Science Journal

 

The Journal of American Science

ISSN 1545-1003; Monthly

Volume 8, Issue 12, Cumulated No. 58, December 25, 2012

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0812

You can use the message in end of the article abstract to cite it.

To get word file: After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: americansciencej@gmail.com.

CONTENTS

 No.

Titles / Authors

Text

 No.

1

Technology Adoption among Fishermen in Malaysia

 

Raidah Mazuki1, Norsida Man1, Siti Zobidah Omar2, Jusang Bolong3, Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva2, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril2

 

1Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2Institute for Social Science Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3Faculty of Modern Language and Communication, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

raidah0702@gmail.com or hayrol82@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Technologies have been improved as a crucial tool in developing the agriculture industry. Fisheries, one of the agriculture branches have benefited a lot from the technologies invention. Advanced tools such as sonar, echo sounder and GPS for example have been proven to have impacts on the fisheries industry particularly on the fishermen socio-economic aspects. As the technologies adoption is crucial among the fishermen, it is important to understand the factors that determine their adoption of technologies and this study attempts to reveal a number of potential impingement factors. This is a qualitative study where the discussion is made based on literature and documents analyses. Data gained have revealed that factors such as level of education, finance, extension workers’ roles, fishermen future expectation and prediction, behavioral factors and other demographic factors. It is recommended that relevant agencies to accentuate on these factors on their planning strategies and expectantly it can assist in enhancing technologies adoption among the fishermen.

[Mazuki R, Man N, Omar SZ, Bolong J, D’Silva JL, Shaffril, H.A.M. Technology Adoption among Fishermen in Malaysia. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):1-4]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.01

 

Keywords: Fishermen, adoption, technologies, fishermen development, fisheries development.

Full Text

1

2

[J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 5-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.02

withdrawn

Full Text

2

3

Students Academic Performance’ Predictors of the Preparatory Year in Health Science Faculties, Taif University (1432- 1433 H)

 

1Laila Sh. Dorgham, 1El-Morsy A. El-Morsy, 1Saad S. El Zahrani, 1Ali H. El Zahrani and 1,2Emad T.Ahmed

 

1Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, KSA

2Department of Physical Therapy for Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt

lailadorgham@gmail.com, lailadorgham@ymail.com

 

Abstract: This study seeks to explore the prevalence of low academic performance among preparatory year ‘students at Health colleges (Medicine, Pharmacy, and Applied Medical Sciences), and to ascertain the roles played by three sets of influences (socioeconomic factors, student ability, and school factors). Other important factors explored through students’ perception about university environment. In doing so, it uses information on preparatory year performance in first semester, 1432-1433 H (2011-2012) of the students at the Health colleges,University of Taif, through a cross section study by using well designed questionnaire. The main outcome of this study was that the gender(female), type of secondary school (governmental), type of admitted faculty(other colleges than Medicine), and score of the secondary school (high) were the most important predictors of students’ high performance at the preparatory year. In addition, method of choosing the admitted college; courses difficulty; suitability of university exams; and participating in university extracurricular activities, were associated significantly with students’ academic performance. We recommend that educationists, leaders and higher education managements, should respond and face the problem of male academic underperformance and give it a priority. Also, Faculty members should try to avoid providing excessive amount of material for each course as well as test students more on concepts rather than emphasize rote memorization.

[Laila Sh. Dorgham, El-Morsy A. El-Morsy, Saad S. El Zahrani, Ali S. El Zahrani and Emad T.Ahmed. Students Academic Performance’ Predictors of the Preparatory Year in Health Science Faculties, Taif University (1432- 1433 H) J Am Sci 2012;8(12):19-28]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 3

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.03

 

Keywords: academic performance, predictors, preparatory year, health, Science, socioeconomic factors, Faculties

Full Text

3

4

Phytochemical investigation of unused parts of Hibiscus sabdariffa

 

Mohamed M. Amer1, Saleh H. El-Sharkawy*1,2, Fatma M. Abdel Bar1 and Ahmed A. Ashour1

 

Pharmacognosy department, Faculty of pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt

Pharmacognosy department, Faculty of pharmacy, Delta University for Science and Technology, Egypt. salehelsharkawy147@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Twelve compounds have been isolated from the unused parts of Hibiscus sabdariffa. The isolated compounds were identified as oleic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4), betulinic acid (5), 5α, 8α-Epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (6), 5'-Methoxy Propacin (7) Aquillochin (8), β-sitosterol glucoside (9), 5,8-dihydroxy dodeca-5,7-dienedioic acid (10), gallic acid (11) and kaempferol 3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (trans tiliroside) (12). The chemical identity of these compounds was elucidated based on spectroscopic data (NMR, UV, MS and IR spectra). This is the first report to indicate isolation of these compounds from H. Sabdariffa (except β-sitosterol). Compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12 displayed a remarkable antioxidant activity compared to ascorbic acid.

[Amer MM, El-Sharkawy SH, Abdel Bar FM, Ashour AA. Phytochemical investigation of unused parts of Hibiscus sabdariffa. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):29-35]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.04

 

Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, oleanolic, betulinic, coumarino-lignan, flavanoid, antioxidant

Full Text

4

5

Welfare Assessment Of Broiler Chickens Subjected To Feed Restriction And Fed Enzyme Supplemented Diet

 

Rabie Hassan Fayed; Abeer Hamada Abdel Razek; and Bassma Mohamed Baghwish

 

Animal &poultry Behaviour and Management, Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Fac. Vet. Med., Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt. rhfayed@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the strategy of feed restriction as well as enzyme supplementation on the performance, behaviour, and physiology as indicators of welfare in broilers. The experiment carried out for 6 weeks. One hundred and eighty day old Cobb chicks were equally divided into 4 groups each of 3 replicates. Group 1 (control group) were fed ad libitum with no enzyme supplementation, Group 2, fed ad libitum with enzyme supplementation, Group 3 (restricted group) supplied with 75 % of quantity of feed consumed by the birds fed ad libitum on the previous day from 7 to 17 day old with no enzyme supplementation and Group 4 (restricted with enzyme supplementation) supplied with enzyme supplementation from 7 to 17 day old.The average weekly body weight and weight gain, Feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) dressing percentage and giblet weight (heart, liver, and gizzard)were calculated as physical indicators. The following behavioural parameters were measured: feeding, drinking and resting behaviour as focal sampling, where comfort and agonistic behaviour as scan sampling. Determination of H/L ratio, glucose and corticosterone hormone level as physiological parameters of welfare was recorded. Data obtained in this experiment revealed that, at the age of 6 weeks, (G4) which fed restricted diet supplemented with enzyme showed significantly (p<0.05) heavier final body weight, body weight gain and had significantly (p<0.05)) the lowest daily feed intake,the best feed conversion throughout the entire rearing period and highest dressing yield %. Feed restricted groups (G3, G4) showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the number of approach to feeder and drinker while spent more time in feeding and drinking especially during the restriction period at 2nd and 3rd weeks than those fed ad libitum, however, feed restriction increased significantly (p 0.05) the resting frequency with lower time spent resting than birds fed ad libitum.Regarding the physiological responses, birds subjected to feed restriction without enzyme supplementation (G3) had a marked heterophilia, and lymphocytopenia consequently with higher H/L Ratio; had the highest overall mean of blood glucose level and Highest overall mean of blood corticosterone hormone level than the other groups. The practice of feeding exogenous enzymes to feed-restricted chickens could be a desirable feeding strategy that might offer an economic advantage over a continuous ad libitum feeding regimen.

[Rabie Hassan Fayed; Abeer Hamada Abdel Razek; and Bassma Mohamed Baghwish. Welfare Assessment Of Broiler Chickens Subjected To Feed Restriction And Fed Enzyme Supplemented Diet. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):36-42]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 5

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.05

 

Key words: Broiler chickens; Enzymes; Feed restriction; Performance; Welfare indicators.

Full Text

5

6

Exploring Barriers to Research Utilization in Policy Formulation in Egypt: Researchers’ Perspectives

 

Alaa Abou-Zeid, Yasmin Galal, Maysa Shawky and Maha El-Rabbat

 

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University. alaabouzeid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Research findings are increasingly being recognized as important inputs in health policy formulation. The factors influencing the utilization of health research by health policy-makers were explored in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to understand the perspectives and attitudes of researchers toward the use and impact of research in the performance of the health sector in Egypt. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional exploratory semi-quantitative study. Seventy five health researchers expressed their attitudes and perspectives regarding the extent of research utilization in health policy formulation. Results: Several factors emerged from the study that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings by policy-makers. These factors include: lack of communication between researchers and policy-makers, lack of financial resources and low demand for scientific evidence by policy-makers. Conclusion: Improving the transfer of research to policy will require efforts on behalf of researchers, decision-makers and donor agencies. This will include: strengthening the collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased dissemination and access to relevant research, and allocating more funds to the health research process and dissemination activities.

[Alaa Abou-Zeid, Yasmin Galal, Maysa Shawky and Maha El-Rabbat. Exploring Barriers to Research Utilization in Policy Formulation in Egypt: Researchers’ Perspectives] Journal of American Science 2012;8(12):43-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 6

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.06

 

Keywords: Health research – Health sector – Policy-makers – Evidence-based policy-making.

Full Text

6

7

The effect of Persian language and literature on relations between Safavian and Indian Goorkanian

 

Abbas Ali Tafazzoli 1and Motamedi Mohsen2

 

1- Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IRAN

2- Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, IRAN

Email: Motamedi45@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: Persian language and literature had gone in India because of relationship between Iranian and Indianan nations before Mongolians sovereign.Baber demand help from Safavian for getting rid of this involvement but Iranian couldn’t help them because of their inside and outside involvements. Persian language and literature had gone in Indian because of relationship between Iranian and Indian nations before Mongol sovereign. Mongol could occupy Kabul, then they occupied north of India by Iranian association. The Sovereign of Mongols had demanded help from Iranian so they like to keep the friendship and relationship with the m. However the political and social situation in Iran had an influence on this friendship. Also the dogmatic behavior of Savian sovereign caused to emigrate a lot of Iranian scientists from Iran to India. Many of Goorkaninan sovereigns had interested to Persian Poem. So that some of them like Shahjahan was Poet. And this kind of pay attention to poems caused to take refuge many of Iranian poets to their court. There wasn’t any limitation for Iranian poets in that land. And they could express their opinions. New environment with different viewpoints and protocol had affected their Ideas therefore their poems was affected by these changes and this caused some great poets like Saeb Tabrizi with new poem manner appear. So the interests of Goorkanian sovereigns to Iranian poets caused the interest to Iranian culture and it continued until their dominion crashed.

 [Tafazzoli A.A, Motamedi M. The effect of Persian language and literature on relations between Safavian and Indian Goorkanian. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):50-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 7

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.07

 

Key words: Safavian, Goorkanigan, poem, prose.

Full Text

7

8

Prevention of Hemolytic Crisis among G6PD Children: Effect of Educational Program Intervention

 

1Lamia Ahmed El-Sayed; 1Hyam Refaat Tantawi, 2Amira A. Adly and 3Mohamed Farouk

 

1Pediatrics Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University

2,3Pediatrics Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, 2Ain Shams University and 3Cairo University

hyam.tantawi@yahoo.com; hyam@onlinediabetes.net

 

Abstract: Introduction: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an X-linked recessive hereditary disease (abbreviated G6PD closely linked to favism,). Favism is a potentially life-threatening hemolytic anemia that can result from the ingestion of fava beans and broad beans. This is a metabolic enzyme involved in the pentose phosphate pathway important for red blood cell metabolism. Deficiency of G6PD will manifest by physically observable reaction to consumption of broad beans. The precipitating factors for G6PD are commonly infection, exposure to some medications or chemicals. Aim of the study, this study is a quasi experimental study, aimed to construct, implement and evaluate the effect of program intervention for prevention of precipitating factor for hemolytic crisis among G6PD children. Subject & Methods, This study was conducted at pediatric department at children's Hospital affiliated to Ain Shams and Cairo University Hospitals. The study included all available children and their mothers at the previously mentioned settings regardless of their age and sex. Tools of data collection Include pre-designed questionnaire to assess characteristics of the studied sample and their mothers' knowledge about G6PD. Program intervention was prepared by the researchers in an Arabic language according to the actual needs. Results, The main results showed that the majority of the studied sample acquired the hemolysis attack because of unsatisfactory knowledge of their mothers about G6PD and the predisposing factors for the disease. The actual knowledge of mothers regarding G6PD and decreasing the hemolysis factors were improving after implemented the effective educational program. Conclusion: The current study concluded that the majority of children suffered from favism acquired hemolytic diseases because of unsatisfactory knowledge of their mothers regarding favism and its predisposing factors. Also, an educational program intervention was effective in improving the actual knowledge of mothers regarding predisposing factors of G6PD that decreasing of the hemolytic anemia. Recommendations This study recommended that, establishing a system for education in the hospitals regarding G6PD from the first time of diagnosis to prevent the complications from hemolysis.

[Lamia Ahmed El-Sayed; Hyam Refaat Tantawi, Amira A. Adly and Mohamed Farouk. Prevention of Hemolytic Crisis among G6PD Children: Effect of Educational Program Intervention. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):58-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 8

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.08

 

Key words: favism, G6PD, diet, life style, program, guideline

Full Text

8

9

Diagnostic Value of Serum Vascular Endothelium Factor in Cancer Breast

 

Laila A. Ahmed1, Hala M.T. El-Mougy1, Omayma H.M. Sarhan1 and Tarek Elbaradey 2

 

1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine(Girls), Al-Azhar University

2 Oncology Surgery, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

hala.elmougy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. The study aimed to determine the usefulness of measuring serum level of VEGF together with CA15-3 in discriminating benign from breast cancer lesion and to find out a relationship between their levels and disease aggressiveness. Ninety female patients were included in this study, 70 with malignant breast cancer (35 with early cancer & 35 with advanced cancer) and 20 cases with benign lesions as control. Serum VEGF and CA15-3 were measured by ELISA. Levels of serum VEGF and CA15-3 were found to be significantly higher in malignant groups than benign group. Regarding malignant cases there was a high significant correlation between early and advanced cases and between serum CA15-3 and serum VEGF. On correlating the level of serum VEGF and CA15-3 with the clinico- pathological data of malignant group, a significant correlation was found with age, size of tumor and metastasis, but no significant correlation with other factors. A significant correlation was found between fixation to chest wall and bilateral primaries with CA15-3 but not with VEGF. Conclusively, it could be suggested that both VEGF and CA15-3 might be measured together as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in breast cancer.

[Laila A. Ahmed, Hala M.T. El-Mougy, Omayma H.M. Sarhan and Tarek Elbaradey. Diagnostic Value of Serum Vascular Endothelium Factor in Cancer Breast. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):69-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 9

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.09

 

Key words: VEGF, CA15-3, breast cancer.

Full Text

9

10

Perception of Unethi PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1cal Behaviors among Nursing Educators, Students, and Staff in El Minia University

 

Abeer M, abd Elkader1, Snaa M Aref2, and Sahar, A, Abood 2

 

1Nursing Education Department, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt,

2Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt

beronlyosman@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Unethical behaviors in nursing education are emergent problems that seriously disrupts the teaching-learning environment and often results in stressful student/faculty relationships. Nursing educator who demonstrate positive, respectful behaviors, encourage similar behaviors from their students. Conversely, educator who is aloof, disinterested, and demeaning may invoke their students' hostility. Nurse educators need to apply ethical behaviors in order to encourage a positive student–instructor relationship and to create a safe and nurturing environment. This study aims to identify the perception of unethical behaviors in nursing education among nursing educators, students and staff at El-Minia Faculty of Nursing. This study was carried out at faculty of nursing and Minia University Hospital. The study sample included a total number of 300: 200 students were enrolled in the four academic years (50 from each academic year), 50 Nursing educators, and 50 Nursing staff. Unethical behaviors in nursing education questionnaire was used for data collection. The study revealed that the most perceived academic unethical behaviors by the study sample were aggression, disregard for others and abuse of position. There were also a highly statistically significant difference between mean scores of academic unethical behaviors by the study sample, it is concluded that, the most perceived academic unethical behaviors by the study subjects were aggression, disregard for others and, abuse of position. Also, there was highly statistical significant difference between mean scores of academic unethical behaviors by the study sample. It was recommended to conduct a study to examine impact of student unethical behavior on the nursing profession and nursing educators.

[Abeer M, abd Elkader, Snaa M Aref, and Sahar, A, Abood. Perception of Unethi PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1cal Behaviors among Nursing Educators, Students, and Staff in El Minia University. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):75-80]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 10

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.10

 

Key words: Unethical Behaviors, Nursing education, Nursing Educators, Nursing Students. Nursing practice.

Full Text

10

11

Effect of climatic elements of road accidents axis on Shirvan – Bojnourd (North Khorasan, Iran)

 

Mohammad Motamedi 1(PH.D) and Ali Gholamzadeh Doab2*

 

1Department of Geoghraphy, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

2 Department of Geoghraphy, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

Email: gholamzadehdoab@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: One of the main factors in human lifes road. human change the road to network road for having good life. transportation road is the most simple system and public system. Anather system wich is used by human is the railroad and airline and navigation. one of the most important factors in roadplaning is the effect of claimetic elements on the transportation system. so claimetic phenomenal on important for human life and human help in the road networks. Road accidents and casualties on the scale of the country show the worry of experts about the road networks. Iran has 1 percent of word papulation but unfortuntly it has 2.5 percent road accident. Since 1986 about on 10 – 15 percent increase to road accidents, so that in 2006 iran with 27000 killed due road accident was in the first place in the world. in the other countries there are 5-6 dead for 10000 cars but in iran the number of deads due road accident. In this study the effect of climatic parameters on transport safety, the data daily, monthly and annual-based weather stations Shirvan - Bojnourd for a period of nine years of preparation and graphs were plotted using Excel software.The next step of accidents and traffic police department in North Khorasan province for a period of 9 years (2001-2009) have been received and analyzed, and the effect of weather phenomena based on the occurrence of road accidents in Shirvan - about Bojnourd the results of the study are presented.From the above study it was found that the main axis of the screw to screw Judge Western Rzaabad most accident occurred.Also a comparison between before and after the Dual Axis Shirvan - Bojnourd made up 19 percent of the band due to an accident after two vehicles speeding and increased traffic shows.

[Motamedi M, Gholamzadeh Doab A. Effect of climatic elements of road accidents axis on Shirvan – Bojnourd (North Khorasan, Iran). J Am Sci 2012;8(12):81-87]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 11

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.11

 

Keywords: climetic elements, transport, road accidents, axis Shirvan – Bojnourd

Full Text

11

12

Regional Flood Management using GIS

 

 Gholizadeh Zahra 1, Sori Saba2, Sori Nasim3 and Kheradmand Yazdan4

 

1Lecturer of Architecture Groupe, Shirvan Higher Education Center for Applied Sciences, Shirvan, Iran

2MS.c Student of Civil Engineering, Cneteral Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3MS.c Student of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

4 Department of Civil Engineering, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

Email: gholamzadehdoab@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)

 

 Abstract: Today, a new approach to regional flood management is site-specific management. Pinpoint flood zoning as one of the critical steps in the management of flood studies and flood insurance premium is about. However, most existing methods for determining flood zoning are very difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the study area flood zoning is done using GIS. All relevant information was prepared in a six month period. Then in a database using Arc GIS 9.3 software system has been implemented. Studies were selected in Sabzevar city.Then, using the information obtained from the efficiency of the field model, catchment and sub-catchment identified and their characteristics such as area, slope, main channel length, and... done. This study combines hydraulic model HEC-RAS GIS software Arc GIS 9.3 software through the amendment of zoning HEC_GeoHMS the flood was estimated. The total area damaged by the results of the HEC-RAS  return per period was calculated. Land which overlapping maps, maps of flood zoning and infrastructure plans from the HEC-RAS model of the damaged area of the premises and property and infrastructure, agricultural lands, was predicted. Using simulation with a return period of flood zones to prevent flood hazards and regulate and improve the action.

[Gholizadeh H, Sori S, Sori N, Kheradmand Y. Regional Flood Management using GIS. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):88-92]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 12

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.12

 

Keywords: GIS،HEC_GeoHMS ، HEC-RAS، Flood Zoning

Full Text

12

13

 Executive management and construction cost of collection and disposal of Surface water projects using Visual Basic programming language Geographic Information System

 

, Kheradmand Yazdan1, Gholizadeh Zahra2, Barati Rshvanlv Reza3 and Gholiadeh Amin4

 

1 Department of Civil Engineering, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

2 Graduateted student of GIS, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3Department of Environmental Health, Tarbiat Modares University, Tahran, Iran

4 Department of Civil Engineering, Boshehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Boshehr, Iran

Email: gholamzadehdoab@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author)

 

 Abstract: Today, new approaches to management of surface water management practices in the collection and disposal location is appropriate. It also aims to study how to implement and cost management of construction projects to collect and dispose of surface water has been commensurate with the location.does not assign a stage.Arc GIS 9.3 software system has been implemented. The study sample is selected city of Sabzevar. The construction cost management initiatives in order to collect and dispose of surface water from the Visual Basic programming language to develop system software Arc GIS 9.3 is used. The efficiency of the system with the extended spatial information about its role in the implementation of management plans for surface water collection and disposal were examined.The results of this system is efficiency. It is worth noting that display information on the operation costs by choosing design features a map of the location system is proposed in this study. The most significant achievements of this system is surface water flow in flood modeling for the optimal management of the system is synchronized.

 [Kheradmand Y, Gholizadeh Z, Barati Rashvanlv R, Gholizadeh A. Executive management and construction cost of collection and disposal of Surface water projects using Visual Basic programming language Geographic Information System. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):93-99]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 13

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.13

 

Keywords: Geographic Information System, development systems software Arc GIS 9.3, the collection and disposal of surface water, Visual Basic programming language

Full Text

13

14

Optical sensing of pH based on methyl Blue on PVC Film

 

Reyhani Maryam1, Ebrahimi Dabbagh Mohammad2 and Reyhani Javad3 

  1. Department of Basic Science, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran; Email: padide_rozezard@yahoo.com (Corresponding Author), Phone: +98 (0) 935 979 3491

  2. Department of Basic Science, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

  3. Department of Basic Science, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

 

Abstract: The development of an optical pH sensor for high pH values is described on the immobilization of methyl blue on PVC films. The membrane is useful for repetitive and reversible pH measurements in the pH rang of 9-12.The advantages of the membrane include rapid equilibration time, long term stability, reversibility, high sensitivity, easy to work, freedom from interference of other cautions, and ease of fabrication.

 [Reyhani M, Ebrahimi Dabbagh M and Reyhani J. Optical sensing of pH based on methyl Blue on PVC Film. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):100-101]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 14

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.14

 

Key words: Methyl Blue, Optical Sencing, PVC Film.

Full Text

14

15

Severe Anterior Open-Bite Case Treated Using Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report

 

Fahad Alsulaimani

 

Orthodontic division, Preventive department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdelaziz University

fahad_alsulaimani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Downward and backward rotation of the mandible and/or excessive eruption of posterior teeth often cause anterior open bite. Depending on the severity of the case, orthognathic surgery is often the treatment of choice due to the difficulty of establishing absolute anchorage of molars by using a traditional orthodontic mechanics. This article reports the successful treatment of a severe skeletal anterior open-bite case using titanium screw anchorage in a 44 years 4 months female patient with 7.0 mm anterior open bite and increased facial height. The titanium screws were implanted in both the buccal and palatal area of the maxilla, and an intrusion force was provided via elastic chains for 13 months. After active treatment of 19 months, her upper first molars were intruded 3.0 mm on each side and good occlusion was achieved. Her retrognathic chin and convex profiles were improved by an upward rotation of the mandible. The results suggest that titanium screws can be considered useful for intrusion of molars in selected anterior open-bite cases.

[Fahad Alsulaimani. Severe Anterior Open-Bite Case Treated Using Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):102-107]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 15

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.15

 

Key Words: Anterior open bite; Implant anchor; Titanium screw

Full Text

15

16

Climatic conditions and tourism industrial in Shirvan County.

 

Mohammad Motamedi 1(PH.D) and Ali Gholamzadeh Doab2*

 

1Department of Geoghraphy, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

2 Department of Geoghraphy, Shirvan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shirvan, Iran

Email: Motamedi45@gmail.com (Corresponding Author)

 

Abstract: Nowadays developing of tourist industrial make economic development in each area. Tourism industrial has become one of the most important problems in the world. So it can make a lot of jobs. Favorite climate conditions can develop it easily in that area. In this research we want to study the temperature, precipitation, freezing, develops tourism industrial in the county. The method in this study is descriptive-analytic and the necessary data are gain in documentary method. The research societies are Shirvan County. Then necessary data are gain from meteorological office Bojnord Brach data bank. Based on this research Shirvan County has a favorite climate for tourist attraction.

[Motamedi M, Gholamzadeh Doab A. Climatic conditions and tourism industrial in Shirvan County. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):108-111]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 16

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.16

 

Keywords: tourism, temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, evaporation, freezing, Shirvan

Full Text

16

17

Sibawayh, Sibawayh’s book and interpretation science

 

Rodini Mohammad Amin

 

Nikshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Nikshahr, IRAN

 

Sibawayh Name is Amr ibn Othman ibn Qanbar. According to famous statement his surname is Abu Bisher[1] and according to another statement is Abul Hassan[2]. He was for a sometimes the clients of Bani Al-hares ibn Kaab and after that he became the clients of Al Al-Rabi Ibn Ziade Al-Herasi[3]. There is significant difference about the date and place of his birthday and also his death, but based on the reliable and valid sources, he was born on 140 in town of Bayza, one of the environs of Shiraz in Fars province. The place of his training and nurturing was Basra city, the scientific center of that era.

[Rodini M.A. Sibawayh, Sibawayh’s book and interpretation science. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):112-117]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 17

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.17

Full Text

17

18

Optimized and Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Pregabalin in Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid and Salicylaldehyde

 

Sherin F. Hammad1 and Ola M. Abdallah2*

 

1Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of pharmacy, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

2Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of pharmacy (girls), Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt

*olamody @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of the gamino-n-butyric acid derivative pregabalin (PGB). The first method is based on the reaction of pregabalin, as a primary amine compound, with ascorbic acid in presence of dimethylformamide to give a purple colored product measured at 530 nm. The second method is based on the derivatization of PGB with salicylaldehyde (SA) at neutral pH, the reaction conditions were optimized and the derivative absorbed maximally at 410 nm. The methods showed linearity in wide ranges of 5.0–50 µg mL−1 for the first method and 5–60 µg mL−1 for the second one. The proposed methods were extensively validated and the results obtained by adopting the two methods were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained from a reported method. The two proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of pregabalin in pharmaceutical dosage form. The mean recovery from commercial capsules was 102.86% ± 0.67 and 100.41% ± 1.31 for the first and second method respectively.

[Sherin F. Hammad and Ola M. Abdallah. Optimized and Validated Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Pregabalin in Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Ascorbic Acid and Salicylaldehyde. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):118-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 18

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.18

 

Keywords: Pregabalin; ascorbic acid; salicylaldehyde; spectrophotomety

Full Text

18

19

Evaluation of the Immune Response to Live Infectious Bronchitis Disease Vaccines and Their Effect for the Protection against Renal Damage of Layer Chickens in Upper Egypt

 

AL Hussien1, M. Dahshan and A.S. Hussien2

 

1 Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511 Egypt.

2 Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt.

ahmadrahini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major highly contagious cause of respiratory infection and poor egg-laying performance in layer chickens in Upper Egypt. Infectious bronchitis virus considered as one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. In this study we make evaluation of the ability of the infectious bronchitis (IB) Ma5 and 4/91 live-attenuated vaccines to protect against kidney damage caused by a Upper Egypt local nephropathogenic IBV strain closely related to Massachusetts (Mass) serotype was isolated from layer chickens farms, field cases showing typical kidney lesions and after serial passages in (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs can isolate these local isolate from layer chickens farms in Upper Egypt and The isolate was serologically identified by Dot-ELISA. The protection parameters considered were gross and microscopic renal pathology, and the use of a polymerase chain reaction to detect IB RNA in kidney tissue. Conclusion: By each parameter, 4/91 alone or the combined program both protected well. But Ma5 vaccine alone provided low protection; a good antibody response and a good level of protection against IBV 4/91 can be achieved by a vaccination program based on live priming with IB (Massachusetts type Ma5) and IB 4/91, followed by vaccination with an inactivated vaccine of the Massachusetts type this will provides. This program will provide antibody titres throughout the life cycle of the hens not only against Massachusetts but also against IBV 4/91. The results confirm the validity of the concept of cross-protection and emphasis the importance of carefully designing vaccination programs to control new variant serotypes under field conditions.

[AL Hussien, M. Dahshan and A.S. Hussien. Evaluation of the Immune Response to Live Infectious Bronchitis Disease Vaccines and Their Effect for the Protection against Renal Damage of Layer Chickens in Upper Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):125-131]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 19

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.19

 

Keywords: IBV, the concept of cross-protection of live and inactivated vaccines, protection against renal damage of layer chickens in Upper Egypt

Full Text

19

20

Comparative Histopathological & Immunohistochemical Studies between Melatonin and Grape-Seed Extract in Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma

 

Safia Mohammed Hassan

 

Department of Histochemistry and Cell Biology, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University

dr_safiahassan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: High levels of alpha- fetoprotein (AFP) are believed to be strongly suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is the fifth most frequent cancer and the third common cause of cancer related mortality in the world. AFP was studied immunohistochemically in addition to histopathology to delight the possible cure of melatonin (mel) or grape-seed extract (GSE) in induced HCC by two different carcinogens. Seventy five male albino mice were divided into six groups; normal group (n=5), experimental control group (n=10), experimental groups (n=30) and experimental treated groups (n=30). Histopathologically, the induced HCC by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) (8 w) was faster than 2-nitropropane (NP) (14 w). Malignant foci of HCC were manifested through cords of hyperchromatic malignant cells. However melatonin ameleorated these liver changes and GSE exhibited similar role but with a lesser extent. Immunohistochemically, the expression of AFP supported the superior effect of melatonin in HCC treatment. A significant value (1.20±0.77) (p=0.002) was recorded post mel treatment in comparison either with HCC (2.6±1.12) or with GSE (1.87±0.74) (p= 0.063). In conclusion: DEN induced HCC in mice faster than 2-NP and melatonin exhibited strong cure than GSE in HCC.

[Safia Mohammed Hassan. Comparative Histopathological & Immunohistochemical Studies between Melatonin and Grape-Seed Extract in Treating Hepatocellular Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):132-137]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 20

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.20

 

Keywords: HCC, Mice, AFP, NP, Melatonin, Grape-Seed Extract, Immunohistochemistry

Full Text

20

21

AI-Based Approach for Optimum Soil Stabilization

 

M. S. Ouf1, A. Elhakeem 2 and O. Hosny2

 

 1Civil Engineering Department, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

2Construction and Architectural Engineering, The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

drmohamedouf@hotmail.com, aelhakeem@aucegypt.edu, ohosny@aucegypt.edu

 

Abstract: Results from previous studies confirmed that, adding Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS) activated by hydrated lime (L) to a typical Egyptian clayey soil increases strength and decreases swelling. This paper investigates reaching optimum soil stabilization for clayey soil to suit safe and economic road construction. Optimum soil stabilization can be achieved mainly through two stages as proposed in this paper: stage 1: quantify the effect of the soil stabilization parameters represented in the GGBS%, Lime%, and the curing time/condition on the stabilized soil unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the free swelling percentage (FS%) using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Stage 2: determine the optimum set of stabilization parameters by conducting backward optimization on the developed ANN prediction model while meeting practical design preferences, using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Initially a simple to use ANN add-ins (Neural Tools 5.5) for Excel was used where the UCS was predicted with an acceptable error of 10% for both training and testing sets. A detailed error analysis was performed and showed that the maximum under and over estimate errors were less than 3% and 5.35% for training and testing respectively. However, it is not possible to use neural tool or other ANN software packages in performing backward analysis to determine the optimum set of inputs that may result in a certain output. Accordingly, a more transparent ANN model was developed. After training and testing the developed ANN, it can work as an optimization model where the decision variables are the stabilization parameters with an objective to reach a certain UCS while keeping the swelling percentage within a certain range. The model has been applied on a case study where it was able to come up with the practical ranges of the lime%, GGBS%, and the curing time/condition that would satisfy the required design criteria.

[M. S. Ouf, A. Elhakeem and O. Hosny. AI-Based Approach for Optimum Soil Stabilization. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):138-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 21

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.21

 

Keywords: Soil stabilization; GGBS; lime; swelling soil; Modeling; ANN; and GAs optimization.

Full Text

21

22

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) Analysis of Phthalate Isolates in n-Hexane Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) Leaves.

 

Azra Akpuaka1, M.M. Ekwenchi1, D.A. Dashak1, A. Dildar2

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.

2Department of Chemistry, Forman Christian College (A Chartered University), Lahore, Pakistan.

 

Abstract: In this study, the bioactive components of the Azadirachta indica leaves have been evaluated using GC/MS. The data revealed presence of phthalates, which were resolved by the use of two complementary separation techniques namely: Thin Layer Chromatography and Urea and Thiourea Adduction respectively. The phthalates identified were 1. Diisobutyl phthalate 2. Dibutyl phthalate 3. Ethylhexyl phthalate 4. Heptylmethyl phthalate 5. Mono(n-octyl) phthalate 6. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Out of the 6 phthalates, 3 appear to be new compounds – namely, 1. Ethylhexyl phthalate 2. Heptylmethyl phthalate and 3. Mono(n-octyl) phthalate. The bioassay of these phthalates show that 4 of them have antifungal activity: 1. Diisobutyl phthalate 2. Dibutyl phthalate 3. Heptylmethyl phthalate 4. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Mono(n-octyl) phthalate had no antifungal activity. Fungal activity of Ethylhexyl phthalate one was not tested. This study really gives a novel method of separating phthalates co-eluting at the same Retention time. Detail discussion on the separation and identification of these phthalates is presented in this study.

[Akpuaka A., Ekwenchi MM, Dashak DA., Dildar A. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) Analysis of Phthalate Isolates in n-Hexane Extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) Leaves. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):146-148]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 22

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.22

 

Key words: Azadirachta indica, GC/MS, Urea and Thiourea adduction, Phthalate

Full Text

22

23

Faculty Members’ Willingness For using E-Learning in Colleges of Nursing: Comparative study, Dammam University in Saudi Arabia and Tanta University in Egypt.

 

Hoda A. Elebiary

 

The Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University

dr.elebiary@gmail.com

 

Abstract: E-Learning is the future of learning that focuses on both the individual needs of learners as well as the delivered content. Faculty members should make the best use of the latest available technology and to stay informed about the latest developments, and transfer what they have learned to new generations of students. Aim of this study was: To explore the willingness of faculty members in college of nursing toward E-Learning program as an alternative method for teaching. To measure faculty members attitudes, levels of skills toward integrating e-learning in their teaching. Design: Cross sectional descriptive study design was used in this study. Setting: The study was conducted in Colleges of nursing; Dammam University, Saudi Arabia and Tanta University, Egypt. Subjects: A convenient sample consisted of 193 nursing faculty members who were working at the Nursing Colleges at the time of study (88 from Dammam University and 105 from Tanta University). Tools: A structured questionnaire was developed by the researcher in four parts: Part one included socio-demographic data regarding participant. Part two included information about participants experience in teaching using different technologies. Part three included the participant’s attitudes on usefulness of technology. Part four included the participant’s supporting the e-learning program or not.

 [Hoda A. Elebiary. Faculty Members’ Willingness For using E-Learning in Colleges of Nursing: Comparative study, Dammam University in Saudi Arabia and Tanta University in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):149-155]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 23

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.23

 

Key words: E-learning, educational technology, nursing education, faculty members, willingness, attitudes.

Full Text

23

24

Correlation between lipid profile and Rapid Virologic Response to treatment of HCV

 

Adel M. Abdelrahman1, Ahmed A. ELNaggar1, Shimaa A. Fathy1 and Mervat M.Alansary2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

2Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

aanaggar71@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV worldwide13.8 %. The classic effective treatment is Interferon alpha (IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin. As these therapies have side effects and high costs, it is important to identify patients having the best chance to respond before initiation of therapy. Objective: to study the relationship between the lipid profile of the patient before starting treatment and the rapid virologic response (RVR). Patients &Methods: This study was conducted on 56 non-cirrhotic HCV positive patients, they were divided into 2 groups, group I with 27 patients with normal lipid profile and group II with 29 patients with high lipid profile. Both groups were treated with peg-IFN (2b) plus RBV, HCV viral load was measured before therapy and after 4 weeks of therapy. Results: pretreatment cholesterol and LDL levels were significantly higher in group (II), while the triglycerides levels were significantly higher in group (I). RVR in group II was 58.6%, while it was only 22.2% in group I, p value =0.0056. Conclusion: Our data suggest that pretreatment cholesterol and LDL is strongly associated with RVR. Assessing the lipid profile in all chronic HCV patients at baseline would be a useful tool in predicting RVR.

[Adel M. Abdelrahman, Ahmed A. EL Naggar, Shimaa A. Fathy and Mervat M. Alansary. Correlation between lipid profile and Rapid Virologic Response to treatment of HCV. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):156-160]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 24

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.24

 

Keywords: HCV, cholesterol, LDL, viral kinetics, RVR

Full Text

24

25

Assessment of Internal Forces Induced due to Differential Shortening of Vertical Elements in Typical Medium- to High-Rise Buildings

 

M. Hassanien Serror and A. Essam El-Din

 

Dept. of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt

 serror@eng.cu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Axial shorting of columns in a building structure due to long term creep and shrinkage causes axial force redistribution among columns and walls, and introduces additional forces in the horizontal members: beams and slabs. Thus, it needs to be considered in the design, especially for medium to high-rise buildings. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate this phenomenon, such issues were addressed through empirical equations and simplified models for individual vertical elements within the building. Meanwhile, no general conclusions appropriate for design practice have been drawn regarding differential column shortening behavior in typical medium- to high-rise buildings. General building codes do not give a specific guideline about when and how differential column shortening should be considered. Consequently, column shortening is usually left to the judgment of structural engineers. However, the combined causes for column shortening are not usually discussed either the type of statically system or time dependent material properties (creep and shrinkage) and inclusion of steel reinforcement into analysis are discussed. The aim of this study is to combine all these parameters. A parametric study is conducted and reported in this paper to investigate the influence of the variation of controlling parameters such as floor levels and type of statically system, using construction sequence analysis method. The results obtained in this research can serve as an aid to the structural engineers during schematic design. 3D finite element modeling has been performed, considering all the above causes using a reliable finite element analysis program MIDAS Gen.

[M. Hassanien Serror and A. Essam El-Din. Assessment of Internal Forces Induced due to Differential Shortening of Vertical Elements in Typical Medium- to High-Rise Buildings. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):161-174]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 25

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.25

 

Keyword: Assessment Internal Forces Induced Differential Shortening Vertical Elements in Typical.

Full Text

25

26

Simultaneous Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with Corneal Cross Linking (CXL) For Treatment of Early Keratoconus.

 

Mahmoud M Saleh, Ahmed I Galhoom, Mohamed A El-Malah, Abdelgany Ib Abdelgany

 

Department of Ophthalmology Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. ubmedicals@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of PRK and corneal cross linking (CXL) For treatment of early Keratoconus. Methods: Twenty two eyes of fifteen patients with early progressive keratoconus were included. all patient underwent Simultaneous PRK and corneal cross linking (CXL) The outcomes were evaluated at 12 months in all eyes. Result: ninety five percent of UNCVA postoperatively are equal to preoperatively BCVA or gained 1 or more lines 5% only Lost 1 or more lines, 64% of the eyes are within 1.0D. of emmetropia. Non of the eyes had > 2.0 D and 59% of the eyes had Astigmatism by K-Reading within 1.0D. Non of the eyes had > 2.0D. Conclusion: Simultaneous PRK + CXL is a very effective way to stop progression of early KC and it improves patient visual acuity and quality of vision provided that we adhere to the selection criteria of that we recommend.

[Mahmoud M Saleh, Ahmed I Galhoom, Mohamed A El-Malah, Abdelgany Ib Abdelgany. Simultaneous Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with Corneal Cross Linking (CXL) For Treatment of Early Keratoconus. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):175-181]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 26

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.26

 

Keywords: safety; keratoconus; corneal cross linking; emmetropia; eye

Full Text

26

27

Bisphosphonates Reverse the Rapid Deterioration of Bone Cells Following Corticosteroids

 

Medhat A. Elzeiny, Reham M. Amin and Dina Mohamed

 

Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry,Ain Shams University. Haytham_azim@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To evaluate the ability of Zoledronic acid to prevent and reverse rapid changes of mandibular alveolar bone cells following a whole month of daily injection with Methyl prednisolone. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate these changes histologically, also, immunohistochemical changes of bone cells were screened.

[Medhat A. Elzeiny, Reham M. Amin and Dina Mohamed. Bisphosphonates Reverse the Rapid Deterioration of Bone Cells Following Corticosteroids. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):182-190]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 27

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.27

 

Keyword: Bisphosphonates, Reverse, Rapid Deterioration, Bone Cell, Corticosteroids.

Full Text

27

28

A study on the prevalence of Endoparasites of domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) inhabiting in the Green Mountain Region of Libya

 

Mohamed Eljadar, Walide Saad, Gumma Elfadel

 

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Omar Mukhar University, El Beida, Libya. saadwalide@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine endo-parasites in green mountain region from free range pigeons. Fecal and blood samples were collected from different pigeons species and evaluated for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites and heamoparasites. Microscopic studies of eggs and faecal egg counts were done using the salt flotation technique. Blood smears were stained with Giemsa and used to detect heamoparasites. Protozoa (90% for Eimeria spp and 1% for Haemoproteus spp) and nematodes (20% for Capillaria spp and 10% for Heterakis spp) were detected in number of the cases, whereas 5% of the fecal samles were infected by multiple parasites. This is the first report of parasites in the green mountain (El- Jabal Akhtar) region. The presence of coccidian oocysts was revealed in the most of fecal samples.

[Mohamed Eljadar, Walide Saad, Gumma Elfadel. A study on the prevalence of Endoparasites of domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) inhabiting in the Green Mountain Region of Libya. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):191-193]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 28

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.28

 

Keywords: endoparasites, pigeons, Libya.

Full Text

28

29

Time Delays in Highways Construction Projects in Kuwait

 

Mansur R. Al Marri1, 2, Moheeb E. Ibrahem2 and Gamal E. Nassar3

 

1Ministry of Public Works, Kuwait

2Structural Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

3Structural Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

rabie_eng@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: It is generally accepted that the major objectives of any infrastructure project are budget, schedule and quality, although there are other more specific objectives, such as safety consideration and market entry, depending on the nature of the project and company. The problem of delays in the construction industry for infrastructure projects is a global phenomenon. Thirty reasons of delay during different phases of the project were identified, described and combined into the five stages of highways construction projects: Pre-prepared documents, the stage of preparation documents, the process of preparing bid documents, stage award, and the implementation phase. The rating of agreed were calculated for the reasons of delay. In addition to this research presents relationships between the reasons of time delay variables during different project stages. The findings of this research can be used as a preliminary guide for highways construction companies that are unfamiliar with working with the highways Construction Projects in Kuwait.

[Mansur R. Al Marri, Moheeb E. Ibrahem and Gamal E. Nassar. Time Delays in Highways Construction Projects in Kuwait. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):194-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 29.

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.29

 

Keywords: highways construction, time delays, project in Kuwait, lack of productivity.

Full Text

29

30

Tiling of Chaotic Manifold and its Fractal folding

 

F. Salama1,2,3, H. Rafat1,2,4

 

1. Deanery of Academic Services, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia

2. Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

3fatma2salama@yahoo.com; 4hishamrafat2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we introduce the notation of tiling chaotic manifold. We also study some geometric characters on chaotic manifold. The fractal folding of chaotic manifold is discussed. The fractal tiling, is a tiling which possesses self- similarity and the boundary of which is a fractal, is presented. Some applications in real life on chaos theory are achieved.

[F. Salama, H. Rafat. Tiling of Chaotic Manifold and its Fractal folding. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 30

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.30

 

Keywords: Chaotic Manifold, Tiling, Fractal folding, retraction.

Full Text

30

31

Photo-Stimulatory Effect of Low Level Energy Laser Irradiation On The Progress Of Wound Healing In Mice

 

Hala Moustafa Ahmed 1 and Harbi A. Sayed 2

 

1Medical Biophysics, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October Six University

2Biology Department, Vacsera Company, Bakar_tarek_76@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated that low level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote the wound healing on diabetic and non-diabetic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the photo-stimulatory effect of low energy 650 nm Diod laser irradiation on excisional diabetic wound healing dynamics in Balb/C mice. Streptozotocin (180 mg/kg) was applied for diabetes induction. An oval full-thickness skin wound was created aseptically with a scalpel in 100 diabetic mice and 20 non-diabetic mice on the shaved back of the animals. The study was performed using 650 nm diode laser in doses (3 J/cm2, 4 J/cm2, 5 J/cm2& 6 J/cm2) for 3 times/week. The area of wound in all mice were measured and plotted on a slope chart which revealed a significant differences (p < 0.001) in the percentages of wound healing acceleration (15, 20, 22.9, and 24.9) in the four doses respectively in comparison with positive and negative control groups and confirmed by histological studies which showed a highly increase in collagen fibers in sub epidermal tissue, and with intact epidermis presence of hyperplasia covering well-developed granulation tissue and demonstrated collage fibers. We can conclude that, the optimum wavelength was 650 nm, and the optimum incident dose was 6 J/cm2 in our study.

[Hala Moustafa Ahmed and Harbi A. Sayed. Photo-Stimulatory Effect Of Low Level Energy Laser Irradiation On The Progress Of Wound Healing In Mice. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):203-211]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 31

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.31

 

Keywords: LLLT, wound healing. laser photo stimulation, photo inhibition, wound healing

Full Text

31

32

Impact of Vo2 max development with high intensity on respiratory system and vital Endurance for kumite Players in Karate Sport

 

Mohamed,S.Abo-El-noor

 

Department of Theories and Applications Competitive and individual Sports, Faculty of Physical Education for boys, Zagazig University., Egypt. mohamedablnoor@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study is regarded a methodological attempt to identify the impact of Vo2 max development with high intensity on respiratory system and vital Endurance for kumite Players in Karate Sport, especially after the amendments of international law and increase the time of matches in the Semi-final and final than three minutes to four minutes led to increasing adoption of the player to production of energy sources by up to 70% and coupled high intensity may reach 95% of the maximum what an individual can afford, the experimental method with one group (pre-post measurements) was applied on a subject of 10 players from Zagazig University, majoring Kumite in age group of 18 to 21 years, The important results are of this research was an enhancement in (FVC), (MB), (NB), (HRAE), (HRAR), (FSORS), and (COT)(9.0%, 14.05%, 7.31%, 8.0%, 38.35%) consequently in the post measurement than the pre one. Also, there is an enhancement of the pre and post- measurements in (VO2 Max, Alternative VO2 Max, (FSORS), and (VE) testes (10.06%, 10.13%, 26.68%, 28.79%) consequently for the post one.

 [Mohamed, S. Abo-El-noor. Impact of Vo2 max development with high intensity on respiratory system andvital Endurance for kumite Players in Karate Sport. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):212-216]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 32

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.32

 

Key words: Vo2 max, respiratory system, The Vital Endurance, kumite, Karate

Full Text

32

33

Competence of Midwives versus Non-Midwives Nurses Regarding Postnatal Care in Saudi Arabia

 

Howaida Amin El-Sabaa1&2, Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah3 and Jehan Mohamed Alhazmi4

 

1Department of Maternity and Childhood Nursing, Faculty of Nursing Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Port Said University, Port Said, Egypt

3Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine. Taibah University, Madina, Saudi Arabia

4Consultant of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Medicine, Madina Maternity and Children Hospital, Ministry of Health, Madina, Saudi Arabia

dr_howaidaamin@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objective: Compare the competence of midwives versus non-midwives nurses regarding postnatal care in Madina city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Fifty three midwives and one hundred and thirty seven non-midwives nurses working in Madina Maternity Governmental Hospital were participated in this descriptive cross sectional study. Competence was assessed in two domains; knowledge which assessed through interview schedule, and practices which assessed by two tools; interview schedule and observation checklist. Results: Nurses’ specialty had a significant effect on their total score of practices in the field of post- natal care. The mean score of practice among midwives nurses (MN) was 49.4±10.3 while non-midwives nurses (N-MN) was 42.9±13.4. No difference between MN group and N-MN group were found with respect to the total score of knowledge in the same area of care.. MN showed high total observation of practices score than did N-MN (80.8±25.7 versus 61.8±34.5) with difference being significant (Z=2.714, P=0.007). Conclusion: Midwives nurses more competent in practicing postnatal care than non-midwives nurses and no different were observed in their knowledge in such care.

[Howaida Amin El-Sabaa, Nadia Abd-Allah Oweedah and Jehan Mohamed Alhazmi. Competence of Midwives versus Non-Midwives Nurses Regarding Postnatal Care in Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):217-222]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 33

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.33

 

Keywords: Midwives; Nurse; Postnatal care; Competence; Saudi Arabia

Full Text

33

34

The Study of Bank Erosion in Kashkan River Meanders

 

HAGHIABI Amir Hamzeh1, Mohammad Karami2

 

1.Academic Member, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran,

2. Department of Civil Engineering, Dehloran branch, Islamic azad university, Dehloran, Iran

haghiabi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Kashkan River is an important branch of Karkheh River. The water basin of this river up to Poledokhtar station is 9400 km2. After passing 270 km and confluence with Seymareh River at western south of Poledokhtar city, the river (which is now called Karkheh River) flows toward Karkheh Dam. This river due to its morphological characteristics includes various meandering and braiding reaches. Bank erosion at the meanders damages valuable agricultural lands and aggravates the danger of floods. The knowledge of the river behavior is useful for its training. To study the periodic changes of the river plan form, topographic maps and satellite photos were compared together and field inspections accomplished. For determining the meanders characteristics and their development rates, numerous field inspections were done and satellite photos used. On the basis of geometric characteristics of the meanders and using empirical relations, the rates of bank erosion at critical reaches were predicted and some technical ideas suggested.

[HAGHIABI Amir Hamzeh, Mohammad Karami. The Study of Bank Erosion in Kashkan River Meanders. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):223-229]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 34

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.34

 

Keywords: Meander-Bank Erosion-Kashkan-River

Full Text

34

35

Anatomical Studies on the Cranial Nerves of Fully Formed Embryonic Stage of Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853) I. The eye muscle nerves and ciliary ganglion

 

Dakrory, A.I. 1; GABRY,M. S2.; Abdel-Kader, T. G.2 and Mattar, S.F.E.2

 

1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University

2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University

Dakrory2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study deals with the eye muscle nerves and the ciliary ganglion of the bony fish Gambusia affinis affinis. The eye muscle nerves include the nervi oculomotorius, trochlearis and abducens. The oculomotor nerve leaves the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It innervates the rectus superior, rectus inferior, rectus medialis and the obliquus inferior muscles. It carries pure somatic motor fibres and visceromotor (parasympathetic) ones. The ciliary ganglion is small and has no radix ciliaris brevis. There is only one ciliary nerve arising from the ciliary ganglion. The radix ciliaris longa originates from the truncus ciliaris. The nervus trochlearis passes outside the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It has no connection with the other cranial nerves. It carries pure somatic motor fibres to the obliquus inferior muscle. The nervus abducens leaves the cranial cavity through its own foramen. It enters the posterior eye muscle canal (myodome) and it has no connection with the other cranial nerves. It carries pure somatic motor fibres to the rectus lateralis muscle.

[Dakrory, A.I; GABRY,M.S; Abdel-Kader, T. G. and Mattar, S.F.E. Anatomical Studies on the Cranial Nerves of Fully Formed Embryonic Stage of Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853). I: The eye muscle nerves and ciliary ganglion. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):230-242]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 35

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.35

 

Key Words: Gambusia affinis affinis -oculomotor-trochlear-abducens-ciliary ganglion.

Full Text

35

36

Modulatory Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Brain Neurotransmitters and Oxidative Stress in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

 

Walaa G. Hozayen1, Shaimaa S. Mahmoud1, Kamal A. Amin2 and Rasha R. Ahmed3 *

 

1Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Division, Beni-suef University

2Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition Department, Beni-suef University

3 Faculty of Science, Zoology Department, Beni-suef University

shymaa0123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of diabetic neuropathy (DN). Oxidative damage is the most common concluding pathway for various pathogenetic mechanisms of neuronal injury in diabetic neuropathy. Hence, the present study was hypothesized to explore the neuroprotective nature of grape seed extract (GSE) on diabetic rats by assessing markers of brain neurotransmitters secretion, oxidative stress, antioxidant competence and inflammatory marker in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Four groups of rats were treated daily for ten weeks: (-ve) control, diabetic-control injected intraperitoneally with 150 mg kg−1 BW of alloxan monohydrate, diabetic-treated rats injected by alloxan and then treated with GSE 250 mg kg−1 BW and (+ve) control rats treated with the same previous dose of GSE. Results: In diabetic rats a significant increase in serum glucose and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), while hypoinsulinemia were recorded. In addition a significant increase in brain neurotransmitters [epinephrine, noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine], MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD) were recorded. Whereas there were a significant decrease in brain glutathione (GSH), Vitamin C, nitric oxide levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were reported. There was non significant change in catalase (CAT) activity. GSE administration was found to be able to ameliorate most of the biochemical altered parameters in diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present results indicated that experimental diabetes produced metabolic disturbances in glucose, insulin that trigger brain enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidative stress that initiate disturbances in brain neurotransmitter, providing the incidence of nervous manifestation in diabetes. Administration GSE is valuable for enhancing the antioxidant defense against oxidative stress, neuroprotective, resulting in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters.

[Walaa G. Hozayen, Shaimaa S. Mahmoud, Kamal A. Amin and Rasha R. Ahmed Modulatory. Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Brain Neurotransmitters and Oxidative Stress in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):243-254]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 36

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.36

 

Key words: Diabetes, oxidative stress, neurotransmitters, grape seed extract.

Full Text

36

37

The Clinical Utility of Tissue Factor Level as a Biomarker in Multiple Myeloma

 

Heba M. Zien Elabedin1, Ehab Abdelbadeeh Hassan1, Maher Abobakr El Amir1, Medhat M. El Fatatry2, Hala M. Fahmy1, and Naguib Zoheir Mostafa3

 

1Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University,

2Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University,

3Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University

Halafahmy70@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Tissue factor is a key component in the initiation of coagulation and may play a role in cancer-related processes such as hypercoagulability, tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. An early study showed an increased expression of TF in haematologic malignancies as AML, polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. However, the role of TF in MM has not been studied in detail. Aim of the work: is to assess the clinical utility of tissue factor level as a biomarker for prediction of risk of thromboembolism and its relation to type, stage and duration of disease in multiple myeloma patients. Subjects & Methods: This study included 75 MM patients (group I) 52 males and 23 females with a mean age of 56.40 ± 5.75 years and 20 age and sex- matched healthy subjects served as controls (group II). All patients were subjected to detailed clinical examination and investigations which included CBC, liver & kidney functions tests, uric acid, serum calcium, CRP, serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation,bone marrow aspirate and biopsy, B2 microglobulin,serum albumin, PT, aPTT, D-dimmer, FDPS, fibrinogen, tissue factor levels, skeletal survey and bilateral lower limb venous duplex. Results tissue factor was significantly higher in MM patients than controls (p-value 0.0001). there is no statistically significant difference between MM patients when classified according to sex (P= 0.3), type of myeloma wither IgG or IgA (P= 0.7), and wither were recently diagnosed or already on treatment (P=0.7).TF levels were significantly higher in patients expressing Lambda compared with those expressing Kappa chain(P= 0.04). IT was higher in patients complicated with DVT than those without DVT (P= 0.0001). No difference was reported in patients with or without ischemic CVS (P= 0.8). TF levels were higher in patients with positive markers of activated coagulation (D-dimer and FDPs) when compared to those with negative markers (P= 0.0001 & 0.002 respectively). TF was positively correlated with D-dimer and FDP (r 0.4&0.3, P= 0.001&0.004 respectively), while negatively correlated with fibrinogen (r -0.3 & P= 0.01). According to therapeutic regimens, TF level showed no statistically significant difference between patients received VAD-based regimen and those who did not (P= 0.9), it was lower in patients received brotezomib-based regimen compared to those who did not (P= 0.01) while it was higher in patients received thalidomide-based regimen than those who did not (P= 0.004). TF levels were positively correlated with duration of treatment with thalidomide (r 0.4, P =0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of the TF level as a marker of thrombosis in MM patients (as determined by the ROC Curve) were found to be 77.3% & 90% respectively. Positive predictive value of 96.7 and negative predictive value of 51.4 and area under the curve of 0.88 were detected. Tissue factor was found to be significantly higher in stage III patients when compared with stage I & stage II (P= 0.0001). Also we reported that TF is positively correlated with stage and duration of the disease (r 0.4, P= 0.0001 & r 0.5 & P= 0.007 respectively) and B2microglubulines (r 0.4, P= 0.001), but negatively correlated with albumin (r -0.4, P= 0.0001). Conclusion Multiple myeloma patients express high level of tissue factor especially in cases complicated with thromboembolism, those who have positive markers of activated coagulation and those receiving thalidomide. So TF level can be used as a predictor for risk of thrombosis in multiple myeloma patients, its sensitivity, specificity PPV & NPV are for further evaluation on wider scales. The correlations of TF with stage and duration of disease, albumin & B2microglubulines are finding that necessitate further work to determine the extent to which targeting and monitoring TF expression may be useful, from a diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic standpoint.

[Heba M. Zien Elabedin, Ehab Abdelbadeeh Hassan, Maher Abobakr El Amir, Medhat M. El Fatatry, Hala M. Fahmy and Naguib Zoheir Mostafa. The Clinical Utility of Tissue Factor Level as a Biomarker in Multiple Myeloma. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):255-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 37

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.37

 

Keywords: Multiple myeloma, tissue factor, thromboembolism

Full Text

37

38

Outcome of Single Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

 

Ahmed M. Younis

 

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University. Younis_surgeon@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hypothesis: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) allows surgeon to perform laparoscopic procedures through a single umbilical incision, minimizing surgical trauma and hospital stay. Patients and method: Twenty consecutive adult patients of different ages (20 -60) with chronic calcular cholecystitis, had single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in department of surgery, Abdul Rahman AL-Mishari Hospital (Riyadh, Kingdom Saudi Arabia). It was first time for us to use that instrument. Patients singed informed consent for procedure. All patients had prophylactic third generation cephalosporin. The main outcome measures, were operative time, complications up to 30 days, pain scores and overall satisfaction. Results: Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy took 60 minutes to perform. Most of patients were discharged on post operative day one, less post operative pain, improved patient cosmesis and satisfaction, a chest infection after surgery had prolonged the length of stay in 2 cases. Conclusion: SIL cholecystectomy is an attractive method to further minimize surgical trauma and can be applied in more complex cases. A large trials are needed to determine the benefits of this new technique.

[Ahmed M. Younis. Outcome of Single Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):262-265]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 38

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.38

 

Keywords: Single incision laparoscopic surgery; laparoscopic procedure; umbilical incision; pain score

Full Text

38

39

Effect of Some Organic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Cooling Water Systems

 

Mohammed Emad

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia. mhmd_1428@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The inhibition effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) of average molecular weights 10,000 (PVP-10) and 40,000 (PVP-40), Benzimidazole (BIA) and 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol (AMP) on the corrosion of brass in cooling water systems has been investigated. The investigation was carried out using the weight loss method and open circuit potential measurements. The chemical composition of the make-up water used in the cooling system has been determined. The data showed that the the corrosivity of the water is due to the presence of the aggressive Cl - and SO4 2- ions. The inhibition efficiency and surface coverage were calculated at various inhibitor concentrations. The obtained results showed that the inhibition efficiencies of these inhibitors enhance with increasing inhibitor concentrations and it was found that the inhibition efficiency of these inhibitors decrease in the order: BIA > PVP 10,000 > PVP 40,000 > AMP. Moreover the inhibition effect of various concentrations of the four inhibitors on the corrosion of brass in the make-up water containing 2% N2H4 and 0.005 M Na2SO3 was studied. The open circuit potential measurements showed that the presence of these organic inhibitors shifts the steady state potentials (Es) to more noble direction. In water containing hydrazine, the presence of inhibitors shifts Es to more noble values than in hydrazine – free water which leads to improves the corrosion inhibition of the brass. The mechanism of inhibition was proposed on the basis of the adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the brass surface.

 [Mohammed Emad. Effect of Some Organic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Brass in Cooling Water Systems. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):266-269]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.39

 

Keywords: Brass, polyvinylpyrrolidone, Benzimidazole, 2-Amino-2-Methyl-1-Propanol Corrosion inhibition

Full Text

39

40

The Awareness of the HPV’s Association with Cervical Cancer and PAP Smearamong Saudi Females

 

Abdulrahim Gari, Ahmed Asiri, Amr Mohammed, Fahad Al-Malki, Mohammad Melibari,Mohammed Al Sheikh, MoayadKalantan, Nader Al Gethami, ShaddyFuttiny, Sultan Al-Essa, Yasser Al Shomranyand ZiyadAlihiby

 

Umm Al-Qura university, Collage of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mecca, KSA

gari505@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract: Introduction: Cytological screening, the Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) has been one of the most successful public health measures available for cervical cancer screening and prevention. The aim of our study was to assess the knowledge and the attitude toward the cervical cancer screening (the Pap smear) among women in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were sent out to school teachers, relative, friends between the period November to December 2011, a random sample of 1023 women most of them aged between 16 and 45 years old were recruited. Result: We found 37% of the population never heard about the Pap smear test, among who heard about the test; 36% knew through the media. The majority of the married population (95%) does not perform the Pap smear test regularly and most of them never had PAP smear done. The main reason for not having a Pap smear was the lack of awareness. Conclusion: There is a need to educate and promote awareness of cervical cancer and it is prevention. This target could be approached in different ways; including the media, medical educational campaigns, brochures…etc.

[AbdulrahimGari, Ahmed Asiri, Amr Mohammed, Fahad Al-Malki, Mohammad Melibari, Mohammed Al Sheikh, MoayadKalantan, Nader Al Gethami, ShaddyFuttiny, Sultan Al-Essa, Yasser Al Shomrany and ZiyadAlihiby. The Awareness of the HPV’s Association with Cervical Cancer and PAP Smear among Saudi Females. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):270-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.40

 

Key words: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, Human papilloma virus, HPV

Full Text

40

41

Determination of Clopidogrel bisulphate Using Ion-Selective Electrodes in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulation and in Biological Fluids

 

Sahar F. bin-Ibrahim*, Nawal A. Alarfaj and Fatma A. Aly

 

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia. isahari@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The construction and performance characteristics of clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP) selective electrodes were developed. Three types of electrodes: plastic membrane I, coated wire membrane II and coated graphite III, electrodes were based on the incorporation of CLP with the pairing agents phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), ammonium reineckate salt (ARS), and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) respectively. The electrodes displayed a Nernstian response with a mean calibration graphs slopes of 55.97±0.460, 57.57±0.227 and 58.03±0.150 mV decade-1 for the three electrodes respectively, over linear concentration range 1.0 x 10-7 - 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1 of the drug, with detection limits 5.01 x 10-8, 4.10 x 10-8 and 5.00 x10-8 mol L-1 for electrodes I, II and III, respectively. The safe pH range of the proposed electrodes was (1.2- 4.6). The influence of possible interfering species such as inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was studied. The results were favorably compared to those obtained by a reference method. The proposed electrodes were used for the determination of CLP in pure form, pharmaceutical formulation and in biological fluids.

[Sahar F. bin-Ibrahim, Nawal A. Alarfaj and Fatma A. Aly. Determination of Clopidogrel bisulphate Using Ion-Selective Electrodes in Bulk, Pharmaceutical Formulation and in Biological Fluids. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):276-283]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 41

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.41

 

Key words: Clopidogrel bisulphate (CLP), Ion-selective electrodes, coated wire membrane, Pharmaceutical formulation, Biological fluids.

Full Text

41

42

Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Leaf Extracts of Podocarpus Gracilior and Ruprechtia Polystachya Resulted In Isolation of Novel Polyphenolic Compound

 

Amel M. Kamal1, Mohamed I. S. Abdelhady1*, Mohamed S. Mady1, Soad M. Abdelkhalik1 and Engy M. Elmorsy2

 

Departments of 1Pharmacognosy and 2Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo, Egypt. mohibrahem@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Phytochemical investigation of polyphenolic contents of Podocarpus gracilior Pilger and Ruprechtia polystachya Griseb leaves were resulted in isolation and identification of three and six known polyphenolic compounds respectively. In addition of a new polyphenolic compound isolated for the first time from nature from R. polystachya which is identified as 4`-O-Galloyl-myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (4`-O-galloyl myricetrin). Identification of hydrocarbons in P. gracilior and R. polystachya leaves resulted in identification of 19 and 21 compounds respectively. Concerning the composition of fatty acid content in P. gracilior it could be concluded that the unsaturated fatty acids (51.16%) represented higher percentage than that of saturated ones (38.87%). In the case of R. polystachya, the saturated fatty acids (70.58%) were dominated on the unsaturated ones (27.30%). The tested methanol extracts of P. gracilior and R. polystachya leaves showed antioxidant, antimicrobial and stimulatory activities to nitric oxide release from macrophage cell line. Methanol extracts of P. gracilior leaves had weak cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells (breast adenocarcinoma cell line) while methanol extracts of R. polystachya leaves did not show cytotoxic activity.

[Amel M. Kamal, Mohamed I. S. Abdelhady, Mohamed S. Mady, Soad M. Abdelkhalik and Engy M. Elmorsy. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Leaf Extracts of Podocarpus Gracilior and Ruprechtia Polystachya Resulted In Isolation of Novel Polyphenolic Compound. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):284-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 42

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.42

 

Key words: Ruprechtia polystachya, Podocarpus gracilior, polyphenols, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory.

Full Text

42

43

The protective effect of vitamin A against sodium nitrate induced toxicity in liver and kidney of albino rats: histological and ultrastructural study

 

Sanaa R. Galaly and M.S. Mahmoud

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Beni-suef University, Egypt. sanaa.rida@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sublethal dose of nitrate in a short-term experiment (orally and daily for 8 weeks) and the possible ameliorative effect of vitamins A. 120 adult male Albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 30 rats each and treated daily for 8 weeks as follows: Group I (control) received distilled water, Group II received 10,000 I.U/ rat vitamin A, Group III received 50 mg/kg NaNO3 and Group IV received 50 mg/kg NaNO3 +10,000 I.U/ rat vitamin A. All the animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks of treatment. Specimens from liver and kidney of rats were collected for the optical and electron microscope study. In the present study, light microscopic examination revealed that "Sod. nitrate" caused kidney damage represented by shrinked glomerular tuft, degeneration of some tubules and epithelial lining cells. Formation of focal fibrosis and infiltrated with a number of inflammatory cells. The damage also extended to the hepatic cells including cytoplasmic vacuolization and dialated congested veins. The liver showed hydropic degenerated hepatocytes, necrotic areas infiltrated with a number of inflammatory cells, in addition to the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and dilated sinusoids. Ultrastructural results of the kidney nitrate treated animals showed that irregular thickening of glomerular basement membrane. Mitochondria were obviously swollen and having disintegrated organelles. Moreover, the proximal tubules contained very dense mitochondria with numerous closely packed cristae, thick basal lamina, vacuoles, distruction of microvilli and irregular nucleus. Electron microscopic examination of the liver of rats treated with sodium nitrate showed swollen hepatic cells with cell sap of low density, scant endoplasmic reticulum and swollen mitochondria. There was segregated organelles in a membrane bound structure and variable size lipid droplets. Condensed nucleus was seen. In addition, myelin figure (finger-print appearance), apparently formed by the concentric lamellar arrangement of rough endoplasmic reticulum. The Light microscopy, and ultrastructural result that the treatment with vitamin A led to repair of almost all the damaged tissues of the liver and kidneys.

[Sanaa R. Galaly and M.S. Mahmoud. The protective effect of vitamin A against sodium nitrate induced toxicity in liver and kidney of albino rats: histological and ultrastructural study. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):293-308]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 43

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.43

 

Key words: sodium nitrate, vitamin A, liver, kidney, histopathology, ultrastructure

Full Text

43

44

Support Vector Machine Approach and Petroleum Engineering

 

Seyed Reza Na’imi1, Seyed Reza Shadizadeh1, Mohammad Ali Riahi2, Marzieh Mirzakhanian3

 

1 Department of Petroleum Exploration Engineering, Abadan Facility of Petroleum University of Technology, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran

2Geophysics Institute, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3Geophysics Office, Exploration Directorate of National Iranian Oil Company, Tehran, Iran

shadizadeh@put.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Support Vector Machine is a supervised computer learning algorithm which is originated from Statistical Learning Theory and is used for both classification and regression tasks in wide variety of engineering problems. SVM implementations show that it gives rise to more accurate results rather than neural networks and statistical methods in most applications. Furthermore, Support Vector Machine is more convenient for situations where the populations are small and non-linear. The basic ideas behind the Support Vector Machine algorithm, however, can be explained without ever reading an equation. So in this paper, a brief description of Support Vector Machine method is first brought and after that some important implementations in petroleum engineering are discussed shortly.

[Na’imi S R, Shadizadeh S R, Riahi M A, Mirzakhanian M. Support Vector Machine Approach and Petroleum Engineering. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):309-314]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 44

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.44

 

Keywords: Support Vector Machine, Support Vector Classification, Support Vector Regression, Kernel Function

Full Text

44

45

Effect of Pyridalyl on Alkaline Phosphatase and Transaminase Activities in Some Tissues of Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

 

Salam S. Teleb1; Farag A. Ahmed1 and Ahmed Abdel Zaher M. Mostafa2,3

 

1Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

2Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt

3Shaqra University, College of science and arts at Shagra, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

salamteleb@gmail.com

 

Abstract: After feeding of 4th nymphal instar on fresh leaves of lettuce dipping in different concentrations(500,100 and 10ppm) of the novel insecticide, pyridalyl against the newly moulted 4th nymphal instar of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The Alkaline phosphatase (AlP), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), activities in both the haemolymph and fat bodies of 5th nymphal instar and newly emerged adults were investigated. The Pyridalyl, exerted contradictory effects on the ALP activity in haemolymph of the nymphs depending on the age and the concentration. The Pyridalyl significantly increased enzyme activity at the early, late -aged nymphs and newly emerged adults at the different concentrations while decreased in the mid -aged. In respect to the ALP activity in fat bodies increased in mid-aged nymphs but decreased at early and late- aged Also, an increasing the enzyme activity in fat bodies of the newly emerged adults was appreciated. The Pyridalyl decrease GPT activity in the haemolymph at 500and 100ppm along the nymphal life while increasing in the early and late aged nymphs at 10ppm.In newly emerged adults, pyridalyl gave the highest increase in GPT activity than control at the different concentrations. Pyridalyl exhibited an enhancing effect on the GPT activity in the fat bodies along the nymphal instar and in newly emerged adults. At the early 5th nymphal instar of different conc.; 500,100 and 10ppm the enzyme activity of GOT increased in the haemolymph while at mid, and late aged and early adults the activity decreased. Also increasing the GOT activity in the fat bodies of both aged nymphs and newly emerged adults was determined.

[Salam S. Teleb, Farag A. Ahmed and Ahmed Abdel.Zaher M. Mostafa. Effect of Pyridalyl on Alkaline Phosphatase and Transaminase Activities in Some Tissues of Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). J Am Sci 2012;8(12):315-322]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 45

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.45

Keywords: Pyridalyl, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST/ GOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT). haemolymph, fat bodies, nymph, adult, Schistocerca gregaria.

Full Text

45

46

Sustained Release Rectal Suppositories as Drug Delivery Systems for Atenolol

 

Eman G., Mahmoud Mokhtar, Hanaa El Ghamry, and Fakhr Ghazy

 

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt

Mahmoud_dsky@zu.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Atenolol suppositories were prepared using either hydrophilic bases of polyethylene glycol (PEG), or hydrophobic emulsifying bases such as witepsol H15 (WH15). Interestingly, Atenolol showed high release rates from both bases (about 100% at 4 hours) due to its low partition coefficients and high hydrophilic properties. Sustained release (SR) suppositories are promising when oral route is inaccessible. SR suppositories were formulated in this study using different strategies. The first was to use HPMC as viscosity modifier and bioadhesive agent. The second one was to use nonionic surfactant span 60 (Sp 60) with or without cholesterol (CH) in combination with the base. Results showed that the PEG/Sp 60 bases formed niosomal vesicles upon hydration with water. On the other hand, the WH15/Sp 60 gave rise to emulsions when melted in phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Both types of new SR suppositories showed slow release rates for Atenolol when no CH added. Addition of CH to either WH15 or PEG bases resulted in increased Atenolol release rates. On the other hand, suppositories containing WH15/20%HPMC and PEG/30%HPMC also possess slow-release effect. W H15, W H15/ 20% HPMC, W H15/ Sp 60:CH(1:0), PEG, PEG/ 30% HPMC, and PEG/ Sp 60:CH (1:1) containing Atenolol in a dose of 20 mg/kg were selected to examine the in vivo antihypertensive effects of the drug via rectal administration into hypertensive rats and compare the results with that obtained from oral solution of the drug in distilled water (20mg/kg). Atenolol by the rectal route of administration has decreased the mean arterial blood pressure more readily when compared to the oral route in the first 2 hours after administration. The arterial blood pressure lowering was diminished in six hours with oral or fast release suppository bases (PEG or WH15) where it was lowered slowly along six hours for the sustained release formulations and persists at normal levels throughout the six hours.

[Eman G., Mahmoud Mokhtar, Hanaa El Ghamry, and Fakhr Ghazy. Sustained Release Rectal Suppositories as Drug Delivery Systems for Atenolol. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):323-332]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 46

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.46

 

Key words: Atenolol – Proniosomes, Span 60 – Suppositories – Antihypertensive.

Full Text

46

47

Facebook Impact on Users Social Life

 

Sahem Nawafleh 1, Osama Harfoush2, Samaher Fakhouri3, Ruba Obiedat2, Osama Rababah2

 

1 Management Information System, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan

2 Department of Business Information Technology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

3 Camp Services Officer, UNRWA

SNawafleh@uop.edu.jo

 

Abstract: This study examines if Facebook has a negative impact on its users’ social lives. The research study tests if Facebook causes addiction to using it, anti- socializing and/or declining in academic or career performances on its users. Data collected from a random population sample (n=177) reveals that both males and females (in the study) spending several hours every day using Facebook, However, the study finds that Facebook has no significant impact on users academic or career performance.

 [Sahem Nawafleh, Osama Harfoush, Samaher Fakhouri, Ruba Obiedat, Osama Rababah. Facebook Impact on Users Social Life.. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):333-339]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 47

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.47

 

Key-Words: Social Network, facebook, Anti-Socializing, Electronic Commerce, Quantitative

Full Text

47

48

[J Am Sci 2012;8(12):340-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 48

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.48

Withdrawn

Full Text

48

49

A Project for Constructing an Archaeological Map for Egypt across Space, Time, and Human Innovation

 

Shadia A. M. Saad1 and A. M.Sabry2

 

1Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt

2Geophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Dr_shadiasaad@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Archaeologists are fond and even serious about locating the positions of ancient civilizations through the knowledge of positions of the remains as indications of them. They also intend to estimate the length of stay before their culture has been destroyed. These two items are the chief goal of the people working in the field of archaeology. Geophysics successfully answers thoroughly and successfully these two enquiries. A survey has been made on several cites and provinces in Egypt which includes at least third of the world monuments. On a visit to Patra in Jordan, the guides accompanying one of the authors during the field training of students from Kuwait University was speaking proudly of what was showing us in Patra. Then the answer was: If you have here such civilization and m monuments in form of Patra, we have in Egypt Cleopatra, by which he meant 1000 times as he has had there or even more. In this work in addition to locating cites and dates of remains and ruins that have been present in the past, there has been a summary of the purposes for such huge amount of these remains in Egypt; the reader will be convinced by them.

[Shadia A. M. Saad and A. M.Sabry. A Project for Constructing an Archaeological Map for Egypt across Space, Time, and Human Innovation. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):353-357] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 49

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.49

 

Key words: Archaeomagnetic, Archaeological sites.

Full Text

49

50

A Meta-Analysis of the Causes of Suicide in Iran

 

Zeinab Mihandoost

 

Department of Elementary Education, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, ILAM, IRAN

 E-mail: xozns2006@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Psychological problems suicide rates are highest among young people in Iran. Research on young suicide prevention needs further attention. I conducted a meta-analysis to examine the outcomes of suicidal persons in Iran. Searches through various electronic databases yielded four studies with descriptive and empirical evaluations of suicide- prevention or intervention programs designed specifically for people 15 years and older. Most studies illustrate that psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, stress, and hopelessness are most related to suicide and attempted suicide in Iran. Also one study in Iran showed that the most effective treatment approaches screen for risk factors such as depression and help to decrease isolation. People who attempt suicide must use treatment programs. Such programs improve psychological health among the suicidal and create positive approached toward life.

[Zeinab Mihandoost. A Meta-Analysis of the Causes of Suicide in Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):358-363]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 50

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.50

 

Keywords: suicide, Iran, treatment, mood disorder, depression, psychological problem, disorder

Full Text

50

51

Cervicovaginal Infection during Pregnancy and Its Relation to Preterm Pre-Labour Rupture Of Membranes

 

Tarek Khalaf Al-Hussain1, Sahar Nagieb Mohamed2, Hamida Alam El- dien2 and Amal Abd Elaziz Ahmed2

 

1Obstetrics and Gynecology Medicine, Assiut Faculty of Medicine, Egypt

2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, Assiut Faculty of Nursing, Egypt

 

Abstract: Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) is the rupture of membranes during pregnancy before 37 weeks of gestation. This study aimed to determine the aerobic microorganisms related to preterm pre-labor rupture of membranes. This retrospective case-control study was carried out at the labor ward of the women's Health Center in Assiut. It included 250 pregnant women with pPROM (cases) and 250 no pPROM (controls). Data were collected using structured interview and physical assessment sheets. The results revealed that more study group women reported carrying heavy objects (p=0.04), using daily transportation (p =0.006), and total physical activity (p =0.04), more history of PROM (p <0.001), complaints (p <0.001), and sexual intercourse during third trimester (p =0.03). They had more vaginal discharge with red-brownish color (p <0.001), offensive odor (p =0.02), and pH>7 (p <0.001). Positive culture was higher in the study group (39.6%), compared to control group (29.2%), p =0.01, with more staphylococci (p =0.004). No statistically significant relations could be detected between culture and women's socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, current pregnancy problems, characteristics of membrane rupture and vaginal discharge among women in the study group. In the control group, more women with positive culture had a crowding index 2+ (p=0.04), and had yellowish-greenish discharge (p =0.001), with offensive odor (p <0.001). It is concluded that the risk factors of pPROM include woman’s job status, residence, level of activity, previous history of PROM, having complaints during pregnancy, and having sexual intercourse during the third trimester. There is an association between the presence of inflammatory vaginal discharge and pPROM, with higher probability of positive culture. It is recommended that the management of pPROM include a cervical swab with culture sensitivity. The management protocol should be improved, and strictly followed, with training of health care providers in following it. Further research is proposed to investigate the effectiveness of nursing interventions aimed at reducing the risk factors of pPROM on its occurrence.

[Tarek Khalaf Al-Hussain, Sahar Nagieb Mohamed, Hamida Alam El- dien and Amal Abd Elaziz Ahmed. Cervicovaginal Infection during Pregnancy and Its Relation to Preterm Pre-Labour Rupture Of Membranes. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):364-373]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 51

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.51

 

Keywords: pPROM, culture, vaginal discharge.

Full Text

51

52

The Effectiveness of Adjunctive Systemic Antibiotics to Non Surgical Therapy in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

 

Riham Omar Ibrahim1 and Olfat Shaker2

 

1Department of Oral Medicine, Periodontology and Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

riham_omar2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of moxifloxacin (MOX) and combined amoxicillin and metronidazole (AMX+ MET) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) and to compare it to conventional mechanical periodontal treatment alone in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis by means of a species-specific sequences of DNA. Methods: Clinical parameters and subgingival bacterial plaque sample were collected from forty two subjects divided into three groups. Scaling and root planning (SRP) group, SRP with amoxicillin plus metronidazole and third group SRP with moxifloxacin. Data obtained before initial therapy, at 3 and 6 months after completion of therapy for evaluation of four different periodontopathogenic species using the quantitative PCR technique. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the three treatment modalities resulted in significant reduction in PI, GI, PD, and the CAL over time although there was no significant difference between groups at different follow up periods. There was statistically significant strong positive correlation between clinical parameters and bacterial count. Conclusion: This study confirms the efficiency of non surgical periodontal treatment to achieve reduction of the periodontal pockets and to ensure proper conditions for effective plaque control and stable levels of the periodontal attachment. Antibiotic prescribing should be the exception rather than the rule and only considered after conventional therapies have been unsuccessful.

[Riham Omar Ibrahim and Olfat Shaker. The Effectiveness of Adjunctive Systemic Antibiotics to Non Surgical Therapy in Chronic Periodontitis Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):374-383]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 52

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.52

 

Keywords: Non surgical therapy, antibiotics, amoxicillin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, PCR, bacteria.

Full Text

52

53

Evaluation of an Innovated Zirconia Surface Treatment Technique

 

RM Abd-El-Raouf1, MM AbuNawareg1, AD Puckett2, MF Abadir3 and NA Habib4

 

1. Assistant Lecturer, Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

2. Professor, Biomedical Material Science Department, University of Mississippi, Medical Centre, USA

3 Professor, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University

4. Professor, Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University

rashaabdelraouf1@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To introduce a new surface treatment of pre-sintered zirconia silica coating to modify zirconia surface and to evaluate its effect on certain properties. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 pre-sintered zirconia specimens were prepared and divided into three groups: (1) Control (C) (2) Treated before sintering by an innovated silica containing gel (PCT/EG2011/000014) (T) (3) Airborne particle abrasion after sintering (A). Specimens’ surfaces were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyzed with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA). Crystalline structures were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The specimens were tested mechanically for biaxial flexural strength and indentation fracture toughness. Results: Pre-sintered zirconia showed a porous structure which was obviously reduced after sintering in group C. Presence of glassy layer was evident in group T. Group A showed surface scratches. Both groups T and A showed higher surface roughness values compared to group C. Elemental analyses of group C and A were found to be mainly zirconia. Other elements were evident in group T. Silica powder used in group T showed an amorphous structure before sintering transferred to cristobalite after sintering, in addition to tetragonal zirconia. After abrasion, monoclinic peaks appeared in group A. Group T showed highest flexural strength, while group A showed highest fracture toughness. Conclusions: Pre-sintered zirconia silica coating is an easy effective technique for modifying zirconia surface without negatively affecting the strength.

[RM Abd-El-Raouf, MM AbuNawareg, AD Puckett, MF Abadir and NA Habib. Evaluation of an Innovated Zirconia Surface Treatment Technique. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):384-390]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 53

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.53

 

Keywords: Zirconia, Surface treatment, Resin cement, Bond Strength.

Full Text

53

54

Aspen Plus Preliminary Simulation of Nanofluids

 

Eman Abdel-Hakim Tora*

 

Department of Chemical Engineering and Pilot Plant, National Research Centre, El Dokki, Cairo12311, Egypt. emantora@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A rising trend exists towards using nanofluids as heat transfer agent in process engineering. Hence there is a consequent justified need for process simulation softwares capable of treating nanofluids and recognizing their enhanced thermal properties and the resulting impact on the whole simulated process. Thus, this paper examines the capacity of one of the most known process simulation softwares, Aspen plus, to simulate nanofluids. Preliminary investigation indicates that process simulation software could have solid particles within default range down to microns- not nanoparticles, thus simulation of nanofluids potentially may give misleading results in terms of process energy consumption. This shortage can be omitted by the proposed approach, which paves the way for nanofluids broad applications in industrial plants to be examined easily and shortly via process simulation software packages. A two - step approach is proposed to introduce nanofluids and their altered thermophysical properties and consequent heat duty change into process simulation software: a proper mathematical model is chosen, and then introduced into Aspen plus Calculator block as FORTRAN code. A simulation example of a heat exchanger heats Water-Al2O3 nanofluid over a range of nanoparticles volumetric concentration via the proposed approach is executed. Simulation results prove the applicability and validity of the approach whereby the enhanced thermophysical properties and the energy conservation due to employing nanofluids have been recognized by the simulation software.

[Tora, EA. Aspen plus Preliminary Simulation of Nanofluids. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):391-397]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 54

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.54

 

Keywords: Nanofluids; process simulation; Aspen plus; heat transfer

Full Text

54

55

The Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Egypt

 

Abeer Abdou Barakat1 and Soad Mohamed El Sayed2

 

1Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

2International Public Health Consultant, MOH, Egypt

drabeer345@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Egypt still faces several challenges in maintaining low prevalence of HIV. Some take the view that HIV/AIDS has had little impact on the macro-economy so far. However, projections estimate that prevalence rates in Egypt in the year 2015 (3.8 - 16.1%) would cause GDP losses that approximate 44 percent of today's GDP. This cross sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to identify socio-demographic characteristics & economic impact of HIV/AIDS. In-depth interviews were conducted with cases (25% of the AIDS population in Egypt), their families and National AIDS Program managers and policy makers. Desk review was carried out for gathering data from available documents. Current output loss due to AIDS deaths and treatment cost were estimated from the perspective of the patient. Results revealed that about 69% were males, 15% were illiterate and 51% were urban residents. Of female respondents 12.4% were widowed. Only 50% of all study participants were working. About LE50-60 Million is spent every year to cover preventive and curative services adopted by the MOHP/NACP. Of all AIDS cases 400 cases need treatment. The average medication cost is about LE3000 per case per month. Paying for the medication other than ARV was out of pocket in 100% of Upper Egypt, rural and female respondents. Average monthly cost of medications was LE 681.7+2112.7. Regarding macroeconomic impact potential output losses in 2006 was %0.000031. It is concluded that delaying action towards HIV will have unpredictable costs. Reducing risks in those population groups most likely to contract and spread HIV can be highly cost-effective.

[Abeer Abdou Barakat and Soad Mohamed El Sayed. The Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):398-404]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 55

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.55

 

Key words: Socio-demographic, economic, cost, GDP, HIV/AIDS, Egypt.

Full Text

55

56

Effect of Egyptian Bread Prepared by Different Types of Flour on Diabetic Rats and Its Glycemic Index in Diabetic Patients

 

Hany H. Mohammad and Hanaa F. El-Mehiry

 

Home Economics dept., Faculty of Specific Education, Zagazig University.Egypt

Home Economics dept., Faculty of Specific Education, El- Mansoura University. Egypt.

 

Abstract: The blood glucose response to a food is not accurately predicted by the content of available carbohydrate in the food. Also Glycemic index (GI) is a useful index to describe the extent to which certain food can increase the blood glucose in human. The present study was carried out to estimate the effect of Egyptian bread prepared by different types of flour on diabetic rats and it’s glycemic index in diabetic patients. Seven different types of bread were examined which prepared by different mixture of flours (wheat, corn and rice). A total of 45 male healthy rats, weighing between (140-150gm) were divided into 9 groups.all rats were subcutaneous injected by alloxan as 150 mg/kg body weight rats to induce hyperglycemic except rats of negative control. The negative control and positive control groups (1 and 2) fed on basal diet without treatment, all diabetic treated groups (1- 9) fed on basal diet containing deferent type of bread as a source of carbohydrates. Then samples were collected to examine serum glucose and lipids profile. In addition the present human study was conducted among 50 diabetic out patients attending Six October Hospital was assessed by measured height, weight, age, body mass index, as well as blood analysis of glucose by One Touch USA.For all patients Blood glucose were estimated as fasting and after 2 hours from eating 50 g carbohydrates of different types of bread, and also blood glucose were estimated as fasting and after 2 hours from eating 50 g of glucose, to calculate glycemic index. The observed results revealed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in serum glucose and lipids profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and VLDL-c) and also significant (p≤0.05) increase in HDL-c were observed for all diabetic groups fed on diets containing different types of bread comparing with diabetic rats fed on basal diet (control positive). The best results were found in group which fed on bread (whole wheat + whole corn + white rice flour 1:1:1), followed by group which fed on bread (whole wheat flour 100%). Moreover, the lowest values of glycaemic index (61 ± 7.00) were showed for bread (whole wheat + whole corn + white rice flour 1:1:1) followed by groups which fed on bread (whole wheat + white rice flour 1:1) and (whole wheat flour 100%) (63 ± 6.00) and (64 ± 7.00) in diabetic II respectively.In conclusion, using of breads had low-GI carbohydrates would be beneficial to patients with type 2 diabetes.

 [Hany H. Mohammad and Hanaa F. El-Mehiry. Effect of Egyptian Bread Prepared by Different Types of Flour on Diabetic Rats and Its Glycemic Index in Diabetic Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):405-413]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 56

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.56

 

Keywords: Egyptian; Bread; Flour; Diabetic Rat; Glycemic Index; Patient

Full Text

56

57

Diagnostic Utility of Revised Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) for Discrimination of Types of Dementia and its Applicability in Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD)

 

1Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed; 2Zakaria M. Ahmed, 2Emad Fawzy Abdel-Moneim 3Osama A. Mohamed Abdel-Salam and 4Hiame Fathy El Saied

 

1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, New Domiatta-Al-Azhar University

2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the discriminative ability of Mini Mental State Examination; (MMSE), Clock-drawing test (CDT) and revised Addenbrooke' cognitive examination (ACE-R) for differentiation of demented patients from controls and between types of dementia.Patients & Methods: The study included 160 patients; 113 males and 47 females with mean age of 65.2±7.2 years. Patients were diagnosed as regards type and severity of dementia using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale and were assessed as regards demographic and social variables. The study also included 40 age-matched controls, all patients and controls completed MMSE, CDT and ACE-R scoring systems.Results: Mean total and differential ACE-R scoring of dementia patients were significantly lower compared to controls. Alzheimer dementia (AD) patients showed significantly lower scores compared to other dementia patients. Vascular dementia (VD) patients had significantly lower total score compared to patients had Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia with significantly lower total scores in PDD patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis defined ACE-R as the significant discriminative scoring system between types of dementia with high screening ability for AD and VD with area under curve (AUC)=0.085 and 0.288, respectively and showed high diagnostic ability for PDD with AUC=0.711. ROC curve analysis defined ACE-R score in range of 61-63 to give the highest diagnostic yield with sensitivity and specificity rates of 90.2% and 62.2%, respectively with accuracy rate for the diagnosis of 65% for the three points. Conclusion: ACE-R is a valid and reliable screening modality for dementia and could significantly identify patients had PDD with sensitivity and specificity for the cutoff score range of 61-63 points. Moreover, ACE-R is easy to administer without need for difficult maneuvers and could be used as a screening test for other types of dementia with high sensitivity.

[Mohamed Abdel-Moneim Mohamed; Zakaria M. Ahmed, Emad Fawzy Abdel-Moneim Osama A. Mohamed Abdel-Salam and Hiame Fathy El Saied. Diagnostic Utility of Revised Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) for Discrimination of Types of Dementia and its Applicability in Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD). J Am Sci 2012;8(12):414-421]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 57

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.57

 

Keywords: Dementia, Addenbrooke' cognitive examination- revised, Mini Mental State Examination score, Clock-drawing test.

Full Text

57

58

Subclinical Atherosclerosis in COPD Smokers: An Egyptian Randomized Controlled study

 

Mohamed Husein1;Tawfik El-Adl2; Reda Baiyumy3; Mohamed Abdulshafy3; Hisham Farouk4 and Mostafa Neamatallh5

 

Chest Diseases1, Internal Medicine2, Cardiology3 and Radiology4 Departments, Benha School of Medicine, Benha University, Benha; Medical Biochemistry Department5, Mansoura School of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura; Egypt. tawfik61@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Although a close association between COPD and atherosclerosis has been speculated, such scientific information is limited. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis in smokers with COPD. Subjects and Methods: This prospective randomized controlled study was carried out on 90 consecutive Egyptians; at Chest and Internal Medicine Departments of Benha University Hospitals, Benha, Egypt. All patients were consented. Study population was randomized into three groups, each comprized 30 patients. Group one included 30 smokers with COPD. Group two included 30 healthy smokers without lung function abnormalities and Group three included 30 healthy volunteers who never smoked before and with normal lung functions(control group). Subjects with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, acute infections, IHD, and respiratory diseases other than COPD were excluded beforehand. Complete medical history, full clinical and radiological examination, complete blood picture, liver function tests, renal function tests, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, body mass index(BMI), C-reactive protein, ventilatory pulmonary function tests and carotid ultrasonography were done to all subjects enrolled in the study. We determined Carotid intima- media thickness (IMT) and focal atheromatous plaques as an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. Results: Our findings demonstrated that mean carotid intima-media thickness was greater in smokers with COPD than normal smokers group and control never smoke group. Also, focal carotid plaques were significantly more prevalent in COPD smokers group than normal smokers and control never smoke groups. Multivariate analysis showed significant association between thickened carotid intima media and decreased percent of predicted FEV1 (P=0.001) and between plaques and Log C- reactive protein levels (P=0.013) independent of patient's age, number of smoked packs/ year, body mass index, peripheral mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose, and low density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, our observations revealed that, COPD smokers had exaggerated subclinical atherosclerosis. This study suggests that middle aged men who are susceptible to COPD may also, be susceptible to vascular atherosclerosis by smoking, and atherosclerosis changes starts early in the disease process of COPD. Recommendations: We recommend more research studies on larger scale at different ages and in both sexes to understand the mechanism of atherosclerosis in COPD smokers and to identify an optimal treatment.

 [Mohamed Husein; Tawfik El Adl; Reda Baiyumy; Mohamed Abdulshafy; Hisham Farouk; Mostafa Neamatallh. Subclinical Atherosclerosis in COPD Smokers: An Egyptian Randomized Controlled study. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):422-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 58

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.58

 

Key words: Smoking, atherosclerosis, COPD, carotid

Full Text

58

59

The Impact of Workplace Spirituality on Public Service Motivation

 

Reyhane Mosalanejad, Raha Farhadi, Zahra Beigi

 

Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R.Iran

 

Abstract: The current research examines the relationship between organizational spirituality and public service motivation in Agriculture Organization of Fars province. Based on the research results, there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational spirituality and public service motivation. So, in order to enhance the performance of employees and having them motivated for servicing the people, its spirituality ought to be increased by the managers.

[Reyhane Mosalanejad, Raha Farhadi, Zahra Beigi. The Impact of Workplace Spirituality on Public Service Motivation. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):430-432]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 59

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.59

 

Keywords: Public Service Motivation, Spirituality, Ethics

Full Text

59

60

Applicability of Serum Interleukin-6 as a Screening Tool for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

 

1Hatem S. Elhabashy MD, 2Adel F. Al-Kholy MD, 3Ibraheim Rageh MD & 4Mohamed Abdel Hamid MD

 

1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University

2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

3Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University

4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute, Tanta University

adeladel59@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the applicability of estimated serum IL-6 as a screening marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients & Methods: The study included 30 patients with biopsy confirmed NPC and 10 healthy volunteers as control group for serum IL-6. Patients were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination with respect to nasopharyngeal region, nasopharyngoscopy and CT and/or MRI. Patients were clinically categorized using TNM clinical staging according to the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and biopsy findings were graded according to The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of NPC. All patients were assigned to receive their appropriate chemo-radiotherapy and completed their follow-up through attending ENT outpatient clinic. Blood samples were collected from patients prior to and after completion of their chemo-radiotherapy course for quantitative estimation of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) DNA plasma load and estimation of serum IL-6. Results: Mean pre-treatment serum IL-6 was significantly higher than control group. Plasma viral load showed a positive significant correlation with clinical staging, but the correlation was non-significant with WHO pathological type of the lesion. Estimated serum IL-6 levels showed positive significant correlation with plasma viral load, TNM clinical staging and WHO pathological type of the lesion. Estimated pre-treatment serum IL-6 levels showed high sensitivity for detection of early cases of NPC, while both parameters showed high specificity for determination of high WHO pathological grade. Treatment induced significant decrease of both serum IL-6 level and plasma viral load compared to pretreatment level, however post-treatment mean serum level of IL-6 was still significantly higher compared to pre-treatment level. Conclusion: Estimation of serum IL-6 could be used as a screening test for suspicious population especially wherein NPC was non-endemic for its high sensitivity and could be coupled with estimation of EBV DNA plasma load wherever available for proper diagnosis

[Hatem S. Elhabashy, Adel F. Al-Kholy, Ibraheim Rageh and Mohamed Abdel Hamid. Applicability of Serum Interleukin-6 as a Screening Tool for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):433-439]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 60

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.60

 

Key wards: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Interleukin-6, Epstein-Barr virus, quantitative PCR

Full Text

60

61

Population of Adults of the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Date Palm Farms in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

 

1Saleh, M. M. E; 1Abdel- Monim, A.S. H. and 1,2El-Kholy, M. Y.

 

1Department of Pests and Plant Protection, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

2Current address: Department of Biology, College of Science, Al-Jouf University, sakaka, Al-Jouf, Saudi Arabia Kingdom

melkholy2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This is a continuous study started 2009. However, in the part of this year the natural population of the adult stage of the red palm weevil, (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus was studied in date palm farms without interrupting or stress unusual factors like control treatments and or determining cultural practices e.g. pruning or off-shooting. The study took place in two sites (Wadielmollak and Kassaseen) 40 km apart from each other in Ismailia governorate, Egypt. The study lasted 31 weeks from the 2nd week of October 2009 until the 3rd week of May 2010. The weekly population of RPW adults in Wadielmollak site ranged from 0.75 to 12.25 weevils/trap. The maximum population was recorded in mid October, while the minimum population was recorded in mid December, 2009. Two peaks of population abundance were noticed, the first was during October (9- 12.25 weevils/trap), while the second was during April and May (7.75- 9.75 weevils/trap). The RPW population was remarkably low during the period from mid December to mid February (0.75 – 2.75 weevils/trap). Total number of trapped weevil from Wadielmollak reached 732 weevils. Mean number of captured weevils throughout the season was 5.9 weevils/ trap/ week. Similar population trend of adults of the RPW was recorded in date palm farms in Kassaseen site during 2009-2010 season. Weekly population throughout the season ranged 1.5-10 weevils/trap. The maximum was recorded in late October, while the minimum was recorded in early February. Two peaks of population abundance were monitored; The first during October (8-10 weevils/trap) and the second during the last week of April to mid May (3.38-4.75 weevils/trap). Total trapped reached 806 weevils throughout the season.

[Saleh, M. M. E; Abdel- Monim, A.S.H. and El-Kholy, M.Y. Population of adults of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in date palm farms in Ismailia governorate, Egypt. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):440-443]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 61

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.61

 

Keywords: red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus, ferrugineus, Coleoptera, Curculionidae.

Full Text

61

62

The Distribution and Determinants of Pityriasis Alba among Elementary School Students in Ismailia City

 

Wesam SR Elshafey1; Lamiaa A Fiala2; Roshdi W Mohamed3; and Nader A Ismael3

 

Dermatology Hospital, Damietta1, Community Medicine Dept.2, Dermatology and Andrology Dept.3, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University

lamiaafiala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Pityriasis alba (PA) is a localized hypopigmented disorder of childhood with many existing clinical variants. It is more often detected in individuals with a darker complexion but may occur in individuals of all skin types. Atopy, xerosis, and mineral deficiencies are potential risk factors. Sun exposure exacerbates the contrast between normal and lesional skin, making lesions more visible and patients more likely to seek medical attention. Poor cutaneous hydration appears to be a common theme for most risk factors and may help elucidate the pathogenesis of this disorder. The end result of this mechanism is inappropriate melanosis manifesting as hypopigmentation. Aim: to determine the prevalence of pityriasis alba among elementary school children in Ismailia City and to determine its possible predisposing factors. Methods: a clinical survey was carried out on 1697 students in three elementary schools selected randomly in Ismailia city. Data was collected through sociodemographic and risk factors history; clinical examination of all children, and stool and blood examination for patients. Results: of the 56 PA patients, 10 (18%) had a previous history of atopic dermatitis and 9 (16%) had a solitary lesion. Histopathological study revealed markedly reduced pigment in the epidermis of lesional skin, but no significant difference in melanocyte count was found between lesional and normal skin. Ultrastructurally, degenerative changes in melanocytes and a reduced number of melanosomes within keratinocytes were seen.Conclusion: alleviation of the various risk factors via patient education on proper skin care and hygiene, use of lubricants and emollients, topical corticosteroid therapy in the presence of inflammation, and the novel administration of topical anti-inflammatory drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors can play a crucial role in promoting remission or resolution.

 [Wesam SR Elshafey; Lamiaa A Fiala; Roshdi W Mohamed and Nader A Ismael. The Distribution and Determinants of Pityriasis Alba among Elementary School Students in Ismailia City. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):444-449]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 62

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.62

 

Keywords: ptyriasis alba, risk factors, school health

Full Text

62

63

Effect of Nursing Rehabilitation Program on knee function and functional status among patients after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction at El-Manial University Hospital

 

Hanan Hassan El-Kafafy and Shaimaa M. El-Hadary

 

Medical- Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Egypt

Shaimaa66@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a serious injury often resulting in hospital admission for surgery. Rehabilitation is a major factor in the success of such surgery. The rehabilitation is very important and has a significant impact on the outcome of the knee and the patient’s ability to perform everyday tasks. Rehabilitation nurses are challenged to rehabilitate individuals who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction to ensure optimal outcomes. Therefore, the aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of nursing rehabilitation program on knee function as indicated by knee function scores, and level of independency in performing activities of daily living as indicated by functional status scores after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction. To fulfill this aim the following research hypotheses were formulated: H1) - Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction that will be exposed to nursing rehabilitation program will have higher knee function scores than patients who will receive the routine nursing care only. H2) -Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction that will be exposed to nursing rehabilitation program will have higher functional status scores than patients who will receive the routine nursing care only. A single-blinded randomized experimental design was used in this study. A convenience sample of 60 adult male and female patients was randomly divided into two equal and matched groups (control & study). Three tools were utilized for data collections; 1) Socio-demographic and biomedical data sheet, 2) Knee function questionnaire 3) Functional status assessment sheet. The study results revealed that knee function and functional status were significantly high among the study group as compared to the control group subjects with the following p values (0.000 & 0.001, respectively). In conclusion nursing rehabilitation program seemed to have a positive impact on ACL reconstruction patients' knee function and functional status. Therefore, replication of this study on a larger probability sample would be of great beneficence to patients and health professionals.

 [Hanan Hassan El-Kafafy and Shaimaa M. El-Hadary. Effect of Nursing Rehabilitation Program on knee function and functional status among patients After Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction at El-Manial University Hospital. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):450-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 63

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.63

 

Key words: Anterior Cruciate Ligament, rehabilitation program, functional status.

Full Text

63

64

The Attitudes of Allied Medical Professional Members Towards People With Disabilities in Taif, KSA.

 

Ali H.S. Al-Zahrani

 

Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Applied Sciences, Taif University, Taif, KSA

 

Abstract: Negative attitudes of health care professionals towards persons with disability are considered to be an invisible barrier to rehabilitation and integration. In contrast, positive attitudes are a key to successful integration. The attitudes of health care professionals towards people with disability have been studied worldwide. It is believed that cultural values, traditional beliefs, educational environment and religion are factors affecting attitudes towards disabilities. This may indicate that each community should study its own attitudes towards people with disability, separately. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of health care professionals towards people with physical disabilities in KSA. Attitudes of a sample of 150 health care professionals in Saudi governmental hospitals will be investigated using a Scale of Attitudes Towards Disabled Persons (ATDS). All participants worked with various types of disabilities including the physically disabled showed a positive attitude toward disability, but physical therapist show a high attitude toward disability in comparison to nursing and laboratory profession.

[Ali H.S. Al-Zahrani. The Attitudes of Allied Medical Professional Members Towards People With Disabilities in Taif, KSA J Am Sci 2012;8(12):459-462].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 64

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.64

 

Keywords: Attitudes-Disabilities-Medical professional members.

Full Text

64

65

The Effect of Text-book Dialogue Memorization on Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Knowledge

 

Nosrat Ranjbar (Corresponding author)1, Arshya Keivanfar2

 

1.Payam-e-Noor University, Abdanan Unit, Ilam, Iran

2.The Faculty of Foreign Languages, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

Nosratranjbar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study attempted to investigate the effects of text-book dialogue memorization on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge. To achieve this purpose, Nelson’s proficiency test (1970) was administered to a population of forty female students of guidance school third grade classes of Mourmouri city who participated in the present research. Then, the sample was randomly divided into two groups of control and experimental groups, based on their proficiency test scores. Both experimental and control groups worked on the same text- book content. Students were exposed to text- book dialogues and they were forced to memorize them. Also, the investigator used pre- test and post- test for testing her hypothesis. The experimental group subjects were instructed on the special method of memorizing the dialogues and their vocabularies and noticed the functional patterns which were embedded in them in order to use them communicatively. However, the control group received placebo treatment during the course. The treatment took eight weeks. The results of the post-test showed that the dialogues memorization proved beneficial on improving the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian guidance school students. The researcher selected this problem to investigate and prove the effectiveness of dialogues memorization on vocabulary slope. There were some reasons to make it clear that why the researcher chose dialogues. First, dialogues included grammatical points and the way to use them in different types of question, statement, and so forth. Second, they were presented in real life situations, like, (watching TV) which are interesting. Third, they embraced the new words which students might not have been heard them, yet. Finally, memorization was an effective way for better recalling and retaining words, specially, when they were presented in context like dialogues which were samples of real life situation. The present study presents some pedagogical implications for both teachers and students of Iranian guidance school. The dialogue memorization and its impact on vocabulary knowledge was useful in the speaking skill and its domain and also it was beneficial on improving comprehension ability of students and by memorizing more dialogues and vocabularies they can communicate easily.

[Nosrat Ranjbar, Arshya Keivanfar. The Effect of Text-book Dialogue Memorization on Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Knowledge J Am Sci 2012;8(12):463-468]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 65

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.65

 

Key words: Dialogue, and Vocabulary

Full Text

65

66

Quality Ambulatory Oncology Nursing Practice For Chemotherapeutic patients

 

Maha Eid. Shokier1, Fouda M. Shaban1, Samar H. Gadiry1, Ibrahim A. Seif Eldin2

 

1Nursing Services Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Tanta University.

2Cancer Surgery Department & Chief Director of Tanta Cancer Institute, Tanta University, Faculty of Medicine.

dr_samar29@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Ambulatory health care services have been described as the main stay of cancer care. As the need for ambulatory services continues to escalate, so will the demands on the oncology nurse. The scope of ambulatory oncology nurses responsibilities is to provide an appropriate level of cancer care to meet the need of patients for safe, effective care that also is cost efficient. The aim of the study were to quality improve ambulatory oncology nursing staff knowledge, clinical psychomotor skills and practice activities for dealing with ambulatory oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. The study was conducted at Ambulatory Oncology Department of Tanta Cancer Institute affiliated to Ministry of Health, Gharbia Governorate. Sample included all available (44) nurses and (50) ambulatory oncology patients. The collection of data was achieved by ambulatory oncology nursing checklist, knowledge test, patient education need assessment sheet and development of an education program about ambulatory oncology nursing knowledge and practice activities for dealing with oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study results revealed that a statistical significant improvement found for the knowledge and practice of studied nurses immediate post and three months post program than pre-program. The study recommended that; it is important to conduct in-service training program for ambulatory oncology nurses for dealing with oncology patient undergoing chemotherapy, periodical evaluation and making feedback and enforcement of knowledge and practice.

[Maha Eid. Shokier, Fouda M. Shaban, Samar H. Gadiry and Ibrahim A. Seif Eldin. Quality Ambulatory Oncology Nursing Practice For Chemotherapeutic patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):469-482]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 66

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.66

 

Key word: Quality Ambulatory; Oncology; Nursing Practice; Chemotherapeutic; patient

Full Text

66

67

A Hybrid Fuzzy Robust control for Piezoelectric actuators

 

Mostafa Abdelaziz, Magdy M. Abdelhameed, Farid A. Tolbah

 

Mechatronics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

mostafaghoz@hotmail.com, magdyma@gmx.com

 

Abstract: Piezoelectric actuators are used in a wide variety of precise Nano-positioning applications. Due to the effect of the nonlinear hysteresis, the positioning accuracy of the Piezoelectric actuators is limited. Hence, developing a high precise control scheme is considered a great challenge. It is desirable to take the effect of nonlinear hysteresis into consideration for enhancing the tracking positioning accuracy of the piezoelectric actuators. In this paper Robust µ-Synthesis and Hybrid Fuzzy Robust control schemes have been developed for a positioning system driven by Piezoelectric actuator. Simulation results show that the tracking error of both controllers was less than one nanometer. Moreover the Hybrid Fuzzy Robust Controller gives better tracking error than the Robust µ-Synthesis controller. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes has been validated.

[Mostafa Abdelaziz, Magdy M. Abdelhameed, Farid A. Tolbah. A Hybrid Fuzzy Robust control for Piezoelectric actuators. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):483-489]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 67

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.67

 

Keywords: Precision Positioning, Robust control, Fuzzy control, Hysteresis, Piezoelectric actuator.

Full Text

67

68

Silymarin Ameliorates Hepatotoxic Effect of Cisplatin: A Structural and Ultrastructural study of Adult Albino Rats

 

1Gamal Abdel Salam, 1Ahmed M. S. Hegazy, 1Ali M Ali and 2Ahmed H. Rizk

 

Departments of 1Anatomy and 2Forensic & Applied Toxicology*, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Objectives: To determine structural and ultrastructural changes in adult rat liver induced by cisplatin (Cis) and to evaluate the impact of drug withdrawal and the effect of silymarin on cisplatin heptotoxicity. Material & Methods: Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Control group kept on normal diet without medications, Positive control (Cis-1) group received cisplatin every other day for 10 injections, Withdrawal (Cis-2) group received cisplatin every other day for 10 injections followed by drug withdrawal for 4 weeks from the last injection and Study (Cis-3) group received cisplatin every other day for 10 injections plus a daily oral dose of silymarin. Cisplatin was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 1mg/kg but silymarin was given orally in a dose of 16 mg/kg dissolved in 2 ml distilled water and given orally by gastric tube. Both control and study groups were sacrificed, liver specimen were obtained and prepared for light (L/M) and electron (E/M) microscopic examination. Results: L/M examination of Cis-1 specimens showed loss of normal hepatic architecture with diffuse cytoplasmic vacuolations of most hepatocytes, some hepatic nuclei are vacuolated and eccentric with areas of focal necrosis of hepatocytes, focal hemorrhage and small areas of degeneration among hepatocyte. Connective tissue is increased around the dilated central vein (CV) and portal tract (PT). PAS staining showed vacuolated hepatocytes with absence of glycogen granules. Cis-2 specimens showed restored hepatic cords with congested CV, connective tissue is increased around CV and extended to nearby blood sinusoids. Most hepatocytes have good positive PAS for glycogen granules. In Cis-3 specimens, few hepatocytes were vacuolated, PT appeared normal and hepatocyte cytoplasm showed good positive PAS reaction for glycogen granules. E/M examination of Cis-1 specimens showed marked intranuclear and intracytoplasmic vacuolations, decreased number of organelles and the nuclei of some hepatocytes are shrinked with irregular outlines. In Cis-2, hepatocytes’ architecture was normal with rounded nuclei and cytoplasm contains numerous intact mitochondria. Most hepatocytes contain few vacuoles; however some hepatocytes show many vacuoles. Cis-3 group showed normal hepatocytes with rounded nucleus and nucleolus, cytoplasm contains numerous organelles and numerous intact mitochondria. Conclusion: Oral administration of silymarin ameliorated the deleterious hepatic structural and ultrastructural toxic effects of cisplatin. Cytotoxic drug withdrawal allowed partial restoration of hepatic architecture so silymarin administration was recommended till complete hepatic convalescence to augment the effect of drug withdrawal.

[Gamal Abdel Salam, Ahmed M. S. Hegazy, Ali M Ali and Ahmed H. Rizk. Silymarin Ameliorates Hepatotoxic Effect of Cisplatin: A Structural and Ultrastructural study of Adult Albino Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):490-498]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 68

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.68

 

Keywords: Cisplatin, Silymarin, Hepatotoxicity, Drug withdrawal

Full Text

68

69

Chondrogenic differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal stem cells Induced by Synovial Fluid in Vitro.

 

Mahshid Meshkania*, Shirin Farivara, Shahram Aminalsharieh Najafib, Ali Esmailzadehc, Mehrnoush Meshkani c, Ghasem Kolabadib

 

a- Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological sciences, Shahid Beheshti Univesity, Tehran, Iran.

b-Department of Veterinary, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tabriz, Iran.

c- Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

meshkani_mahshid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into distinct mesenchymal tissues including cartilage, which suggest these cells as an attractive cell source for cartilage tissue engineering approaches. Our objective was to study the effects of synovial fluid on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs in monolayer and micromass cultures. The cells in passage 2 were induced into chondrogenic differentiation with different concentration of synovial fluid (0,100,150 and 200 μl/ml. Differentiation along the chondrogenic lineage was documented by Sox9 and type II collagen expression for 21 days. The expression of the identified genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. RT-PCR showed that synovial fluid could promote expression of Sox9 and collagen II mRNA in an dose-dependant manner, especially at the concentration of 150 and 200 μl/ml. In summary, synovial fluid induce chondrogenesis of human mesenchymalstem cells, which encourage tissue engineering applications of MSC in chondral defects, as the natural environment in the joint is favorable for chodrogenic differentiation.

[Mahshid Meshkani, Shirin Farivar, Shahram Aminalsharieh Najafi, Ali Esmailzadeh, Mehrnoush Meshkani, Ghasem Kolabadib. Chondrogenic differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal stem cells Induced by Synovial Fluid in Vitro. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):499-502]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 69

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.69

 

Key words: Human mesenchymal stem cells; synovial fluid; Chondrogenic differentiation; RT-PCR.

Full Text

69

70

Main elements of an effective Anti-Corruption Strategy

 

Ali H. Saryazdi

 

PHD candidate at the National Academy of Tajikistan

 

Abstract: Corruption is a complex social, political and economic phenomenon that affects all countries. Corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption has different forms and manifestations. Although they vary from country to country according to the level of economic development, and attitudes to it differ from one culture to another, corruption is fundamentally the same evil wherever it occurs. It has grown at an alarming rate in recent years. Although specific needs vary from country to country but any effective Anti-Corruption Strategy should at least include some of the main and effective elements such as “the Rule of law, Transparency, Accountability, Developing a culture against corruption, The role of the Judiciary, The role of the Legislatures, Integrity in Police and Customs, and Establishment of a Specialized anti-corruption agencies, amongst others. At the same time, especial attention should also be given to the international standards and norms (including United Nations’ relevant conventions) in fighting corruption

[Ali H. Saryazdi. Main elements of an effective Anti-Corruption Strategy. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):503-506]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 70

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.70

 

Keywords: Corruption; Anti-Corruption Strategy; the Rule of law

Full Text

70

71

Clinical Evaluation of Biochemical Marker and Mineral Nutritional Factor in Mandibular Implant Over-Denture Cases. 

 

Yaser M. Alkhiary

 

Department of of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

alkhiary@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Vitamin-D and calcium deficiencies are considered as a major clinical and global health problem and specifically dentistry when planning an implant therapy in extremely atrophied alveolar bone with poor quality in elderly patients. Ten female completely edentulous patients with atrophied edentulous mandible were asked to participate in the study. Each participant received two endosseous titanium implant in the mandibular symphysis area and a mandibular overdenture with Locator® attachments. Subjects were divided into two groups: Five subjects were given vitamin-D and calcium oral supplements (Study Group) and the other 5 subjects did not receive any supplements (Control Group). Analysis of bone marker; serum Calcium, Osteocalcin and Alkaline Phosphate and the level of Nitric Oxide (NO), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) were performed for each subject immediately before implant placement, after 1, 3 and 6 months of implant placement. There was a statistical significant decrease in the levels of MMP-8, NO and TNFα in the study group compared to the control group but there was a significant increase in the level of serum calcium, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphate in the study group compared to the controls. Vitamin-D and Calcium supplement administration could aid in the success of implant treatment. [Yaser M. Alkhiary. Clinical Evaluation of Biochemical Marker and Mineral Nutritional Factor in Mandibular Implant Over-Denture Cases. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 507-513]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 71

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.71

 

Keywords: Implant overdenture, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, vitamin –D and nutriyional factor and matrix metalloproteinase -8.

Full Text

71

72

Residue Depletion of Florfenicol from the Serum and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chicken

 

Samah Khalil1$; Eslam Hamed2 and Ola Hassanin3

 

1 Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 2 Department of Pharmacology, Central Laboratory,

3 Department of Avian and Rabbit Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. samah_vet2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Florfenicol (FFC) is a synthetic antibiotic with a broad antibacterial spectrum and therapeutic effectiveness. It was specifically developed for veterinary use, with proven value in the treatment of respiratory and enteric infections in food animals. It is active against many chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol-resistant strains. In the present study, serum and tissue residual levels of FFC and histopathological investigation after oral administration of 30 mg⁄kg bw and 60 mg/kg bw (5 consecutive days) to broiler chickens were studied. A high performance liquid chromatography method with photodiode array detector (PAD) at a wavelength of 223 nm for the detection of florfenicol was developed and validated. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and hexane followed by clean-up and chromatographic separation on hypersil gold (C18) column with acetonitrile: water as mobile phase. The residual analysis resulted that FFC concentrations in liver were higher than the concurrent serum and muscle concentrations. On 7th day, although the level of FFC was very low, but still detectable in the serum and muscle, on the other hand the concentration in liver declined but still high especially in 60 mg/kg bw treated group. FFC tissue and serum levels in 60mg/kg bw treated group was significantly increased compared with that of the 30 mg/kg bw treated group. liver FFC levels were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in both treated groups all over the studied time course, while muscle tissue FFC levels were higher than the MRLs at 3rd day post administration, then the level depleted to be below the MRLs at 5th day in the 30 mg/kg bw treated group and at 7th day in the 60 mg/kg bw treated group. The histopathological investigation showed microscopically alterations in liver tissue which appeared to be more serious in 60 mg/kg bw treated groups than that received the therapeutic dose (30 mg/kg bw). The current study concluded that it is necessary to ensure that the residues of FFC were less than the maximal residue limits to guarantee its safety to consumer.

[Samah Khalil; Eslam Hamed and Ola Hassanin. Residue Depletion of Florfenicol from the Serum and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chicken. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 514-524]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 72

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.72

 

Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); residues; florfenicol; withdrawal time.

Full Text

72

73

Mycobiota and Mycotoxins of Nuts and Some Dried Fruits from Saudi Arabia

 

Mohammed S. Alhussaini

 

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Saudi Arabia.

malhussaini@su.edu.sa

 

Abstract: Twelve samples of edible nuts and dried fruits purchased from markets in Mekka and Al-Dawadmy regions were mycologically analyzed. Using two types of solid media namely dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) and dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) it was possible to isolate 23 fungal species belonging to 12 genera. Common fungi included Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium citrinum. Other fungi such as A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. sydowii, Eurotium amstelodami, Paecilomyces variotii and Trichoderma harzianum were moderately encountered. Out of 40 strains of Aspergillus 16 (40%) were able to produce mycotoxins. Aflatoxins B1 and B2 were produced by 8 out of 20 A. flavus strains (100 – 600 µg/Liter of culture medium). These toxins in addition to Aflatoxins G1 and G2 were produced by one isolate of A. parasiticus (200 µg/L). Ochratoxin A was extracted from cultures of A. niger, A. barasiliensis, A. aculeatus and A. sclerotioniger (100-200 µg/L). Fortunately, no aflatoxins or ochratoxins were detected in chloroform extracts of nuts and other dried fruits.

[Mohammed S. Alhussaini. Mycobiota and Mycotoxins of Nuts and Some Dried Fruits from Saudi Arabia. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 525-534]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 73

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.73

 

Key words: Nuts, dried fruits, fungi, aflatoxins, Saudi Arabia

Full Text

73

74

Cardiac Troponin I in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

 

Khalid A. Sanousy1, Faisal-Alkhatib Ahmed1 and Osman M. Esam2

 

1Pediatrics Department, and 2Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

Khalids@aun.edu.eg

 

Abstract: Introduction: Dilated cardiomyopathy is one of the most common heart muscle diseases in developed countries. Troponins have emerged as the most reliable clinical measure of myocyte injury. Despite the widespread use of cardiac troponins as biomarkers for diagnosis and risk stratification, their condition in cardiomyopathy is not known. Patients and methods: The study was conducted on 20 children with dilated cardiomyopathy, attending the Cardiology Unit of Children Hospital in Assiut University, for recurring episodes of heart failure. Determination of serum level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was done on admition and discharge after relief of presenting symptoms. Results: Serum cTnI concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 ng/ml (0.12 ± 0.003) on admition and from 0.1 to 0.14 ng/ml (0.11 ± 0.004) on discharge, all are within the normal range, but there is a significant decrease in serum cTnI concentrations on remetion. Conclusion: Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) does not increase in dilated cardiomyopathy, however in patients having DCM who presented wtith hear failure (HF), assay of cTnI can be used for follow up of these patients. Further studies are needed to support this proposal.

[Khalid A. Sanousy, Faisal-Alkhatib Ahmed and Osman M. Esam. Cardiac Troponin I in Dilated Cardiomyopathy. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):535-540]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 74

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.74

 

Keywords: cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), hear failure (HF)

Full Text

74

75

Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Nystatin Nanoemulsion-Based Gel for Topical Delivery

 

Ghada H. Elosaily

 

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Gh_elosaily@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential of a nanoemulsion formulation for topical delivery of nystatin. Labrafil M1944, Tween 80 and ethanol were selected for preparing nanoemulsion. Various oil-in-water nanoemulsions were prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. The nanoemulsion area was identified by constructing pseudoternary phase diagrams. The prepared nanoemulsions were subjected to accelerated aging test. The nanoemulsion formulations that passed the accelerated aging test were characterized for its morphology and droplet size analysis. The optimized formulations were incorporated into polymeric gel of methylcellulose for convenient application and evaluated for pH, drug content and viscosity. The in vitro release was studied. A comparison between the nanoemulsion based gel formulations and a commercially available product, Nystatin® cream, was carried out to judge their efficacy. The drug release from the commercial preparation was lower than all the prepared nanoemulsion based gel formulations. F1 showed highest drug release percent (49.13%) followed by F8 (45.69%) in contrast, the marketed formulation released (22.88%) of the drug in 24 hrs. The in vitro nystatin release data were fitted to Korsmeyerpeppa's release model. The formulation exhibited non-fickian transport with zero order kinetics. Formulae F1 and F8, showed both small droplet size and highest extent of drug release, was microbiologically evaluated against Candida albicans (C. albicans) using agar dilution assay. The selected formulae showed superior antimycotic activity compared to the commercially available formulation.

[Ghada H. Elosaily. Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Nystatin Nanoemulsion-Based Gel for Topical Delivery. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 541-548].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 75

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.75

 

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Nystatin, Candida albicans, Nanoemulsion based gel, Topical delivery.

Full Text

75

76

Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hepatitis C Virus Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva

 

Eman M. Amr*1, Eman Y. El-Firt*2, Ashraf Y. El-Fert*3

 

1Department of Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

2Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, King AbdulAziz University, Saudi Arabia and Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Menoufiya, Egypt

Eamr05@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremic patients and to evaluate the effect of periodontal therapy (scaling/root planing) on their virus level in a representative sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with chronic HCV infection suffering from moderate to severe chronic periodontitis were diagnosed based on the criteria of the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP). Detection of HCV RNA in saliva and GCF samples using commercial automated polymerase chain reaction was carried out. Gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded for all subjects before and after mechanical periodontal therapy to be correlated with laboratory findings. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in PD, CAL, GI, Salivary PCR and GCF PCR values after treatment. The % reduction of salivary HCV was 11.6% while that of GCF was 12.1 % after periodontal therapy. There was a significant positive correlation between % reduction in salivary HCV levels, GCF HCV levels and GI as well as a significant positive correlation between % reduction in GCF HCV levels and GI. There was no significant correlation between salivary HCV and GCF HCV levels with either PD or CAL. Conclusion: Regular SRP in periodontitis affected HCV-seropositive patients is highly recommended in an attempt to limit viral transmission among spouses and family members.

[Eman M. Amr, Eman Y. El-Firt, Ashraf Y. El-Fert. Effect of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Hepatitis C Virus Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):549-554]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 76

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.76

 

Keywords: Hepatitis C virus; Gingival crevicular fluid/virology; Saliva/virology.

Full Text

76

77

Perception of Shared Leadership and Team Behavior and Structure of Staff Members in Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal and Assiut Universities

 

Wafaa Abd El-Azeem El-Hosany1, Karima Hosny Abdel-Hafz2

 

Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, 1Suez Canal Ismailia and 2Assiut Universities,, Egypt

drwafaadr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: To assess the inter-correlations between team behaviors and horizontal team structure determinants and shared leadership perception within the academic staff of Faculty of Nursing, of two Egyptian Universities. Methods: This study included one hundred eleven academic staff of the Faculty of Nursing, Suez Canal and Assiut Universities. Data collected was done through a questionnaire forms; Socio-demographic questionnaire, Shared Leadership Perception instrument, Leadership Behavior Questionnaire and Team Structure Survey. Results: The total number of participants was 111 academic members. All of the participants were females. Thirty two (28.8%) participants were clinical instructors, 42 (37.8%) were assistant lecturers and 37 (33.4%) were lecturers. The mean age was 31.53 years, with a range from 24 to 46 years. Cronbach alphas were calculated for the overall shared leadership, the overall team behavior and team structure scales. The reliability test was also conducted on the sub-scales of the overall shared leadership measure and the sub-scales of the overall team behavior. The reliability of each of these scales exceeded the acceptable level (0.7 standards). Overall shared leadership perception is significantly correlated with its sub-scales. It also is significantly correlated with overall team behaviors, directive team behavior dimension, and horizontal team structure. Overall shared leadership perception was significantly correlated with educational attainment. Empowering team behaviors dimension positively related with overall shared leadership and supported our study hypothesis. Horizontal team structure did not correlated significantly with overall shared leadership and did not support our study hypothesis. Conclusions: This study adds to the theoretical implications of shared leadership by revealing that behaviors experienced within a team are more significant to determining the practice of shared leadership than the presence of a specific organizing structure. In addition, horizontal team structure appeared to have little to no influence on team members engaging in the practice of shared leadership.

[Wafaa Abd El-Azeem El-Hosany; Karima Hosny Abdel-Hafz. Clinical Evaluation of Biochemical Marker and Mineral Nutritional Factor in Mandibular Implant Over-Denture Cases. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 555-567]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 77

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.77

 

Keywords: shared, leadership, empowering, team behaviors, team structure, and perception.

Full Text

77

78

Use of Sheet Piles to Control Contaminant Transport through the Soil

 

Ali Mohammed Ali Bashaa, Ahmed Al Nimr b, Ibrahim M.H. Rashwana and Adel Mohamed Gabrb

 

a Faculty of Engineering - Kafrelshiekh University, Kafrelshiekh, Egypt.

b Faculty of Engineering - Mansoura University, Dakahliya, Egypt.

adlegr@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present work an attempt is conducted to study the control of contaminant transport through porous medium by using sheet piles. The regional contaminated groundwater flow field in two dimensions is studied numerically using the method of finite elements. The equations of contaminant transport through advection, diffusion, dispersion, and adsorption are combined with the groundwater flow equations to obtain the contaminant distribution as a function of soil, contaminant and fluid properties. The influence of installing a vertical sheet pile on the rate of contaminant transport is studied for different penetration depths of the sheet piles. Design charts are presented to quantify the effects of the sheet pile wall on the hydraulic control of the groundwater flow field. From the charts, the sheet pile depth can be selected according to the needed condition. This process can be useful in the preliminary design works which may reflect the influence on the cost estimate of the used dewatering complementary remedial system.

[Ali Mohammed Ali Basha, Ahmed Al Nimr, Ibrahim M.H. Rashwan and Adel Mohamed Gabr. Use of Sheet Piles to Control Contaminant Transport through the Soil. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):568-573]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 78

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.78

 

Keywords: groundwater, contamination, hydraulic control, sheet pile, finite elements, Sand Box

Full Text

78

79

The Effect of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping on Blood Sugar and Venous Hematocrite levels in Term Infants of Diabetic Mothers

 

Abeer El Sakka,1 Sami El Chimi 1, Rania Ibrahium 1, Yasmin A. Farid 1, Mostafa Salama, 2; Hassan Tawfik 2 

 

1Pediatric Department, Ain Shams University Medical School, Cairo, Egypt. 2Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Ain Shams University Medical School, Cairo, Egypt.

ysalama2003@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Delayed clamping of the cord after birth enhances the short and long term hematologic status of infants. Although late clamping might increase blood viscosity, there is no evidence of any significant harm. Objectives: To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping on blood glucose, hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum bilirubin in term infants of diabetic mothers. Methods: There were 84 infants of diabetic mothers randomized to early or immediate cord clamping (n = 28), 1 minute delayed cord clamping (n = 28), and 2 minutes delayed cord clamping (n = 28). We measured infants’ hemoglobin, hematocrit, Red Blood Cell count, blood glucose and serum bilirubin 1 and 6 hours after delivery. Secondary outcomes as neonatal jaundice and respiratory problems were assessed. Results: The mean infant hematocrit at 6 hours after clamping was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the 1 minute (49.6±3.9) and the 2 minutes delayed clamping groups (50±4.9) than in the early clamping group (46.5±4.6). The mean infants Red Blood Cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin at 6 hours after clamping were significantly higher (p<0.001) in the 2 minutes delayed clamping group (4.7±0.4, 18±1.5 g/dl) than both the 1 minute delayed clamping group(4.6±0.3, 16±1.4 g/dl) and the early clamping group (5.2±1.5, 16.8±1.4 g/dl) respectively. At 6 hours after clamping, infants showed no significant differences in Random Blood Sugar (RBS), serum bilirubin or postnatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In infants of diabetic mothers delayed cord clamping resulted in improved hematocrit levels without demonstrable adverse effects.

[Abeer El Sakka, Sami El Chimi, Rania Ibrahium, Yasmin A. Farid, Mostafa Salama; Hassan Tawfik. The Effect of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping on Blood Sugar and Venous Hematocrite levels in Term Infants of Diabetic Mothers. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 574-578]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 79

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.79

 

Keywords: Umbilical cord- blood sugar- hematocrite- diabetes mellitus.

Full Text

79

80

Potential Coeliac Disease among First Relatives of Iraqi Patients

 

Muhamed T Osman 1, Sana'a A Al-Nasiry 2, Makki H Fayadh 3, Balsam I Taha4

 

1. Centre of Pathology, Diagnostic and Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sg. Buloh Campus, 47000 Sg Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia;

2. Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad. Baghdad, Iraq.

3. GIT Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.

4. Specialized Surgeries Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq.

mtosman2004@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Coeliac disease (CD) is a common diagnosis among children and adults in Iraq; however to the best of our knowledge, no documented data is available about its familial prevalence in Iraq yet. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of potential coeliac disease in a group of first degree relatives of Iraqi coeliac patients. Methods: 106 first degree relatives of coeliac patients attending Gastrointestinal Hospital at Medical City in Baghdad, Iraq. Their sera were underwent serological screening for coeliac disease using the IgA anti-endomysium antibody test (EMA), in addition to human leukocyte antigen class II typing. Duodenal biopsies were performed in all subjects positive to EMA. Coeliac disease diagnosis was established according to modified Marsh criteria. All family members were on a gluten-containing diet when serological tests and HLA typing were performed. Results: Fifteen (14.1%) were positive EMA among 106 relatives and thirteen (12.2%) were found as new cases of coeliac disease depending on histology results (Marsh III). However, the DQ2 antigens ratio was 39.6%, DQ8 antigens ratio was 35.8%, meanwhile, DR3 ratio was 16% and the DR5/7 ratio was 8.5%. Conclusion: Silent CD cases were more than expected in Iraq, therefore, serological testing is recommended for all first-degree relatives of CD patients. Moreover, they should undergo HLA typing to detect those whose HLA phenotype is consistent with CD.

[Muhamed T Osman, Sana'a A Al-Nasiry, Makki H Fayadh, Balsam I Taha. Potential Coeliac Disease among First Relatives of Iraqi Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):579-584]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 80

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.80

 

Keywords: Coeliac disease, Endomysial antibodies, screening, Human leukocytes antigens, Iraq

Full Text

80

81

The effects of aerobic exercise program on ICAM-1, leptin serum, LDL/HDL ratio and BMI in middle-aged women

 

Seyyed Mahmud Hejazi1 Mohtaram Yazdanian2, Vahdat Boghrabadi1, Mahdi Ghasemi2

 

1. Assistant professor in sport physiology, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad, University, Mashhad, Iran

2. MA, Department of physical education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

vahdat.boghrabadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In regards to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), various factors, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), leptin, lipid profile, and body mass index (BMI) can be cosidered as major risk factors of these diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week aerobic exercise on ICAM-1 levels, serum leptin levels, HDL/LDL ratio, and BMI in middle-aged women. Twenty five healthy women in the age range of ± 3.25 to 42.26 with no past history of diseases participated in this quasi-experimental study. Further, 13 subjects were assigned as experimental group and 12 as control group. The experimental group had 40-min cumulative aerobic exercise sessions three times a week for 8 weeks. The exercises were aimed to raise their heart rate between 60 to 75% of their maximum heart rate. ICAM-1 levels, serum leptin levels, HDL/LDL ratio and BMI were measured both before and after the exercises. The result showed a significant decrease in ICAM-1 levels (p = 0.005), serum leptin (p = 0.008), HDL/LDL ratio and BMI (p = 0.001). An independent t-test was used to analyze the data. As the body ages the risk for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis increases, so regular aerobic exercise with its significant impact on the cardiovascular risk factor reduction can be a suitable tool for preventing the progression of these diseases, especially in the middle aged.

[Hejazi SM, Yazdanian M, Boghrabadi V, Ghasemi M. The effects of aerobic exercise program on ICAM-1, leptin serum, LDL/HDL ratio and BMI in middle-aged women. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):585-590]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 81

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.81

 

Keywords: Aerobic exercise; Leptin; HDL/LDL ratio; ICAM-1

Full Text

81

82

Strategy of e-Business in Virtual Era

 

 Zeinab Rezanezhad, Raha Farhadi & Maryam Mahdavi

 

Department of Management, Payame Noor University, I.R. Iran

 

Abstract: The ecommerce is a term which is used a lot in commercial and business literatures and surveys as well as the media today. Due to its novelty and various functions, this new phenomenon has been described differently in diverse references. In today world, the internet has disappeared the space and the universe is changed to an electronic village. In today internet world, e business and e commerce can be seen as a speech strategic topic which is a general aspect topic of e business. Similarly the e commerce is like a general strategy in a universal system. It has to be mentioned that a prosperous e commerce, necessitates having basic sub branches including its psychological, technical and graphical issues. The e commerce is utilizing all information systems in order to control and promote business processes. Today this processes are developed by using web based technologies. The e business as one of the sub categories of e commerce, has experienced high development in last decade. The policy strategy of most of the commercial institutions has been very effective in accepting and applying e business in order to enter the universal markets and attract the new customers. However applying e business in commercial activities requires the attention to some effective internal and external factors. In case commercial centers pay attention to these factors and plan correctly toward appropriate use of technical e business, the operation success will be guaranteed and the user centers will also be developed. In the current article, first of all e commerce conceptions are discussed. Secondly e business will be explained. And finally the secret of e commerce success in the virtual will be discussed.

[Zeinab Rezanezhad, Raha Farhadi & Maryam Mahdavi. Strategy of e-Business in Virtual Era. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):591-598]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 82

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.82

 

Keywords: e commerce, e commerce characteristics, e commerce levels, e business, e business methods, e business

Full Text

82

83

Seismic Response Analysis of Gravity Retaining Walls

 

Mohamed Husain and Othman Shaalan

 

Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, mo_husain2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The nonlinear inelastic seismic response analysis is performed using finite element model, with both material and geometrical nonlinearity. The purpose of the current study is to determine effects of the soil-structure interaction on the retaining wall seismic response. Two-dimensional plain strain finite element analytical model is developed for concrete gravity retaining walls founded on and retaining dry sand. The commercial software package ADINA is employed in the study. The soil and wall are modeled using four-node plane strain element with two displacement degrees of freedom at each node. The nonlinear response of soil is represented by Mohr-Coulomb model, and the inelastic behavior of the concrete is modeled by the available concrete element in ADINA. The soil-structure interaction is simulated with the contact surface approach. Free vibration analysis was performed to obtain the system modal parameters, and parametric seismic response analyses are conducted on several soil-wall models. The study results show that the soil type, retaining wall geometry as well as earthquake intensity have significant effects on the wall response.

[Mohamed Husain and Othman Shaalan. Seismic Response Analysis of Gravity Retaining Walls. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):599-607]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 83

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.83

 

Keyword: Seismic response, finite element, nonlinear, inelastic, retaining wall, earth pressure.

Full Text

83

84

Perception of Nursing Students Towards Clinical Stressors in the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences – Al Jouf University

 

Bothyna M Mohamed1 and Eman S Ahmed2

 

1 Department of Medical- Surgical Nursing – Nursing Department- Al-Jouf University

2 Departments of Pediatric Nursing, - Nursing Department- Al-Jouf University and Faculty of Nursing – Assiut University

emansayed44@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Baccalaureate nursing students often experience high levels of stress during training that may result in psychological or emotional impairment during their professional life ultimately affecting the quality of patient care they provide. Clinical instructors provide the needed support and guidance for students to relieve stress and promote a positive clinical experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived level of stress and sources of stress in undergraduate students enrolled in nursing practicum courses. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 nursing students’ representative of third and fourth year (levels 5, 6 and 8) undergraduate students from Al Jouf University in KSA. This study revealed that about three –fourths of students had high level of stress compared to about one- quarter had moderate stress (72 % and 28%, respectively). Three sources of stress were significant which are stress from taking care of patients, stress from peers and daily life, and stress from hospital staff. P- values were 0.03, 0.004, and 0.002, respectively. No significant relationships between students' absenteeism and stress, academic level and stress and mothers' education with stress. It is recommended from this study that nurse educators and curriculum planners should make a positive contribution towards minimizing the stress of student nurses and all personnel involved with teaching nursing students including clinicians need to be adequately prepared to deal with students and be aware of their own impact on students.

[Bothyna M Mohamed and Eman S Ahmed. Perception of Nursing Students Towards Clinical Stressors in the Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences – Al Jouf Universit. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):608-617]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 84

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.84

 

Keywords: stress, nursing students, clinical practice

Full Text

84

85

Effects of High Blood Pressure on Hearing Threshold at Different Frequencies and Its Mechanisms in Hypertensive Patients

 

Nawal B. Ali1; Mohamed Abd Al-Ghaffar2and Eman A Sabet3

 

1Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, El Azehar University

2 Audiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag Univerisity

3Internal Medicine Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University

 

Abstract: Aim of the study: This study was carried out to assess the effects of high blood pressure and its associated changes in the form of high fibrinogen level and high plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) level on hearing threshold in hypertensive patients. In this study, 100 persons (200 ears) 50 males and 50 females, with age range of 50-55 years, took part. They were equally divided into two groups, hypertension group and control group. Hypertension group included hypertensive patients previously diagnosed as hypertensive patients of at least 10 years duration with systolic BP above 140 mmHg and diastolic BP above 90 mmHg. They were under treatment of hypertension. After audiometry, the hypertension group was divided into two subgroups according to hearing threshold, the first subgroup contained hypertensive patients with hearing threshold less than 25 dB (with no hearing loss) and the second subgroup contained hypertensive patients with hearing threshold above 25 dB (affected with hearing loss). Control group contained normtensive persons with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg respectively. Blood pressure (Systolic, diastolic and mean), pure tone audiometry at different frequencies, plasma fibrinogen level, and plasma ANP level, were measured. Results:- The results indicated that: 1- There is highly significant (p<0.001) increase in hearing thresholds (worse hearing) at all high frequencies in hypertensive patients. The highest hearing threshold was recorded at 8000 Hz-frequency.2- There is an increase in percentage ratio of persons affected with hearing impairment at 2000, 4000 and 8000 Hz frequency separately (hearing threshold above 25 dB) in hypertensive patients on comparison with control group. The highest percentage ratio of persons with hearing deterioration at certain frequency is at 8000 Hz–frequency. It may be an indicator of beginning of hearing impairment in hypertensive patients. 3- There is an increase in percentage ratio of persons affected with high-frequency hearing impairment (mean hearing threshold in all high frequencies collectively in the same person above 25 dB) associated with high blood pressure It arrived to 84% in hypertensive patients instead of 22% in controls. High blood pressure leads to increase in number of affected persons with high- frequencies hearing impairment to about 4 times as in controls. 4- High blood pressure is associated with highly significant (p <0.001) high fibrinogen level. That level is positively correlated with hearing threshold at all high frequencies, and positively correlated with hearing threshold separately at 8000 Hz-frequency.5- High blood pressure is associated also with highly significant (p <0.001) elevated plasma ANP level. ANP level is positively correlated with, mean blood pressure, hearing threshold at all high frequencies, and at hearing threshold of 8000 Hz-frequency. 6- In hypertensive patients who affected with high frequency hearing loss, there is significant (p < 0.05) increase of plasma fibrinogen level and plasma ANP level compared with hypertensive patients without hearing loss. Conclusion: High blood pressure is a risk factor for high-frequency hearing impairment. Hypertension is also associated with increase percentage ratio of persons affected with high-frequency hearing impairment. 8000 Hz-frequency is the most affected frequency in hypertensive persons, and may be an indicator for start of hearing impairment in them. High plasma fibrinogen level and high plasma ANP level, that are associated with high blood pressure, are directly related to deterioration of hearing threshold in hypertensive patients. The role of fibrinogen and ANP in pathogenesis of hearing loss in hypertensive patients must be thoroughly investigated. Also extended high frequency audiometry is highly recommended for early detection of hearing loss in hypertensive patients.

[Nawal B. Ali; Mohamed Abd Elgfar and Eman A Thabet. Effects of High Blood Pressure on Hearing Threshold at Different Frequencies and Its Mechanisms in Hypertensive Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):618-629]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 85

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.85

 

Keywords: High blood pressure, hearing threshold, HL, ANP level, fibrinogen level.

Full Text

85

86

 Effect of contextual interference on anxiety and achievement motivation in acquisition and retention of selected badminton skills

 

Melinaz Rahman Gholhaki1, Mohsen Akbarpour Beni2, Mahdi Fahimi4, Hamid Sadegheyan2, Ahmad Alimardani2

 

1. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Branch of sciences and research, Tehran, Iran

2. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

4. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdausi University, Mashhad, Iran

akbarpour.mohsen@gmail.com

 

 Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of the underlying psychological factors (anxiety and achievement motivation of selected badminton skills (Tass, high-service, back hand under hand clear). Methods and Materials: A total of 40 girls with a mean age of 21 ± 8 / 3 randomly selected and divided into two groups of 20 persons. We used from questionnaires of Spielberg state- trait anxiety inventory and Edvard’s achievement motivation for assessing of anxiety and achievement motivation, and for result of function we used from Pool's Long serve Test. The subjects practice skills in both blocked and random practice groups in 10 sessions of 90 minutes. Both groups at the end of a first session (pretest), tenth sessions (acquisition) and after 72 hours (retention) completed the questionnaires again. In order to analyze the results of the study, we used T-independent test and analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA) with the index of Eta, and Greenhouse-Greiss, and T-dependent and according to p bonferroni, and to assess normal distribution from kolmogorov-smirnov test and Levene test for heterogeneity of variance was used. Software SPSS (ver 19) was employed to analyze data. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results showed a significant difference between both groups from pre-test to acquisition and retention test (p=0/001). achievement motivation showed significant difference in blocked practice from pretest to acquisition test and retention test (p=0/001). While there were no significant difference from pretest to retention test (p=0/021). and there were significant difference in achievement motivation in random practice from pretest to retention test (p=0/001). While there were no significant difference from pretest to acquisition test (p=0/02). Also the results showed significant difference between means of performance in both groups in acquisition test (p=0/05) and retention test (p=0/02). Conclusion: At the basic of results of the study, in retention test, the anxiety and achievement motivation in random practice group decrease more than from blocked practice group. We can explain this result according to multi aspect theory of anxiety and theories of need and attribution in achievement motivation. Also volume of learning is increasing during random practice ratio blocked practice, that for explanation of this result, we can use from forgetting or spacing hypothesis.

[Melinaz Rahman Gholhaki, Mohsen Akbarpour Beni, Mahdi Fahimi, Hamid Sadegheyan,Ahmad Alimardan. Effect of contextual interference on anxiety and achievement motivation in acquisition and retention of selected badminton skills. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):630-636]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 86

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.86

 

Key word: Contextual Interference, Anxiety, Achievement motivation, acquisition, retention Badminton skil

Full Text

86

87

Sport Injuries in Karate Competition

 

Mohammad Hassan Boostani 1*, Mahdi Erfani 2, Mohammad Ali Boostani 3, Najmeh Zare 4, Hadi Faghihi 5, Ali Mohammad Rezaei 6

 

1, 3 Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch - Young Researchers Club, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

4 Islamic Azad University, Borujerd Branch, Iran

5 Education Organization of Fars Province, Iran

6 Department of psychology, faculty of psychology, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan Branch, Fars, Iran

Corresponding author; Email: boostani_mh@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Vulnerability is probable injuries most sports. Many sports injuries are reported in karate Competition. According to these reports, the scientific advices are given to reduce and prevent injuries. Therefore this study was to evaluate common injuries in sport karate. In this research most occurred injuries in Iran karate national team selective tournament in 2011 were evaluated. 332 matches in six weights of the best Iran karate athletes held in these tournaments. Injury report form was completed and reviewed by researchers and tournament’s doctor. Descriptive and inferential (chi- squared test) methods were used to analyze the data. Findings of research showed 112 injuries during the tournaments. 68.9% was occurred in evening. Trauma was the most injuries (81.3%). 79.5% injuries were occurred in head and neck. 95.5% injuries were occurred in upper limb. The most injuries (48%) were occurred in the second minute of the tournament and the cause of injuries in 65.7% was opponent punch. 62.7% injuries were removed by using ice pack and anesthetic spray and only two cases of athletes were transferred to hospital. It seems that by the changing of regulations and using of protective equipments in head and face and being aware of common injuries in karate, we can reduce most injuries in this sport.

[Boostani MH, Erfani M, Boostani MA, Zare N, Faghihi H, Rezaei AM. Sport Injuries in Karate Competition. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):637-639]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 87

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.87

 

Keyword: Karate, Sport Injuries, Safety, Elite Athletes, Kumite.

Full Text

87

88

Effect of Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of" Le-Conte" Pear trees

 

Atef Moatamed Hussein Moatamed

 

Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to study the effect of time of summer pruning on vegetative growth, yield and whole canopy photosynthesis of Le-Conte pear trees. Summer pruning of' Le-Conte 'pear trees (Pyrus communis. L) was studied for two consecutive seasons (2009-2010 & 2010-2011) on ten years old of 'Le-Conte' pear trees budded on Pyrus betulaefolia grown in Borg El-Arab region, Alexandria governorate in sandy soil under drip irrigation and planted at 5x6m apart. Summer pruning treatments were removing of 1/2, 1/3 and 3/4 length of shoots per tree. Generally, summer pruning significantly increased the shoot length (cm), leaf area (cm2) and leaf content of chlorophyll. Summer pruning significantly increased the No. of fruiting spurs, fruit set and yield per tree in both seasons. Nosignificant effect on total soluble solids and fruit acidity in both seasons. Concerning of summer pruning date found that pruning during Aug, gave the best result in shoot length, leaf area, content of chlorophyll, No. of spurs, fruit set (%) and the fruit quality. Concerning of removing1/2of shoot length increased the leaf content of chlorophyll, fruit set (%) and leaf content of (P&K%). While removing1/3 of shoot length was best for increasing No. of spurs, yield (Kg), fruit weight, fruit dimension and leaf content of nitrogen (N). removing ¾ of shoot length gave the best result in leaf content of (Fe. Mn and Zn), firmness, T.S.S and total sol.

[Atef Moatamed Hussein Moatamed. Effect of Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of" Le-Conte" Pear trees. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):640-647]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 88

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.88

 

 Key words:Pyrus communisL., 'Le-Conte' pear, summer pruning

Full Text

88

89

 Basateen MKM” a new early pear cultivar

 

Mohamed M. Makarem; Bahan M. Khalil and Atef M. Moatamed

 

Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The early pear cultivar “Basateen MKM” was evaluated and compared with common pear cultivar Le-Conte in Egypt based on blooming date, harvest date and fruit character. This cultivar is the result of selections during five years from several orchards in Northern Governorates of Egypt. It was very early of blooming date around five weeks than Le-Cont cultivar, so it escapes infection of fire blight disease. It was found to be significant over Le-Conte in having yield per tree (20.193 to 30.153Kg), fruit weight (176.100 to 205.233 gm). Fruit height of “Basateen MKM” cultivar was significant (up to 9.00cm), comparing with Le-Conte cultivar (around to 7.00cm).DNA fingerprint was also determined through RAPD technique using six primers to identify unique molecular markers characterizing the early pear cultivar Basateen MKM., which budded on two rootstocks (P.communis and P.betulifolia), and compared with Le-Conte pear on the same rootstocks. The result of molecular analysis in genomic DNA of pear showed that the total number of fragments were 50 with an average number of 8.3 fragments / primer. The polymorphism ranged from 25% to 100% with 25 unique bands. High variation was observed when two cultivars budded on different two rootstocks. This high polymorphism makes these markers useful for genetic studies, in pear cultivars.

[Mohamed M. Makarem; Bahan M. Khalil and Atef M. Moatamed. Basateen MKM” a new early pear cultivar. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):648-654]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 89

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.89

 

Key words: Pear cultivars, Basteen MKM, RAPD (Random amplified polymorphic DNA), Evaluation.

Full Text

89

90

The role of International NGOs in Promoting Human Rights (Case Study: Amnesty International)

 

Mahmood Golestani 1, Elham Pahlevani 2, Mohammad Taghi Pahlevani3

 

1.MA in International Law; Lecturer in Payam-e Nour University of Mahdishahr and Semnan University of Applied Sciences

2.MA in Political Sciences; Lecturer in Payam-e Nour University of Mahdishahr and Semnan University of Applied Sciences

3.MA in International Law; Lecturer in Payam-e Nour University of Ali Abad Katoul and Islamic Azad University of Bandar Torkaman

golestani.m22@gmail.com, pahlevani.e22@gmail.com, pahlevani_mohamad_t@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Along with the development of the human rights, the increasing and effective role of international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) gets more important than ever, so that todays, these organizations have become powerful actors in national and international arenas. As a NGO, Amnesty International is now the largest and most important human rights organization with a rich and powerful information network and with more than a million members and supporters worldwide. This NGO has been founded to defend the human rights and prevent any human rights violation with its widespread activities around the world. Like any other organization, Amnesty international can be affected by several factors in confronting the situations of the human rights and consequently it can face with barriers and shortages in its field of activity. Indeed, the main objective of this research is to study the role of international NGOs in promoting and developing the human rights with a special focus on the Amnesty International. To study the subject, we have used descriptive-analytic methodology. Moreover, to collect the needed data of the research we have relied on archival method, internet resources, and related books and journals. The findings of the research show that Amnesty International has attempted to consider the principle of parallel in confronting different countries; but it seems that the Amnesty International is affected by different factors including the time and place of its confrontation with the situations of the human rights and hence, it has a selective approach in confronting and acting against some countries.

[Golestani M, Pahlevani E, Pahlevani M. The role of International NGOs in Promoting Human Rights. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):655-661]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 90

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.90

 

Keywords: Amnesty International, International NGOs, Promotion and Development of the Human Rights

Full Text

90

91

The Uncertainties of Using Replacement Soil in Controlling Settlement

 

A. K. Gabr

 

Geotechnical and Foundation Eng., Mansoura Faculty of Engineering, Egypt.

 

Abstract: The use of replacement soil under shallow foundation may be a cheaper solution than that of using deep foundation to support light buildings over thick layers of soft soil. In the Egyptian Nile Delta, the soil lithology generally consists of thick layers of soft to medium clay that may include highly compressive peat. In this work, the replacement of part of the upper soil layer by dense sand or gravel to support buildings on shallow foundation systems is explored using centrifuge test and numerical modelling. It is found that, the use of replacement soil can reduce settlement and construction cost considerably. Correlations and graphs are deduced to correlate various soil parameters with the external loadings values.

[A. K. Gabr. The Uncertainties of Using Replacement Soil in Controlling Settlement. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):662-665]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 91

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.91

 

Keyword: Uncertainties; Using Replacement; Soil; Controlling; Settlement.

Full Text

91

92

Presentation of a Consolidated Model for Evaluation and Selection of Suppliers and the Purchasing Decisions in Supply Chain Network

 

Foad Eshghi 1, Mohammad Khorasani Amoli 2

 

 1. M.S. in Agricultural Economics, Iran

2. Member of Scientific Board, Department of Management, Shomal University, Iran

Fesh.foad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Due to the essential role of suppliers in determining the criteria of quality, cost and services to achieve the goals of supply chain, the issue of evaluation and selection of suppliers and the purchasing decisions in regarded as one of the most important activities of purchase managers in a supply chain. The issue of the evaluation and selection of suppliers is as a multi-criteria problem in which the goals contrast to each other and depending on the purchase situation, the goals find different importance and priority. First, through Hierarchical Analysis Technique (AHP) with consideration of both quantitative and qualitative criteria, a collection of the parameters of the selected suppliers was defined; then, a multi-objective linear programming model with multiple goals and a set of systemic limitations is formulated and it is applied in order to allocate the optimal ordering value to the selected suppliers. In this paper, initially, the literature is reviewed and then a multi-objective linear programming model is presented with effective flexibility to evaluate and select the potential suppliers and the process of their purchasing decisions which creates some understanding and awareness about their future purchasing strategies and finally, the best selected suppliers as well as the purchasing plan of each of them during each period are determined.

[Eshghi F, Khorasani Amoli M. Presentation of a Consolidated Model for Evaluation and Selection of Suppliers and the Purchasing Decisions in Supply Chain Network. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):666-670]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 92

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.92

 

Keywords: evaluation and selection of the suppliers, supply chain, the ordered system, Hierarchical Analysis Process, Multi-Criteria Decision-Making, Multi-Objective linear programming.

Full Text

92

93

The relation between coaches' decision-making styles to the rate of satisfaction & burnout of Iran men & women basketball of preferred league players

 

Mohammad Reza Esmaeili 1, Vali Nowzari 2*, Farzad Ghafouri 3, Abbas Nazarian Madavani 4

 

1 Department of Sport Management, faculty of physical education and sports sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Sport Management, faculty of physical education and sports sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; 3 Allameh Tabatabei University, Tehran, Iran; 4 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

Corresponding author; Email: v_nowzari@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The research has been performed with the aim of considering the relation between coaches' decision-making styles with the rate of satisfaction & burnout of preferred league players of Iran' men & women basketball in the year 2011-2012. The method of doing research is of the correlation type. The statistical sample in the research included 201 male & female athletes (110 female & 91 male). The tool of in use include decision – making style questionnaire of Scat & Borous, burnout questionnaire of athletes of Radak & Smit & also Athletes satisfaction questionnaire of Cheladorai & Rimer which tool reliability was confirmed by cronbach alpha coefficient & it's validity in the method of factor analysis. For analyzing data, mean, frequency, percent, correlation coefficient, regression in step-by-step method, T-test & one-way variance analyze were used. The findings showed that: There is a positive & significant relation between coaches' decision-making styles (intellectual, perceptual, sudden, avoiding & dependency) & athletes' burnout (emotional exhaustion, performance decrease & devaluation). There is a positive & significant relation between coaches' decision making styles (intellectual, perceptual, sudden, avoiding & dependency) & athletes' satisfaction (practice & training, personal behavior, individual & team accomplishment). Decision – making styles of intellectual, dependency, sudden & avoiding explain 61% of athlete's burnout changes & has negative & direct effect on burnout. Decision - making styles, avoiding, dependency, perceptual & intellectual explain 55% of athletes' satisfaction changes & have direct & positive effect on athletes satisfaction.

[Esmaeili MR, Nowzari V, Ghafouri F, Nazarian Madavani A. The relation between coaches' decision-making styles to the rate of satisfaction & burnout of Iran men & women basketball of preferred league players. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):671-675]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 93

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.93

 

Key words: decision-making styles, burnout, satisfaction, athletes.

Full Text

93

94

Perception of Nurse Interns about Clinical Assignment Preparation Requirements

 

Abdel Kader AM1, Mohamed EA2 and Abood SA3

 

Departments of 1Nursing Education; 2Medical Surgical Nursing and 3Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University, Egypt,

 

Abstract: Preparation of nursing students is an important component in the clinical experience. It includes: orientation to the clinical setting (patient, environment), using communication skills, patient education, nursing management and leadership, specifically, the educational preparation of nurses must provide the necessary skills and foundation for graduates to practice at a basic level of competency and safety. This study aims to investigate nursing interns' perception about their clinical assignment preparation requirement. The study subjects included 70 nursing students who were enrolled in internship year from1st September 2011 to 31 August 2012. The study was conducted at Minia University Hospital and Maternity University Hospital affiliated to Minia University. Clinical assignment preparation questionnaire was used for data collection. The current study revealed that both psychomotor skills and steps of nursing process were perceived as highly important requirements for clinical preparation assignments. It is concluded that interns in this study identified a variety of areas they needed to prepare for successful clinical assignment, these area include professional development and patient teaching. It was recommended to conduct a Study to examine the relationship between faculty and student perceptions of baccalaureate students' preparation for clinical assignments.

[Abdel Kader AM, Mohamed EA and Abood SA. Perception of Nurse Interns about Clinical Assignment Preparation Requirements. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):676-682]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 94

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.94

 

Key words: nursing education, clinical assignments, clinical preparation, nursing interns.

Full Text

94

95

Challenge of Human Resources Management in Virtual Organizations – Relation between Degree of Virtualization of an Organization and Available Financial Resources

 

Reza Nasseri Ghiri1, Ali Nasseri Ghiri2

1. Department of Computer and Information Technology, Amirkabir University, Tehran, Iran.

2. Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Firouzabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

re.nasseri@gmail.com; re.nasseri@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, virtual organizations have properly responded toward market’s requirement and they have created good competitive market through using knowledge-oriented staffs enjoying high flexibility and more and better proficiency. Considering today’s business development, base of the successful organizations is formed by virtual teams. With regard that all organizations seek more profitability and persons seek more income and as communications and information enjoy more importance day by day, therefore organizations tend to recruit effective people so that they cannot overlook these profitable resources. In order to enjoy such organizations, managerial issues related to them must be completely identified and organized. In this regard, financial resources of the organization must be properly applied for these kinds of teams; therefore, management of human resources has changed virtual organizations to a complicated and challenging issue. Low occupational commitment and high rate of job quit are some problems in this area. The present study seeks to find the relation between degree of virtualization of an organization and staffs’ commitment considering their income in the organization. This study has been conducted through questionnaire. Results of this research show that even greater financial resources are provided for a virtual team, more occupational commitment is created in staffs, and therefore their dependency toward the organization’s objectives becomes more.

[Nasseri Ghiri R, Nasseri Ghiri A. Challenge of Human Resources Management in Virtual Organizations – Relation between Degree of Virtualization of an Organization and Available Financial Resources. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):683-688]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 95

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.95

 

Keywords: Virtual teams, Work teams, Team performance, Degree of virtualization, Financial commitment.

Full Text

95

96

Designing an adaptive stabilizer for UPFC 

 

aMehdi Nikzad, bShoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani, cHabib Daryabad, dHamed Sarbazi 

 

a, b Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

c, d Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: In this paper an adaptive method is used to design UPFC supplementary stabilizer for damping low frequency oscillations in a multi machine power system. The proposed method is evaluated against a classical stabilizer tuned by using genetic algorithms (GA). Nonlinear simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive method to deal with uncertainties in power system.

[Nikzad M, Sham Shamsabad Farahani S, Daryabad H, Sarbazi H. Designing an adaptive stabilizer for UPFC. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):689-693]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 96

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.96

 

Keywords: Supplementary Stabilizer, UPFC, Genetic Algorithms, Adaptive Method.

Full Text

96

97

Prognostic Values of N-Terminal-Pro Brain Naturetic Peptide and Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission as diagnostic tools for Asymptomatic Cardiac Events in Chronic kidney Disease.

 

Effat A.E. Tony1, Heba Ahmad Abd-El Hafeez 2, and Waleed A.M. Diab3

 

Departments of 1Internal Medicine, 2Clinical Pathology and 3Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Background: Patients with end stage renal failure (ESRF) have an increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease which is a leading cause of death. Circulating biomarkers play a major role in the early detection of cardiovascular di­sease in those patients. N-terminal-pro-BNP is a cardiac biomarker which is frequently elevated in patients with CKD. However, because NT-pro BNP clearance may depend on renal function, the significance of an elevated level in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) without cardiac symptoms is uncertain. The use of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for patients with renal disease may be useful for diagnosing CAD and providing powerful information about the risk of future cardiac events. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of different cardiac events in CKD patients according to the grade of kidney damage, to explore the degree of elevation of N-terminal-pro-BNP in asymptomatic cardiac patients with varying degree of CKD; to clarify the relationship between the elevation of this biomarker and the occurrence of cardiac events in CKD patients and to study the usefulness of MPI by Single photon computed tomography (SPECT) as a diagnostic a diagnostic tool for cardiac events in patients with varying degree of CKD regardless hemodialysis. Subjects and methods: This case –control observational retrospective study was conducted on 40 CRF patients with varying degree of CKD, 13 –85 years old (mean age 47±17.3 years), recruited from the renal and dialysis unit, department of Internal Medicine, Assuit University Hospitals, Egypt from 2009-2010.In addition to 40 age and sex matched healthy persons as a control group. The patients were classified into two groups: 20 non-dialysis CRF patients on conservative treatment and 20 patients on hemodialysis. All are subjected to thorough history taking, full clinical examination, and anthropometric measurements. We measured serum levels of CRP and N-terminal-pro-BNP in all subjects. MPI by SPECT was done in some selected cases. Results: NT-pro BNP levels were elevated in all patients with significant higher levels in ESRD patients on HD. Whereas, the levels of NT-pro BNP were more significantly elevated with Hypertension, Anemia, Hypoalbuminemia, advanced LVH and LV dysfunction, their levels were not significantly elevated with gender,advanced age and increased BMI. In CKD patients with varying degree, highly significant positive correlations between NT-pro BNP levels and LV mass and LV mass index were found; however, there was a highly significant negative correlation between their levels and systolic function tested by TTE. CRP levels were elevated in all studied patients with significant higher levels in ESRD patients on HD. perfusion defects have been seen in majority of CKD patients. Half of them showed a moderate degree hypoperfusion while one-fourth of cases had severer pattern. Multiple vessel affection was a characteristic feature. Significantly higher NT-pro BNP levels were seen in patients had moderate and severe degrees of hypoperfusion. A highly significant negative correlation between systolic function (EF) evaluated by MPI and NT-pro BNP levels. Majority of Patients with grade II-III CKD under SPECT had mild to moderate degrees of hypoperfusion with good systolic function and a characteristic two vessel affection. However, half of Patients with grade IV-V CKD under SPECT had a severe degree of hypoperfusion with an impaired systolic function.Two and multi-vessel affections are characteristic in Patients with grade IV-V CKD in equal percent. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive correlation between EF evaluated by MPI and TTE. Conclusion: In essence, MPI SPECT provides effective risk stratification across the entire spectrum of renal function in CKD patients. Moderate to severe degrees of hypoperfusion with multiple vessel affections were characteristic patterns especially in CKD patients on dialysis. N-terminal-pro-BNP level elevation in asymptomatic patients with CKD reflects underlying ischemic heart disease and hypertrophy independent of renal function in a population with anticipated high cardiac morbidity. Thus, N-terminal-pro-BNP can be a good parameter for predicting the severity of coronary vessels involvement and in evaluating cardiac risk in patients with ESRD especially those on HD besides other diagnostic tools. Severer degrees of hypoperfusion were associated with Higher NT-pro BNP levels. Moreover, there was a highly significant negative correlation between systolic function evaluated by MPI and NT-pro BNP levels.

[Effat A.E. Tony, Heba Ahmad Abd-El Hafeez and Waleed A.M. Diab. Prognostic Values of N-Terminal-Pro Brain Naturetic Peptide and Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission as diagnostic tools for Asymptomatic Cardiac Events in Chronic kidney Disease. J Am Sci 2012;8(12): 694-708]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 97

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.97

 

Keywords: N-terminal-pro-BNP, CRP, eGFR, chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, myocardial perfusion imaging, LVH, Echocardiography.

Full Text

97

98

Metabolic syndrome and Severity of coronary artery disease in west of Iran

 

Shila Berenjy1,2, Asmah Bt rahmat2, Parichehr Hanachi3, Lye Munn Sunn4, Zaitun Bt Yassin 2, Farzad Sahebjamee5

 

1 Faculty of Food Sciences and Technology, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

3 Biochemistry unit, Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Alzahra University, Tehran-Iran

4 Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

5 Department of cardiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

shila135071@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: CAD is cause of half of the total death in Iran and metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered as a high prevalent risk factor of CAD. This case-control survey aimed to investigate the relationships between MS and lifestyle risk factors with coronary artery disease in patients with and without CAD undergoing angiography in Kermanshah Heart Center, West Iran. Metabolic syndrome criteria were based on National Cholesterol Education Program/ Adult Treatment Panel, modified by American Heart Association / National Heart Lung & Blood Institute in 2005. Quantitative data analysis techniques including paired samples t-test, conditional logistic regression (to quantify the Odds Ratio), chi-square, and multivariate modeling (to assess the effects of metabolic syndrome with and without adjustments) were done. Almost all of the MS components were linked with risk factors of CAD and at least one MS component was present in all CAD patients. MS with all of five components increased the risk of CAD significantly more than thirteen times; additionally MS with minimum of three components increased the risk significantly more than four times. low HDL-c and high FBS were positively and significantly related to first grade of CAD severity. It was found that low HDL-C, high BP and high FBS were significantly more likely to occur in grade-II CAD-severity. Almost all of the MS components except WC were significantly and positively related to severe (grade III) CAD. Furthermore most of the patients with CAD had multi-vessel stenosis (grade III) which was the severest level of CAD, suggesting that CAD was often diagnosed when stenosis developed severely which remarkably decreases the chances of successful treatment. Implications of these findings are useful for clinical practices as well as for general health practices. The results clearly show that early diagnosis of most MS components could delay or even is likely to deter the development of CAD in lower grades of CAD severity.

[Shila Berenjy, Asmah Bt rahmat, Parichehr Hanachi, Lye Munn Sunn, Zaitun Bt Yassin, Farzad Sahebjamee. Metabolic syndrome and Severity of coronary artery disease in west of Iran. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):709-715]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 98

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.98

 

Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Coronary artery disease; Iran.

Full Text

98

99

The Moderating Effect of Social Support on Stress and Academic Performance among Nursing Students

 

Hanem F. Mohamed1,2; Reem Khletet2 and Zainab Al Awany2

 

1Medical Surgical Nursing Department, College of Nursing, Tanta University, Egypt

2King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Science, College of Nursing, Riyadh, KSA

Hanemfm@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: For many students in different educational settings, a good academic performance is a challenge. Student’s perceived stress may result in academic stress which in turn hinders their academic progress. Social support was found to have a beneficial effect on students’ stress, quality of life and academic progress. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived stress, academic stress, and academic performance among nursing students. The study also aimed at examining the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between perceived stress, academic stress and academic performance. Methods: A sample of 85 nursing students from King Saud Bin Abdu Aziz University for Health Science, Riyadh, KSA was interviewed. In addition to demographic information, Perceived Stress Scale and Perceived Social Support Scale were used to predict the relationship among the study variables. Design: A descriptive correlation cross-sectional design was employed to answer four research questions: (1) To what extent do nursing students have perceived stress and academic stress? (2) What level of social support do nursing students have? (3) What are the relationships among perceived stress, academic stress, and academic performance among nursing students? and (4) Does social support moderate the relationship between perceived stress, academic stress, and academic performance?. Results: The mean age for students was 21.7±1.3, the mean number of courses was 4± 2, and the mean academic level was 5±2. The mean of academic performance as measured by GPA reported as 3.1± 0.6. The majority of students live with their families, had fathers who graduated from high school, and were residents of Riyadh. The sample reported a fairly high level of perceived stress and academic stress, and high level of perceived social support. Perceived stress positively correlated with age (r =.40), academic level (r =.42), residence (r =.82), courses load (r =.45) and academic performance (r =.60). Social support significantly moderated the relationship between perceived stress, academic stress and academic performance while controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that social support plays a protective role with academic performance through moderating the perceived stress level. Findings of this study could be used to improve the quality of social support the student receive, and reduce different stressors that negatively affect academic progress among nursing students.

[Hanem F. Mohamed; Reem Khletet and Zainab Al Awany. The Moderating Effect of Social Support on Stress and Academic Performance Among Nursing Students. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):716-720]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 99

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.99

 

Keywords: Perceived stress, social support, academic stress, academic performance.

Full Text

99

100

An Enhanced Solution of the Universal Lambert's Problem

 

A. A. Alshaery

 

Department of Mathematics, Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. aaalshaary@kau.edu.sa

 

Abstract: In this paper, an iterative method of arbitrary order of convergence  is developed for solving the universal Lambert's problem using homotopy continuation technique. The method does not need any priori knowledge of the initial guess, a property which avoids the critical situation between divergent to very slow convergent solution, that may exist in the application of other numerical methods depending on initial guess. Computational algorithms and numerical applications will be applied for some orbits.

[A. A. Alshaery. An Enhanced Solution of the Universal Lambert's Problem. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):721-724]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 100

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.100

 

Keywords: Lambert's Problem; Boundary value problem; orbit determination; Homotopy continuation method.

Full Text

100

101

Assessing Problem-Based Learning: A Case Study of a Medically Oriented Biophysics Problem-Based Learning Course

 

Hala Moustafa 1, Nashwa Abbas 2, Alaa Eiswee,3 Ismail Hegaze 4, Kemenada everard5

 

Medical biophysics, Microbiology, Biochemistry Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October Six University (1, 2, 4), Quality Assurance Faculty of Medicine, October Six University (3), Medical Laboratories Faculty Holland University (5)

Bakar_tarek_76@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Problem based learning (PBL) has been introduced into the academic programs offered by the Faculty of Applied medical sciences October 6 University at the start of the academic year 2012. This paper examines students'. Learning in a team-based PBL course of medical biophysics. Pre-course results indicate that there is difference in students’ general understanding of medical biophysics concepts between those attending PBL and those following the traditional course. Succeeding in today's world requires college undergraduates to be able to think critically, solve complex problems, communicate clearly (using both verbal and written skills) and work effectively in teams. Problem-based learning (PBL) helps students develop their knowledge and understanding skills. Also Their intellectual skills in integrating the principles and concepts of medical biophysics. Students acquire professional and practical skills in practicing the leader ship role and applying the principles of scientific research. Students in a PBL course are challenged to ``learn to learn'', working cooperatively in groups, seeking solutions to real world problems by asking and answering their own and their peers' questions. The effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the performances and the perceptions of the sample students (n=50) using the PBL and comparing the outcomes with those of the Content-Based Learning (CBL). The comparative post-test performance analysis conducted using a student t-test statistical analysis (p<0.001) revealed that the experimental PBL approach yielded better performances than the controlled CBL approach. The analysis also revealed that students exposed to the web-based PBL approach responded more positively with their knowledge enhancement compared to students unexposed to the web-based CBL approach.

[Hala Moustafa, Nashwa Abbas, Alaa Eiswee, Ismail Hegaze and Kemenada everard. Assessing Problem-Based Learning: A Case Study of a Medically Oriented Biophysics Problem-Based Learning Course. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):725-728]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 101

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.101

 

Keywords: PBL-CBL-Medical Biophysics.

Full Text

101

102

Effect of 650 nm diode laser on Pseudomonas aeruginosa of Ehrlich tumor

 

Nashwa Abass Ahmed 1, Hala Moustafa Ahmed 2, Hanan Moustafa Rabei3, Ismail Hegazy4

 

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October Six University1 Medical Biophysics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October Six University, 2, Narcotic Department, National Center for Social and Criminological Research, Cairo, Egypt.3 BiochemistryDepartment, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, October Six University4

Bakar_tarek_76@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In an attempt to discover effective alternative treatment, Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), commonly known as photo-biostimulation or phototherapy has emerged. Traditional methods used for cancer treatment is surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Recently microbial therapy is being used to control the tumor growth. However the control of the activity of the microbe faces has several problems which limited in its applicability. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to study the possibility of controlling the activity of an aggressive microorganism, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (Ps.) by 650 nm diode laser beam; power density 150 mW/cm2, the spot size of the laser beam was 1 cm2 with exposure durations 30 minutes per day, incident doses of (30 Joules/cm2) and treatment schedule of once/day were used in the experiments. Materials and methods: The mice were divided into 7 groups namely A, B, C, D, E, F and G. The group A was used as control. The group B injected in the right thigh by 0.2 ml from a suspension containing 106 cell /ml of the Ehrlich tumor only. The group C injected with100μL PBS which contains 4x109 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The group D injected in the right thigh by 0.2 ml from a suspension containing 106 cells/ml of the Ehrlich tumor and exposed to Laser radiation for 30 mins /day along four successive days. The group E injected with 100μl PBS which contains 4x109 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and exposed to Laser radiation for 30 mins /day along four successive days. The group F mice injected in the right thigh by both 0.2 ml from a suspension containing 106 cell /ml of the Ehrlich tumor and 100μL PBS which contains 4x109 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The group G injected in the right thigh by both 0.2 ml from a suspension containing 106 cell/ml of the Ehrlich tumor and 100μL PBS which contains 4x109 CFU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exposed to Laser radiation for 30 mins/day along four successive days. The tumor growth characteristics were followed for all animals. Cellular changes were evaluated using cells viability (ATP production) and cytokines expression (IFN- γ and IL-6) the treated and untreated tumors were studied and survival rate were demonstrated.The results: The mice injected with Ps alone caused the death of all animals till day 4. While, the mice with post tumor implantation (PI) which exposed (30 Joules/cm2) of 650 nm diode laser irradiation decreased the mass tumor and that tumors infected with Ps. On the other hand, tumors infected with microorganisms then exposed (30 Joules/cm2) to 650 nm diode laser for 1 day post infection showed a sudden decrease in tumor volume during next three days of infection then the tumor began to grow again with higher rate. More than 70% of the animals survive at day 35 PI. The groups A, B, C and F in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th days with 0 Joules /cm2 produced a non significant increase in ATP luminescences. While, the groups D, E and G irradiated once at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th day with 30 Joules /cm2 produced a significant increase in ATP. In addition, the groups A, B, C (0 Joules/cm2) and F cells showed a significant increase in the level production of IFN-γ and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, Irradiation groups D, E and G with (30 Joules /cm2) cells also produced a significant change of both cytokines, but, the group G exhibited a highly significant increase in the production of IFN-γ and IL-6 in serum more than the groups D and E.

[Nashwa Abass Ahmed, Hala Moustafa Ahmed, Hanan Moustafa Rabei, Ismail Hegazy. Effect of 650 nm diode laser on Pseudomonas aeruginosa of Ehrlich tumor. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):729-738]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 102

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.102

 

Keywords: 650nm diode laser, Microbial Therapy, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Ehrlich tumor.

Full Text

102

103

Candida Albicans Infection in Autism

 

Emam AM 1, Mamdouh M. Esmat 2, and Abdelrahim A. Sadek 3

 

1 Phoniatrics unit, E.N.T Department, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Egypt

2Medical Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine Sohag University, Egypt

3 Neurology Unit, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Sohag University, Egypt

 

Abstract: Background: Autism children were reported to have gastrointestinal problems that are more frequent and more severe than in children from the general population. Although many studies demonstrate that GI symptoms are common in autism, the exact percentage suffering from gastrointestinal (GI) problems is not well known, but there is a general consensus that GI problems are common in autism. The observation that antifungal medications improve the behavior of autism children, encourage us to investigate their intestinal colonization with yeasts. Aim of the work: The purpose of this work was to investigate the intestinal colonization with yeasts in autistic patients and to assess the role of yeast as a risk factor to cause autism behavior. Patients and methods: The study included 83 cases diagnosed as autistic children referred from the neuro-pediatric clinic and 25 normal children as a control group. All children under the study came to Phoniatric clinic, during the period from 2010 to 2012, complaining of delayed language development with autistic features. Children in this study were classified into 2 groups; control and study groups. All children were subjected to interview, E.N.T examination, language assessment, Childhood Autistic Rating Score (CARS), stool culture for Candida albicans, complete audiological and psychometric evaluation. Results: There was significant relation between the autistic children and heavy growth of Candida albicans in stool culture. Conclusion: The high rate of Candida albicans intestinal infection in autistic children may be a part of syndrome related to immune system disorders in these patients.

 [Emam AM, Mamdouh M. Esmat and Abdelrahim A. Sadek. Candida Albicans Infection in Autism. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):739-744]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 103

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.103

 

Keywords: childhood atutism, childhood autistic rating score, Candida albicans, immune system.

Full Text

103

104

Increase of accommodation areas in the Holy land in Mina To cope with growing numbers of pilgrims annually while maintaining the overall Architectural character of mina and Arafat As is typical from 1430 years so far.

 

1Sayed Abdul Khaliq Elsayed and 2Nothiela Abdul Samie El-Hamouly

 

1Architectural Eng. & Building Technology, Modern Academy for Engineering &Technology in Maadi

2Architectural Department, Faculty of Engineering Shubra, Banha University

sabohemah@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The sight to the Holy land on mina and Arafat during the Hajj each year familiar to the hearts of Muslims, view tents established on the Holy Land of those areas and became the architectural style of the constants in the year Hajj following the Prophet PBUH but one of the greatest challenges facing operators and organizers for pilgrimage year after year is steady increasing in number of pilgrims. Thus requiring the preparation places equipped with accommodation in tents became Holy covering those territories has limited almost entirely to the pilgrims involved calling based service pilgrims start work projects such as giant draft stoning and lots more but such projects don't fit housing for pilgrims. In Mina and Arafat must be preserved as is, but that no concrete multi-storey buildings where the tents will place disarmament period identity religious spirit as long as high Pilgrims enjoyed on past time. And left us great challenges in resolving the issue of increasing the number of places for pilgrims in those feelings with the inevitable conservation of tents architectural form, nature and Holy as is without modification and any development must not come out about this absolutely fashionable shape. Fortunately, advanced research fields of green architecture, sustainable and means of natural lighting and ventilation in the last decade of the twentieth century and the beginnings of these century are helped in successfully created underground buildings for several roles have natural lighting and aeration during daylight hours as long as the Sun in the liver of the sky while preserving Earth green areas planted with many people rushed to build their homes underground with enjoyment of each space top their Green Witch with provision of energy required for lighting, ventilation and thermal comfort degree of preservation. This search finds that we can work a similar solution for two or more underground which tents in Mina and Arafat and processed for pilgrims in areas with natural lighting and aeration while maintaining the shape and nature of tent above ground.

[Sayed Abdul Khaliq Elsayed and Nothiela Abdul Samie El-Hamouly. Increase of accommodation areas in the Holy land in Mina: To cope with growing numbers of pilgrims annually while maintaining the overall Architectural character of mina and Arafat As is typical from 1430 years so far. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):745-752].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 104

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.104

 

Keywords: Green Architecture - Natural Lighting - Natural Ventilation - Shape and character- building underground.

Full Text

104

105

Relationship between Hierarchy of Values and Self-esteem among Iranian Students

 

Fatemeh Poor Shahsavari

 

Department of psychology, Payame Noor University, sirjan, I.R. Iran

 Email: Shahsavari1@yahoo.com, Tel: +989138450998

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between hierarchy of values and self esteem among Iranian students. The respondents were comprised of 487 university students (250 female and 238 males) who were selected by the cluster-random sampling method. The Schwartz values survey and Rosenberg questionnaire were used for data collection. The results of the present study indicated that there is a positive relationship between achievement values, self-direction, stimulation, and self-esteem. While, there was negative relationship among tradition values, conformity, security, universalism, benevolence, hedonism, power and self-esteem.

[Fatemeh Poor Shahsavari. Relationship between Hierarchy of Values and Self-esteem among Iranian Students

. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):753-758]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 105

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.105

Keywords: Values, Hierarchy of values, Self- esteem, University students

Full Text

105

106

The Increase of Wheat Crop Production in Egypt through Rotated Loading with the Cotton Crop

 

Afaf Zaki Ali Othman, Nayera Yahia Soliema and Monia Bahaa El-Din Hassan

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, National Research Center- Egypt

 

Abstract: The study aims to find out a new method to increase wheat crop in Egypt in order to increase the crop self-sufficiency rate through the wheat crop horizontal expansion by wheat loading cultivation over the cotton crop. The study has clarified that wheat-loaded over cotton can be cultivated in the governorates of cotton cultivation. Because of the loading process, it cannot be cultivated with the same intensity and thus it occupies about 65% of the cotton cultivated land. Therefore, it necessitates the cultivation of anti-dormancy types which are of the highest quality of acre productivity. Among the most important results which the study has concluded is that it is possible to increase wheat crop production by its cultivation loaded over the cotton crop according to the recommended anti-dormancy types and in the governorates which have the highest productivity of each type and give production increase of about 4183.973 thousand ardab and contribute to cover the wheat gap in Egypt by 54.4%. The study has expected that the wheat gap will increase in the future, a matter that entails the prediction of the expected increase amount in production, consumption and gap in order to work out solutions and suggestions to lessen the gap size. Therefore, the study has assumed several scenarios to predict the gap size in 2030 and 2050.

[Afaf Zaki Ali Othman, Nayera Yahia Soliema and Monia Bahaa El-Din Hassan. The Increase of Wheat Crop Production in Egypt through Rotated Loading with the Cotton Crop. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):759-765]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 106

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.106

 

Key Words: wheat- self-sufficiency- anti-dormancy types.

Full Text

106

107

Crime Reduction though Building Social Capital: A Fundamental Strategy

 

Ahmadreza Rezaei

 

Islamic Azad University Larestan Branch, Iran. sci_2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to highlight the helpful ways forward for urban areas in seeking to tackle issues of crime and violence. This study assesses social capital as a fundamental strategy in crime reduction in urban areas of Shiraz, Iran. Data were collected using survey questionnaire. Results indicate that although there is strong cooperation and social cohesion for crime reduction, but the urban areas still face challenges and constraints which hinder their contributions in crime reduction. There are many social causes of crime and the police regularly work in collaboration with crime problems. However, social conditions such as availability of youth programs, educational opportunities, the state of the economy, employment opportunities, particularly youth jobs are some of the factors that have positive impact on crime reduction rates. But the findings of this study show a fundamental strategy for crime reduction through building social capital. Hence, it is expected that the findings of this study could be utilized by the judicial and social leaders for their future follow-up and reassessment of building social capital for crime and violence reduction.

[Ahmadreza Rezaei. Crime Reduction though Building Social Capital: A Fundamental Strategy, Journal of American Science 2012; 8(12):766-771]. (ISSN: 1545‐1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 107

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.107

Keywords: crime reduction, social capital, fundamental strategy, violence, crime policy.

Full Text

107

108

Congestion Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

 

Atieh Rezaei1, Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani2

 

1Department of Computer, science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2Department of Computer science, shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

atieh.rezaei@gmail.com; kuchaki@uk.ac.ir

 

Abstract: A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is deployed with large number of sensor nodes. Transfer packets in this networks present a range of challenges to protocol designers due to resources constrain, limited battery power, processing power, memory and storage capacity of sensor nodes in WSN. When a large number of sensor nodes transfer their packets, there is a possibility of packet loss due to congestion in sensor nodes. When sensor nodes are densely distributed and/or input packet flow rate exceeds the packet process rate, congestion may occur. Congestion causes decrease overall channel quality and QOS, increased transmission latency and loss rates, leads to buffer occupy and increased delays. If transmission packets to the network are not controlled, congestion status can arise. Therefore, in order to increase QOS and prolong system lifetime, we need various congestion control techniques. Different congestion control protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks which are reviewed in this paper.

[Rezaei A, Kuchaki Rafsanjani M. Congestion Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):772-777]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 108

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.108

 

Keywords: Wireless sensor network; congestion control; reliable; priority

Full Text

108

109

Application of Two Dimensional Models to Simulate the Flow and Sediment Transport in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River, Renmin Island Region

 

Ahmed Mohammed Osman1,2, Xiwu LU1, John Leju Celestino LADU1

 

1. Department School of Energy and Environment, Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P. R. China

2. College of Engineering. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Karary University, Sudan- Khartoum

 

Abstract: In this paper, a process based on hydrodynamic, sediment transport and morphological model were presented. The main aim of the study was to assess the effect of sediment erosion and deposition on the bathometry of the Yangtze River in the Renmin island region. This study site was chosen because of the presence of large quantities of sediment transported and deposited in this island reach and thus, increases the area of the island yearly. These encroachments can trace back from the evolution of the island. In this study, Delft3D-Flow with an application of two dimensional models was used to simulate and evaluate the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Renmin island region. Data on the discharge, water level and sediment concentration from June 1986 to June 1992 were used for the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic models. Comparisons were made between the computed model results and the observed data. The overall results revealed that, the sediment deposition in the left branch side was larger than that in the right branch side where continuous erosion and the tail part of the island increased in deposition. Hydrodynamic and sediment transport model has been calibrated and applied successfully with Delft3D-Flow sediment-online model.

[Ahmed Mohammed Osman, Xiwu LU, John Leju Celestino LADU. Application of Two Dimensional Models to Simulate the Flow and Sediment Transport. J Am Sci 2012; 8(12):778-784] (ISSN: 1545-1003). 109

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.109

 

Keywords: Sediment; hydrodynamic; morphodynamic; erosion; deposition; bathometry; Delft3D-Flow; Renmin Island; Yangtze River

Full Text

109

110

Design and Synthesis of New Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

 

Magda A. El-Sherbeny, Azza R. Maarouf, Ahmed H. E. Hassan, Naglaa I. Abdel-Aziz

 

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt.

naglaabdalaziz2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: A new series of 3,6-dialkyl-6,9-dihydro-2-methyl-9-oxo-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-8-carboxylic acids, 3-((2-substituted-5-(un)substituted-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-ones, 5-((2-substituted-5-(un)substituted-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2(3H)-thiones and 5-((2-substituted-5-(un)substituted-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl)-2-(alkylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles has been synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Among the tested compounds,7e and 7g showed the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, while compound 7i showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis. In addition, a significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was exhibited by compound 13a, while both compounds 13b and 13c showed good antifungal activity. Detailed syntheses, spectroscopic and biological data are reported.

[El-Sherbeny MA, Maarouf AR, Hassan AHE, Abdel-Aziz NI. Design and Synthesis of New Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):785-798]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 110

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.110

 

Keywords: Benzimidazoles; imidazoquinolines; antimicrobial agents

Full Text

110

111

Modeling Supervisory Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots using Graph Theory, Automata and Z Notation

 

Javed Iqbal1, Sher Afzal Khan2, Nazir Ahmad Zafar3 and Farooq Ahmad1

 

1Faculty of Information Technology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

2Department of Computer sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan

3Department of Computer Science, King Faisal University, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

javedsamon@ucp.edu.pk; sher.afzal@awkum.edu.pk; drfarooq@ucp.edu.pk; nazafar@kfu.edu.sa; gafzal@cae.nust.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Supervisory control of the mobile robot navigation system has critical importance. The supervisory control software development of mobile robot navigation can be performed in an unknown environment or for controlled robots in a known environment. Finite automata and graph theory are functional tools in modeling the robot navigation system through discrete environment. This research has emphasis on an integration of graph theory, automata and Z notation for modeling supervisory control of robot navigation system. The design of robot blocked, not blocked and its supervisory control is developed using automata, in which the states are represented by nodes (rooms) and transitions (stairs and doors) by directed edges. In this paper, the integration of approaches as an effective tool for modeling is investigated by using Z/Eves.

[Iqbal J, Khan SA, Zafar NA, Ahmad F and Khan GA. Modeling Supervisory Control of Autonomous Mobile Robots using Graph Theory, Automata and Z Notation. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):799-804]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 111

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.111

 

Keywords: Autonomous Mobile Robot; Supervisory Control; Integration of Approaches; Graph Theory; Automata and Z-notation

Full Text

111

112

Study of the process of pricing on the power transmission in basis of POC

 

Limouzade, esmaeil

 

Abstract: The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of electricity energy, often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid connection. The system “point of connection” is one of the most important grids. In a competitive energy market, if a reasonable framework about the power transmission does not be presented, power manufacturers would not have any motivation to generate power or absorbing the radioactive power; Hence Independent. Electricity System would have problem in the stability of voltage and accessibility of voltage profile. It‘s over two decades passing from the reconstruction of electricity industry in various countries, in which the transmission network is the main topic involved in the electricity industry. However, the cost of transmission involves low percentage of system price; anyway it is highly important in electricity market. Hence, transmission pricing has to be an acceptable economic index applying through market, in which making decisions about determining the resources, developing and enhancing the systems would be possible. In recent years, various approaches of transmission pricing have been presented and applied. In this article, we have attempted to present the transmission pricing through the method “point of connection.” In this paper, we have observed the method “The Point of Connection (PoC) “, in which transmission pricing mechanism through PoC lends itself to the requirements of the Tariff Policy; PoC mechanism has already been used in the power exchange based transactions. The charges through the method “PoC” need to be applied across all types of transactions long term, medium term and short term including the power exchange. Transmission charges are based on the location of various generators and demand customers in the grid capture utilization of the underlying resources.

[Limouzade, esmaeil.. Study of the process of pricing on the power transmission in basis of POC. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):805-813]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). 112

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.112

 

Key words: point of connection, electricity transmission, pricing, electricity industry, energy transactions

Full Text

112

113

Persian Gulf position in America's geopolitical point of view

 

Mohammad Abolfathi, Bahram Moradi, Ali Askar Rezai

 

Department of Political Science, Razi University, Iran

 

Abstract: Ending the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union disturbs the geopolitical order of the world and turns the world from bipolar structure into the geopolitical transition phase. At this stage, the United States that had found itself as a just global superpower in various areas (political, economic, military, cultural, etc.) found the arena suitable to expand and continue the hegemonic system by defining new geopolitical context namely the new world order. The country defines particular national interests in order to sustain its hegemonic system all over the world and found its own national security strategy planning. Among these, the Persian Gulf region, having unique geopolitical features such as position, specific human resources, enjoys a special place in the country's national security strategy so that a current American policy in Persian Gulf can be evaluated in the same direction. In this paper, U.S. geopolitical position in the Persian Gulf region and its approach towards the region will be examined via geopolitical perspective.

[Mohammad Abolfathi, Bahram Moradi, Ali Askar Rezai. Persian Gulf position in America's geopolitical point of view. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):814-819]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 113

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.113

 

Keywords: geopolitical transition, geopolitical structure, hegemonic regimes, Persian Gulf

Full Text

113

114

Formalization of Oil and Gas Seismic Survey using Z-notation

 

Sana Asif1, Sher Afzal Khan2, Farooq Ahmad3, Gul Afzal Khan4, Nazir Ahmad Zafar5 and Muneeb ur Rehman6

 

1 Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhatto Institute of Management and Computer, Islamabad, PAKISTAN

2Department of Computer sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan

3Faculty of Information Technology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

 4College of Aero. Eng., National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

5Department of Computer Science, King Faisal University, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia

6Department of Physics, Islmia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan

 

Abstract: Formal methods are mathematical tools use for modeling and verification of hardware system. These tools increase the quality and reliability of a system. In this work we present to model the system use for locating oil and gas reservoirs using z-notation. Oil and gas are usually found in various types of subsurface traps. Seismology (the science concerned with the finding oil and gas), involves the measurement of sound waves reflected back to the surface from rock layers. This is complex and critical task, so by formalizing this we can attain accuracy. This modeling can develop a system which is accurate and verified and efficient.

 [Asif S, Khan SA, Ahmad F, Khan GA and Zafar NA. Formalization of Oil and Gas Seismic Survey using Z-notation. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):820-826]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 114

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.114

 

Keywords: Z-Notation, Formal Methods, Seismic, Refraction, Reflection

Full Text

114

115

Impact of Haemodialysis on Certian Trace Elements Among Patients Suffering from End Stage Renal Disease.

 

EL-Habibi, E.M.1; Bakr, M.A.2; and Kamal, N.1

 

1 Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

2 Urology and Nephrology, Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

 

Abstract: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at risk of developing trace elements imbalance and thus the establishment of normal value of trace elements in HD patients is of great importance. The objective of this study was to compare plasma trace elements [copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se)] levels between hemodialysis Egyptian patients and healthy controls. Forty four hemodialysis patients with End Stage Renal disease (ESRD) and 44 control subjects were enrolled. The patients were 21 males and 23 females, their ages ranged from 20 to 77years. The control subjects were 21 males and 23 females, their ages ranged from 20 to 65years. Blood samples were collected before and after dialysis sessions and from control. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was applied to measure the plasma levels of the studied trace elements. Results showed that Mn, Co, Se and Cr levels in plasma of hemodialysis patients were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy controls. There weren't any significant differences in Cu and Zn concentrations between patients and their controls. On the other hand, the data also revealed that hemodialysis significantly increased (p <0.05) Cr level only in male patients, however in female patients a significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in Se. In conclusion, this study revealed that plasma trace element concentrations in HD patients are distinctly different compared to that of healthy controls. Elements such as Mn, Co, Se and Cr are reduced in HD patients, while Cu and Zn are not affected. Regular monitoring of trace elements in hemodialytic patients is advisable.

[EL-Habibi, E.M.; Bakr, M.A.; and Kamal, N. Impact of Haemodialysis on Certian Trace Elements Among Patients Suffering from End Stage Renal Disease. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):827-833]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 115

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.115

 

Keywords: Hemodialysis, Trace elements, chronic renal failure, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. 

Full Text

115

116

Structural Analysis Methods for Petri Net based Control Systems: a Review

 

Sher Afzal Khan1, Farooq Ahmad2, Ilyas Fakhir3, Muneeb ur Rehman4 and Murad Ullah4

 

1Department of Computer Science, Abul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan

2 Faculty of Information Technology, University of Central Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

3 Department of Computer Science, GC University Lahore, Pakistan

4Islamia College University, Peshawar, Pakistan

Emails: sher.afzal@awkum.edu.pk, dr.farooq@ucp.edu.pk

 

Abstract: Petri net (PN) formalism has been widely used for the design and implementation of supervisory control systems and the structural analysis methods for PNs have been successfully used for their analysis. This paper focuses on the recent developments in the area of structural analysis techniques for the PN based control systems. Theoretical developments in the area of PN based control applications with the practical experiences are discussed and further identified the research trends in this area. In addition a brief overview of siphon based analysis methods for controlled systems and initiation of elementary siphon based analysis is also presented. Clear link between the finding of siphons and the net-reduction has been established from the literature and its application for analysis is also discussed.

[Khan SA, Ahmad F and Fakhir I. Structural Analysis Methods for Petri Net based Control Systems: a Review J Am Sci 2012;8(12):834-843]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 116

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.116

 

 Keywords: Petri net, structural analysis, siphons, net-reduction, control system

Full Text

116

117

Assessment of Pregnant Women Knowledge Attending Maternal and Child Health Care Centers at El Minia City About Teratogenicity of Drugs During Pregnancy

 

Om El Hana A. Mohammed1, Sawat A. Mohammed 2, Azza M. Hafez 1, and Amal F. Arief 3

 

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Minia University

 2 Obstetrics & Gynecological Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University.

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecological Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University

 

Abstract: Drugs intake during pregnancy may adversely affect developing embryo or fetus. These drugs are known as teratogen. So to be safe, only drugs that are absolutely necessary should be used with permission of knowledgeable practitioner. Aim: to assess level of women's knowledge about teratogenicity of drugs used during pregnancy. Research design: a cross sectional study. Material & methods: this study was conducted in Maternal and Child Health care Centers at Minia city. The study included 300 pregnant women, an interview sheet was used by the researcher to assess socio-demographic characteristics, obstetrical characteristics, and knowledge about drug intake during pregnancy. Results: the main finding of the study were exploring that more than half of the study sample had inadequate and poor knowledge regarding drug intake during pregnancy and only 28.7% of sample had adequate knowledge especially in relation to the risk time for taking drugs. The most common reasons for taking drugs was common cold 26.9%, drugs,18.3%to relieve headache and 45.2% of sample take drugs for heartburn. in this study, it was also found that certain factors seemed to affect women's knowledge regarding drug intake during pregnancy such as illiteracy, being housewife, and young age. Conclusion: women lack essential knowledge regarding drugs intake during pregnancy. These findings indicate need to inform pregnant women about dangers of drugs use during pregnancy especially during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Physician and nurses should play a key role in communicating theses risks.

[Om El Hana A. Mohammed, Sawat A. Mohammed, Azza M. Hafez, and Amal F. Arief. Assessment of Pregnant Women Knowledge Attending Maternal and Child Health Care Centers at El Minia City About Teratogenicity of Drugs During Pregnancy. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):844-850]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 117

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.117

 

Key Words: drugs teratogenicity, pregnant women, women knowledge.

Full Text

117

118

Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of new furanochromone derivatives

 

Magda A.-A. El-Sayed,a Sahar R. Gedara,b Naglaa I. Abdel-Azizc*

 

a Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura 35516, Egypt; b Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, 35516 Egypt; cDepartment of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura 35516, Egypt; *naglaabdalaziz2005@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: New furanochromone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity in HEPG2 (liver cancer) cell line by SRB (Sulphorhodamine B) assay. Among the tested compounds, the cytotoxic activity of compounds 2k, 5 and 6c was the most prominent, revealed by, IC50 of 2.1, 2.3 and 2.5 µg/ml, respectively. The titled semisynthetic compounds were obtained by condensation of khellin (extracted from Ammi visnaga L. fruits) with different aldehydes followed by reaction with different primary amines and malononitril. The detailed synthesis, spectroscopic and biological data are reported.

 [El-Sayed MA-A, Gedara SR, Abdel-Aziz NI. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of New Furanochromone Derivatives. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):851-857]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 118

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.118

 

Keywords: Furanochromones; Ammi visnaga L.; Khellin; Synthesis; Cytotoxicity.

Full Text

118

119

Effect of dietary supplements on digestive enzymes and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum)

 
Elham Awad1, Brian Austin2 and Alastair Lyndon3
 
1Department of Hydrobiology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
2Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland, UK
3School of Life Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK

elhamsawad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), (average weight = 18 ± 0.2 g) were fed for two months with diet supplemented with 1 g (= 1%) and 2 g (= 2%) 100 g-1 of lupin (Lupinus perennis), mango (Mangifera indica) and stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), and with normal diet as controls. Digestive enzymes (in the stomach and intestine), growth performance and body composition were examined following each treatment with results revealing that there was as statistically significant enhancement only in pepsin activity compared with the controls. There was a significant enhancement in weight gain, fish length and specific growth rate (SGR) of the treatment groups compared to controls.
[Elham Awad, Brian Austin and Alastair Lyndon. Effect of dietary supplements on digestive enzymes and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). J Am Sci 2012;8(12):858-864]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 119

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.119

 

Keywords: Oncorhynchus mykiss; digestive enzymes; lupin; mango; stinging nettle.

Full Text

119

120

Agarose Slide Elisa for Diagnosis of HCV-AB in Rural Areas

 

Mohammed M. Safhi1 and Hussien A. Abouelhag2

 

1Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Microbiology and Immunology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Egypt

 

Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a viral infection of the liver affecting 170 million people around the world. Commercially available tests for HCV today are based on enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) for detection of HCV-Ab. Regarding the sophisticated equipments required for diagnosis of HCV, this this work targeted offering a dependable field serological test that can be used in rural areas as preliminary screening test for HCV patients. Hundred and fifty serum samples were collected from Jazan clinics in Saudi Arabia for HCV patients and 50 serum samples were collected from healthy volunteers. All samples were tested for HCV-Ab using slides coated with 1.5% agarose and saturated with HCV capside synthetic peptide (BIORAD) (10%). Fifty microliter of each sample were applied onto spot of HCV-Ag saturated agarose and incubated in humidified incubator for 90 min at 37οC. After which the slides were wash. Mouse antihuman IgG labeled conjugate was added to the slides and incubated for 30 min at 37οC. After washing the slides, 50µl substrate (BIORAD) were added and incubated for 30 min at room temperature then washed out. The slides were examined by naked eye and by light microscope against controls. The obtained results were compared with standard Monolisa HCV Ag-Ab Ultra assay and both results were matched. The results proved that agarose slide EIA have accuracy exceeding ˃ 99%. So, agarose slide EIA can be suggested for use in preliminary diagnosis of HCV in the field clinics of rural areas or even in screening of blood donors in emergence cases.

[Mohammed M. Safhi and Hussien A. Abouelhag. Agarose Slide Elisa for Diagnosis of Hcv-Ab in Rural Areas. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):865-871]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 120

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.120

 

Key words: HCV, slide ELISA, HCV EIA, agarose and rural areas.

Full Text

120

121

Strategic management changes in the era of globalization and its impact on organizing human resource

 

Abbas Abbasi Azar

 

Abstract: Taking a careful look at the concept of strategic management indicate us the necessity of applying it. Considering the environmental changes which are accelerated nowadays and the complexity of organizational decision making, the necessity of applying a comprehensive and inclusive plan can be more tangible. It is nothing but a strategic plan. Strategic management based on dynamic, provident, holistic and contingent mentality can be the solutions for many problems of today organizations. However, in the era of rapid changes, the role of government, citizens and organizational groups are rapidly changed, especially the public and private organizations and management systems are rapidly transformed arbitrary or under the pressure. Tantamount of governmental developments, citizens` role can be changed from a mere acceptor to challenger, participatory role, and more active in management. The challenges which are faced by developing nation’s government and management are more serious than the industrialized nations. Strategic planning and management is the gravity center of implementation and achieving the developmental goals of the Nations. In Iran, strategic development and management of human resource is a key of designing and implementing development programs and desirable management. To deal with the globalization challenges, managers should be effective managers with high quality.

[Abbas Abbasi Azar. Strategic management changes in the era of globalization and its impact on organizing human resource. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):872-875]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 121

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.121

 

Keywords: Management, strategic management, globalization

Full Text

121

122

The Role of Transforming Growth Factor β2 Gene Expression as a Predictor of Implantation Failure

 

Mohamed El –Kadi, Mohamed Hassan and Roaa Kamal Salem

 

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology – Ain Shams University

mkadi71@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the possible relationship between transforming growth factor β2 (TGF β2) gene expression within the endometrial tissue and implantation failure in patients with failed intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients and Methods: The current prospective cross sectional study was conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital during the period between October 2008 and August 2010. Fifty patients with primary unexplained infertility and had previous failed one or more ICSI trials, done in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, 3 cycles before the study. Endometrial samples were obtained without anesthesia from each women using Pipelle® biopsy. Endometrial biopsy was taken at day 18-23 from the cycle. TGF-β2 gene expression was evaluated in the endometrium of secretory phases by immunohistochemistry with scoring through two independent observers regarding intensity of immunostaining in each of glandular epithelium, luminal epithelium and stroma as well as spread (surface area) of immune reaction. The immunostaining intensity scores were: Zero for absent staining, one for mild staining, two for moderate staining and 3 for strong staining. After sample all cases underwent one cycle of ovarian hyperstimulation completed by ICSI. The included women were divided into 2 groups according to ICSI results: Group A: Included infertile women who became pregnant and group B: Included infertile women who had another failed ICSI cycle. Results: A total of 50 pregnant women with primary infertility and previous failed ICSI were included in the study. The included women were divided in to 2 groups according to ICSI results: Group A: Included 12 infertile women who become pregnant and group B: Included 38 infertile women who had another failed ICSI cycle. There was a non-significant difference (p>0.05) between both groups regarding the mean age of patients, body mass index (BMI), and duration of infertility, basal follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin and progesterone but significant difference (p<0.01) in endometrial thickness. As regards endometrial thickness; it showed high significant correlation (p<0.01) with TGFβ2 immunostaining intensity in luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, stromal cells and total surface area staining. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) between both groups as regards TGF2β immunostaining intensity in luminal epithelium, stromal epithelium glandular epithelium, and also in total surface area. Regarding immunostaining intensity scores the specificity failure percent in luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, stromal cells and total surface area, if the score ≥ 2.50, was 90%, while sensitivity failure in luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and total surface area, was 87.7%.If immunostaining intensity score was ≥ 0.50 the specificity failure was 0% in glandular epithelium and total surface area while the sensitivity failure was 50%. Conclusion: Endometrial TGFβ2 expression can be used as an investigation for couples with repeated failed ICSI. It can be also used as a marker for optimal implantation, especially before ICSI trials.

[Mohamed El –Kadi, Mohamed Hassan and Roaa Kamal Salem. The Role of Transforming Growth Factor β2 Gene Expression as a Predictor of Implantation Failure. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):876-881]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 122

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.122

 

Key Words: ICSI-implantation failure- TGFβ2 gene

Full Text

122

123

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Direct and Indirect Non-Invasive Bio-Markers versus Liver Biopsy to Stage- Hepatic Fibrosis in Patients with Isolated Chronic HCV and Co-Infected With Schistosomiasis

 

Amal Abdel-Aziz1, Esam Elshimi2, Naglaa R. Ismael3, Sabah Elabd 1, Gehan Abdel-Ghany1 and Wesam Morad2

 

1Genetic Engineering Institute - Menoufiya University

2National Liver Institute-Menoufiya University

3 Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Egypt

eelshimi@liver–eg.org

 

Background: HCV and schistosomiasis are the most serious health burden in Egyptian community. Aim: To test the accuracy of direct and indirect fibrosis biochemical markers for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with and without Schistosomaisis compared to liver biopsy. Subjects and methods: patients with HCV candidate for anti viral therapy in National Egyptian Program for treatment of HCV were included in this study, all patients were investigated for serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, complete blood count, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag), HCV Abs, HCV-RNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, abdominal ultrasound and ultrasonic-guided liver biopsy. The following ratios, scores and indices were calculated and compared with the results of the histopathological examination: AST/ALT ratio (AAR), age platelet index (API), AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) and serum Hyaloronic acid (HAA) before and after end of therapy. RESULTS: There is statistical significant association between HAA and interferon response to treatment (p- value < 0.01). HAA is a good sensitive, bad specific to diagnose severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (73.9%, 66.7%). AST is a good sensitive, bad specific to diagnose severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (73.9, 49.1). HAA /platelets ratio is a good sensitive, bad specific to diagnose severe fibrosis or cirrhosis (73.9%, 59.3%). There is no statistical significant difference between both HCV group with bilharsiasis and HCV mono-infection regarding HAA (p- value > 0.05). There is no statistical significant association between HAA and fibrosis grade in mono-infection (p- value > 0.05). There is statistical significant association between HAA and fibrosis grade in HCV group with bilharsiasis (p- value<0.01). There is highly statistical significant difference between basal and follow up of HAA (p- value < 0.01). There is no statistical significant association between HAA and activity grade in each group of HCV (p- value > 0.05).. There is statistical significant association between HAA and response to interferon treatment in each group of HCV (p- value < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The use of indirect and direct (HAA) biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy, HAA could also predict the response to interferon in the studied patients either chronic HCV mono-infection or co-infected with HCV.

[Amal Abdel-Aziz, Esam Elshimi, Naglaa R. Ismael, Sabah Elabd, Gehan Abdel-Ghany and Wesam Morad. Diagnostic and prognostic value of direct and indirect non-invasive bio-markers versus liver biopsy to stage- hepatic fibrosis in patients with isolated chronic HCV and co-infected with Schistosomiasi. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):882-889]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 123

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.123

 

Key words: Hyalouronic acid-Liver fibrosis

Full Text

123

124

A Proposed Strategy for Integrating Maintenance Considerations into the Design Phase of the Building

An Egyptian Case Study

 

Laila Khodeir

 

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

archlailakhodeir@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The processes of maintenance of buildings have a great impact on both their performance and their related systems. Whereas, building performance is valued and evaluated through the approach of building performance evaluation (BPE), which is based on the feedback and evaluation at every phase of the building delivery. However, the building maintenance industry in Egypt has long been an area of neglect, as most of buildings stakeholders restrict its role to the operation phase of the building. This attitude disregards the precautionary maintenance processes that could be achieved through the preliminary phases of the design of buildings. Thus, the main concern of this paper is setting a definite strategy that integrates maintenance considerations into the design process of buildings. The ultimate purpose is to achieve better performing buildings regarding maintenance aspects. The study sheds light on the major barriers of applying efficient maintenance, through the analysis of four chosen public buildings in Egypt. Emphasis is made on the role and impact of maintenance considerations in guiding the decision- making process, as well as the lack of integrating maintenance into the whole building design process. The paper suggests a precautionary strategy for integrating maintenance into the design process of buildings, through specific considerations that should be followed in order to achieve better performance of buildings.

[Laila Khodeir. A Proposed Strategy for Integrating Maintenance Considerations into the Design Phase of the Building: An Egyptian Case Study. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):890-898]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 124

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.124

 

Keywords: Maintenance; Building Performance Evaluation; Egypt

Full Text

124

125

Does Human Papilloma Virus Have A Role in Urinary Bladder Carcinoma of Egyptian Patients?

 

Moshira M. Abdelwahed and Mohammad I. Shaban

 

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University

Mohammadshaban1973@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Bladder cancer is the second most commonly occuring genitourinary cancer in adult. Egypt has the highest bladder cancer rate in the world with local factors most probably responsible for such prevalence. In recent years, viral infections including human papilloma virus (HPV) have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis. HPV is a small circular DNA virus that infects stratified squamous epithelium and has an established etiological role in tumors of the urogenital tract and anal region. Several previous studies have looked for an association between HPV and bladder cancer development, however, its possible role is still controversial. Objective: To investigate the possible etiological role of HPV in Egyptian bladder carcinoma. Patients & Methods: 42 Egyptian patients with bladder carcinoma, 17 cases with cystitis as well as 15 cervical carcinoma cases as a positive control were included in this study. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues were used and stained with; H&E to study histopathologic features, immunohistochemistry for P16 & Ki 67 as well as the tissue processed for PCR for HPV expression. Results: Only one case of bladder carcinoma showed positivity for HPV with complete negativity in the cystitis group. 52% of bladder carcinoma cases showed P16 expression & 21.4% showed over expression. P16 expression was higher in cases associated with bilharziasis and in transitional carcinoma cases associated with squamous differentiation. Conclusion: The low prevalence of HPV in this study does not support an etiologic role of HPV in Egyptian bladder carcinogenesis. However, the over expression of P16 in a subset of bladder carcinoma cases could raise a possibility for other HPV type that is not detected by our probe.

 [Moshira M. Abdelwahed and Mohammad I. Shaban. Does Human Papilloma Virus Have A Role in Urinary Bladder Carcinoma of Egyptian Patients? J Am Sci 2012;8(12):899-905]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 125

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.125

 

Key words: HPV, P16 and bladder carcinoma.

Full Text

125

126

The Protective Effect of L - Carnitine on Paracetamol-induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats (Microscopic and Biochemical studies)

 

Zeinab Mahmoud Gebaly1, Basma Kamal Ramadan2 and Mona Hussein Hamouda1

 

1Histology and 2Physiology Departments, Faculty of Medicine for girls, Al-Azhar University

zienabgebaly@live.com

 

Abstract: Background: L-Carnitine, antioxidant agent, have protective effects againt lipid peroxidation.It is a cofator in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. Aim of the work: This study aims to investigate the antioxidant effect of L- Carnitine, on acute nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol overdose and to understand the mechanism of prevention of this toxicity. Material and methods: Four groups of rats (n= 7 in each group) were used. The animals in the control group (group I) did not receive any treatment. The animals in group II received 500 mg/kg b.w./day of L- Carnitine 7 days orally using gastric gavage tube. The animals in group III orally received paracetamol powder dissolved in 50% propylene glycerol as a single dose of 640 mg/kg b. w. Animals in the last group (group IV) were pretreated with oral L- Carnitine for 7 days at a dosage of 500 mg/kg before paracetamol administration. Both kidneys in all rats were removed and tissue SOD and CAT were evaluated. Serum GSH, urea and creatinine, in addition to the histological evaluation using hematoxylin – eosin staining and electron microscope studies were also determined. Results: Renal SOD and CAT, serum urea and creatinein were higher in group III compared to group I and II (p < 0.05), while serum GSH showed a significant reduction in this group. Pretreatment with L-Carnitine prevent these changes. Histologically, paracetamol caused massive degenerative changes in the kidney tissue which was confirmed by quantitative microscopy and the electron microscopic findings. These changes were attenuated by L – Carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: Paracetamol overdose resulted in signs of kidney damage which was evident by an increase in the tissue level of SOD, serum urea and creatinin with a significant reduction in GSH level. Pretreatment with L- Carnitine seems to attenuate the renal damage, as evidenced indirectly by low SOD level.

 [Zeinab Mahmoud Gebaly, Basma Kamal Ramadan and Mona Hussein Hamouda. The Protective Effect of L - Carnitine on Paracetamol-induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rats (Microscopic and Biochemical studies)]J Am Sci 2012;8(12):906-917]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 126

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.126

 

Key Words: SOD: superoxide dismutase CAT: Catalase GSH: glutathione.

Full Text

126

127

Some Epidemiological and Serological Studies on Hydatidosis in Najran Region

 

Abdulrahman M. Al-Qurashi ¹ and Mosa M. Bahnass2

 

1 Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.

2Department of Applied Medical Sciences, Community College, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia. Department of Animal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt. dr.alqurashi@hotmail.com; tasnimmosa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was designed to record the prevalence rate of hydatidosis among farm animals and human in Najran area. Experiment I recorded the rate of hydatidosis in camels, sheep and goats. A total of 48139 animals (camels = 4531, sheep= 29916, goats= 13692) were employed in this experiment. The animals were examined at post- mortem for the presence of hydatid cysts. The results showed that the rate of prevalence differs (p<0.001) among animal species with higher rates of infection in sheep (6.8%), camels (5.4%) and goats (2.2%). The overall rate of prevalence was 5.3%. Experiment II is carried to determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in human. At total of 1142 human serum samples were tested with ELISA and IHA (ELISA =276, IHA=866) for the presence of hydatid antibodies. Fifty two serum samples (ELIZA = 17, IHA= 35) were positive for hydatid antibodies (4.5%) with no significant difference (p >0.05) between ELISA and IHA results. However, out of 57 negative samples evaluated with IHA, 4 samples were positive when tested with ELISA and out of 35 IHA positive samples 4 samples were negative when tested with ELISA. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of IHA were 88.5 %, 92.9% and 91.3%, respectively. In conclusion hydatidosis prevails in Najran area at an overall rate of 5.3% in farm animals and 4.5% in human. Additionally, ELIZA and/or IHA can be used to screen hydaitdosis in human.

[Abdulrahman M. Al-Qurashi and Mosa M. Bahnass. Some Epidemiological and Serological Studies on Hydatidosis in Najran Region. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):918-921]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 127

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.127

 

Key words: Epidemiological, serological, hydatidosis, animal, human, ELISA, IHA

Full Text

127

128

Direct Determination of Heavy Metal in Tanks Water in South of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique 

 

Asia Alshikh

 

Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Higher Education, Jazan University, Deanship of Scienctif Research, Science College, Jazan. Ziadahmed1020@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this work, the direct determination of some trace heavy metals in the tanks water were carried out by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) technique at Multi Mode Electrode (MME), mercury drop capillary for MME working electrode, using a differential pulse mode. The stripping current arising from the oxidation of metals were connected with the concentration the metals in the sample. The concentration of some trace heavy metals found in tanks water sample were determined using acetate buffer (pH: 4.2). This value of elements in this study is between the limit values suggested by WHO and EPA, it is understood that the concentration of Zn(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) in tanks water of Abu-Arish, Sabia, Jazan and Bani-Malik areas have no influence on the human health.

[Asia Alshikh. Direct Determination of Heavy Metal in Tanks Water in South of The Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):922-928]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 128

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.128

 

Keywords: tanks water; voltammetry; Saudi; trace elements.

Full Text

128

129

Histological Evaluation of the Effect of Melatonin Gel in the Treatment of acute one-wall intrabony defect in Dogs

 

Malak Yousef Mohamed Shoukheba1, Mohamed Hassan Ahmed 2

 

1Department of Oral medicine, Periodontology, Oral Diagnosis and Radiology Department, Tanta University, Egypt. 2 Department of Oral Biology, Alazhar University, Assiut branch, Egypt

smalakyousefmohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Recently, importance has been given to the use of melatonin for predictably obtaining periodontal regeneration. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the resulting histological regeneration after the use of melatonin gel in the treatment of induced periodontal one-wall intrabony defects in Dogs. Methods: One-wall infrabony defects (4x4mm) were surgically created in the mesial aspect of second premolars bilaterally (split mouth study) in 8 dogs. Each intrabony defect underwent one of 2 treatment modalities: melatonin gel ̸ collagen sponge (experimental site group I) or placebo gel (methyl cellulose) ̸ collagen sponge (control site group II). Four animals (8 defects 4 defects from tested side and 4 from control side) were sacrificed with an overdose of anesthesia at one month post-surgically and block sections (8 specimens) of the defects were collected for histological and histometric examinations. At 3 months, the other four animals were sacrificed to obtain another 8 block sections for the same purpose. Results: At one month, melatonin treated specimens showed moderate amount of newly formed bone, newly formed cementum, poorly organized PL fibers, with no epithelial down growth was observed. On the other hand, the surgical control specimens showed epithelial down growth along the root surface, and minimal amount of bone formation at the apical part of the defect. At three months, histological results of group I (melatonin treated group) revealed true periodontal regeneration that demonstrated similar features to the native periodontal structures found apical to the notches; no epithelial down growth was observed. Well organized, functionally oriented periodontal ligament fibers were observed with plumps of fibroblast cells after melatonin treatment. Surgical control group showed similar histologic features that recorded at one month with limited amount of bone and osteoid tissue confined to the apical portion of the defect. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicated that, the use melatonin is advantageous in stimulating periodontal regeneration.

[Malak Yousef Mohamed Shoukheba, Mohamed Hassan Ahmed. Histological Evaluation of the Effect of Melatonin Gel in the Treatment of acute one-wall intrabony defect in dogs. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):929-938]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 129

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.129

 

Keywords: Melatonin; One-wall infrabony defects, Periodontal regeneration.

Full Text

129

130

Effect of Designed Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program on Caregivers' Knowledge of Immobilized Patients

 

khalid Fahd Alhosis 1, Shereen A A Qalawa 2. Dalia Salah E. Abd El-Moneem 3

 

1 Dean of Nursing College, Qassim University, KSA

2&3 assistant professior, nursing College, Qassim University, KSA

Dalia_elsedawy@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Background: Pressure ulcer is one of the common problems in health care. As many as 60% or more of them develop in hospitalized patients. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) estimated that prevalence of pressure ulcer in acute cases is 15%. Prevention is generally considered as the most effective way to confront this issue. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of designed pressure ulcer prevention program on caregivers' knowledge of immobilized patients. Subject and methods: Quasi-experimental design was utilized with 64 adult male& female caregivers of immobilized patients from medical, surgical and orthopedic units of King Fahd & medical and surgical units of king Saud hospitals were recruited. Two modified tools were used to collect data about sociodemographic characteristics & knowledge regarding pressure ulcer prevention which mainly cover four areas: skin care; proper positions; nutrition & Exercises. Results: results of the present study revealed that a highly statistical significant improvement of mean knowledge score in post test compared with pre test related to prevention of pressure ulcer through skin care, positions, nutrition and exercises as well as total mean scores of knowledge. In addition, there was no statistical significant difference in mean knowledge score between age groups, gender, and significance relation to patients among caregivers in pre test and post test. While there was a statistical significant difference in mean knowledge score regarding educational level of caregivers in pre test and post test. Conclusion: the implementation of the educational program for caregivers showed a remarkable increase and improvement of the caregiver's knowledge regarding preventive measures of pressure ulcer Recommendations: further researches can be done in the area of health education for prevention aspects concerning caregivers as a target such as prevention of deep venues thrombosis, chest infection........etc.

 [khalid Fahd Alhosis, Shereen A A Qalawa and Dalia Salah E Abd El-Moneem. Effect of Designed Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program on Caregivers' Knowledge of Immobilized Patients. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):939-948]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 130

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.130

 

Keywords: Teaching program, Prevention, Pressure Ulcer, Caregivers, Immobilized patients

Full Text

130

131

 Impact of Nursing Guidelines on the University Student's Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes towards Swine Flu (H1N1)

 

1Zeinab Hussain Ali, 2Nadia Mohamed Taha and 3Sahar Ahamed Shaphique

 

1Adult Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, of Helwan, Helwan, Egypt

2Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Zagazig, Egypt

3community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, of Helwan, Helwan, Egypt

Dr_nadya_mohamed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the study: This study was conducted to determine the impact of nursing guidelines on the University student's knowledge, practice and attitudes towards swan flue (H1N1). Research hypotheses: H-1. University students who received nursing guidelines will have progress in their knowledge and attitudes regarding swan flue (H1N1) as measured by tools (1 & 2) H2 University students who received nursing guidelines will have progress in their preventive and hygienic care practice regarding swan Flue (H1N1) as measured by tools (3). Design: a quasi experimental research design was used with pre-post and assessment of outcomes. It involved three phases: assessment, implementation, and evaluation. Setting: The study was conducted at Faculties of Nursing Zagazig and Helwan Universities, Egypt. Subjects: The target population was first year students at Zagazig, and Helwan Universities representative faculty of nursing, science, medicine and pharmacy first year students (400 from, 11000 students which representing (37.4%), Tools: Three tools were used for data collection, 1) Interview form: was constructed and implemented by the researchers. It consisted of two parts. The first part covered student's characteristics and the second part included knowledge about swan flue. (2) Liker Scale-type questions regarding the attitudes toward H1N1 swan flue (H1N1) and (3) Assessment sheet regarding prevention and controlling measures which constitute two parts, (a) first part constitute 10 practical items about prevention and controlling measures and part (b) Observational checklist about hand wash skill. Results: There were statistically significant effects of the provided guidelines on students; knowledge, practice and attitude towards influenza A/H1N1.There were positive coefficients change in knowledge score and practices toward protective and preventive patterns. As well there was a slight improvement in the student's attitude toward influenza A/H1N1. The study concluded that the developed guidelines had a significant positive impact on students, knowledge, practices, and attitude toward influenza A/H1N1.This success is attributed to these guidelines are based on needs assessment and integration of updated technology. Therefore the study recommended, increasing the health educational guidelines provided through faculties of nursing as an effective method of health education. The guidelines should include detailed information about the disease, its symptoms in humans, simplified practical methods of protection and good hygienic practices.

[Zeinab Hussain Ali, Nadia Mohamed Taha and Sahar Ahamed Shaphique. Impact of Nursing Guidelines on the University Student's Knowledge, Practice and Attitudes towards Swine Flu (H1N1). J Am Sci 2012;8(12):949-960]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 131

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.131

 

Keywords: guidelines, attitude, and Swan Flue (H1N1)

Full Text

131

132

Experience with Arteriovenous Fistulas for Chronic Hemodialysis in Pediatric Age Group

 

Nehad Zaid

 

Vascular Surgery Unit, General Surgery Department, Menoufiya University Hospitals

nehadzaid@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of the work: The aim of this work is to estimate the 2-year cumulative patency of upper arm A-V fistulae in children on regular haemodialysis. Methods: All children who are referred to our surgical unit from January 2007 to January 2011 with inadequate forearm veins underwent upper arm A-V fistulae both brachio-basilic & brachi-cephalic A-V fistulae (Kaplar-Meier Analysis) and long rank tests are done. Results: 14 children (8 males & 6 females) with inadequate forearm veins created 14 A-V fistulae (10 B.B. & 4 B.C.). Median age was (12.0±3.6 years), mean (±SE) operative time for BB was (2.2±0.3 hrs) & for BC was (1.5±0.0 hrs). The overall 2-years qualitative patency was (60%) (BB 60% & BC 50%). Three fistulae failed & 3 censored (2 unrelated deaths and one lost follow up, three underwent surgical thrombectomies & regained function). There was no significant difference in survival times based on fistula type, age, sex or operative time. Conclusion: BBF & BCF are a reliable angio-access for maintained regular haemodialysis for children not suitable for distal forearm fistula due to inadequate forearm vein.

[Nehad Zaid. Experience with Arteriovenous Fistulas for Chronic Hemodialysis in Pediatric Age Group. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):961-967]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 132

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.132

 

Keywords: Arteriovenous, Fistulas, Hemodialysis

Full Text

132

133

[J Am Sci 2012;8(12):968-974]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 133

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.133

 Withdrawn

Full Text

133

134

A Review on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria

 

Kadafa, Adati Ayuba1*, Latifah 2, Abd Manaf2, Abdullah, Ho Sabrina3, Sulaiman, Wan Nur Azmin4

 

Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Email*: kwaala@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste Management is a global issue and has proven a key challenge facing African countries. It constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental problem facing African cities. Most cities spend 20-50% of their annual budget on Solid Waste Management and only 20-80% of the waste is collected. The UNEP states “The World Bank estimates that in developing countries, it is common for municipalities to spend 20-50 % of their available budget on Solid Waste Management (open dumping with open burning is the norm), even though 30-60% of all the Urban Solid Wastes remain uncollected and less than 50% of the population is served. In low-income countries, collection alone drains up 80-90% of Municipal Solid Waste Management budget. In mid-income countries, collection costs 50-80 % of total budget. In high-income countries, collection only accounts for less than 10% of the budget, which allows large funds to be allocated to waste treatment facilities”. One of the consequences of population growth and globalization is increased waste generation, generation varying between cities and city part in Africa, with reliable data being difficult to come by. This has become a concern for developing countries and is one of the greatest challenges facing Environmental Protection Agencies in developing countries. This paper aims at reviewing the issue of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. Data was obtained from past literature, interviews, government agencies and documents. The qualitative data was analyzed descriptively and the quantitative data was analyzed using basic statistical methods, aimed at giving a clear and detailed overview of the situation. Based on the findings it can be concluded that Municipal Solid Waste Management is becoming a serious problem that is yet to be properly addressed in Nigeria.

[Kadafa, Adati Ayuba, Latifah. A Review on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Nigeria. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):975-982]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 134

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.134

 

Keywords: Municipal, Solid waste, Management, Environment, Nigeria

 Full Text

134

135

 Studies on trichomoniasis in Libya and comparison between InPouch™ TV culture, wet mount examination and Giemsa staining for diagnosis of the disease

 

Gehan S. Sadek¹ and Mohammed M. Gammo²

 

¹Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufiya University, Egypt

²Department of Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 7th April University, Zawia, Libya

gss_bmd@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent non- viral sexually transmitted disease. In females, it causes vaginal discharge, severe pruritus, dyspareunia and dysuria. It can lead to severe reproductive health sequelae in both sexes and it has been implicated in increasing sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus up to two folds. Laboratory diagnosis of the disease is necessary and could be made by several methods which vary in their sensitivity and specificity. InPouch™ TV culture is highly sensitive in diagnosing the disease. Unfortunately, researches made in Libya to study the prevalence of trichomoniasis are very few; also diagnosis is based only on clinical manifestations which could be confused with those of other sexually transmitted diseases. Hence, the present work was aimed to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women suffering from vaginal discharge in Zawia district, Libya. Also, to compare between InPouch™ TV culture, wet mount examination and Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. In addition, to study some sociodemographic characteristics and some hygiene practices of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis as a base to conduct control programs of the disease. Ninety eight patients suffering from vaginal discharge (Group 1) and 30 patients not suffering from vaginal discharge (Group 2 or control group) were included in this study. All participants were asked about age, level of residence and many hygiene practices. Three vaginal swabs were taken from each participant and examined by InPouch™ TV culture, wet mount examination and Giemsa staining. It was found that infection rate was relatively high in the examined patients. InPouch™ TV culture was the most sensitive method and detect 36.7% positive patients among group 1. Also, its specificity was 100%. It was superior to wet mount examination and Giemsa staining regarding ease of handling & interpretation, ease of transportation and total time of reading results. Infection rate was highest among patients in the age group 40-45 years. Also, it was relatively high in patients living in poor level, patients using tub for washing, patients who did not use to bath frequently or use soap on bathing, patients who used seat latrines and patients who were sharing the sleeping place with other members of the family. In addition, it was significantly high in patients who were sharing towels with someone else. It is concluded that infection rate of Trichomonas vaginalis in Libya is relatively high, so there must be a policy decision to increase awareness of this disease. InPouch™ TV culture is a very useful tool in diagnosis. It is recommended to use this culture as a routine method for diagnosis in the laboratory.

[Gehan S. Sadek and Mohammed M. Gammo. Studies on trichomoniasis in Libya and comparison between InPouch™ TV culture, wet mount examination and Giemsa staining for diagnosis of the disease. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):983-995]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 135

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.135

 

Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Libya, InPouch™ TV culture, wet mount examination, Giemsa staining

 Full Text

135

136

Production of Biscuits from Different Sorghum Varieties Essay Digestibility Protein to Weanling Rats

 

1Maha A. Hejazi and 2Fizah Mosaed Mohamad Al-Subhi

 

1Faculty of Home Economics - King Abd El-Aziz Univ., Saudi Arabia

2Nutrition and Food Sci. Dept., Umm Al-Qura Univ., Saudi Arabia

baby1_248088@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The current study was carried out to remove the antinutrition factors associated with sorghum grain and improvement the protein digestibility and bioavailability of iron and zinc using soaking and germination methods. Three sorghum varieties (Giza-15, Ajakss and Giza-114) were subjected to chemical, in vitro, technological and biological evaluation. The results showed that the sorghum varieties after treatments, the antinutrition factors were decreased. Whereas, in vitro biological evaluation protein digestibility was significantly increased for Giza-15 after soaking (69.51g/100g) and germination (78.91g/100g) than Giza-15 raw material (53.19g/100g) followed by Ajakss and Giza-114, respectively. Also, the bioavailability of zinc and iron in sorghum varieties after treatments were paralleled the protein digestibility. Regarding, technological evaluation, biscuits from sorghum varieties, the results showed that when added sorghum varieties after treatments to wheat (72% extraction) at level 1:1 (w/w), the overall acceptability were significant increased than sorghum raw materials and the sorghum germination varieties improvement the quality of biscuits. The results concerning the biological evaluation showed that the gain body weight, food intake and feed efficiency ratio were slightly decreased in rats were fed in biscuits made from sorghum germination followed by soaking treatment and raw sorghum varieties than control rats fed on biscuits made from wheat. Moreover, the results from protein intake, protein efficiency ratio and biological value were occurred the obvious results. From the results, it may be recommended that sorghum varieties after germination were reduced in antinutrition factors and increased in protein digestibility and bioavailability of iron and zinc, gave biscuits high quality and the best results during biological evaluation.

[Maha A. Hejazi and Fizah Mosaed Mohamad Al-Subhi. Production of Biscuits from Different Sorghum Varieties Essay Digestibility Protein to Weanling Rats. J Am Sci 2012;8(12):996-1002]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 136

doi:10.7537/marsjas081212.136

 

Keywords: Production; Biscuits; Sorghum; Protein; Rat

 Full Text

136

137

Effect of Pre-discharge Guidelines on Women's' Knowledge and Self- Care Practices Regarding Arm Lymphedema Prevention Post mastectomy

 

Naglaa Elsayed Mahdy1, Rasmia Abd El Sattar Ali2

 

1 Medical Surgical Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

2 Community Health Nursing Department. Faculty of Nursing, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Dr_hager78@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Arm lymphedema is a serious complication post-mastectomy. Lymphedema prevention is essential for long-term survival after breast cancer. So, education is needed to increase patients' awareness of lymphedema and self-care practices for lymphedema prevention after mastectomy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and evaluate the effect of pre-discharge educational guidelines on women's'