines, while in the adapted cells, a slight decrease in spermine and total polyamines and an increase in putrescine were observed. The most interesting,. In general, a reduction in the concentrations of IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3), and enhancement of IBA levels were observed, particularly in the stressed and shocked cells and to a lower extent in the non-selected and selected recovered, and adapted cells of both species. Meanwhile, a general increase in total cytokinins was obtained in the non-selected and selected cell lines of both species, with a drop after stress relief. Furthermore, total cytokinins of the stressed, shocked and adapted cells of A. nilotica were higher than those of A. farnesiana. Abscisic acid (ABA) levels showed a positive correlation with the extent of water stress tolerance where higher levels were recorded in the more tolerant A. farnesiana than the less tolerant A. nilotica, under different conditions.

[Magda M. El-Araby, Somia S. El-Akad, Abla H. Nassar, Hebatollah A. Ismail. Variations in Polyamines and Growth Regulators under Different Conditions of Water Stress in Cell Suspension Cultures of Two Acacia Species. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):547-556]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.71

 

Keywords: Acacia, Water Stress, Cell Suspension, Polyamines, Indoleacetic Acid (IAA), Indolebutyric Acid (IBA), Giberellic Acid (GA3), Cytokinins.

Full Text

71

72

Assessment of Higher Education Centers by Principal Components Analysis (a case study in Iran)

 

Shahin Shahahmadi1, Zahra Shayeste2, Mahdi Bashiri3, T.H. Hejazi4 

 

1. Department of Information Technology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2. Planning office, State Tax Organization, Tehran, Iran.

3. Department of Industrial Engineering, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.

4. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Amir Kabir University, Tehran, Iran.

Shahahmadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: For the prospective university student, obtaining information about the quality of information is of utmost importance. In recent decades, competition between universities has increased dramatically. Ranking universities based on various fields and by new scientific methods can provide interested students with helpful information that can be used to select a desirable university. The purpose of the ranking process is to evaluate the performance of a unit university within a given time span. For performance measurement we have to determine accurate criteria that can be used to evaluate all the influential aspects of the units (i.e. Universities). In this article, various popular measures have been selected for the assessment of units. A hybrid PCA and Custer Analysis method has been proposed for the ranking of universities. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method was used to make the new measures independent. A hypothetical unit of ideal scores was created for each year using the high scores obtained using the new independent measures. All the units were compared with this ideal series of scores. Finally, the AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) weighing method was used to find a combined score of four years, and cluster analysis was employed to cluster universities according to their scores.

[Shahin Shahahmadi, Zahra Shayeste, Mahdi Bashiri, Taha Hossein Hejazi. Assessment of Higher Education Centers by Principal Components Analysis (a case study in Iran), Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):557-564]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.72

 

Key words: principal component analysis, ranking of the university, clustering analysis, hierarchical analysis process

Full Text

72

73

Value Chain Analysis for the Egyptian Herbs & Spices Sub-Sector: Modeling and Estimating Export Potential

 

Waleed Y. Sallam1 and Ayman A. Shelaby* 2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt

*aas07@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: This article studies the Egyptian Herbs and Spices (H&S) sub-sector in order to increase the Egyptian market position in both local and international markets specially the European market (the main market for the Egyptian H&S). A value chain analysis has been performed. The value chain analysis included production, processing, and consumption phases. Production phase concerned with the main problems related to quality in cultivation, harvest, and post-harvest operations, especially as related to drying and storage processes. Processing phase mainly investigates the processors’ numbers, size, location, types of products dealt with and main problems and challenges facing them, especially those related to quality of the product that determine its entrance into international markets. Consumption phase deals with H&S target market, quantities and market share on national and international markets, plus problems and challenges related to market access. At last, gravity model estimation is performed in order to determine the trade potentials between Egypt and importing countries.

[Waleed Y. Sallam and Ayman A. Shelaby. Value Chain Analysis for the Egyptian Herbs & Spices Sub-Sector: Modeling and Estimating Export Potential. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):565-578]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.73

 

Keywords: Herbs & Spices – Agriculture - Exports – Egypt

Full Text

73

74

Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile

 

Maha Haggag٭, Mohamed Ibrahim Ali, Mohamed Eweis and Besm Hassanein

 

Medical Microbiology & Immunology Department Research Institute of Ophthalmology٭ and Microbiology, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University. mahahaggag62@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The existence of bacterial flora in apparently healthy conjunctiva has been reported in several studies. Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) have been isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol eye drops are useful for the treatment of MRSA ocular surface infection. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA and MRCNS isolates. Also to assess the in vitro susceptibility of the conjunctival bacterial isolates to the most common used antibiotics in the outpatient eye clinics and the hospital of Research Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO), in Egypt, with evaluation of in vitro susceptibility of MRSA and MRCNS to chloramphenicol antibiotic. Our results showed bacterial & fungal growth as 14.3%. CNS dominated the isolated microbial flora, with 76.2% while S. aureus was 10.5%. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci represented 24.2% of the isolated staphylococci where MRSA was 40% & MRSE was 22%. Other microbial flora included streptococci 4.2%, M. catarrhalis 2.8%, G-ve bacilli 2.8%, G +ve rods 2.1% & Candida 1.4%. All the isolated bacteria were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol especially MRSA & MRSE. In the present study chloramphenicol completely inhibited the growth of all (100%) methicillin-resistant staphylococci whether it was S. aureus or S. epidermidis (MRSA &MRSE), also 100% of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 96.5% of methicillin-sensitive S. epidermidis (MSSE) as well as 100% of Moraxella catarrhalis and Gram-negative bacilli also 83% of streptococci and 66.7% of diphtheroids were sensitive to it. Also ofloxacin, gentamicin, rifampicin & fusidic acid were effective against all the isolated bacteria with different percentages. In conclusion: MRSA and MRSE are isolated from clinically healthy conjunctivas. Chloramphenicol is very effective antibiotic against MRSA & MRSE as well as all the isolated bacteria.

[Maha Haggag, Mohamed Ibrahim Ali, Mohamed Eweis and Besm Hassanein. Microflora Isolated from Preoperative Conjunctivas, the Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci and their Antibiotic Profile. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):579-584]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.74

 

Key words: normal, preoperative conjunctival, flora, methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Chloramphenicol.

Full Text

74

75

Arterial oxygenation response to manual hyperinflation as an added procedure to chest physiotherapy in critically ill mechanically Ventilated patients

 

Amany Raafat1 and Hamdy S. Elbasiouny*2

 

Departments of 1Physiotherapy and 2Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*hamdysaber@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Manual hyperinflation as a component of physiotherapy program is commonly applied but its value and its early use in treatment of mechanically ventilated remain unclear. Objective: to investigate the effect of manual hyperinflation on arterial oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients. Methodology: forty mechanically ventilated patients were assigned to the study, the patients’age ranged from 40-60 years with mean age (52.5±7.6),they were divided into two equal groups of twenty patients. The Study group patients received manual hyperinflation and chest physiotherapy as three sessions daily for three successive days, control group patients received standard chest physiotherapy. Oxygen saturation was assessed before and after physiotherapy program. Result: The results of this study revealed that there were statistically significant changes in oxygenation in patients of the study group compared to control group. Conclusion: The use of manual hyperinflation in combination with chest physiotherapy is a valuable tool to improve the arterial oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients.

[Amany Raafat and Hamdy S. Elbasiouny. Arterial oxygenation response to manual hyperinflation as an added procedure to chest physiotherapy in critically ill mechanically Ventilated patients] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):585-590]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.75

 

Keywords: Arterial Oxygenation, Chest Physiotherapy, Critically ill mechanically Ventilated

Full Text

75

76

CHANGING IN POLITICAL STRUCTURES OF IRAQ, FROM CENTERALISM TO FEDERALISM AND THE FOREIGN POLITICS OF IRAN REGARDING MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL SECURITY IN IRAN

 

Soheila Nanva *, Ezatolah Ezati **

 

* PhD student in political geography – Sciences and Research University

No.51, Khosravi Alley, Mahabad, Azarbayejan West, Iran. Zip code: 5916858344

Email: Soheila.Nanvaa@Gmail.com. Cellphone: 0098-912 586 2079

 

** Supervisor: Dr. Ezatolah Ezati; Email: Faranbt@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Time and place determine the types of national goals in every country and it could not be expected for the national goals of a country to be stable and fixed during a period of time and in different conditions. Efforts for understanding historical events and happenings in a specific period requires the recognition of political – administrative structural context and qualities, and finding cultural and political activity lines in the society in the new political world and the world`s transformed geopolitical environment, together with quick communications and informative aspects. Hence by changing the political structures in Iraq, it draws a new term in deciding strategies for Iran, with a realistic view from the new geopolitics, and provides a road – mapping in Iranian foreign policies by using diplomatic tools to stabilize peace and reduce debates and threats, to maintain the nation security in Iran.

[Soheila Nanva. CHANGING IN POLITICAL STRUCTURES OF IRAQ, FROM CENTERALISM TO FEDERALISM AND THE FOREIGN POLITICS OF IRAN REGARDING MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL SECURITY IN IRAN. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):591-595]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.76

 

Key words: Federalism, Centralism, Security, Geopolitics, Foreign Policies 

Full Text

76

77

The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement

 

Gholamreza Gholami

 

Department of Educational Management, International Division of Shiraz University, Iran

iuos.gholami@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of cooperative learning on academic performance of high school students in Microsoft office skills. A group of forty students has been chosen as respondents. They were divided into cooperative and individual learning groups. They were tested in three Microsoft office skills (word, excel and power point). According to the findings, posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores. The findings also revealed that cooperative learning strategy is more effective on academic achievement than individual learning strategy. Based on the findings; cooperative learning strategy should be introduced in our schools in Iran.

[Gholamreza Gholami. The Importance of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):596-599]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.77

 

Keywords: cooperative learning, academic performance, collaboration

Full Text

77

78

Psychosocial Adaptation and Quality of Life Differences between Pacemaker and Implantable Cardiovertor-Defibrillators in a Sample of Egyptian Patients

 

M. Nasreldin1, A. Abdou1, H. Fathy1, and H. Saber2

 

1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

hamdysaber@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: The use of ICDs in cardiac patients have been expanding in recent years with consequent decreased mortality risk 30% to 54% by decreasing the incidence of sudden cardiac death. After implantation of an ICD, patients face a lot of psychological problems, whereas patients with implanted pacemaker face less problems. These differences would be expected to influence the patients’ perception of the implants and their appraisal of their quality of life. Objectives: To study the differences between the two devices regarding health related quality of life, anxiety and depression in the ICD group compared with the pacemaker group for patient management during follow up. Subjects & Methods: 35 patients were selected successively in a comparative cross sectional study, having a pacemaker (n= 21) and ICD (n= 14) implanted between 2000 and 2007 at the Kaser EL-Eini Hospital Cairo University, critical care department and followed in pacemaker and ICD follow up clinic. The patients were assessed using Quality of life Scale, Symptom checklist 90 (SCL90), Middle sex Questionnaire, Beck rating scale for depression, Coping with life stressor scale and life satisfaction scale. Results: The ICD patients showed higher rates on the Somatization, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia and paranoid symptoms than the pacemaker group. Life satisfaction scales were higher in the pace maker group than the ICD patients. Quality of life were higher in the pace maker group in the mood, financial and self scales.

[M. Nasreldin, A. Abdou, H. Fathy, H. Saber. Psychosocial Adaptation and Quality of Life Differences between Pacemaker and Implantable Cardiovertor-Defibrillators in a Sample of Egyptian Patients] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):600-605]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.78

 

Keywords: ICD, depression, anxiety, follow up.

Full Text

78

79

Effect of harmal seeds on heat stressed chickens

 

Moshera, M. E. Selim

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

mosheraselim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was conducted to clarify the role of harmal seeds Peganum harmala in alleviation of heat stress in chickens. The experiment was carried out on 60 chickens that were divided into four equal groups. Group І(gpI) was kept as control under normal conditions (25°C and 50 ± 5 % relative humidity (Rh)), group II(gpII) exposed to daily heat stress period (38°C for 6 hs and 70 ± 5 % Rh), and group III (gpIII) was kept at the same conditions of the control group with adding Peganum harmala as 2.5 g/kg ration and group IVgp(IV) exposed to the same conditions of group II with adding Peganum harmala(as natural antioxidant) 2.5 g/kg ration. blood was collected from all groups after one day, one week and 2 weeks. plasma was separated and stored at – 20oC until used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. Obtained results revealed that plasma levels of corticosterone, glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased in the heat stressed group. However, a significant decrease in plasma levels of total protein, albumin, uric acid, triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were obtained in heat stressed chickens compared with control one. In addition; adding harmal seeds to ration of heat stressed chickens restored normal values of measured parameters compared with heat stressed group. decreased lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant activity were also observed in chickens under heat stress and feed ration contained harmal seeds. In conclusion; harmal seeds have good value in minimizing deleterious effects of heat stress.

[Moshera M.E. Seliem. Effect of harmal seeds on heat stressed chickens. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):606-611]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.79

 

Keywords: harmal seeds,heat,chicken,corticosterone,malondialdehyde,catalase

Full Text

79

80

Electron Microscopic Characterization of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus

 

Iman M. Bastawecy*1; Saad, M. A. M2; Abd El-Samee, A. A. 3 and Youssef, H. M3

 

1Dept. of Virology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza

2Animal Reproduction Research Institute, Al Haram, Giza

3Dept. of Int. Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Vet. Med. Cairo University

*imanbaz@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) isolates after their identification and confirmation by virus neutralization test (VNT) were subjected for characterization with negative staining electron microscopy (EM) before and after improving its performance with BEFV antibodies binded to Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA) using Staphylococcus aureus protein A-coagglutination ultrastructure analysis (SPA COA-EM). Negative staining EM could detect rhabdoviral particles, ranged from bullet to blunt cone shaped with different lengths. Aggregates of rhabdoviral particles coated with the specific antibody were observed in addition to their attachment to the surface of Staphylococcus aureus. It is concluded that negative staining EM and SPA COA-EM could characterize BEF viral particles following their isolation in green monkey kidney (vero) cells. Further studies are recommended to find relationship between forms of the BEF viral particles and cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell cultures of different passages using SPA COA-EM. These future studies may offer answer to why the antigenicity and pathogenicity of BEFV rapidly lost on passaging in suckling mice or cell cultures.

[Iman M. Bastawecy; Saad, M. A. M; Abd El-Samee, A. A. and Youssef, H. M. Electron Microscopic Characterization of Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):612-617]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.80

 

Keywords: Bovine ephemeral fever; negative staining electron microscopy; Staphylococcus aureus protein A.

Full Text

80

81

Effect of simvastatin on early sepsis in critically ill patients

 

Ahmed S. Okasha1, Amr Abd Allah 2, Mohamed Fawzy2

 

1Alexandria University, anaesthesia and intensive care department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

asokasha@yahoo.com; amrabdalla1971icu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Sepsis is a leading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients worldwide. Despite the early goal-directed therapy, low-dose corticosteroids, early antibiotics use and supportive care have been shown to improve survival in patients with severe sepsis, but the number of sepsis related deaths appears to be increasing. Statins or (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are a class of drug that revolutionised the treatment of hypercholesteraemia. New researches show that statins have a variety of properties that are independent of their lipid lowering ability, which collectively referred to as pleiotropic effects. A recent growing body of evidence suggests that statins may indeed have a protective effect against severe sepsis and reduce the rate of infection-related mortality. This novel primary prevention concept may have far reaching implications for the future management of serious infections.The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of statin administration during sepsis in decreasing the incidence of severe sepsis and septic shock and the subsequent development of organ failure and mortality in critically ill patients.This prospective study was performed on 40 adult patients of both sex selected from those admitted to icu presented with early sepsis. The selected patients were randomized into two groups; the statin group who received 40 mg simvastatins for 10 days in addition to the ordinary conventional therapy of sepsis. And the control group who received the conventional therapy of sepsis only. All the 40 studied patients in both groups were initially assessed on admission at first day of the study. And the effect of statin administration on the progression of sepsis and its outcome was evaluated and monitored daily by laboratory investigations including; WBC, Hco3, CRP, PCT. and clinical assessment and scoring systems (GCS, SOFA).Statins had been found to enhance survival of sepsis by about 25% and decreased incidence of deterioration of early sepsis to sever sepsis and septic shock by about 10% in the statin group. Statins also decreased mortality rate by about 15% in comparison to the non statin group. From the statistical view, the results showed non significant differences between two groups. Statins can be used as a good adjuvant therapy of sepsis in addition to their lipid lowering properties. The statins are more beneficial when used primary in the early phase of sepsis. Statins decrease the worse deterioration of sepsis and the mortality rate but without significant values. This potential role of statins in the treatment of sepsis should be further evaluated in large prospective randomized controlled studies. Future studies are needed for testing the usefulness of combinations of statins with antibiotics against acute sepsis.

[Ahmed S. Okasha, Amr Abd Allah, Mohamed Fawzy. Effect of simvastatin on early sepsis in critically ill patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):618-624]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.81

 

Keywords: Statins, sepsis, critically ill patients

Full Text

81

82

Correlation between PCO2 (arterial- end tidal) gradient and positive end expiratory pressure titration in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

 

Hassan A Abukhabar1, Amr Abdallah2, Mohammad El-Samman3

 

1Alexandria University, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

2Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

3Alexandria university, critical care medicine department, Alexandria, Egypt

habukhaber@yahoo.com; amrabdalla1971icu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is the cornerstone of hypoxemia treatment in patients with ARDS, but there is still some controversy over the optimum level to be used and how this should be determined. To reach to optimal PEEP, several studies on applied PEEP titration were performed over the last years according to physiologic measures; these studies included esophageal pressure, pressure volume (PV) curves, oxygenation and oxygen delivery. There is a debate about how to find optimal PEEP in the current literature. Our aim was to determine whether arterial minus end-tidal carbon dioxide (PaCO2-PetCO2) can be used for titration to find optimal PEEP in correlation with Vd/Vt in patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). The present study included 20 adult patients of both sexes who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of ALI /ARDS. They were heavily sedated and mechanically ventilated with lung protective strategy. During this study PEEP was titrated from baseline (5 cmH2O) by increments of 2 cmH2O for 30 min till reaching the value of PEEP that corresponded to the least (PaCO2-PetCO2) gradient (PCO2grad), least dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) and best oxygenation (PaO2, Hypoxic index PaO2/FiO2, SaO2). With each titration, the PCO2 grad, Vd/Vt, shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) and PaO2 had been calculated. The PCO2 grad and Vd/Vt decreased with each PEEP level elevation till the point that the PCO2 grad and Vd/Vt started to increase (this point was taken as the highest PEEP), so the value preceding this highest PEEP by 2 cmH2O was taken as the optimal PEEP (which corresponded to the least value of PCO2 grad). The value obtained before the optimal PEEP by 2 cmH2O was taken as the pre-optimal PEEP. The mean value of PCO2grad was 17.95±3.47 mmHg at baseline PEEP, and decreased significantly to 13.45±2.52 mmHg with pre optimal PEEP (12.3±3.06 cmH2O), further decreased to 11.7±2.83 mmHg with optimal PEEP (14.3±3.06 cmH2O) then increased to 15.3±2.47 mmHg at highest PEEP (16.3±3.06 cmH2O). Vd/Vt follows the same course as the PCO2grad, so the two variables were closely correlated. Highest and optimal PEEP significantly reduced shunt fraction in comparison to baseline and pre-optimal. There was no significant difference in shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) at highest and optimal PEEP. PCO2grad was minimal when PaO2 was maximal. In patients with ALI/ARDS, the PCO2grad is a good indicator of the efficiency of ventilation and PCO2grad is directly proportional to the degree of alveolar dead space. So, PEEP titration using the PCO2 grad is a useful and easily available bedside parameter to find the optimal PEEP in patients with ARDS.

[Hassan A Abukhabar, Amr Abdallah, Mohammad El-Samman. Correlation between PCO2 (arterial- end tidal) gradient and positive end expiratory pressure titration in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):625-634]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.82

 

Keywords: PCO2grad, Vd/Vt, PEEP, Qs/Qt

Full Text

82

83

Philosophy of Love As Viewed by Ibn Arabi An Overview

 

Farzaneh Farahanipour

 

1-The professor of Valiasr college. ffarahanipour@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Love is an important human trait. Philosophers and scholars from historic past have had analytical views of love. This trait has attracted attention because of its effects on human beings - the effects that influence human lives and behaviors. In spite of long historical discussions about love, the literature on love is minuscule when considering love's mythical, mysterious, and symbolic effects on human lives. Love is a fundamental issue in mysticism. Love has enjoyed a deeply precise discussion in Islamic mysticism. It is possible to claim that love is a single issue that has been discussed the most by Islamic mystics and all mystical schools. This paper offers the lexical meaning of love, continues with a comprehensive discussion of love as viewed by mystics, and explains types of love. This paper looks into most notably views of Ibn Arabi (died 638 HD, 1240 AD) who was the founder of theoretical mysticism. The paper attempts to present the spiritual love as the real love by exploring different thoughts presented on this abstract subject intermixed with doubts and lust.

[Farzaneh Farahanipour. Philosophy of Love As Viewed by Ibn Arabi An Overview. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):635-640]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.83

 

Keywords: Love, affection, real love, figurative love, Ibn Arabi

Full Text

83

84

Using a 0/1 Knapsack Algorithm for Software Components Selection in Component-based Software

System Development

 

Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani1, Noushin Rakhshan 2

 

1. Department of Computer Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

kuchaki@mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Reusing of the software (SW) components concept started in 1960, when engineering and scientific libraries were used in the SW development to reuse the previously developed functions. This concept is now widely used in SW development as Component Based Development (CBD). CBD is the technology that facilitates the reuse of the existing components into the new ones. One of the most important aspects of Component-Based Software System (CBSS) development is an optimal selection of software components for modules. However, very few researches work on this subject and none of them consider both two important criteria together: cost and cohesion/coupling. In this paper, we have proposed a formulation for profitable components selection for CBSS development. The model has two objectives: maximizing the intra module interactions and minimizing development and adaptation costs between software components and modules with inspiration from a 0/1 knapsack algorithm and this model also consider the modules granularity criterion. This concept in CBD engineering is the complexity of functions that each module in CBSS must do. Granularity criterion in our model is determined with the number of software components that allocate to each module, considering this parameter can help to have same modules in function complexity and run time. This model exploits from a linear formulation that can solve without need to any specific method like genetic algorithm (GA). An example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

[Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani, Noushin Rakhshan. Using a 0/1 Knapsack Algorithm for Software Components Selection in Component-based Software System Development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):641-648]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.84

 

Keywords: Software components; Knapsack algorithm; Cohesion; Coupling; Adaptation and development costs

Full Text

84

85

Studying the Quality of Life of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients and the Associated Factors

 

Afaf Abd ElAziz Basal1, Entesar Kamel2 and Howaida Nafady3

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Adult1 Nursing, Munofia University, Munofia, Egypt

3Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University. Assuit, Egypt

afaf_bassal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver cancer and cirrhosis. Egypt has possibly the highest HCV prevalence in the world; 10%–20% of the general populations are infected and HCV is the leading cause of chronic liver disease (CLD) in the country. Assessment of quality of life enriches clinical and laboratory data by providing information about the patient's perception of his state of health. Aim: to evaluate the quality of life and investigate factors influencing quality of life in patient with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at gastroenterological clinic in Tanta, Assuite and Munofia University hospitals, both men and women were enrolled into the study. Data collected sociodemographic data, disease severity, and (SF-36) short form health survey) to collect information related to quality of life. Results: The mean of physical and mental health components of SF scale of quality were low but the mean for female were more than male patients in both components. There was increase in physical health component of SF36 in single patient but mental health component increase in married patient. Regarding to place of living and occupation and economic status: there was increase in the mean of physical health component of SF scale in young patients, farmer and patient has enough income while mental health component increased in urban patient, employee and housewife. Conclusion: In this study, we concluded there is reduction in the mean of two main components (physical and mental status) and some domains of SF36 scale of quality of life in chronic hepatitis C without significant difference in relation to not only stages of CLD but also sex, marital status place of living and income.

[Afaf Abd ElAziz Basal, Entesar Kamel and Howaida Nafady. Studying the Quality of Life of Chronic Hepatitis C Patients and the Associated Factors. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):649-655]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.85

 

Keywords: Hepatitis C, quality of life, short-form 36 questionnaire

Full Text

85

86

Studying blood glucose level from Fingertip blood sample by using portable blood glucose monitor after Peeling and Handling Fruits

 

Afaf Abd El aziz Basal1*, Samia Abd El rahim El nagar2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, 2 Pediatric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Al Monufia University. afaf_bassal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Timely blood sugar monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to prevent life threatening hypoglycemic episodes and prevent long-term complications. To examine effect of peeling or handling fruit on measuring glucose level from fingertip blood sample. Thirty healthy female students had normal fasting blood glucose level, and 10 female patients with type two diabetes were enrolled in this study. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected in the fasting state from the fingertip of females before handling fruits or peeling and after peeling fruits tests were done three times. Three samples of blood were taken from fingers followed by washing hand with tap water, no washing but swab and dry hand by tissue paper after peeling and handling fruits, or rubbing the fingertip by alcohol swab and analyzed with glucose monitoring Blood glucose (BG) level using fingertip blood samples obtained after peeling and handling cutting fruits from the healthy person without diabetes or with diabetes that was not followed by hand washing but swabbed by tissue paper only or the fingertip was rubbed several time with alcohol swabs were extremely high. While (BG) level measured after peeling and handling fruits, followed by washing hand with tap water were nearly the same to the level of the first reading before peeling and handling fruits.: False blood glucose level reading occurred when neglected hand washing or substituted with the use of alcohol swab after fruits peeling when (BG) monitoring test was done by using capillary blood from the fingertip.

[Afaf Abd ElAziz Basal and Samia El nagar. Studying blood glucose level from Fingertip blood sample by using portable blood glucose monitor after Peeling and Handling Fruits. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):656-660]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.86

 

Key words: Diabetes, self monitoring blood glucose, peeling fruits

Full Text

86

87

Optimization and Physiochemical Properties of Xylanase from Bacillus Coaggulans and Bacillus Licheniformis

 

Mohamed I. Abou-Dobara, Ahmed Kasem El-Sayed and Reham A. El Fayoumy *

 

Botany Department (Microbiology), Faculty of Science, Mansoura University (Damietta Branch), New Damietta, Egypt. *reham85@mans.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Xylanase production by Bacillus coaggulans and Bacillus licheniformis was optimized. Maximum xylanase production could be achieved after an incubation period of 48 hrs, at 50oC and pH 6 for Bacillus coaggulans and after an incubation period of 60 hrs, at 50oC and pH 7 for Bacillus licheniformis. Xylan (0.2%) was found to be the best carbon source among the tested carbohydrates. Bacillus coaggulans grew well and produced high level of xylanase using ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source but peptone was the best nitrogen source for producing high level of xylanase for Bacillus licheniformis. The properties of xylanase enzyme were tested. Km (mg/ml) and Vmax (µmole/ml/min) for Bacillus coaggulans was found 3.0 and 0.641 respectively but for Bacillus licheniformis was found 4.0 (mg/ml) and 0.568 (µmole/ml/min). For thermal stability for Bacillus coaggulans, the enzyme lost 50 % of the activity in 6.7 hours, 6.9 hours and 6.6 hours at 50oC, 60oC and 70oC respectively, but the half life time of xylanase enzyme at 80oC was 7 hours. And for Bacillus licheniformis the enzyme lost 50 % of the activity in 7 hours, 7.3 hours and 7.8 hours at 50oC, 60oC and 70oC respectively, but at 80oC the half life time of xylanase was 8 hours. The best temperature for crude enzyme of Bacillus coaggulans was found to be 50oC but for Bacillus licheniformis was found to be 70oC. The best pH for crude enzyme of Bacillus coaggulans was found 6 but for Bacillus licheniformis was found 8.

[Mohamed I. Abou-Dobara, Ahmed Kasem El-Sayed and Reham A. El Fayoumy. Optimization and Physiochemical Properties of Xylanase from Bacillus Coaggulans and Bacillus Licheniformis. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):661-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.87

 

Keywords: optimization, xylanase, Bacillus coaggulans and Bacillus licheniformis

Full Text

87

88

The Effect of Antioxidants on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Adult Male Albino Rats

 

Sami Algaidi

 

Faculty of Medicine, University of Taibah, Almadina P O BOX 3001, Saudi Arabia, algaidi@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy which is a major disorder that significantly affects the quality of life. There are several underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that are proposed to result in neuropathy including oxidative stress. Up to date, there is no definitive treatment for diabetic neuropathy and all the currently used medications aim to treat the symptoms rather than the underlying disease. In the current study we investigated the effect of vitamin-E intake on induced diabetic neuropathy in rats using a histological approach. We found that vitamin-E intake can partially prevent diabetic neuropathy. It can be concluded that vitamin-E is a potential safe, inexpensive antioxidant which can be used for prevention/treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

[Sami Algaidi. The Effect of Antioxidants on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Adult Male Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):671-677]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.88

 

Keywords: diabetes mellitus; peripheral neuropathy; oxidative stress; symptom; antioxidant

Full Text

88

89

Genetic variation among four closely similar isolates of Cyclocoelid trematodes based on random amplified Polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis

 

Sabry Ahmed; Zein Abd‑Al‑Aal & Ahmed Abd El‑Sattar

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt. Drsabryahmed11@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Four closely similar isolates of cyclocoelid trematodes were isolated from the air sacs of the waterfowl Gallinula chloropus from Sharkia province, Egypt. After whole mount preparation and redescribed the morphological characters, they were assigned to family: Cyclocoelidae, Cyclocoelum microstomum, as they were found to possess two testes arranged in a tandem forming a triangle with the ovary between them and the position of the genital pore relative to the pharynx. The genomic DNA was extracted from all the isolates, amplified by polymerase chain reaction based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) technique using 11 arbitrary oligonucleotide 10-mer primers the products of amplification were run through agarose gel electrophoresis. All primers showed distinct banding patterns (RAPD profiles) for all the isolates. Different polymorphic bands and specific markers were produced by most primers. The similarity indices between isolates were calculated, hence a dendrogram was constructed. The molecular analysis was found to be consistent with the morphological findings in the fact that genetic and morphological variations are not so powerful to support the establishment of a genus or even a species. So these four isolates are members of the previously established species Cyclocoelum microstomum and are not new members of the recent genus Selfcoelum. From molecular analysis and morphological findings of the present study, isolates can be considered as a variety of the species Cyclocoelum microstomum and isolate A can be assigned as Cyclocoelum microstomum var. gallinulae, while isolates B, C and D can be considered as another variety and assigned as Cyclocoelum microstomum var. chloropi.

[Sabry Ahmed; Zein Abd‑Al‑Aal & Ahmed Abd El‑Sattar. Genetic variation among four closely similar isolates of Cyclocoelid trematodes based on random amplified Polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Journal Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):678-690]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.89

 

Key words: Cyclocoelid trematodes; Gallinula chloropus; Sharkia province; DNA (RAPD-PCR).

Full Text

89

90

Critical Security Studies Place's In International Relations

 

Saeid Vosoghi *, Ghasem Rezaee **, Majid Divsalar ***

 

* Associate Professor of International Relations, Esfahan University, Iran

** Master of Arts in International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza Branch, Iran

*** PHD Student, Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Department of International Relations, Esfahan, Iran. pisq88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: At the heart of Critical Security Studies (CSS) is a commitment to promoting emancipation. The argument of the paper is that, for that commitment to emancipation to be effective, CSS scholars must develop a deeper understanding of the ways in which academic professional training can undermine that commitment and must develop strategies so that they can succeed in academia while protecting that commitment. In this article indexes of Critical Security Studies (CSS) such as Security Studies،Foundational Claims،Schools relate to Critical Security Studies & challenges ، Achievements and Limitations ،its Ethical Commitments and Future Pathways And New Framework for Critical Security Studies will analysis.

[Saeid Vosoghi, Ghasem Rezaee, Majid Divsalar. Critical Security Studies Place's In International Relations. Journal Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):691-703]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.90

 

Key Words: Critical Security Studies ، Security Studies ،emancipation ، Schools

Full Text

90

91

Effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor and a waste product on embryogenesis of Musca domestica

 

Noha A.Guneidy, Dalia A.M.Salem, Nadia Helmy, Wafaa A. Radwan, Reda, F.A. Bakr and Shimaa Salah

 

Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo. Egypt. nohaawny@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The change in the amounts of DNA, RNA and total protein content (quantitative and qualitative) during embryogenesis of normal and treated Musca domestica eggs (with Lufenuron and waste product) were investigated. DNA content increased gradually reaching its maximum level (2.2µg/ 10 mg DNA) at 7 hrs postoviposition (late embryogenesis). However, RNA content and total protein decreased gradually reaching their minimum levels (5.3µg/10mgRNA, 1.17mgprotein/10mg egg) at 7 hrs postoviposition (late embryogenesis).Treatment of Musca domestica eggs with a chitin synthesis inhibitor (Lufenuron) and a waste product from rice straw resulted in a significant decrease DNA and RNA content throughout embryogenesis (0-7hr post oviposition).The treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in total protein of waste product treated eggs compared with the control except at 0hr old eggs (early embryogenesis). Treatment with Lufenuron resulted in a significant increase of total protein in treated eggs compared with the control at 0hr old eggs and 7hrs old eggs (late embryogenesis).However the protein content decreased (p>0.05) in Lufenuron treated eggs to a level similar to that of control at 1, 3, 5 hrs postoviposition(cleavage, gastrulation and organogenesis). The protein profile of normal and treated eggs at different time intervals (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hrs) during embryogenesis was evaluated to explain their mode of action. A total of 6 -13 protein bands with molecular weight of 5 -120 kilodaltons (KDa) were separated by electrophoresis during normal embryogenesis of Musca domestica. Treatment of Musca domestica eggs with Lufenuron resulted in separation of 9 – 11 protein bands with molecular weight of 25 -150 KDa. Treatment of Musca domestica eggs with waste product resulted in separation of 13 -16 protein bands with molecular weight of 10-200 KDa. The appearance and disappearance of certain protein fractions by application of these compounds may explain their ovicidal activity and disorders occurred during embryogenesis.

[Noha A.Guneidy, Dalia A.M.Salem, Nadia Helmy, Wafaa A. Radwan, Reda, F.A. Bakr and Shimaa Salah. Effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor and a waste product on embryogenesis of Musca domestica. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):704-712]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.91

 

Key words: Protein, Musca domestica, Agriculture waste product,Chitin synthesis inhibitor

Full Text

91

92

Evaluation of Certain Ground Spraying Equipment by the Mean of Qualitative Distrubtion of Certain Insecticides Deposits and Artificial Targets on the Cotton Leaf Worm on Cotton Plants

 

Mohamed, A.Hindy², Reda, F.A. Bakr¹, Noha, A.M. Guniedy*¹, Nevein, S.E. Ahmed³ and Rehab, A.A. Dar².

 

1Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University

2Plant Protection Res. Instit. Agric. Res. Center, Spray Technology, Res. Department, Dokki, Giza

3Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory. Agric. Res. Center, Pesticide Residues and Environmental Pollution Research Department, Dokki, Giza

nohaawny@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Three alternative products include BioAgent (Spinosad), OP (Profenofos) and IGR (Pyriproxyfen) were sprayed by using Knapsack motor sprayer Agromondo (20 L./Fed.) and Hand held compression sprayer Kwazar (94 L./Fed.) on cotton field highly infested with cotton leaf worm larvae. A satisfactory coverage was obtained on cotton plants and spray receptors. The spectrum of droplets ranging between 103-191 microns (VMD). With sufficient number ranging from 80-225 n/cm². The productivity of motor sprayer Agromondo was 12 Fed./day. It was the best equipment, but the lowest productivity was Kwazar sprayer since it could spray only 5 Fed./day. Results indicated that Profenofos and Pyriproxyfen is more effective in controlling larvae of cotton leaf worm on cotton plants followed by, Spinosad, with Knapsack motor sprayer (20 L./Fed.) followed by Kwazar sprayer (94 L./Fed.). Data showed that, low volume spraying may be recommended because of reducing the time lost in the process filling the machines of reducing the time lost of the spray solution on the plant leaves and saving the lost spray on the ground. Also there was no significant difference between recommended dose rate and ¾ recommended does with using low volume spraying.

[Mohamed, A. Hindy, Reda, F.A. Bakr, Noha, A.M. Guniedy, Nevein, S.E. Ahmed and Rehab, A.A. Dar Evaluation of Certain Ground Spraying Equipment by the Mean of Qualitative Distrubtion of Certain Insecticides Deposits and Artificial Targets on the Cotton Leaf Worm on Cotton Plants. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):713-719]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.92

 

Key Words: Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) - Pyriproxyfen - Profenofos Spinosad – Knapsack motor sprayer Agromondo (20 Liter per Feddan.) - Hand held compression sprayer Kwazar (94 Liter per Feddan.)

Full Text

92

93

Time management skills impact on self-efficacy and academic performance

 

Karim, Sevari 1, Mitra Kandy2

 

1. Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Ahwaz, Iran

2. Payame Noor University, PO Box 19395-3697, Ahwaz, Iran

Sevari1347@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this study, time management skills impact on self efficacy & academic performance was tested. Female first grade high school students of Masjed Soleiman statistical community have formed an experimental group and a control group, 27 patients each that were selected randomly. Research project is of the type pre-test - post test with control group that only the experimental group is exposed to ten sessions of time management skills. The Self-efficacy questionnaire of Schwarzer & Jerusalem (2000) & Grade Point Average was used. Analysis of data from descriptive and inferential statistics was done. Results from this study showed that training of time management skills to increase academic performance and self efficacy is influential.

[Karim, Sevari, Mitra Kandy. Time management skills impact on self-efficacy and academic performance. Journal Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):720-726]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.93

 

Keywords: Time management skills, academic performance, self-efficacy

Full Text

93

94

Inhibition of Broad bean mosaic virus (BBMV) using extracts of Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) and Zizyphus (Zizyphus spina-christi Mill.) plants

 

Mohamed, E.F.

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt. emaddwidar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of Nigella and Zizyphus extracts (NE and ZE) as inhibitors against broad bean mottle virus (BBMV) infectivity in vitro and in vivo was studied. Chenopodium amaranticolor plant was used as a local lesion host for BBMV. Extracts of Nigella and Zizyphus plants were diluted by distilled water to10-1, 10-2 and 10-3 before use. Crude extract and dilutions from 10-1 to 10-3 of Nigella plants gave percentages of inhibition 55.56, 47.22, 38.89 and 19.44 % respectively, when used after 7 days as a time intervals. All tested extracts of Nigella plants reduced the numbers of local lesions produced by BBMV on Chenopodium amaranticolor(infectivity of BBMV) and increased the percentages of inhibition against BBMV. Concerning Zizyphus plants, all tested extracts reduced the numbers of local lesions produced by BBMV on Chenopodium amaranticolor (infectivity of BBMV) and increased the percentages of inhibition against BBMV. These percentages of inhibition were increased to 44.44%. Crude extract and dilutions from 10-1 to 10-3 of Zizyphus plants gave percentages of inhibition 44.44, 36.11, 25.00 and 8.33 % respectively, when used after 7 days as a time intervals. It was found that, NE was more effective in reducing the local lesions produced by BBMV on Chenopodium amaranticolor than ZE. BBMV inhibition of pre-inoculation treatment was higher than that of post-inoculation treatment. In pre-inoculation treatment, the highest effect of NE against BBMV infectivity was in the crude extract and after 7 days (percentage of inhibition was 25.71%). While, the highest percentage of inhibition of ZE against BBMV infectivity was 20.00 % in the crude extract and after 7 days. In post-inoculation treatment, the highest effect of NE against BBMV infectivity was in the crude extract and after 7 days (percentage of inhibition was 22.85%). While, the highest percentage of inhibition of ZE against BBMV infectivity was 17.14 % in the crude extract and after 7 days. So, NE was more effective in reducing the local lesions produced by BBMV on Chenopodium amaranticolor than ZE.

[Mohamed, E.F. Inhibition of Broad bean mosaic virus (BBMV) using extracts of Nigella (Nigella sativa L.) and Zizyphus (Zizyphus spina-christi Mill.) plants. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):727-734]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.94

 

Keywords: Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV); bromoviruses, black cumin; Zizyphus; inhibition

Full Text

94

95

Forgotten Situation of Architecture In Iranian Social Housing

 

Reza Mirzaei

 

Department of Architecture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

Aspiran0080@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Social housing mainly has been looking for investment and management point of views. This paper investigates situations and values of architecture in the theme of Social Housing; also it states why the architectural quality indexes are decreasing. At the first part, the necessity of social housing is considered, then historical experiences and its effects on modern Social Housing are studied. Finally, by looking at the history, the forgotten Architecture values in social housing are explained.

[Reza Mirzaei. Forgotten Situation of Architecture In Iranian Social Housing. Journal Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):735-741]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.95

 

Keywords: Iranian architecture; Traditional architecture; Social housing; dwelling House; compact apartment; flexibility

Full Text

95

96

Stepwise PEEP Elevation with Determination of the Alveolar Collapsing Pressure versus Sustained Lung Inflation as a Recruitment Maneuver in Patients With ARDS

 

Hassan Abou-Khaber 1, Ahmed El-Mehalawy 2, Muhammad Nasreldin 2, Walaa El-Far 2

 

1Department of Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt

2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt

amehalawy@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), protective lung strategy and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) therapy should be started as early as possible to avoid lung damage by high pressures, volumes and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2). Recruitment is a strategy aiming at re-expanding the collapsed lung tissue and then maintaining an adequate level of PEEP to prevent subsequent de-recruitment. The objective of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of two lung recruitment maneuvers (RM): stepwise PEEP elevation with determination of the alveolar collapsing pressure versus sustained lung inflation in ARDS patients. A prospective randomized comparative interventional study, conducted in units of the department of Critical Care Medicine of Alexandria Main University hospital, Egypt, included 24 ARDS patients mechanically ventilated with lung protective strategy. Patients were enrolled under two equal groups. Lung recruitment was performed using sustained lung inflation in group I and stepwise PEEP elevation in group II. Arterial blood gases (ABG), hypoxic index and compliance (Cs) were measured. Heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were monitored and signs of barotraumas were documented. Lung injury score (LIS) was calculated. Results: Hypoxic index, static compliance and lung infiltration improved significantly in group II compared to group I. Significant hypoventilation occurred in group II during RM. Recruitment was successful in 41.7% of patients in group I and in 83.3% of group II and the difference was statistically significant. The survival rate was 33.3% in group I and 66.7% in group II, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: Stepwise elevation of PEEP with determination of optimal PEEP according to alveolar collapsing pressure is a more effective RM than sustained lung inflation, however, hypoventilation, tachycardia and hypotension are likely to occur.

[Hassan Abou-Khaber, Ahmed El-Mehalawy, Muhammad Nasreldin, Walaa El-Far. Stepwise PEEP elevation with determination of the alveolar collapsing pressure versus sustained lung inflation as a recruitment maneuver in patients with ARDS. Journal Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):742-749]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.96

 

Key words: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, positive end expiratory pressure, recruitment maneuver

Full Text

96

97

Nurses and Physicians Perceptions of Their Interprofessional Relationships at Alexandria Main University Hospital

 

Azza T. T. Elithy1, Mary K. Harmina2 and Gehan G. Elbialy2

 

1Ministry of Health and Population, Alexandria, Egypt

2Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

gehangalal63@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Medicine and nursing are two entitles which have contribution in health care leadership and in marketplace. Hospitals improve reimbursement and be market share when healthy nurses and physicians interprofessional relationships is achieved which in turn reflect on quality care. This study aims to identify nurses and physicians perceptions of their interprofessional relationships at Alexandria Main University Hospital. A descriptive correlational research design was used to conduct this study. This study was conducted in the in-patient Medical and Surgical units (n=23), where the medical units is 11, and surgical units is 12. Study subjects were composed of 199 nurses, and 86 physicians. Data were collected through; Nurse-physician Interprofessional Relationships Structured Questionnaire that developed by the researcher. The main results that physicians’ perceptions mean scores were higher than that of nurses in relation to coordination and cooperation, nurses-physicians relationships, work environment and conflict. On the other hand, nurses’ perceptions mean scores were higher than physicians’ perceptions mean scores in relation to mutual trust and respect, understanding each other's role and communication. As well as nurses-physicians interprofessional dimensions were mostly significant with each other dimensions as perceived by physicians while, the nurse-physician relationship dimension was non significant with all other dimensions as perceived by nurses. The main recommendations are; Nurses should attend training programs about coordination and cooperation, nurse physician relationships, work environment and conflict. Moreover physicians should attend training programs concerning mutual trust and respect, understanding nurses' role and communication.

[Azza T. T. Elithy, Mary K. Harmina, and Gehan G. Elbialy. Nurses and Physicians Perceptions of Their Interprofessional Relationships at Alexandria Main University Hospital. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):750-757]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.97

 

Key words: health care; hospital; nurses; communication

Full Text

97

98

Evaluation of prolonged adherent with benzalkonium chloride on corneal protein secondary structure that assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

 

Eman S. Mohamed*, Eman M. Aly

 

Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt. P.O. Box: 90. 2 Al-Ahram Street, Giza, Egypt. Eman.saad@windowslive.com

 

Abstract: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a commonly used preservative in eye drops and is known to induce complex inflammatory mechanisms on the ocular surface causing allergy and toxicity, as well as it may increase the rate of dry eye. The present study was conducted to evaluate and reveal the toxic effect(s) of different concentrations of BAC namely; 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02% when applied twice a day for a maximum period of 16 days on corneal protein secondary structure that was assessed by deconvoluted Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that corneal protein secondary structures are tolerable for the 0.005 % BAC, while they were greatly affected by the other two concentrations of BAC. Moreover, the formed intra-molecular β-sheets that detected in the 0.005 % treated subgroup are involved in protein folding while; they are associated to protein aggregation in the other two BAC-treated subgroups; 0.01 % and 0.02 %.

[Eman S. Mohamed, Eman M. Aly. Evaluation of prolonged adherent with benzalkonium chloride on corneal protein secondary structure that assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):758-764]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.98

 

Key words: eye, corneal protein, FTIR, ophthalmic preservative, benzalkonium chloride

Full Text

98

99

Protective Effects of Rutin and Hesperidin against Doxorubicin-Induced Lipodystrophy and Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

 

Walaa G. Hozayen1 and Howida S. Abou Seif2

 

1 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University

2Medical Physiology Department, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

Walaabio2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Doxorubicin, is widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of rutin and hesperidin on doxorubicin – induced lipodystrophy and cardiotoxicity in albino rats. Doxorubicin (DXR) – administered rats (25 mg/ kg; three times interaperitoneally/ week for two weeks) were pretreated with rutin and/or hesperidin (50 mg/ kg body weight) three times per week for three weeks and DXR 25mg/kg b.wt three times per week (at the last two weeks of the experiment). Results showed that DXR caused a marked rise in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, creatine kinas and lactate dehydrogenase (HDL, LDL, CK, LDH) as well as aspartate aminotransferase; AST. Pretreatment of these animals with rutin and/or hesperidin successfully prevent most of these biochemical alterations; the pretreatment with both rutin and hesperidin seemed to be the most potent. Concerning oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system, the depleted cardiac glutathione content of DXR administered rats was potentially increased above normal levels as a result of pretreatment of rutin and/or hesperidin. The elevated lipid peroxidation of DXR-administered rats, was remarkably decrease lipid peroxidation as a result of pre-treatment with rutin and/or hesperidin. It can be concluded that the natural plant components (rutin and hesperidin) could protect the heart against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity and lipodystrophy. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and benefits of rutin and hesperidin in human beings.

[Walaa G. Hozayen and Howida S. Abou Seif. Protective Effects of Rutin and Hesperidin against Doxorubicin-Induced Lipodystrophy and Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):765-775]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.99

 

Key Words: rutin – hesperidin – cardiotoxicity – albino rats – oxidative stress.

Full Text

99

100

Comparative Study on Fungal Deterioration and Ozone Conservation of El-Anfoushi and Al-Shatby Archeological Tombs- Alexandria- Egypt

 

Hala A. M. Afifi 1 and Neveen S. I. Geweely2

 

1Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt

2Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt

1halaafifi11@hotmail.com; 2 ngeweely@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Physical, chemical and biological factors playing a combined role in weathering of archeological tombs. El-Anfoushi and Al-Shatby archeological tombs is are located in Alexandria district in Egypt and suffering from biodeterioration aspects. Three xerophilic fungi (Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. repens), and six non-xerophilic strains (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terrus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenium) were isolated from Al-Shatby and El-Anfoushi archeological tombs, respectively. Analyses of the samples of the building material of the two tested tombs and were investigated by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) Equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). A. versicolor followed by A. terrus recorded the highest significant deterioration of the samples of limestone building material of the two tombs (3.7 and 2.5 cm halo zone, respectively). Atomic absorption was used to detect the release of calcium from the tested limestone samples after fungal degradation. The relation of fungal deterioration efficiency of alkaline limestone rock and pH sensitivity was recorded. Ozone as a powerful oxidizing disinfecting agent was applied on the isolated deteriorated fungal species. All isolated non xerophytes were most sensitive to 3 ppm of ozone after 150 min exposure time, while extending of the exposure time up to 210 min was required to stop the growth of the three isolated resistant xerophytes.

[Hala A. M. Afifi and Neveen S. I. Geweely. Comparative Study on Fungal Deterioration and Ozone Conservation of Al-Anfoushi and El-Shatby Archeological Tombs- Alexandria- Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):776-784]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.100

 

Key words: Fungi, Conservation, Ozone, Alexandria tombs

Full Text

100

101

Transcranial Doppler in Monitoring Management of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

 

Mahmoud Elbadry1, Shereen Aly2, Khaled El Kafas3 and Ahmed Yassein2

 

1Critical Care Medicine Department Cairo University, 3Radiology Department Cairo University

2Critical Care Medicine Beni Sweif University

*albadrymd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cerebral vasospasm remains the most significant and most common complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which is defined as bleeding into the subarachnoid space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia matter surrounding the brain. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is non invasive tool allowing for bedside monitoring to determine flow velocities indicative of changes in vascular caliber. The true value of this technique as sensitive predictor alone for diagnosing clinical vasospasm, still mater of debate. Aim of the study: was to evaluate the role of TCD in monitoring patients with SAH and early detection of pre symptomatic vasospasm that may help in further early management. Methods: This study was carried out on 30 patients diagnosed to have acute subarachnoid hemorrhage presented within 48 hrs. from onset and confirmed by CT brain. Patients were divided into: Group A; included 15 patients that were monitored by both the usual standard clinical and neurological evaluation and Group B; included the other 15 patients that were subjected in additions to standard clinical evaluation, to continuous non-invasive TCD every 48 hours from day 4 to day 21 of hospital admission. Results: There was 19 females and 11 males with mean age 46.5+11.4 year. Of them, 73.3% were hypertensive and 13.3% were diabetic. Delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) developed in 9 of 30 patients, 6 (40%) pts in group A and only 3 (20%) pts in group B & was not related to the cause of SAH (P: 0.9). There was no significant correlation between Hess and Hunt grading and the occurrence of DIND (P: 0.7). Patients with DIND had a significantly higher peak systolic velocity (PSV)of middle cerebral artery (MCA) in comparison to patients who had no DIND at serial TCD1,2,3 measurements and P values were 0.002, 0.038, 0.026 respectively, but no significance of the difference of percentage of change from the baseline TCD1. Analysis of area under ROC curve revealed, at PSV 172 cm /sec & area under the curve 0.75, sensitivity of 60% & specificity of 88% & the p value was 0.09. Conclusion: TCD is a useful tool for screening symptomatic vasospasm and for early prediction of DIND in SAH pts.

[Mahmoud Elbadry, Shereen Aly, Khaled El Kafas and Ahmed Yassein. Transcranial Doppler in Monitoring Management of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):785-791]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.101

 

Key words: DIND: delayed ischemic neurological deficits & TCD: transcranial Doppler & SAH: subarachnoid hemorrhage & cerebral vasospasm. Hess & Hunt grade

Full Text

101

102

Effect of sandblasting surface treatment of the mesh area on bonding strength of the brackets (SEM study)

 

Wael M Refai*1 and Mohamed A El Ruwaini2

 

1Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, Minia, Egypt

2Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, MSA University, Cairo, Egypt

W_refai_67@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this study, the effect of surface treatment (sandblasting) of the mesh area of the bracket was assessed. Integra brackets were used. The study comprised two groups (30 each). Brackets were conventionally bonded in the first group. In the second one, they were bonded after sandblasting the mesh area of the brackets. Instron machine was used to detect the maximum shear bond strength of the bracket. Moreover, representative SEM micrographs were taken and interpreted at different magnifications. The results revealed an increase in the force of displacement in the second group. SEM also showed increased roughness of the mesh area after bracket displacement in the second group. This was attributed to the increase in the mechanical interlock between composite and the mesh area.

[Wael M Refai and Mohamed A El Ruwaini. Effect of sandblasting surface treatment of the mesh area on bonding strength of the brackets (SEM study). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):792-798]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.102

 

Key words: Brackets, mesh area, surface treatment, sandblasting

Full Text

102

103

Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis Stages in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients Using Biomarkers in The Blood

 

Ahmed A. Attallah*1, Sanaa O. Abdallah2, Mohamed M. Omran1, Khaled Farid3, and Yehia M. Shaker4

 

1 R & D Dept. Biotechnology Research Center, New Damietta City, Egypt.

2 Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

3Tropical Medicine Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

4National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

ahmedattallah2009@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: An intensive research effort in the field of non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis has recently permitted the description of several blood markers of fibrosis, mainly in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a panel of simple blood markers of liver fibrosis in CHC patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty two patients with CHC evaluated for deciding on antiviral therapy were included. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a stepwise combination algorithm was developed to assess and compare the diagnostic accuracy of blood markers. Results: The areas under the ROC curves of AST/ALT ratio, albumin, platelet count, APRI and fibronectin for discriminating advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4) were 0.58, 0.73, 0.76, 0.73 and 0.74; respectively. The AUC of combined markers score based on AST-ALT ratio, albumin, fibronectin and platelets count was 0.86 for advanced liver fibrosis patients. The combined markers correctly classified 35 positive patients from 43 patients with 81% sensitivity and classified 64 patients as negative from a total of 89 patients with 72% specificity. Discussions. we have developed multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA), a function may contribute to differentiating advanced fibrosis in patients with CHC. The MDA function is based on easily and routinely analyzed four blood markers as noninvasive, reproducible, quantitative, precise, accurate and low cost method that can be applied to patients who either have contraindications or refuse liver biopsy for the management of their HCV infection.

[Ahmed A. Attallah, Sanaa O. Abdallah, Mohamed M. Omran, Khaled Farid, and Yehia M. Shaker. Assessment of Hepatic Fibrosis Stages in Hepatitis C Virus Infected Patients Using Biomarkers in The Blood. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):799-805]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.103

 

Keywords: HCV; Liver fibrosis, biomarkers

Full Text

103

104

Incidence of Genetic Polymorphism of IL-1Ra and IL-4 in Egyptian and other Populations

 

1El-Said, Afaf M.; 2Abdel-Aziz, A.F.; 1 Settin, A.A. and 1 EL- Sharabasy, Asmaa M.

 

1Genetics Unit, Children Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Corresponding author: afaziz2012@hotmail.com; Soma_t2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cytokines play a key role in immune response and inflammation. IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra) is a naturally occurring structural variant of IL-1 that competitively inhibits receptor binding of IL-1 induced pro-inflammatory activity. IL-4 an anti-inflammatory cytokine plays a key role in activation and differentiation of B-cells, mast cells.IL-4 is also known to inhibit macrophage activation and therefore may be involve in cancer. The two important cytokines genes IL-1Ra and IL-4 of 124 healthy individuals from the Nile Delta region of Egypt were compared with the published polymorphism of other populations. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of all subjects and the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms of IL-1Ra and IL-4 genes was identified by polymerase chain reaction. It was seen that our population differs from Mediterranean, European, African and Asian populations at IL-1Ra (VNTR) and IL-4 (VNTR) genes.

[El-Said, Afaf M.; Abdel-Aziz, A.F.; Settin, A.A. and EL- Sharabasy, Asmaa M. Incidence of Genetic Polymorphism of IL-1Ra and IL-4 in Egyptian and other Populations. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 806-814]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.104

 

Key words: VNTR, IL-1Ra, IL-4, gene polymorphism

Full Text

104

105

[Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):815-821]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.105

Withdrawn

Full Text

105

106

Impact of psycho educational program on burdens among family caregivers of schizophrenic patients

 

1Nefissa, M., Abdelkader; 2Mostafa, O., Shaheen and 1*Enas, M, Abd El Aziz

 

1Mental health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Enas.mahrous@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Majority of family caregivers caring for patient with chronic schizophrenia, face a lot of stressors not only due to provide the core long-term assistance of housing and financial aid but related to their roles in caregiving as informal case manager, crisis intervention specialist, and “invisible” rehabilitation person. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of designed psychoeducational program on improving patient symptoms and reducing caregiving burdens among family caregivers with chronic schizophrenic Patients. The study was conducted in out patient departement at Abassia hospital, four developed tools used to collect data, sociodemographic and medical data sheet, and assessment of negative symptoms for schizophrenic patient, sociodemographic data sheet for caregivers, and tool to measure burdens among caregivers, quazi- experimental design (pre, post and follow up test) was used in this study; the researcher selected 40 chronic schizophrenic patients with their family caregivers, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria for both, and with random assignment the sample divided into the control and the experimental group, 10sessions(one session every other week) were done in this program for study group for 45-60 minute for each one. The main results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among groups; the designed program had an effective impact on reducing caregivers burdens in relation to recreational family activity, family interaction within and out side the family, physical health and psychological health of the family members. In addition, family burden decreased in relation to the improvement of patient's symptoms. This study concluded that, When relatives of patients with schizophrenia have enough knowledge and efficient skills to deal with patient problems, it is possible for burden to be reduced and improve patient symptoms. The study recommended further follow-up of the participants will be conducted after 24 and 36 months to assess sustainability effect of the program.

[Nefissa, M., Abdelkader; Mostafa, O., Shaheen and Enas, M, Abd El Aziz. Impact of psycho educational program on burdens among family caregivers of schizophrenic patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):822-830]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.106

 

Keyword: psychoeducational program, negative symptroms of schizophrenia, family caregiver, burdens

Full Text

106

107

Preparation, Characterization, and In-vitro/vivo Evaluation of Indion-based Chewable Tablets of Paracetamol and Ibuprofen for Pediatric Use

 

Amr Helmy1, Sherien El Kady2, Ahmed Khames1, 3*, Ahmed Abd-elbary4

 

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Beni Suief University, Beni Suief, Egypt

2E.P.C.I. Company, Beni Suief Gov., Egypt

3Department of Pharmaceutics, Taif University, Taif, KSA

4Departments of Pharmaceutics, Cairo University, Egypt

dr_akhames@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Ibuprofen and paracetamol are commonly used NSAIDs, bitter taste and poor water solubility are great challenges in their formulation. In this work, an attempt was made to prepare palatable chewable tablets of these drugs suitable for pediatric use. In this work; masking of drug bitter taste was adopted using ion exchange technique, drug was loaded onto Indion-204 (a cationic exchange resin). The prepared drug resin complexes were optimized for maximum drug concentration by changing drug: resin ratio, stirring time, swelling time, pH and temperature. Other techniques including coating with Aqua-coat ECD, solid dispersion in HPMC, MC and EC, microencapsulation in EC were also applied. In-vitro and in-vivo taste evaluation was applied, and the most palatable mixture was selected and formulated into tablets and fully evaluated. The results showed that, Indion-204 had maximum drug loading capacity when activated in acidic (1N HCl) solution, and Drug-Indion-204 tablet mixture prepared at 1: 3 ratio respectively by stirring in neutral solution (pH =7) at 80ŗC for 6hrs had a maximum drug loading capacity (85.6 and 90.5% w/w of paracetamol and ibuprofen, respectively), the drug bitter taste was almost completely masked when complexed with Indion. The drug dissolution rate from the prepared tablets reached 99.14% and 98. 48% w/v after 45min for paracetamol and ibuprofen, respectively at maximum used drug-resin ratio (1:3). Depending on the previous results; Drug-Indion-204 mixture is an efficient technique to prepare palatable chewable tablets suitable for pediatric use.

[Amr Helmy, Sherien El Kady, Ahmed Khames, Ahmed Abd-elbary. Preparation, Characterization, and In-vitro/vivo Evaluation of Indion-based Chewable Tablets of Paracetamol and Ibuprofen for Pediatric Use. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):831-844]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 107

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.107

 

Key words: Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, chewable tablets, ion exchange resin

Full Text

107

108

Changes in protein, amino acids composition and leaf cells of beet plants (Beta vulgaris L.) due to Beet mosaic virus (BtMV) infection

 

Mohamed, E. F.

 

Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Egypt. emaddwidar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Beet mosaic virus (BtMV) is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated beet plants. On studying the effect of BtMV on the chemical constituents of beet plants, BtMV-infected beet plants show high significant increase compared with healthy beet plants in the content of total protein. There was a progress­ive increase in protein contents of healthy and infected plants with increase in plant age. BtMV inoculated plants recorded 7.93, 8.53, and 19.27 percent increase in protein content over healthy plants at first, second and third week's respectively after inoculation. Protein band of molecular weight of 31 kDa was appeared. No similar protein band was observed in samples of healthy plants. BtMV-infected beet plants contain significant lower content of total free amino acids than that of the healthy ones. There was a progress­ive decrease in free amino acids contents of healthy and infected plants with increase in plant age. BtMV inoculated plants recorded 35.27, 58.83, and 24.00 percent decrease in free amino acids content over healthy plants at first, second and third week's respectively after inoculation. The concentrations of amino acids like alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and tryptophan were more in infected plants up to 21 days after inoculation. Trace amounts of arginine, glycine, leucine, lysine, and valine were detected in healthy plants and their contents were more in infected plants. Cystine, proline and tyrosine were absent in healthy leaves whereas they were present in traces in infected plants at 14 days after inoculation and could not be detected in the succeeding stages of analysis. BtMV reduced more of leaf measurements such as medvein thickness, blade thickness, palisade tissue thickness, spongy tissue thickness, vascular bundles length, vascular bundles width, number of xylem vessels and xylem vessel diameter.

[Mohamed, E.F. Changes in protein, amino acids composition and leaf cells of beet plants (Beta vulgaris L.) due to Beet mosaic virus (BtMV) infection. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):845-854]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.108

 

Keywords: Beet mosaic virus (BtMV), potyviruses; protein; amino acids; electrophoresis; histology

Full Text

108

109

Pyridalyl Effectiveness on Some Biological and Physiological Parameters of Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

 

Hassan F. Dahi*1, Aida, S.Kamel2, Nehad, M. El Barkey2 and Mona F. Abd-El Aziz2 

 

1Cotton leafworm Department, Plant Protection-Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Gizza, Egypt, 2 Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University

hassandahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present investigation aim to throw light on the efficiency of the median lethal concentration (LC50 value) for the novel insecticide pyridalyl on 2nd, 4th, and 6th larval instars of cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the pyridalyl is more effective on 4th instar larvae due to the larval mortality percent estimated by 78.0%. Also fertility % was 0.0 in comparison to control and the number of eggs/female was the smallest one in comparison with other, estimated by 365.7 eggs. Marked biochemical changes however, being recognized in pest as marked SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis representing molecular weights in protein showed there are three, two and one bands were found to be specific to treated 4th, 2nd, and 6th larval instars, respectively. Also the activity of both ᾱ & ß esterases enzymes analysis showed differences in esterase pattern in the treated 4th instars than control. The tested LC50 value of pyridalyl showed highly histopathological disturbance in the epithelium of mid gut. The histochemical observation showed a conspicuous depletion in total protein content in both 4th and 6th treated larval instars.

[Hassan F. Dahi, Aida, S.Kamel, Nehad, M. El Barkey and Mona F. Abd-El Aziz. Pyridalyl Effectiveness on Some Biological and Physiological Parameters of Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):855-863]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 109

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.109

 

Keywords: Pyridalyl, Spodoptera littoralis, biological activity, biochemical, histopathology, histochemistry

Full Text

109

110

The Behavior of 1,7,7 – Trimethyl Bicyclo [2.2.1] Heptane -2,3- Dione And 3-(2-Phenylhydrazono) -1,7,7- Trimethyl Bicyclo [2.2.1] Heptane -2- one Toward Organophosphorus Reagents.

 

Hoda Anwar Abdel–Malek

 

Department of Organometallic and Organometalliod Chemistry, National Research Centre, Giza, 12622, Egypt. hodanwar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: heptanedione 1 reacts with tris(dialkylamino) phosphines (3a,b) to give dipolar product 6a,b. Phosphate product of type 9 are produced upon reacting phenylhydrazone 2 with trialkylphosphites 4a-c. Also, reaction of phenylhydrazone 2 with Lawesson's reagent (LR, 5) gave adducts 10 and 11. Structural elucidation for the new products was based upon compatible analytical and spectral data.

[Hoda Anwar Abdel – Malek. The Behavior of 1,7,7 – Trimethyl Bicyclo [2.2.1] Heptane -2,3- Dione And 3-(2-Phenylhydrazono) -1,7,7- Trimethyl Bicyclo [2.2.1] Heptane -2- one Toward Organophosphorus Reagents. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):864-869]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 110

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.110

 

Kew Words: Heptanedione, phenylhydrazone heptanone, tris(dialkylamino) phosphines, trialkyl phosphites and Lawesson's Reagent.

Full Text

110

111

Factors contribute to underdevelopment of tourism industry in Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars Branch, Iran

upmfhe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the article is show the barrier of tourism industry in Iran. This paper uses qualitative approach to delineate barriers of tourism. According to UNESCO reports, Iran ranks tenth in terms of her very rich civilization, historical monuments, cultural attractions and climatic diversities, and in term of ecosystem richness is among countries of WTO. Despite having so many advantageous factors and parameters Iran has not been able to attract her deserved number of tourists and ranks 75th among 150 countries. Whereas the worldwide tourism income exceeded $432 billion in 1996; Iran’s share was only $300 million from tourism with 660000 foreign tourists visiting the country. The paper identifies socio- cultural and political barriers of tourism industry in Iran. The paper also highlights various other perceived barriers like economic issues and image issues.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi. Factors contribute to underdevelopment of tourism industry in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):870-873]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.111

 

Keywords: tourism industry, barriers, development

Full Text

111

112

Interrelationship between Insulin Resistance and Nephropathy in Non-Diabetic Chronic HCV Genotype 4 Patients

 

Tarek E. Korah1, Dawood Alaa. 1, Sawsan El-Sayed 2, Mohamed A. Soliman 3 and Khalid Khalif3

 

Departments of 1Internal Medicine, 2Tropical Medicine, and 3Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University. alaadawood2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Data are controversial about different hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in causing insulin resistance (IR) in chronic HCV patients with nephropathy. Patients and methods: This study included 40 patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 (group I), 40 patients with chronic HBV (group II), and 20 healthy controls (group III). All subjects were non-diabetic. Group I patients was subdivided into two categories: IA (22 patients without nephropathy), and IB (18 patients with early nephropathy). Results: Fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of B-cell function (HOMA-B), and TNF-α were significantly higher in group I compared to group II and group III. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly lower in group I compared to groups II and III. Meanwhile, in group I, urinary microalbuminuria (UA) was significantly present in 18 patients (45%), compared to none (0%) in the other two groups (p=0.001). Specifically, in group I, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, and TNF-α were significantly higher in subgroup IB compared to subgroup IA. Conclusions: Chronic non-diabetic HCV genotype 4 is suggested to be associated with IR, increased insulin secretion, and increased TNF-α. The presence of HCV nephropathy is hypothesized to have an additive effect on IR, and further increase insulin secretion, and TNF-α. Therefore, increasing insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing or blocking TNF-α, seems to be a new targets of therapy for patients with HCV nephropathy.

[Tarek E. Korah, Dawood Alaa, Sawsan El-Sayed, Mohamed A. Soliman and Khalid Khalif. Interrelationship between Insulin Resistance and Nephropathy in Non-Diabetic Chronic HCV Genotype 4 Patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):874-882]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 112

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.112

 

Key words: Hepatitis C virus, nephropathy, insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Full Text

112

113

Cyanoacrylate versus Vasoactive Therapy in Control of Post-Banding Ulcer Bleeding

 

Mohamed Akl Rady1, Ashraf El-jaky1, Hisham Samy Abdel-Fatah2

 

Departments of Hepatology 1, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

Internal Medicine Department 2, Misr University for Science and Technology, Cairo, Egypt. aklrady@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bleeding related to post-banding ulcer is a rare, but severe complication. Aim of the work: We aimed to compare cyanoacrylate injection with octreotide vasoactive drug in controlling of postbanding ulcer bleeding. Patients&methods: This study was performed on fifty patients, with liver cirrhosis either bilharzial, post viral or mixed based on histopatholgy done at initial work up diagnosis before bleeding. Patients were presenting with upper GI bleeding caused by post-banding ulcer diagnosed by upper gastrointestinal endoscoy. Patients were subjected to history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory, radiological investigations, Child Pugh classification to assess the severity of liver disease and endoscopic intervention in the form of banding ligation for varices or cyanoacrylate injection for post-banding ulcer bleeding. After resuscitative measures, 25 patients were treated with 0.5 ml cyanoacrylate diluted with 0.5 ml lipiodol injected in the esophageal varix just below bleeding post-banding ulcer (group 1), 25 patients were treated with octreotide 50 microgram IV bolus and then 50 microgram IV infusion hourly for 48 hours (group 2). Results: The bleeding control was 88% in the group1 compared with 56% in the group 2 (P<0.05). The recorded complications: pyrexia, bacteremia, dysphagia were found more in cyanoacrylate (group 1) (P<0.05), nausea and diahrrea were more in octreotide (group 2) but not statistically significant (>0.05). All patients with uncontrolled bleeding in both groups were managed with TIPS. Conclusion: Endoscopic management with cyanoacrylate injection for bleeding post-banding variceal ulcers is more effective, but associated with more complications. Further studies on larger scale of patients is recommended to compare cyanoacrylate injection with other modalities of treatment of postbanding ulcer bleeding to determine the optimum way to stop bleeding with least complications.

[Mohamed Akl Rady, Ashraf El-jaky, Hisham Samy Abdel-Fatah. Cyanoacrylate versus Vasoactive Therapy in Control of Post-Banding Ulcer Bleeding. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):883-890]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 113

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.113

 

Key words: oesophageal varices, portal hypertension,variceal bleeding, endoscopic variceal ligation, postbanding ulcer bleeding, cyanoacrylate and vasoactive drugs

Full Text

113

114

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CLOSTATTM) on Performance, Immunity, Gut Health and Carcass Traits in Broilers

 

T. Melegy1, N.F. Khaled1*, R. El-Bana1 and H. Abdellatif 2

 

1Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, 12211 Giza, Egypt. 2 Kemin Europe, NV. Herentals, Belgium. *ansckaled@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CLOSTATTM) on performance, intestinal bacterial count, immunity and carcass traits in broilers. A total of 900 day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned into two experimental groups. Each group was subdivided into six replicates with 75 birds each. Birds of group I served as a control and were fed on basal diet. Birds of group II were fed the basal diet plus 500 g CLOSTATTM (2 ×107CFU/g) / ton of feed. Results indicated that the CLOSTAT-supplemented group showed a significantly better (P < 0.05) final body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the birds in the control group. The CLOSTAT supplemented group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) dressing percent. However, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in lymphocyte count as well as Newcastle disease (ND) antibody titer in the CLOSTAT -supplemented birds. Bacteriological evaluation of the fecal samples revealed a significant reduction (P< 0.05) in total aerobic bacteria and Clostridium perfringens count in CLOSTAT- supplemented group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with PB6 could improve the performance, improve dressing percent, improve immune response, and have an antimicrobial effect against C. perfringens in broilers.

[T. Melegy, N.F. Khaled, R. El-Bana and H. Abdellatif. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CLOSTATTM) on Performance, Immunity, Gut Health and Carcass Traits in Broilers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):891-898]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.114

 

Key words: broiler, Bacillus subtilis, immunity, carcass

Full Text

114

115

Assessment of Risk Factors for Fetal Congenital Anomalies among Pregnant Women at Cairo University Hospitals.

 

Amany M. Ahmed1; Shadia Abd el Kader1; Azza A. Abd El Hamid1 and Hassan M. Gaafar2.

 

1 Department of Maternal & Newborn Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University.

2 Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

Azzaali_aliazza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background, congenital anomaly is a defect that is present at birth, and can result from either genetic, environmental factors, or both. Aim, was to explore the risk factors which may lead to fetal congenital anomalies. Design, a descriptive research design was adopted. Sample, a total of 100 pregnant women was recruited according to the following criteria: pregnant in a fetus with a congenital anomaly; at any reproductive age; no specific gravidity or parity; single or multiple gestations. Setting, Fetal Medicine Unit at El-Manial Maternity Hospital. Tools, two tools were constructed and filled in by the researchers: 1) Ultrasonographic fetal assessment record 2) structured interview schedule. Results, age range of the pregnant women were 17-44 years with a mean of 26.52 + 5.48 years old. Twelve percent of them cannot read and write while, 22% had university education. Renal anomalies, central nervous system (CNS), muscloskeletal, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal anomalies were the most common congenital anomalies constituted 38%, 31%, 20%, 10%, 8% respectively of the total anomalies. Regarding to risk factors for congenital anomalies, 44% of the pregnant women had first degree consanguinity, 17% had a family history of a congenital anomalies, 19% had a previous child with a congenital anomalies, 33% gave a history of consuming drugs during present pregnancy, 21% of the pregnant women live near industrial source and 22% of them experienced infection during present pregnancy. In conclusion, renal, CNS and muscloskeletal anomalies were the most common type of congenital anomalies. Positive consanguinity, family history for congenital anomalies, previous child with a congenital anomaly, consuming drugs during pregnancy, living near industrial source and exposure to infections during pregnancy, were the most common risk factors associated with congenital anomalies. Recommendations, premarital examination for consanguineous marriages should be encouraged. Antenatal care is very important for suspecting and early detection of congenital anomalies.

[Amany M. Ahmed; Shadia Abd el Kader; Azza A. Abd El Hamid and Hassan M. Gaafar. Assessment of Risk Factors for Fetal Congenital Anomalies among Pregnant Women at Cairo University Hospitals. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):899-908]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.115

 

Key words: risk factors, fetal congenital anomalies

Full Text

115

116

Effect of Pushover Load Pattern on Seismic Responses of RC Frame Buildings

 

Mohammed H. Serror1, Nayer A. El-Esnawy2, and Rania F. Abo-Dagher3

 

1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

2 Professor, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

3 M.Sc. Graduate, Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

mhassanien@cosmos-eng.com

 

Abstract: Recently, attention has been paid to the performance-based seismic design that requires designing the building for several expected performance levels. This is achievable through a design procedure based on the inelastic responses. In order to estimate the inelastic seismic responses of a building, the pushover analysis is used, for its simplicity compared with the nonlinear time-history analysis. In pushover analysis, however, the first step is to select a particular lateral load pattern, which affects the resulting capacity curve that may over- or under-estimate building seismic capacity. Therefore, the selection of a reasonable lateral load pattern is particularly important in pushover analysis. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of lateral load patterns on the seismic performance of low-to-mid-rise Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings. The RC frame buildings, which consist of 6, 9, and 12 stories, are designed according to Egyptian codes ECP-201 and ECP-203. The lateral load patterns for pushover analysis are selected as uniform, inverted triangle, first mode, IBC (k=2), and weighted-load vector patterns. Pushover analysis has been performed according to FEMA-356 guidelines. The effect of the selected lateral load patterns on the seismic responses of the RC frame buildings is illustrated. In particular, the top drift of the building, the base shear, and the peak inter-story drift are analyzed.

[Mohammed H. Serror, Nayer A. El-Esnawy, and Rania F. Abo-Dagher. Effect of Pushover Load Pattern on Seismic Responses of RC Frame Buildings] Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):909-919]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.116

 

Keywords: pushover analysis; lateral load pattern; inelastic seismic responses; performance-based design

Full Text

116

117

Effect of Two Different Cord Care Regimens on Umbilical Cord Stump Separation Time among Neonates at Cairo University Hospitals

 

Azza A. Abd El Hamid; Nagwa A. El Fadil and Hanan F. Azzam

 

Department of Maternal and Newborn Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Azzaali_aliazza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background, a major cause of death in developing countries is umbilical cord infections. Aim of this research was to compare the effect of topical application of breast milk versus distilled water on umbilical cord stump separation time and occurrence of bacterial colonization among neonates. Design, quasi- experimental design. Setting was postpartum unit at El Manial Maternity Hospital. Sample, a total of 100 neonates was randomly selected immediately after admission to the postpartum unit according to certain criteria. The sample was randomly assigned into two groups (50 neonates each) group A who received cord care with breast milk, and group B who received cord care with distilled water. Tools, three tools developed and filled by the researchers: - structured interview schedule; Cord swab bacteriological examination tool; and Follow up Schedule for signs of cord infection tool. Results indicated that, no statistically significant differences between groups were found in relation to, maternal socio-demographic or neonatal characteristics. Gestational age mean was 38.60 + 1.08 weeks gestation for neonates in breast milk group while, it was 38.92 + 1.15 weeks gestation for neonates in distilled water group (T= 1.42, P=0.15). Neonatal weight mean was 2973.00 + 218.96 gm for neonates in breast milk group and it was 2898.00 + 315.08 gm for neonates in distilled water group (T= 0.71, P=0.47). Umbilical cord separation time occurred early for neonates in the breast milk group Vs neonates in the distilled water group (5.60 + 1.04 & 7.92 + 1.08 days, respectively). Moreover, low percentage of neonates in the breast milk group and Distilled water group had bacterial colonization (14% & 10%, respectively) with no statistical significance difference between groups was found (X2 =0.37, P= 0.76). In conclusion, use of topical application of breast milk on umbilical cord care was associated with shorter cord stump separation time than in distilled water. Also, breast milk reduced incidence of omphalitis, and reduced bacterial colonization especially with pathogenic microorganisms as the same as distilled water. This research recommends that, breast milk can be used as easy, cheap and highly effective for umbilical cord care.

[Azza A. Abd El Hamid; Nagwa A. El Fadil and Hanan F. Azzam. Effect of Two Different Cord Care Regimens on Umbilical Cord Stump Separation Time among Neonates at Cairo University Hospitals. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):920-926]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.117

 

Key words: Distilled water, Breast milk, umbilical cord stump separation time, Bacterial Colonization

Full Text

117

118

Liquefaction of the Vitreous Humor floaters is a Risk Factor for Lens Opacity and Retinal Dysfunction

 

Abdelkawi S A *, Elawadi A I

 

Biophysics and Laser Science Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt.

*saelkawi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rabbits’ eyes were exposed to vitreous humor liquefaction with Q - switched Nd- YAG laser. The biophysical changes in the lens crystallin and the bioelectricity of the retina were investigated. The rabbits were divided into two main groups (n= 12 each). The first group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) and then treated with 500 mJ laser energy delivered to the anterior, middle and posterior vitreous respectively. The second group was received a daily dose of 25 mg/Kg vitamin C for two weeks then divided into three subgroups and treated with laser in the same manner as the first group. Measurements of lens protein content, refractive index (IR), sodium dodecyle sulfate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and electroretinogram (ERG) for the retina were studied. The results indicated decease in the soluble lens protein content, increase in the refractive index, pronounced change in the electrophoresis pattern of lens protein and reduction in ERG a- and b- waves amplitude, and latency. Application of Q-switched Nd-YAG laser in vitreous liquefaction induces lens opacity, and retinal dysfunction. Although there were some sort of improvement in lenses and retinas supplemented with vitamin C, it cannot protect them against laser oxidative damage.

[Abdelkawi S A, Elawadi A I. Liquefaction of the Vitreous Humor floaters is a Risk Factor for Lens Opacity and Retinal Dysfunction. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):927-936]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.118

 

Key Words: Nd-YAG laser; vitamin C; Lens protein; Refractive index; SDS- PAGE; Electroretinogram.

Full Text

118

119

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER (CAPE) ON LIVER AND KIDNEY OF RATS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 900 MHZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD

 

Nagla Ahmed El Nabarawy*, Mohamed Ali El Desouky** 

 

*Consultant of Clinical Toxicology, National Egyptian center of Environmental & Toxicologial Research (NECTER), Cairo University

**Lecture of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University 

 

Abstract: The use of mobile phones is one of the fastest growing technological developments in present days. The 900 MHz EMR emitting mobile phones are commonly used in many countries. There is evidence that exposure to the radiofrequency radiation from mobile telephones or their base station could affect people's health. This article describes the PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER (CAPE) ON LIVER AND KIDNEY OF RATS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 900 MHZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD.

[Nagla Ahmed El Nabarawy, Mohamed Ali El Desouky. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER (CAPE) ON LIVER AND KIDNEY OF RATS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 900 MHZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):937-944]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 119

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.119

 

Keywords: CAFFEIC ACID PHENETHYL ESTER (CAPE); LIVER; KIDNEY; RAT

Full Text

119

120

Role of Parasitic Helminths in Protection Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

 

Doaa A. Yones 

 

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

 

ABSTRACT: Helminth parasites are of considerable medical and economic importance. Studies of the immune response against helminths are of great interest in understanding interactions between the host immune system and parasites. The lack of exposure to helminth infections, as a result of improved living standards and medical conditions, may have contributed to the increased incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in the developed world. Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical data sustain the idea that helminths could provide protection against IBD. Studies investigating the underlying mechanisms by which helminths might induce such protection have revealed the importance of regulatory pathways, for example, regulatory T-cells. Further investigation on how helminths influence both innate and adaptive immune reactions will shed more light on the complex pathways used by helminths to regulate the hosts immune system. Although therapy with living helminths appears to be effective in several immunological diseases, the disadvantages of a treatment based on living parasites are explicit. Therefore, the identification and characterization of helminth-derived immunomodulatory molecules that contribute to the protective effect could lead to new therapeutic approaches in IBD and other immune diseases.

[Doaa A. Yones. Role of Parasitic Helminths in Protection Against Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Doaa A. Yones. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):945-955]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 120

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.120

 

KEYWORDS: Helminths, Inflammatory bowel diseases, Hygiene Hypothesis, Immunomodulation.

Full Text

120

121

Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on surface and groundwater systems in the western part of the River Nile, between EL-Edwa - Der Mawas area, El Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt

 

Mohamed El Kashouty*, Esam El Sayed**,Ashraf M. T. Elewa** and Mamdouh Morsi***

 

* Cairo university, Faculty of Science, Geology Department

** Minia University, Faculty of science, Geology Department

*** Environmental Department, Minia Governorate

 

Abstract: The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on the surface and ground-waters systems in the western part of the River Nile, Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low plan exploitation techniques. The Pleistocene aquifer is composed of sand and gravel of different sizes, with some clay intercalation. The semi confined condition was around the River Nile shifted to unconfined outside the floodplain. The groundwater flow generally from south to north and diverts towards the western part and the River Nile. Ninety-six and twenty-one water samples were collected from Pleistocene aquifer and surface irrigated waters (Ibrahimia canal, River Nile, and Bahr Youssef) and El Moheet drain. The detail chemical analyses with respect to major and trace elements were accomplished for hydrogeochemical evaluation. The total dissolve solids (TDS) of the surface irrigated water are below 500 ppm which is suitable for drinking and irrigating uses. The As and Ni content of surface water makes it unsuitable for drinking but suitable for irrigation. The River Nile in the study area with respect to the Cd content is inappropriate for drinking and irrigation purposes due to the agricultural activity and inflow from the groundwater (the River Nile is a discharge zone). The Pb and Se concentrations in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards and lower than the irrigation standards The Zn and F concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than the drinking and irrigation standards. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is more or less equal in surface irrigated water and decline in El Moheet drain by increase in organic wastewaters (BOD and COD) in the drain. The COD and BOD in surface irrigated water are higher than the drinking standards. The B and Cu concentrations in surface irrigated water are lower than drinking and irrigation standards. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases generally from southern to northern part of the study area, with groundwater flow. The TDS anomalous areas (800 to 1400 ppm) are attributed to lithogenic, and anthropogenic (agricultural) impact. The B concentration anomalous areas are located due to the western zone that exceed the drinking water standard. The contamination with respect to Cu and Ni is out the aquifer system. The Cd concentration was below the drinking water standard of 0.003 mg/l, therefore no pollution with respect to Cd concentration. The NO2 and Cr concentrations shows no impact on the groundwater quality. The Ba, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations impact on the groundwater environment with respect to drinking purpose while it can use in irrigation. The cluster analysis was distinguished into four clusters which subdivided into six sub clusters (A-F). The average concentrations of each sub cluster was determined and correlated with the geographic position. The principal component analysis was established and classified into six factors.

[Mohamed El Kashouty, Esam El Sayed, Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Mamdouh Morsi. Environmental impact of anthropogenic activity on surface and groundwater systems in the western part of the River Nile, between EL-Edwa - Der Mawas area, El Minia Governorate, Upper Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):956-961]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 121

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.121

 

Keywords: Surface irrigated water, groundwater, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, El Minia Governorate

Full Text

121

122

Study of nuclear shape and alignments in the odd-proton Holmium isotopes

 

N. A. Mansour, M. Fayez-Hassan* and N. M. El-Debawy

 

Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

*Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Cairo, Egypt

E-Mail: nassif_mansour@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: We report here in the present work the properties of high spin spectroscopy and the alignment effects in the 153-163Ho isotopes which characterized by smooth increase of the transition energies with respect to spin. The level structure has been established up to high energy and spin values. The systematic behavior of the level pattern of the odd-proton Ho isotopes is discussed. An interesting nuclear features emerging from this study concerns the evaluation of the moment of inertia and the yrast line yields conclusions about the nuclear shape. Also a Comparison study of the results in studied isotopes has been done. Accurate description of back-bending phenomena and band crossing in the Ho isotopes are discussed in the frame of the systematic found in this mass region The change in deformation can be explored through the so- called gauge plots.

[N. A. Mansour, M. Fayez-Hassan and N. M. El-Debawy. Study of nuclear shape and alignments in the odd-proton Holmium isotopes. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):962-970]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.122

 

Keywords: Moment of inertia / Shape transition / Yrast Line / Backbending

Full Text

122

123

Synthesis, Spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and biological activity of Some Phosphine Schiff Base Complexes.

 

A.M. A. Alaghaza,c, Ahmed I. Hanafy *b,c

 

a Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

b Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

c permanent address; Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar
 University, Cairo, Egypt.
*Corresponding authors; ahmedih@yahoo.com (A.I. Hanafy).

 

Abstract: The phosphine Schiff base 4-((Z)-(4-bromophenylimino)(diphenyl-phosphino)methyl)benzene-1,2,3-triol (H3L), and its Cu(II), Cd(II), Ti(III), Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III), MoO2(VI), and UO2(VI) complexes (1-8), respectively, have been prepared. The structure of the ligand and its complexes were investigated using elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV/Visible, EPR, 13C, and 31P-NMR, magnetic susceptibility, and conductance measurements. The ligand H3L behaves as a bidentate ligand in which the oxygen atom in the ortho position and methine nitrogen atoms of the ligand coordinate to the metal ions. The keto-enol tautomeric forms of the phosphine Schiff base ligand H3L have been investigated in polar and non-polar organic solvents. All metal ions form complexes in mole ratio of 1: 2 metal: ligand. The solid state dc electrical conductivity of the ligand and its complexes have been measured over 315-405 K, and the complexes were found to be of semiconducting nature. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes have been investigated. Some of these metal complexes showed significant activity against Pseudomonas and Klebsiella bacteria and two fungi (A. Niger and A. Flavous).

[A.M. A. Alaghaz, Ahmed I. Hanafy. Synthesis, Spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behavior and biological activity of Some Phosphine Schiff Base Complexes. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):971-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 123

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.123 

 

Keywords: Phosphine; Schiff base; complexes; Antimicrobial activity

Full Text

123

124

Classification of dynamical geometric figures

 

M. El-GHOL (*) AND A.A.SAAD (**)

 

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 51H20, 57N10, 57M05, 14F35, 20F34.

M. EL-GHOL (*) Mathematics Department, Faculty of science, Tanta university, Tanta, Egypt.

E-mail address: m_elgohoul2006@yahoo.com

A.A.SAAD (**) Mathematics Department, Faculty of science, Alexandria university, Alexandria, Egypt.

E-mail address: dr_asmaa479@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the effect of the time on geometric figures. Also, we deduce the algebraic transformations and geometric transformations which occur on geometric figures by the time. We give some important results.

[M. El-GHOL AND A.A.SAAD. Classification of dynamical geometric figures. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):982-992]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 124

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.124

 

Keywords: dynamical system, geometric figure

Full Text

124

125

Role of multislice CT in assessment of carotid stenosis

 

Mohammad Sobhi Hassan, Mohsen Gomaa hassan

 

Departement of radiology, Ainshams University.

 

Abstract: Objective: the objective of this study is to evaluate the role of multislice CT in evaluation of carotid stenosis. Method: forty five patients who had neurological symptoms suggestive of neurovascular disease and who had 60% stenosis on Doppler study were evaluated by multislice CT and DSA and the results were compared for each of the ninty carotid arteries. Results: Conventional angiograms and CT angiograms were in agreement in 71 arteries (79 %). Disagreement was found in the remaining eighteen arteries were CT angiogram showed the stenosis to be one category less in 13 arteries (14.4%) and one category more sever in 6 arteries (6.66%). No disagreement was found by more than one category. Sensitivity and specifity for detecting sever stenosis or occlusion was 85% and 97 %.

[Mohammad Sobhi Hassan, Mohsen Gomaa hassan. Role of multislice CT in assessment of carotid stenosis. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):993-997]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.125

 

Ketwords: multislice; CT; assessment; carotid stenosis

Full Text

125

126

Production of Violet-blue Emitting Phosphors via Solid State Reaction and Their Uses in Outdoor Glass Fountain

 

Hanaa El Kazazz*1, Erkul Karacaoglu2, Bekir Karasu2 and Mustafa Agatekin3

 

1 Department Glass, Faculty of Applied Arts, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Materials Science and Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Türkiye

3 Glass Department, Faculty of Fine Art, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Türkiye

*hanaaahmad40@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The rare earth metal ions-doped calcium aluminate phosphors have been studied in depth and widely used thanks to their high quantum efficiency, anomalous long phosphorescence and good stability. In this study, violet-blue phosphors in the CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+ and Dy3+ systems were produced through a solid-state reaction. The optimum concentrations of Nd and Dy rare earths were investigated. The phosphor powders were further searched by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached with EDX and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra (PL). It is thought that Nd3+ and Dy3+ ions doping in the phosphor generate deep traps resulting in long afterglow phosphorescence. Final long-lasting, violet-blue emitting phosphors were evaluated on the outdoor glass fountain.

[Hanaa El Kazazz, Erkul Karacaoglu, Bekir Karasu and Mustafa Agatekin. Production of Violet-blue Emitting Phosphors via Solid State Reaction and Their Uses in Outdoor Glass Fountain]. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 998-1004]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 126

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.126

 

Keywords: Calcium aluminate, Rare earths doping, Violet-blue luminescence, Characterization, Usage, Glass fountain.

Full Text

126

127

Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats.

 

Manar E. Selim

 

Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, and Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University. manar.selim@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder that complicates approximately 5% of all pregnancies, making it perhaps the most common glomerular disease in the world. The current study was carried out on 125 female Wistar rats divided into five equal groups. Group I included virgin non-pregnant rats. Group II included pregnant rats that were received saline solution (0.5 ml/100 g body weight) from day 7 to day 20 of gestation. Group III included pregnant rats that were treated with L-NAME dissolved in sterile saline solution in a dose of 10 mg/0.5 ml/100 g body weights subcutaneously and daily starting from the same day of gestation and for the same duration as mentioned for group II. Group IV included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and urocortin-1, in a dose of 5 µg/kg body weight/ day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Group V included pregnant rats that were treated by both L-NAME (the same dose and for the same duration as mentioned for group III) and ABT-627, 5 mg/kg / day subcutaneously starting from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Ultrathin sections from the kidney were processed for electron microscopic examination. The ultrastructural examination of group III showed damage of the parietal epithelium of Bowman’s capsules, thickening of the capillary endothelial wall and fusion of the foot process of the podocytes. Mesangial cells and matrix were greatly increased. Moreover, the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) showed degeneration of the brush border and its lumina appeared with hyaline casts. The distal convoluted tubules (DCTs) were affected also as represented by destruction of the basal infoldings, mitochondria and the apical microvilli. The electron microscopic results revealed that the treatment of preeclamptic rats with urocortin-1 lead to apparent repair of the injured renal tissues rather than ABT-627 that might suggest its use as helpful therapeutic line for alleviation nephrotoxicity in preeclampsia.

[Manar E. Selim. Electron Microscopic Study On The Effect Of Urocortin-1 And Selective Endothein Type A Receptor Blockade On kidney Cortex Of Preeclamptic Pregnant Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 1005-1015]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.127

 

Keywords: Pregnancy, preeclampsia, PCTs, endothelial cell, podocyte

Full Text

127

128

Comparative ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Cotugnia polycantha (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Davaineidae), the intestinal parasites of pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) from Egypt

 

Sabry, E. Ahmed and Shimaa, Abd-El-Moaty

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

drsabryahmed11@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study compares ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of Cotugnia polycantha recovered from the intestine of the two different host, Columba livia domestica and Streptopelia senegalensis from Egypt. The spermatozoa of C. polycantha of the two different host are filiform, tapered at the anterior extremity and lack mitochondria. The anterior extremity has an apical cone of electron dense material and two helicoidal thick cord crested-like body. The axoneme possesses the 9+"1" pattern of microtubules and contains the peri-axonemal sheath. The cortical microtubules are spiraled along the whole length of the spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of C. polycantha of C. livia consists of five regions (I-V), while the other consists of four regions (I-IV). The cytoplasm contains numerous and large electron dense granules only in the region V in case of C. polycantha of C. livia but, these granules are also found in the regions I, II and IV in the spermatozoon of C. polycantha of S. senegalensis. The nucleus is a fine compact cord and envelops the central axoneme once or twice, interposes itself between the cortical microtubules in case of C. polycantha of C. livia which is different in that of C. polycantha of S. senegalensis in which the nucleus is coiled in a helix around the axoneme. The cytoplasm of the both spermatozoa are of a very electron dense material at the posterior extremity of each spermatozoon.

[Sabry, E. Ahmed and Shimaa, Abd-El-Moaty. Comparative ultrastructural study of the spermatozoa of Cotugnia polycantha (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Davaineidae), the intestinal parasites of pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) from Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1016-1024]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.128

 

Key words: Ultrastructure - Spermatozoon - Cestoda - Cyclophyllidea

Full Text

128

129

Mutation Analysis of K-ras Gene in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Egyptian Workers Occupationally Exposed to Multiple Pesticides

 

Mohamed A. Noaishi 1,Mostafa M.M. Afify2 and Naglaa F.E. Mahmoud3

 

1. Department of Mammalian Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Lab (CAPL), Ministry of Agriculture; 2. Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Bani Sweif University, Egypt; 3. Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt; noaishi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Proto-oncogenes are cellular genes that are expressed during normal growth and developmental processes. Mutated versions of normal proto-oncogenes have been implicated in the development of human neoplasia. The present study is designed to investigate the association among three factors, occupational exposure to pesticides, aging and smoking habit and their effects to induce k-ras gene mutation in lymphocytes of Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to a mixture of pesticides in outdoor fields in El-Fayoum governorate. The k-ras gene mutation can occur by many factors and not one factor induces the mutation. So we used a multiple linear regression statistical test to estimate the interaction among these factors. We have found k-ras mutations occurred in 9 of 45 workers ≥40 years while in workers <40 years the mutation was 1 of 29 and the workers who occupationally exposed to pesticides more than 15 years showed 9 cases of 29 (31.0%) and between workers exposed to less than 15 years showed 1 case of 45 (2.2%). In addition the results investigated the workers who were smoking more than 20 years exhibited mutations in 7 cases of 13 (53.8%) than workers were smoking less than 20 years who showed only 3 cases of 25 (12.0%). There is no significant multiple linear regression of both age and pesticide exposure factors (P= 0.766 and P = 0.232, respectively) but there is a significant association between k-ras mutation and smoking factor (P < 0.043). More addition a highly significant multiple linear regressions are found between k-ras mutation and smoking years factor (P < 0.001). In conclusion the interaction between tobacco smoking and other factors like aging and occupational exposure to pesticides may play together the main role of k-ras gene mutation and the sequential studies in the various animal models may be useful to give advanced information how these environmental mutagens affect on these genes.

[Mohamed A. Noaishi, Mostafa M.M. Afify and Naglaa F.E. Mahmoud. Mutation Analysis of K-ras Gene in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Egyptian Workers Occupationally Exposed to Multiple Pesticides. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1025-1030]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 129

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.129

 

Key Words: Occupationally exposed, Pesticides, Age, Smoking, K-ras, SSCP

Full Text

129

130

The new Security Studies and Soft power

 

Afsane Reshad

 

Department of International Relation, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. afsanereshad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Critical Security Studies is the most sustained and coherent critique of traditional Security Studies Especially the concept of Power. Critical Security Studies through has attempted to break away from the constraints of the western paradigms in order to truly understand the security concerns and their manifestations outside the West. In this article indexes of Critical Security Studies (CSS) such as Security Studies، Foundational Claims، Schools relate to Critical Security Studies and Soft Power ،Achievements and Limitations ،its Ethical Commitments and Future Pathways And New Framework for Critical Security Studies and meaning of power will analysis.

[Afsane Reshad. The new Security Studies and Soft power. Journal of American Science 2011;7 (12):1031-1036]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.130

 

Key Words: Critical Security Studies ، Security Studies ،emancipation ، Soft power

Full Text

130

131

Sealing Ability of MTA versus Portland Cement in the Repair of Furcal Perforations of Primary Molars: A Dye Extraction Leakage Model

 

Sherif B. El Tawil*1; Norhan A. El Dokky1 and Dalia Abd El Hamid2

 1Pediatric and Community Dentistry Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University; 2Dental Materials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

*drsherifbahgat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of MTA versus Portland cement (PC) in the repair of furcal perforations of primary molars (in-vitro study). Materials & Methods: 30 extracted primary molars were divided into four groups after access openings and furcation perforations were prepared in the pulp chamber floor. Group 1 (n=10) in which perforations were repaired with MTA (ProRoot MTA, MTA-Angelus), Group 2 (n=10) in which perforations were repaired with Portland cement, Group 3 (n=5) in which perforations were left unsealed (Positive control) and Group 4 (n= 5) without perforations (Negative control). The seleability of the tested materials was evaluated by the dye extraction method. 1% basic fuchsin dye was applied inside the access cavity of all teeth for 24 hours. The teeth were placed in vials containing 1 ml of concentrated (65 wt %) nitric acid until complete dissolution. The absorbance was read by an automatic microplate spectrophotometer at 545 nm using concentrated nitric acid as a blank the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the microleakage between MTA and Portland cement repair groups. Conclusions: Portland cement has the potential to be used as a less expensive material alternative to MTA in the repair of perforation site of primary teeth.

[Sherif B. El Tawil; Norhan A El Dokky and Dalia Abd El Hamid. Sealing Ability of MTA versus Portland Cement in the Repair of Furcal Perforations of Primary Molars: A Dye Extraction Leakage Model. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1037-1043]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.131

 

Keywords: Perforation, MTA, Portland cement, dye extraction

Full Text

131

132

Management of pediatric maxillofacial tumors: A retrospective analysis and long-term follow-up outcomes

 

Ashraf Abdel Fattah Mahmoud1 and Mohamed Sherif Mohamed Salah El Din Hassan Farag2

 

1 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Al- Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Egypt; 2Pediatric and Community Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Suez Canal University, Egypt. msherifsfarag@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of maxillofacial tumors in children and to present the long-term follow-up results including rehabilitation during mixed and permanent dentition till complete facial growth to insert implants and final fixed restoration. Our study was performed with a retrospective analysis of 40 patients under the age of 15 years with maxillofacial tumor treated in our clinics. In addition, treatment modalities and long-term follow-up results of these patients were evaluated. According to our results, it was established that maxillofacial tumors were mostly observed in the 11-15 age group, 22 cases, (55%), followed by 13 patients (32.5%) were among 6-10 age group and lastly 5 patients (12.5%) were among 0- 5 years age group. The mandible was most frequently affected 21 patients (52.5%), followed by the maxilla 12 patients (30%). The location and frequency of the remaining 7 patients (17.5%) were distributed over salivary glands, oral mucosa, and submandibular area. The odontogenic tumors comprised 16 cases (40%), while 23 cases (57.5%) were benign non-odontogenic, and the malignant non-odontogenic occupied one case (2.5%). Surgical modalities vary from excision, curettage, en bloc excision or radical resection was tailored for adequate treatment of these tumors. Rehabilitation included removable and fixed partial dentures and finally implants.

[Ashraf Abdel Fattah Mahmoud and Mohamed Sherif Mohamed Salah El Din Hassan Farag. Management of pediatric maxillofacial tumors: A retrospective analysis and long-term follow-up outcomes. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1044-1052]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 132

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.132

 

Key word: Pediatric, tumor, maxillofacial, implant, rehabilitation.

Full Text

132

133

A Fuzzy Hybrid and Integrated MCDM-LP Model for Single and Multi-Outsourcing

 

Bahram Izadi, Saeedeh Ketabi, Mohsen Allameh

 

Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jarib- Isfahan- IRAN

Izady.bahram@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Acquiring competitive advantage is a main key for business success in today’s rapidly changing and uncertain environments and outsourcing has become an important approach in this regard. This article outlines a hybrid method to select the best supplier in single outsourcing approach and/or split order and allocate optimum order quantity to different suppliers under a fuzzy environment. The presented model incorporates fuzzy AHP, TOPSIS and LP techniques for group decision making while it takes different background of decision-making group members in to account. A case study of supplier selection in an optical company in Iran is presented.

[Bahram Izadi, Saeedeh Ketabi, Mohsen Allameh. A Fuzzy Hybrid and Integrated MCDM-LP Model for Single and Multi-Outsourcing Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1053-1063]. (ISSN:1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 133

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.133

 

Keywords: Supplier Selection, Single and Multi-outsourcing, Multi-Criteria group decision making

Full Text

133

134

Selectivity and Performance of Fe-V2O5/γ-Al2O3 Nano Catalyst for Methanol Production with Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) Reaction

 

A. Gharibi Kharaji1, A. Shariati1, M.A. Takassi*2

 

1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz 6198144471, Iran

2.Department of Science, Petroleum University of Technology, Ahwaz, Iran,

 takassi@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) reaction is one of the reactions in which CO2 is transformed to other useful chemicals such as methanol. The RWGS reaction was carried out at a total pressure of 10 bars and at a temperature range of 573-973 K in a batch reactor using V2O5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst and its iron promoted form. Both catalysts were activated by hydrogen at a pressure of 20 bars and at a temperature of 873 K in a batch reactor. The structures of these catalysts were studied using XRD, XRF and BET techniques. In present study, the effect of iron on the activity of V2O5/γ-Al2O3 and also CO selectivity of the promoted catalysts were investigated in the reverse water gas shift reaction. The results showed that the promoted Fe-V2O5-Al2O3 catalyst exhibits a better catalytic activity in RWGS reaction. The iron promoted V2O5/γ-Al2O3 catalyst demonstrated the best catalytic activity for CO2 conversion to CO for methanol production, at a reaction time of 45 seconds and at a reaction temperature of 773K. Stability test of Fe-V2O5/Al2O3 catalyst was also carried out in a fixed bed reactor. This catalyst showed a high CO2 conversion for 60 h of time on stream.

[A. Gharibi Kharaji, A. Shariati, M.A. Takassi. Selectivity and Performance of Fe-V2O5/γ-Al2O3 Nano Catalyst for Methanol Production with Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) Reaction. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1064-1068]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 134

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.134

 

Keywords: Global Warming; Fe-V2O5-Al2O3 catalyst; Methanol Production; RWGS Reaction, selectivity

Full Text

134

135

New Technique to improve Power System Stabilizer performance by Genetic Algorithm

 

S. Ehsan Razavi*, Abdollah Babaei

 

Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

*erazavi@qdiau.ac.ir, ehsanrazavi81@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Principle role of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is to increase damping of oscillations of generator rotor by control of its excitation by using of auxiliary stabilizer signals. The design of a PSS can be performed by suitable state and optimum feedback that roots of case study is transferred to suitable points as designed results. As the large searching techniques, Genetic Algorithms (GA) is global search techniques to provide a powerful tool for optimization problems by miming the mechanisms of natural selection and genetics. To fast accessing of desired results, this paper used a modified Genetic Algorithm for suitable designing of stabilizer.

[S. Ehsan Razavi, Abdollah Babaei. New Technique to improve Power System Stabilizer performance by Genetic Algorithm. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1069-1073]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.135

 

Keywords: Power System Stabilizer, Optimum feedback controller, State feedback controller and Genetic Algorithm.

Full Text

135

136

Effects of maturity on histopathological alteration after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits

 

Ehab Tousson*1; Mohamed S. A. El-Gerbed2 and Somia Shaleby3

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University; 2Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Damenhour University; 3Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Minoufiya University, Egypt

*toussonehab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Boldenone is a derivative of the testosterone and it has dual effects on humans, directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with boldenone. However, the action of these steroids on the liver, kidney and testes structure in immature animals still unclear, therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of maturity on the intramuscular injection of boldenone undecylenate on the hepatic, renal and testicular structures. Thirty two New Zealand rabbits were divided into main groups (16 immature and 16 mature rabbits) and each main group is divided into four groups (4 animals each). Control group (G1) includes animals that injected intramuscularly with olive oil. Groups 2, 3 and 4 (G2; G3 and G4) include animals that receive one, two and three intramuscular injections of 5 mg/Kg body weight boldenone undecylenate dissected after 3, 6 and 9 weeks respectively. The present results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with boldenone has a marked adverse effects on the liver, kidney and testes tissues and this effects were more observed in immature than in mature rabbits and this histopathological alternations were increased with the increase the boldenone dose injection. Our results showed that; immature rabbits that receive boldenone showed disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney and disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. These findings suggested that misuse of growth promoter boldenone undecylenate may contribute to a continuously damage of the hepatic, renal and testicular function and structure that may lead to a hepatic, renal and genital progressive diseases so young people especially should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance.

[Ehab Tousson; Mohamed S. A. El-Gerbed and Somia Shaleby. Effects of maturity on histopathological alteration after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1074-1080]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 136

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.136

 

Keywords: Steroids; Boldenone; Rabbit; Maturity; Liver; Kidney; Testes

Full Text

136

137

Discrete Adomian Decomposition Solution of Nonlinear Mixed Integral Equation

 

F. A. Hendi and H.O. Bakodah

 

Department of Mathematics, Science Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

falhendi@kau.edu.sa; hbakodah@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to use discrete Adomian decomposition method for solving mixed nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. This method is based upon quadrature rule and Adomian decomposition method. Numerical illustrations are investigated to show features of the technique.

[F. A. Hendi and H.O. Bakodah. Discrete Adomian Decomposition Solution of Nonlinear Mixed Integral Equation. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1081-1084]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 137

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.137

 

Keywords: Mixed Integral equation; Discrete Adomian decomposition method (DADM), quadrature rule

Full Text

137

138

The Effect of an Assertiveness Training Program on Assertiveness skills and Self-Esteem of Faculty Nursing Students

 

1Solaf A. Hamoud; 2Samia A. El Dayem and 2*Laila H. Ossman

 

1Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, Faculty of Nursing, Tishreen University, Syria

2Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

*liliossman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Nursing students today are the nucleus of professional nurses of tomorrow. In order to ensure competent and safe practice, it is necessary for them to be individuals with high self-esteem and assertive skills. So, it is significantly important to enhance assertiveness and self-esteem of nursing students through implementing an assertiveness training program. This study aims to determine the effect of an assertiveness training program on self-esteem and assertiveness skills of students at the Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. The subjects composed of “80” nursing students, they were divided randomly to “40” students for study group and “40” for control group. The data were collecting by using assertiveness scale and self-esteem scale. A negative statistical significant correlation was proved between assertiveness skills and self-esteem, i.e., as students’ assertiveness skills score increases (becomes better), students’ self-esteem score decrease (becomes better). Also, a statistical significant difference was found between both of assertiveness skills and self-esteem mean scores of study and control groups immediately post and one month after program. The study concluded that assertive behavior and self-esteem can be learned and that students studied at faculty of nursing can significantly benefit from an assertiveness training program to increase their assertiveness skills and self-esteem.

[Solaf A. Hamoud; Samia A. El Dayem and Laila H. Ossman. The Effect of an Assertiveness Training Program on Assertiveness skills and Self-Esteem of Faculty Nursing Students. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 1085-1096] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 138

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.138

 

Keywords: Assertiveness skills, Assertiveness training program, Nursing students, Self-esteem

Full Text

138

139

Association Of Glycosylated Haemoglobin Level And Microalbuminuria With The Severity Of Coronary Artery Disease

 

Ahmed El Sherif, Mohamed Khaled, Ahmed Ibrahim, and Mohamed M. Elhattab, Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University, Cairo. Egypt. mkhicu@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus usually associated with higher risk of micro vascular and macrovascular complication especially CAD. Our studies were aimed to examine correlation between HbAIc (severity of DM) and micro albuminuria to severity of CAD assessed by coronary angiography using Gensini score. Methodology: 100 diabetic patients (type 2 diabetes) admitted for coronary angiography and diagnosed by criteria to had DM and CAD excluded from our study pts with macroalbuminuria or having condition which increase albumin in urine or have causes that may increase or decrease HbAlC. All pts will be subjected to full medical history physical examination 12 lead ECG, urine analysis for presence of albumin and measurement of HbAIc using quantitative colorimetric determination of glycol hemoglobin in samples by dimension RXL band "Siemens", detection of microalbuminuria by detection of albumin and creatinine level in the spot urine spelimens by Bayer DCA 2000 and analyzer system "Siemens" and coronary angiography with assessment of severity of CAD using Gensini score. Results: A total of 100 diabetic patients with age ranging from 39 to 70 yrs, 58 males and 42 females, Gensini score was 50+39.4 and HbAIc level was 10+3.4 and microabluminuria were present in 22 patients, Gensini score showed statistically significant higher values in patients with microalbumin (73.1+40 vs 43.6+30.6 y, P < 0.001), there were statistically significant positive correlation between HbAIc levels Gensini scores (P values < 0.001) another positive correlation were found between Gengini score and increasing duration of diabetes and increasing in age (P value 0.011 & 0.017 respectively) HBA1C values were significantly higher in pts with microalbuminuria vs pts without (12+4.3 vs 9.8+3.7, P value 0.017) lastly HbAIc levels were statistically significant higher in obese pts vs non obese (12+4.7 vs 9.4+3.2, P value = 0.002). Conclusion: Severity of CAD represented by Gensini Score was higher in pts with HbAIc, age, long duration DM, obesity and microalbuminuria.

[Ahmed El Sherif, Mohamed Khaled, Ahmed Ibrahim, and Mohamed M. Elhattab. Association of glycosylated haemoglobin level and microalbuminuria with the severity of coronary artery disease. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 1097-1106] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.139

 

 Key words: Coronary artery, microalbuminuria, Gensini score, Diabetes Mellitus.

Full Text

 

139

140

Detection of Genetic Diversity in Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Varieties Using RAPD Markers and Morphological Traits

 

A.M. El-Zanaty¹*, K.F.M. Salem² and R.M. Esmail ³

 

¹ Genetic Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Shibin El-Kom, Menoufia University, Egypt

² Plant Biotechnology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute (GEBRI), Menoufia University, Egypt

³ Genetics and Cytology Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*zanaty_1966@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two marker systems, 19 RAPD and 8 agronomic traits were used to estimate the genetic diversity in Egyptian cotton. RAPD primers produced a total of 101 amplicons, which generated 86.25% polymorphism. Number of amplification products ranged from 2 to 7 where percent genetic similarity for the studied primers ranged from 72.2% to 89.9% with an average 81.4%. PIC values of the RAPD markers ranged from 0.855 (UBC 20) to 0.909 (UBC 54) with an average of 0.896 per marker. Highly significant differences were obtained between genotypes for all traits except boll weight, lint percentage and fiber strength. PCV were higher than its corresponding GCV for number of open bolls per plant, boll weight, seed cotton and lint yields per plant. However, no great difference between PCV and GCV for the three fiber characters. Broadsense heritability estimates were ranged from 17.18% to 90.97% for boll weight and fibre strength, respectively. High genetic advance under selection was noted for lint cotton yield per plant, seed cotton yield per plant, number of open bolls per plant, fiber strength, fiber length and micronair value. However, low genetic gain obtained for boll weight and lint percentage. Number of bolls per plant showed high positive phenotypic correlation coefficients with both seed cotton and lint yields per plant. This study of the genetic diversity of Egyptian cotton varieties with RAPD markers and agronomic traits support the need to introduce new alleles into the gene pool of the Egyptian cotton breeding program.

[A.M. El-Zanaty, K.F.M. Salem and R.M. Esmail. Detection of Genetic Diversity in Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Varieties Using RAPD Markers and Morphological Traits. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1107-1115]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.140

 

Key Words: Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L), RAPD markers, Genetic diversity, Heritability, Genetic advance

Full Text

 

140

141

Depression and Self Esteem in Patients with Morbid Obesity: The Effect of Sleeve Gastrectomy

 

Saleh M. Aldaqal1 and Mohammad G. Sehlo2

 

Departments of 1Surgery and 2Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. sdaqal@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. It has been associated with high prevalence of depression and low self-esteem. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, a bariatric procedure, is simple and effective in weight reduction with few complications. We studied depression and self esteem in patients with morbid obesity before and after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: Depression, self-esteem and physical health were assessed in 64 patients with morbid obesity (Group I) before the surgery compared with 64 matched healthy subjects (Group II) and 1 year after the surgery (N=61) to detect any changes in these parameters after the surgery. Depression was diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and it’s severity was assessed by the hospital anxiety and depression scale - depression sub-scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed by Rosenberg self esteem scale (RSE), and physical health was assessed by physical domains of Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Questionnaire. Results: There was a high prevalence of depression 29.68% (19/64) with HADS-D mean score (7.08 ± 2.51), low self esteem and a poor physical health in patients with morbid obesity compared with control group. One year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, all these parameters improved (P<0.001) and the improvement in depression and self-esteem was significantly correlated with reduction in BMI (r= 0.41, -0.39, respectively) and improved physical health (r= -0.43, 0.33, respectively). Conclusion: There was high prevalence of depression and low self-esteem in patients with morbid obesity and LSG improves all these parameters as a result of both reduction in BMI and improved physical health after the surgery.

[Saleh M. Aldaqal and Mohammad G. Sehlo. Depression and Self Esteem in Patients with Morbid Obesity: The Effect of Sleeve Gastrectomy. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1116-1123]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 141

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.141

Full Text

 

141

142

Biochemical Effects of Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus Infusions and Esculetin on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

 

Ahmed, O. M.1*; Hozayen, W. G. M.2; Bastawy, M.2; Hamed, M. Z.2

 

1Division of physiology, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

2Biochemistry Division, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

*osamamoha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to assess the effect of oral administration of Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus infusions at the dose level of 100mg/kg b. wt and esculetin at the dose level of 6mg/kg b. wt for 4 weeks on the impaired oral glucose tolerance, insulin secretory response, serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The treatment of diabetic rats with Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus infusions and esculetin resulted in a marked amelioration of the impaired glucose tolerance at all examined periods after oral glucose loading and the lowered insulin and C-peptide levels. The impoverished liver glycogen content and elevated liver glucose-6-phosphatase and serum AST and ALT activities of fasting diabetic rats were profoundly corrected as result of treatment with plant infusion and esculetin. Also, these treatments lead to improvement in serum lipid profile indicated by that decrease in serum total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels and increase in HDL-cholesterol level. The antioxidant defense system was potentially improved in diabetic rats as a result of treatments. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was profoundly decreased and the total thiol and glutathione concentrations were detectably increased. In conclusion, the treatment of diabetic rats with Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus infusions and their active constituent, esculetin improved the diabetic state and antioxidant defense system; esculetin seemed to the most effective. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the efficacy and safety of these treatments in diabetic human beings.

[Ahmed, O. M.; Hozayen, W. G. M.; Bastawy, M.; Hamed, M. Z. Biochemical Effects of Cichorium intybus and Sonchus oleraceus Infusions and Esculetin on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1124-1137]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 142

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.142

 

Keywords: Experimental diabetes mellitus; Streptozotocin; Cichorium intybus; Sonchus oleraceus; esculetin.

Full Text

142

143

Maternity Nurses 'Advice Regarding Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy

 

Shadia A.T. Yassin*1 and Iman A. El Khayat2

 

 1Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Maternity and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt. shadiayassin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is crucial that maternity nurses support women experiencing nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, and help them to ‘cope with’ as part of pregnancy. Advice given to pregnant women needs to include what is known about the safety and efficacy of various treatments in pregnancy, so they can make informed choices. This study aimed to determine the advice that maternity nurses give to women regarding nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, with a particular interest in how and what vitamin and herbal supplements are prescribed. This study was conducted at two different health organizations in Alexandria Governorate. A randomized sample comprised 92 maternity nurses aged 20-50 years. An interview schedule was applied to collect the needed information. The findings of the study indicate that the advice most commonly given to women experiencing nausea and/or vomiting was to eat frequent small meals and snacks (89.1%). Other common advice was given by more than one-half the maternity nurses is avoidance of fatty/spicy foods. Most maternity nurses recommend one or more herbal supplements in their advice for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy or some form of vitamins; however, many were unaware of potential harmful side effects or what would constitute appropriate doses. These findings suggest that it is likely that herbal medicines and alternative treatments are often included in common advice given for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy; however, there is little evidence to guide practice in this area. So attention should be given for raising the awareness of the maternity nurses about diet advice, herbal supplements and alternative treatments.

[Shadia A.T. Yassin and Iman A. El Khayat. Maternity Nurses 'Advice Regarding Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1138-1145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 143.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.143

 

Key words: Maternity nurses' advice, nausea and vomiting in pregnancy

Full Text

143

144

Efficiency of some Antioxidants in Reducing Cardio-Metabolic Risks in Obese Rats

 

Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

 

Zoology Department, Women's Collage, Ain Shams University, Egypt. afafabbass@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This investigation focuses on the relationship between the obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the possible amelioration effects of taurine or quercetin and their mixture on cardio-metabolic risks in obese rats. In a preliminary trial, the changes in selected biochemical blood variables which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with obesity were compared between a group of normal control male albino rats and other group suffered from obesity induced by feeding rats on fatty diet (fat 50 % diet). Also, in this study, the effects of two antioxidant nutrients on the same variables were tested and followed in order to show to what extent, these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Taurine or quercetin was daily received orally for two and four weeks in two groups of obese rats in the following doses 50 mg taurine /100g b.wt/day and 25 mg quercetin /kg b.wt/day, respectively. Another group of obese rats was getting a combination of previous mentioned nutrients. While, an obese rats group was left without any treatment and called as recovery group. All these groups were compaired with healthy rats group (Normal control rats group). Fasting blood samples were drawn at 2 & 4 weeks after the terminal of the treatments. In the first experiment, the obtained results revealed that induced obesity caused significant (p<0.001) increase of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-Ch), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatin kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), resistin, endothelin-1, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) as compared with their relevant level in normal control rats group. On the other hand, induced obesity in rats caused significant (p<0.001) decrease the levels of serum total triiodothyronine (T3) and of total nitric oxide (TNO). No remarkable changes were occurred in the concentrations of serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-Ch) and total thyroxin (T4). In the second experiment, the authors studied the beneficial treatment of obese rats with taurine or quercetin and their mixture for 2 & 4 weeks. A marked correction was occurred in all previous parameters depending on the time of treatment. The best amelioration was occurred in the obese rats group which received the both antioxidants at the last interval (4 weeks). The underlining mechanisms were discussed according to available references.

[Afaf Abbass. Efficiency of some Antioxidants in Reducing Cardio-Metabolic Risks in Obese Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1146-1159]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 144.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.144

 

Key Word: Obese Rats, Taurine, Quercetin, TNO, Endothelin-1, Resistin, TNF- α, ADMA.

Full Text

144

145

Psychological Stress among Gaza War Amputees: Impact of a Designed Training Counseling Program on Psychological Stress Level.

 

1*Atef Jabber Ismail, 2Warda Youssef Mohamed and 3Nefissa Abdelkader

 

1Midwifery Department, Faculty of Nursing, Islamic University of Gaza, Palatine

2Critical Care &Emergency Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

 3Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

*dr.wardayoussef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wounded amputees are faced with myriad issues involving mutilation, pain, multiple surgeries, body image issues, depression, anxiety, and post traumatic stress disorder symptoms. All are common and must be addressed rapidly with ongoing counseling and pharmacologic management and a long period of rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a designed training-counseling program on psychological stress among Gaza War amputees in Gaza Governorates. Quasi-experimental design (pre-test/post-test) was used in this study; all the accessible population (100 subjects) were included in the assessment phase. The study was conducted at Alsalama Charitable Society, on the 24 subjects who have the highest stress level scores. Data were obtained through three main tools; Sociodemographic and historical data sheet, psychological stress scale: and session evaluation form. The training counseling program was designed on Albert Ellis theory for rational emotive behavior therapy. Method; the program was divided into 22 sessions, 60 minutes each. It was given in an average of three sessions per week for two months with pre-post implementation evaluation. Results revealed that the designed training counseling program was having an effective impact on reducing psychological stress level among Gaza war amputees. The study concluded that Gaza war amputees were exposed to a higher stress level that could negatively affect all their life aspects. However, the training counseling program showed a positive impact on reducing their psychological stress level and promoting their abilities to function productively with their disabilities. The study recommended that nurses should see their patient from a holistic perspective and should effectively utilize their roles as educators and counselors to contribute in resolving public health problems like stress among amputees in Gaza Strip, and to replicate the study on larger, probability sample in different geographical locations in Palestine.

[Atef Jabber Ismail, Warda Youssef Mohamed and Nefissa Abdelkader. Psychological Stress among Gaza War Amputees: Impact of a Designed Training Counseling Program on Psychological Stress Level. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1160-1166]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 145

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.145

 

Key words: Training Counseling Program, Wounded amputees, Psychological Stress. Gaza War

Full Text

145

146

The Impact of Peak Flow Meter Training in Enhancing Self-Efficacy of Asthmatic Children

 

Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr 1 & 2

 

1Department of pediatric nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, KSA. Sahar.Khedr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Asthma a common lung disease of childhood throughout the world. Children and parents education about asthma management including Peak Flow Meter enable them to cope adequately with disease and make asthma controllable. Self-efficacy is defined as the people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance. The best way to help children feel good about themselves is to provide them with opportunities to learn what their strengths are and to help them to cultivate the belief that they can rely on their strengths when facing a challenge. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of peak flow meter training in enhancing self-efficacy of asthmatic children. This study was conducted at In-patient Pediatric Chest Unit at Tanta University Hospital. Patients were followed up in the Outpatient Pediatric Chest Clinic of the same hospital. A convenient sample of 60 asthmatic children and their mothers, were admitted to the study. The results showed that, The mean age of children was 11.47 + 1.66 years. Slightly less than half of the children (48.33%) were aged from 12- >14 years,46.67 % of the samples were males and 53.33 % were females. The mean age of the mothers were 36.33 + 4.64 years. Thirty five percent of the mothers were secondary education, 20 % were university level and only 8.33 were illiterate. Slightly more than half of the children (55.0 %) had the onset of asthma since 6- >8 years. Mothers' knowledge regarding asthma and peak flow meter showed statistical significant differences pretest and two months post test. Equal percentage of 75 % of children were satisfactory, one month post test and, good two months post test. There were statistical significant differences. As regards to self efficacy, the majority of the sample (78%) were not at all, and 3.33% were moderately true pre test. Exactly true response was occurred in 6.67% of children one month post test and, in 35 % two months post test. There were statistical significant differences regarding self efficacy, pre test, one month, and two months post test. It can be concluded from this study that, Peak flow meter training enhance self efficacy of asthmatic children. The ability to manage health problems and practice proper technique raises children confidence in their own capabilities. It is recommended to foster a training program for teachers to enforce self-efficacy of asthmatic children.

[Sahar Mahmood El-Khedr. The Impact of Peak Flow Meter Training in Enhancing Self-Efficacy of Asthmatic Children. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1167-1178]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 146.

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.146

 

Key words: Self-efficacy, Peak flow meter and Asthma

Full Text

146

147

The Influence of Perceived Social Support on Self-Management and Wellbeing among (Type1) Diabetic Adolescent Females

 

1Wafaa Hassan El-Soreety and 2*Nabila El-sayed Saboula

 

1Pediatric Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt

2Community Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Menufia University, Egypt

nabilasabola@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adolescents are struggling to find their own identity separate from their families. Many of the diabetic –related tasks can interfere with the adolescent's drive for independence and peer acceptance. Friends, families are an important source of support for adolescents with diabetes and can affect their wellbeing. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of perceived social support on self-management and wellbeing among (type 1) diabetic adolescent females at Al Dawadmi, SHARQ primary health care center, KSA. Subject and methods: All adolescents contact the diabetic clinic from the first of July to the end of September 2011 were included in the study. Their number were (106) diabetic females. An interview questionnaire sheet, perceived social support scale and self-management instrument as well as wellbeing scale were used to collect the required data. Results: the study revealed a correlation between perceived level of family social support and some biosocial variables including female over weight, family income, positive family history, irregular follow-up and some associated symptoms (P<0.05). 60.4%, 81.1%, 43.4% of studied female diabetic adolescents were have low level of family's social support, low level of friend's social support and low level of wellbeing respectively. The frequency of self management items among studied group was differ. Most of diabetic adolescents females, with low level of family social support were have incompliance related to diet regimen, medication, blood glucose testing and exercise. But related to friend's, incompliance included diet, exercise and un-prescribed substances. There were a relationship between perceived family, friends social support of the studied (type I) diabetic adolescents female and their wellbeing measures as well as total wellbeing status. It is concluded that, diabetes mellitus needs continuing self management medical care to prevent long-term complications. Social support including family and friends play a major role in the compliance and self-management among diabetic female adolescent, as well as wellbeing status.

[Wafaa Hassan El-Soreety and Nabila El-sayed Saboula. The Influence of Perceived Social Support on Self-Management and Wellbeing among (Type1) Diabetic Adolescent Females. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1179-1187]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 147

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.147

 

Key wards: Perceived social support, family, friends, Self Management, Wellbeing, Diabetes Type I, Adolescents Female

Full Text

147

148

Study of the Thermal Isolation Range through Multilayered, Three Dimensional Composite Fabrics

 

Mohamed A. Elgamal1, Hassan S. A. Rahma2, Wafaa M. I. Elbanna2 and Saadia O. K. Ibrahim2

 

1Department of Ready Made Cloths, Faculty of Applied Arts. Helwan University

2Department of Spinning, Weaving and knitting, Faculty of applied arts, Helwan University

 

Abstract: There is no argument about that we have no way to reach the flow of progress and improvement in the field of technology of fabric design except by evolution and increasing the efficiency of our woven products performance and introducing adjustments if necessary to improve it and raising it to a level of quality control which is suitable and adequate its performance in service. There is no doubt that the field of fabrics has been so great that it could be used in all fields of our daily life to include medical field, aeronautics and protection of individuals and relieving them from surrounding bad-things in dangerous environments and critical work conditions. So, this study is considered a trail to set the scientific bases to design and produce new kinds of three dimensional fabrics composite with other materials to provide the produced fabric specifications to help thermal isolation a slight effect, by producing 36 samples of this kind of fabrics, using cotton and polyester as raw materials (fibers) blend together in various ratios. And also the production of fabrics of different densities of wefts per measuring unit (i.e.) (18, 20, 22) weft/cm. Also was produced fabrics with three different heights of pile between the two layers (i.e. heights of 0.5, 1, 1.5 cm). In addition, the space between the two layers was injected by rating material. After that, a test was performed to measure Thermal Isolation on these fabrics before and after injection process. Finally, test results were tabulated, and then were statistically analyzed, and finally relation drawings were made.

[Mohamed A. Elgamal, Hassan S. A. Rahma, Wafaa M. I. Elbanna and Saadia O. K. Ibrahim. Study of the Thermal Isolation Range through Multilayered, Three Dimensional Composite Fabrics. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1188 -1195]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 148

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.148

 

Keywords: Warp (Vertical yarns); Weft (Horizontal yarns); Count of yarn (Yarn thickness); Warp set (Number of warp yarns per unit); Weft set (Number of weft yarns per unit)

Full Text

148

149

Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation on the Ultrastructure of the Retina of Albino Mice

 

* Samir A. Nassar, ***Nahed M. M. Emam, ** Fatma A. Eid and * Walaa T. Mohammed

 

*Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt.

**Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar Univ., Egypt.

***Biological and Geological Dept., Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

sanassar@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Due to the extensive use of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) in everyday life, more information is required for the detection of their possible side effects on the different tissues of the organism. Therefore, in this paper, the possible adverse effects of 900- 1800 MHz pulsed radiation emitted from a mobile phone on the retinae of developing albino mice in vivo were investigated by electron microscopy (EM). Twenty male albino mice of 4 months old and 35-50gm body weight were assigned to receive microwave irradiation. Microwaves were delivered to the whole body of the animals by a mobile phone (SAR 0.78 w/ kg) 1h/ day for about 140 days including the embryonal and a postnatal period (4 months). After exposure for the scheduled duration the retinae of the control and irradiated animals were dissected out and processed for ultrastructural examination. It was found that the NIR of the mobile phone has a marked degenerative effect on the retinae of exposed animals at the ultrastructural level. All the retinal layers exhibited an obvious reduction in their height and cell population. The retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) were the most affected cells, where they are completely degenerated and disappeared with their melanin granules. The photoreceptor cells underwent shortening, shrinking, disorganization, nuclear pyknosis, interruption of their membrane lamallae, death and loss. The outer limiting membrane (OLM) appeared interrupted as affected by microwave irradiation. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) appeared with shrunken chromatin and karyolysed nuclei. Others with lobulated and fragmented nuclei with mild vacuolization. The outer plexiform layer (OPL) appeared with vacuolated and degenerated elements depleted from their cytoplasmic components. The inner nuclear layer (INL) exhibited apoptotic and necrotic cells with extensive vacuolization. The inner plexiform layer (IPL) illustrated atrophic degeneration and degenerating synaptic buttons. The ganglionic cell layer (GCL) underwent extensive vacuolization developed to vacuolar degeneration with degenerating synaptic areas. Others appeared with crenated nuclear envelops and clumped heterochromatin. Other GCs were apoptotic nuclei and vacuolated cytoplasm. The inner limiting memebrane (ILM) lost its double nature. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation support and confirm the findings of previously published studies that the NIR of mobile phone induced different ultrastructural lesions in the retina of the exposed animals particularly the growing ones.

[Samir A. Nassar, Nahed M. M. Emam, Fatma A. Eid and Walaa T. Mohammed. Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation on the Ultrastructure of the Retina of Albino Mice. Journal of American Science 2011;7(12):1196-1208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 149

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.149

 

Keywords: Non-Ionizing Radiation; Ultrastructure; Retina; Albino Mice

Full Text

149

150

A Study of the Range of U. V. R. Penetration through Fabrics Produced from Polyester Hollow Fibers

 

Saadia O. K. Ibrahim

 

Department of Spinning, weaving and Knitting Faculty of Applied Arts - Helwan University

 

Abstract: Protective fabrics somehow has become part and parcel of the environment, so the spinning and weaving industry was involved in using fabrics in non-traditional fields as medicine, agriculture and engineering. These fabrics were designed to protect who wears them from the cruel effects of the environment which may cause great harms which lead to fate. Fabrics which protect from U. V. R. are considered as one of the modern uses of fabrics. Sunlight carries for humanity uncountable blessings; nevertheless, exposure to direct sun rays for a long period of time causes many diseases. So sun rays are a double edge weapon, as it is essential for the formation of vitamin "D" in the human body, while it is harmful in the range of weave length between 280 – 320 nanometer. So the human kind need protection against it. These rays have the ability to penetrate through skin layers. Due to the clever and super system of the human body, the skin cells receive sun rays, and absorbs the harmful (U. V. R.) and transfer it again outside skin cells by an excretion process, to get rid of these rays, but this has a certain limit as the quantity of rays in excess to this process remain in the body and is converted into a form of a disease, as it cause burns, and infections in the skin. Some of the cells in skin layers, which carry melamine dye, give the skin brown colour which increases skin self-protection against (U. V. R.). As the time passes by and with the repetition of exposure to sun rays, that leads to occurrence of changes in the D. N. A., and destruction of skin cells, consequently skin cancer occurs. So the deep concern with studying the effects of the (U. V. R.) on the skin became of special importance due to the increase of the rate of skin cancer disease in several countries. As the clothing is the protective barrier from these rays, so the research was concerned in studying this specialty, by producing 15 samples woven from polyester hollow fibers, which practical experiments had proved that polyester is one of weaving materials of least penetration of (U. V. R.). Those samples were of four different weaving structures which are: plain 1/1, twill 2/1, twill 2/2, and twill 3/1. Each of the four structures used was produced with four different numbers of picks per cm which are (16, 18, 20 and 22) picks/cm. After that, was performed a test to measure the penetration of the (U. V. R.) through these produced fabrics at different wave lengths: 290, 300, 310, 320, 330, 340, 350, 360, 370, 380, 390, 400 nanometer. After that the results of these tests were tabulated, and statistical analysis was done, and the graphical relations were drawn. After that, the samples were arranged according to its functional suitability as fabrics, protective against (U. V. R.). Also was performed tests for air penetrability, thickness, water absorption, the weight of fabric per meter square. Also the results of these tests were listed and studying the range of its effect on the criteria of (U. V. R.) penetrability.

[Saadia O. K. Ibrahim. A Study of the Range of U. V. R. Penetration through Fabrics Produced from Polyester Hollow Fibers. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12): 1209-1216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 150

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.150

 

Keywords: Diabetic macular oedema, mfERG, OCT.

Full Text

150

151

The Impact of Implementing of Standardized Nursing Care toward Patient with a Chest Tube to Reduce Pulmonary Complications after Thoracotomy

 

1Naglaa Gamal Eldien Abd-Elhafez Hariedy, 1Mona Aly Mohammed, 1Mervat Anwer AbdEl-Alaziz and 2Laila Hassan Mohammed

 

1Critical Care Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Sohag University

2Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, Faculty of medicine, Assiut University

mona.ali77@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chest drains are commonly used for patients who have undergone thoracic surgery the purpose of chest drains is to maintain cardiorespiratory function and hemodynamic stability by draining the pleural and mediastinal spaces of air, blood or other fluid. The most common complication are postoperative pulmonary complications which include massive lobar collapse due to mucus plugging of a central airway, Atelectasis, and a combination of one or more of these. Pulmonary care is an important part of the postoperative critical care nursing after thoracic surgery. To help in preventing pulmonary complications the patient is encouraged to using of incentive spirometer, breathing and coughing effectively support of incisional wound to maintain normal amount of oxygen in the blood, prevent the smallest part of the lung from collapsing and for effective removal of mucus from the lung. Early mobilization is effective in improving postoperative pulmonary outcomes. Therefore, the aim is to identify the Impact of implementing of standardized nursing care toward patient with a chest tube to reduce pulmonary complications after Thoracotomy. Controlled case study research design was used to conduct this research. This study was carried out at postoperative ICU in Assiut University Hospitals. The sample of this study was consisted of 60 patients, admitted to ICU after thoracotomy surgery. Tool used in this study consisted of an assessment sheet developed by the researcher for identifying impact of implementing of standard nursing care on prevention of postoperative pulmonary complication. This tool comprised four main parts: Part I:- socio-demographic and clinical data Part II: - Assessment hemodynamic state. Part III: - assessment of respiratory system and pain scale. Part IV:- assessment of infection and laboratory tests findings. The main results: Findings of the present study revealed that Significance decrease in sputum production (p<0.001) on study group versus control group. Shows highly significant decrease in pain score of study group on the 2nd &3rd day (p=0.005). Highly significant increase of pao2, sao2 on 2ndday and3rd day of study group (p< 0.001). As regard to white blood count, the mean values of WBC concentration in the study group showed highly significant decrease (p< 0.001) in 3rd day of study group. Regarding to length of ICU stay were (3.27± 1.202&5.23± 1.75) days with highly significant decreased in study group versus control group (p< 0.001).As regard to temperature showed that highly significant decrease in study group versus study group (p<0.001) (37.69 ± 0.49 &38. 59 ± 0.42). Conclusion applying standard nursing care was more effective to reduce postoperative pulmonary complication after thoracotomy in study group versus control group who received routine hospital care.

[Nagy Abdel Hamid El Mahallawy. Improvement of soft soils using reinforced sand over stone columns. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(12):1217-1233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 151

doi:10.7537/marsjas071211.151

 

Keyword: Improvement; soft soils; using reinforced; stone columns.

Full Text

 

151

152

Investigation of the Protective Effect of Echinacea Extract on Cisplatin-Induced DNA Damage, Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronucleus Formation in Mice