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Science Journal

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The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 6, Cumulated No. 40, June 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0706  

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CONTENTS  

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Importance of rural women as effective factor in rural households

 

1 Ali Badragheh, 2 Mohammad Abedi

1, 2 Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Importance of women issue at Iran especially rural area, at one side face with fast population growth and mass of unemployed at process of access to rural growth and development, and at other side with limitation of facilities and productive resources. Rural women at all production level of agriculture products and livestock productions work alongside men and generally, development is multidimensional process and contains different economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. Women’s participation at this process is active and affective participation, and main aspect of this participation was its economic dimension for rural women. Rural women have key role as a producer at agriculture activities, rural sources and services at rural area. rural women most efficient women of society and among people who are active at productive occupations , so it is obvious that attention to rural women as a strong arm at rural development can follow positive and undeniable affects , in this purpose.

[Ali Badragheh and Mohammad Abedi. Importance of rural women as effective factor in rural households. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: rural women, rural households

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2

Climate change caused by dust and its effects on the characteristics of Morphophysiology, quantitative and qualitative yield of plants in Khuzestan province

 

*Tayeb Saki Nejad

 

Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

Ashraf Jazayeri

Assistant Professor Department of biology, Shahid Chamran University

Alireza Shokohfar

Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

Sorosh Zarrinabadi

Assistant Professor Department of Science, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

*Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Human in the last 20 years climate change has faced a lot of his works on display touches gradually. Dust (size 4 microns) resulting from natural phenomena in which these changes occur, the mitigation of harmful effects is very difficult and almost "out of control And why is Iran being on the belt of this phenomenon (geographical location and latitude 24 40 °) regions of the country constantly, especially "the South have faced with this phenomenon but in recent years the amount, concentration of suspended solids, number, time stability and the establishment, expansion and influence of this phenomenon has increased. Spread and persistence of dust caused climate change in terms of amount of light received, changes in air temperature and relative humidity changes in the amounts directly and carbon dioxide and oxygen is indirectly.These changes on plant metabolism and affects the performance characteristics of qualitative and quantitative Morphophysiology and affect the plants.Dust particles are no moisture absorption and potential abundance of water that attracts humidity and dry air over the process of expanding leaf surfaces and limit plant growth. Dusts on plant surfaces are green and the moisture levels, reduced water pressure are limited turgid growth will intensify. On the other hand placing the green plants on the surface, disrupting the process of receiving light and can reduce plant photosynthesis and are dark spots on plants and garden products to create a market-friendly to reduce the intensity. With low growth, reduced plant height and dry matter accumulation, especially "in plants such as sorghum and alfalfa hay spatial and reduced product sweep sorghum south province reduced panicle length, have a severe drop Radashth product.  According to estimates made phenomenon to about 40 to 50 percent crop damage are: for example, "reduce product pomegranates from 6 tons to two tons and reduce product from 50 to 60 pounds below the five kilogram PJ per tree in 2009 resulting this is a phenomenon. Because of the dust early harvested crops such as pomegranates reduce serious product and its quality is low. The amount of the paste processing and production quality is very low.  Dust phenomena addition to reducing the impact of harvesting dates is seriously diminish the quality of this product is too. At present rates of harvest dates in Khorramshahr is faced with a significant decrease. In 2009 only six thousand and 500 tons of palm groves of palm harvest and harvest dates grade level to zero level and harvest dates Palm owners only grade 2 and below have hope. Dust phenomena in addition to increasing sequence s pests, reducing rates of photosynthesis and quality Field dates will be.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad, Climate change caused by dust and its effects on the characteristics of Morphophysiology, quantitative and qualitative yield of plants in Khuzestan province. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):7-9]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.     

 

Keywords: climate change, dust, crops, Khuzestan (IRAN)

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3

Calculate changes of bean germination process in the presence of various compounds of biological fertilizer Humic acid mixed with micro and macro elements

 

*Tayeb Saki Nejad1, S, M, Hossaini2, Mahdi Hyvari2

 

1- Assistant professor Department of Agriculture physiology Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Iran

2- Department of Agriculture Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch

Result of the student research team

*Corresponding Author: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Biological products that are organic fertilizers include different types of microorganisms have the ability to convert the elements of the form unavailable to available form through biological processes have them. Biological fertilizers increased microbial activity of microorganisms and intensify them to make food available in forms which are easily absorbed by the plant are. Huomic acid as an organic acid from humus and other natural resources through the hormonal effects of improved nutrient absorption and increased root and shoot biomass is. Therefore, it seems, especially biological fertilizers Huomic acid increased root biomass, increased solubility of nutrients in the soil and can increase the absorption is increased yield. Germination of seeds is a complex physiological process triggered by imbibitions of water after possible dormancy mechanisms have been released by appropriate triggers. Organic matter due to the beneficial effects on physical properties, chemical and biological soil has an important role in soil fertility, plant nutrition and crop yield have increased. Huomic acid humus material that is part of the property due to the complex hormonal and audience an important influence in increasing crop production and supply is balanced. Effect of micro-fertilizers in the new debate is the speed and germination. Huomic micro elements like iron and acid compounds or elements Clat Huomic complete micro or treatment Huomic Clat, complete micro and macro elements on the speed of germination and affect. These substances cause a change in speed and percentage germination for causing water absorption and osmotic regulation are. The purpose of this experiment was how to effect of micro fertilizers on germination. After three days of testing, counting and investigation was initiated seeds results indicate that the five treatments applied after the third day: 10 numbers in the control of the number 5 seed was germinated but in treatment Huomic Clat magnesium and calcium from number 10 seed did not do any germination.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad, S, M, Hossaini, Mahdi Hyvari. Calculate changes of bean germination process in the presence of various compounds of biological fertilizer Humic acid mixed with micro and macro elements. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):10-14]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Huomic Acid, micro & macro elements, Seed

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4

Calculate dynamic changes in bean yield in different plant densities

 

Somaye Ghadaksaz1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Alireza Shokohfar3


 
1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

*Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir

 

Abstract: General purpose of testing conditions to get the best crop production figures for comments in order to get maximum yield is. Appropriate distribution of plants per unit area in one of the most consistent factor is to increase yield. In order to study the effect of different densities on bean cultivars, experimental farm in 2008 Farm Research, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz was executed. Factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was formed. The first factor consists of three densities (45, 55, 65) plants m and the second factor consists of three digits (ZOHREH, SHAME and JAZAYERI) were. The results showed that between different varieties of grain yield and all yield components (seed number per pod and NO. pod) statistically significant difference in the level of 5 percent there. ZOHREH figure was superior to other cultivars and varieties having SHAME with little JAZAYERI showed no statistical difference. Grain yield in different cultivars ZOHREH, SHAME and JAZAYERI, respectively1523.33, 1372.67, 1352 kg ha was. . Most biological functions in the plant density of 55 3042.89 kg/ha obtained the density of levels with other significant difference at 5 percent showed. Highest harvest index and density of about 55 plant varieties ZOHREH m according to the results the best varieties for planting varieties bless and best density, density of 55 plants per square meter is.

[Somaye Ghadaksaz, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shokohfar. Calculate dynamic changes in bean yield in different plant densities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):15-18]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: bean, density, variety, yield

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5

Calculate the growth dynamics of root and shoot of bean plants

 

Simin Haghighi1, *Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack3

 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

         *Corresponding Arthur:

Abstract: Dry matter accumulation patterns in most grains are sigmoid-type curve. In the first stage of this model is that if growth is slow, then there is a rapid phase after the flowering stage is followed by growth that is in pod formation stage. Studies have shown that leaf area development and dry matter accumulation in most cereal grains, especially cold for a long period after transplantation is very slow. Accordingly, in order to effect the kinds humic acid plant growth and bean seeds under climatic conditions of Ahvaz in the form of a split-plot experimental design with randomized complete block design based on years of farming 2010 was designed and executed. Factor with three bean varieties (V1 = Barekat, V2 = Jazayeri, V3 = Shame) in the main plot factor with four types humic acid (F0 = control, F1 = humic acid, F2 = full macro humic acid, F3 = acid Micro humic full) rate of 2 ppm in the sub-plots were placed. The results showed that the use of acid in all varieties humic increased plant growth parameters such as crop growth rate (CGR), plant height, grain yield, harvest index and biological function has been compared to the control. the highest total dry weight of the acid treatment Humic full macro level was 5909 kg per hectare and the lowest rate to the control was 4332 kg per hectare Effective grain filling period (EFP) The increase in the treatment process itself revealed. Varieties planted in the province and the third type humic acid with a control rate at 2 ppm was placed in sub-plots. The highest and lowest average number of lateral roots in this experiment in order Humic acid treatments and control macro level 241.7 and 136 numbers were obtained. Note that between the number of acid root treatment and between macro and micro humic acid and acid micro Humic significant difference was found. the highest root dry weight to macro Humic acid treatment with a mean 4.22 grams of control treatment and lowest with mean 2.63 has been hot Total root number from 592 to 899 in number in the control humic full macro will increase the number of roots, a positive regression (r2 = 0.89) with the amount of biological fixation (percentage of nitrogen nodules) showed. [Simin Haghighi, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Shahram Lack. Calculate the growth dynamics of root and shoot of bean  plants. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):19-26]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: growth dynamics, root, shoot, bean plants

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6

Effect of drought stress on stomata resistance changes in corn

 

Tayeb Saki Nejad

 

Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch

Corresponding Arthur: saki1971@iauahvaz.ac.ir *

 

    Abstract: To evaluate the effects of drought stress in different periods growth stomata behavior, research using factorial experiment design, randomized complete block with four replications and two factors with four levels of water stress as the first factor and three levels of growth periods As the second factor in the three crop years (1999-2000 &2000-2001 and 2001-2002) the Islamic Azad University Research Station at 3 km south of Ahwaz, Ahwaz city was designed and executed. Analysis of variance at 1% showed in all three years of water stress treatment, periods of growth and interaction of these two stomata resistance and lower leaf surface supernatant separately showed significant effect. by applying different levels of water stress, stomata resistance and lower leaf surface increased supernatant Duncan test was at 5% level in three years of the three groups presented mean that treatment (severe water stress treatment) and the highest treatment (control, no water stress) the lowest stomata resistance showed. Duncan test at 5% level one to two average growth for the period presented the highest stomata resistance in all three years and the treatments were obtained and lowest stomata resistance was observed in treatment. Duncan test at 5% level interactions show treatments with treatments that apply the lowest stomata resistance values were the other words in the early stages of plant growth when water is enough to provide resistance, stomata express that little but more severe stress in the course of Growth stomata resistance was increased considerably, the underside of leaf stomata resistance levels much higher than the leaf supernatant.

[Tayeb Saki Nejad, Effect of drought stress on stomata resistance changes in corn. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):27-31]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

 

Key words: corn, stomata resistance, drought stress

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7

Effect of GA3 hormones on growth dynamics of Bean

 

ُ*Somaye ghalandari1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack3

 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

*Corresponding Arthur: somaye.ghalandar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to effect hormone gibberellins acid on properties such as bean plants Morphophysiology: internodes' length and stem number, plant height, leaf growth dynamics and crop growth rate research as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications in crop year 2010 Farm Research HASHEMI located in the city HAMIDIEH province was conducted, first factor hormone gibberellins acid on four levels, respectively, treated (d0) control (no hormone gibberellins acid) treatments and d3, d2, d1, respectively, 5, 50 and 250 ppm and the second factor included three plant growth periods: (vegetative phase= s0 , Flowering phase  = s1 and pod set  phase = s2) for the hormone gibberellins spray on beans were considered. Dose 50ppm hormone gibberellins acid, more leaf area index (LAI) with 1.98 in comparison with other surfaces have been in the treatment group a was used Hormone gibberellins acid applied best courses in the vegetative period before flowering leaf dry weight, 752.2 kg/ha been in a treatment group were. And the flowering period to Pod set treated with 678.3 ​​kg/ha-level statistical treatment Pod set b to aggregation with 666.6 kg/ha c level was statistically. Dose of the hormone gibberellins acid maximum height of internodes 4.07 inches compared to other hormone levels have been in statistical was. Other doses differ quite significantly with this level did not have the lower levels were. The results showed that the hormone gibberellins acid increased crop growth rate to 35 percent in d3 = 20.15 g/m2/day treatment than control treatment was d0 = 14.5 g/m2/day. Hormone gibberellins acid effects on bean plant stem internodes' distances showed that on average 2.2 inches were added to the internodes' length. Especially the increase in the lower internodes bean plant stems were most evident in the treated internodes' d2S0 height d0S0 than the control treatment was significant. [ُSomaye ghalandari, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Shahram Lack. Effect of GA3 hormones on growth dynamics of Bean. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):32-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: GA3, Growth dynamics, Bean

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8

Personal Empowerment among Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Members in Iran

 

Zahra Ajri *¹, Mohammad Shatar Sabran2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch, Hormozgan, Iran

2. Department of Community Development, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

* z.ajri@yahoo.com, shatar@putra.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: As addiction affects not only on addict person but also on family members, so relationship behaviors is an important part of codependents’ life which needs to recover in order to achieve health promotion. This study investigates to find whether the "12-Step Program" empowers families of addicts/alcoholic in term of relationship with others or not. In other words, this study aims to find differences of relationship behaviors by comparing families of addicts/alcoholics who practice the "12-Step Program" and who do not. Theory of empowerment is the key theory to conduct this study. The findings of this study indicate that the “12-step program” is an effective program to enables codependents to improve their relationship with others in comparison with those who do not practice this program (control group). In other words, independent samples t-test reveals that codependents’ relationship behaviors are recovered duo to practicing the "12-Step Program" in Al-Anon/Nar-Anon groups in Iran.

[Zahra Ajri , Mohammad Shatar Sabran. Personal Empowerment among Al-Anon/Nar-Anon Members in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):40-44]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: 12-Step program, Addiction, Al-Anon & Nar-Anon, Codependency, Families of Addict, personal empowerment.

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Effect of different doses of the hormone gibberellins acid on the process of protein changes in bean plants

 

ُ*Somaye ghalandari1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Shahram Lack3

 

1- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

 2- Assistant Professor Department of Physiology, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz branch (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

         *Corresponding Arthur: somaye.ghalandar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract Due to poor land of Khuzestan and land pollution due to application of chemical fertilizers, use of materials that can no harmful effects on the environment, planting with very low doses, had positive effects on plants have quality performance, it seems necessary. Why research in this area in order to affect hormone levels and time use gibberellins acid (GA3) on the process of change and increasing amounts of protein bean seeds, bean seeds to increase the quality performance (Vicia FabaL.) were performed. The research farm located in the city Hamidieh hashemi research during the season and in 2010 was done, figure used in this experiment using BARAKAT variety. Use design was factorial experiments in randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors tested included four concentrations of the hormone gibberellins acid: (no hormones = d0, d1 = 5 ppm, d2 = 50 ppm and d3 = 250 ppm) and the second factor the third period, hormone sprayed: (phase of eruption = s0, Flowering = s1 and phase pod set = s2), respectively. Measuring grain protein levels indicated that the hormone gibberellins acid spray treatment growth period increased grain protein and the greatest amount of protein in the amount of treatments d2s0 d1s0 and 29.28 percent, respectively. . [ُSomaye ghalandari, Tayeb Saki Nejad, Shahram Lack. Effect of different doses of the hormone gibberellins acid on the process of protein changes in bean plants. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):45-49]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

 

Keywords: Bean, the hormone gibberellins acid, proteins

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Enhanced Production of Biosurfactant from Isolated Pseudomonas Sp Growing On Used Edible Oil

 

1Soniyamby A.R., 2Praveesh B.V., 3Vimalin Hena J., 4Kavithakumari P.,1Lalitha S and 1M Palaniswamy

 

1-Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,   India

2-Karpagam Arts & Science College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

3-Hindusthan College of Arts & Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

4- Cashew Export Promotion council Laboratory & Technical division, Kollam, Kerala, India

 

Abstract: The production of surface active compounds or biosurfactants by microorganisms has been a subject of increasing interest in recent years especially due to the potential applications in enhanced oil recovery. A number of studies have indicated that the type of medium and growth conditions can influence the type and yield of biosurfactants. The present work demonstrated that the isolated bacteria, Pseudomonas sp from used edible oil was able to utilize the used edible oil as carbon and energy source to produce rhamnolipid at a concentration of 7.6 g/L. The temperature, incubation period, and nitrogen source optima of biosurfactant production was found at 36 °C, 72 hr  and sodium nitrate respectively.

[Soniyamby A.R., Praveesh B.V., Vimalin Hena J., Kavithakumari P., Lalitha S  and M Palaniswamy. Enhanced Production of Biosurfactant from Isolated Pseudomonas Sp Growing On Used Edible Oil. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):50-53]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Rhamnolipid. Pseudomonas sp. Used edible oil.  Biosurfactant

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Effect of Nursing Management Protocol on Selected Side Effects of Interferon and Ribavirin among Hepatitis C Patients

 

Magda M. Mohsen1, Manal E. Fareed*2, Amal A. El-Sheikh2 and Sabry M. Abbas3

 

Department of Community Health Nursing1, Adult Health Nursing Department2, Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University, Egypt

Hepato gastroenterology endoscopy clinic3, Faculty of Medicine, Menofia University, Egypt

*manalfareed2008@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Interferon related side effects need extensive researches especially the management strategies of these side effects are available. This study was carried out to assess the effect of nursing management protocol on selected side effects of Interferon and Ribavirin among hepatitis C patients. A convenience sample of 60 hepatitis C patients of both sexes in liver out patient clinic at Shebin El- Kom teaching hospital was selected for data collection. Tools for data collection included Tool 1: Structured interview questionnaire. It includes 3 parts to assess medical data and knowledge of patients. Tool 2 : Fatigue severity scale to measure fatigue severity among studied sample. Tool 3: Anxiety scale to assess the anxiety level of studied sample. All studied sample had several complains related to Interferon before giving the nursing management. Also there were statistical significance differences in all laboratory findings and body temperature before and after the study by 8 weeks. There were statistical significant improvement of these knowledge after4 and 8 weeks from beginning of the study. Also, there was significant improvement in anxiety and fatigue level after 8 weeks from beginning of the study. It is concluded that: nursing intervention and knowledge about chronic hepatitis C, its treatment and management of Interferon related side effects seemed to have positive effects on improving patients knowledge about diseases and managing side effects of treatment and self care modalities that reflected by improvement in laboratory findings, vital signs, patients complains, anxiety level and fatigue level. It is recommended that: Promotion & enhancement of the self care modalities to the patient; a strict written instruction with pictures about disease process, prohibited and allowed foods, rest and physical activities and follow up should be continued after termination of the treatment through a rehabilitation program.

[Magda M. Mohsen, Manal E. Fareed, Amal A. El-Sheikh and Sabry M. Abbas. Effect of Nursing Management Protocol on Selected Side Effects of Interferon and Ribavirin among Hepatitis C Patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):54-63]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Nursing management protocol, selected side effects, Interferon and Ribavirin, Hepatitis C

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Principles and methods of Adult education

 

1Mojtaba Sadighi and 2Mehran Bozorgmanesh

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

Abstract: Any activity that gets your students involved makes the learning experiential. This includes small group discussions, experiments, role playing, skits, building something at their table or desk, writing or drawing something specific – activity of any kind. Activities also keep people energized, especially activities that involve getting up and moving about. Most adult students are in your classroom because they want to be. Some of them are there because they have Continuing Education requirements to keep a certificate current, but most are there because they’ve chosen to learn something new. This principle is not about why your students are in your classroom, but about why each thing you teach them is an important part of the learning. I’ll use my own pickle-making lesson as an example.

[Mojtaba Sadighi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Principles and methods of Adult education. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(6):64-68]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: adult education, adult learning

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Assessing Lesson Plans for Adults

1Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 2 Mojtaba Sadighi

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: adult who is able to recognize their needs. He is who knows what will. Refers to individual adults in their lives cross and understand their responsibilities and has accepted the role is social. Adult learners are often those that distinguish each other and have many different targets at the same time and will follow a common challenge to fulfill the goals of building self motivation vectors as educational materials to learn and use the forge. Adult illiteracy is like a disease that infects virtually every dimension of Kentucky life. Adult illiteracy saps the energy and capability of Kentucky’s people and its economy. Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Though rarer today then in the past, some teachers discount the importance of learning styles. They continue to teach in their one major method without trying to vary instructional methods. This is a mistake that will lead to less learning in the classroom.  On the other hand, many students and to a lesser degree some teachers make the mistake of thinking that they cannot learn using methods that are not focused on their learning style. This is also a huge mistake that in the end will result in less learning. If teachers do not help their students find ways to be successful learning information presented in any style, they are not helping them succeed in the future. The fact is that students will be faced with many different styles of teaching during the educational career. Only by finding ways to adapt and learn using other styles, will students end up succeeding.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mojtaba Sadighi. Assessing Lesson Plans for Adults. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(6):69-72]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: adult learning, Lesson Plans

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Rural people participation in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

1Mina Abarashi and 2 Maryam Nikmanesh

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author:  saba11085@yahoo.com

 

 

Abstract: There exist different methods of data collection and analysis, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Through time, more appropriate and refined methods have been developed. In the context of rural development, information regarding the communities, their livelihoods, their beliefs, the physical environment in which they live, and their resource endowments need to be gathered and interpreted in a manner that identifies their priorities with a view of developing better understanding of their status and designing appropriate intervention projects directed at resolving their problems. The different ways of data collection and interpretation can be seen under two perspectives(IUCN, 2001): qualitative versus quantitative, and participatory versus top down. While the quantitative methods generate information that can be captured numerically, the qualitative methods generally do not generate specific numbers. Qualitative methods are concerned with exploring meanings, processes, reasons, and explanations.

[Mina Abarashi and  Maryam Nikmanesh. Rural people participation in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):73-77]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), participation

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Energy Coefficient for Irrigated Wheat Production in Western Provinces in Iran

 

Mansoor Behroozi Lar1, Zahra Khodarahm Pour2

 

1Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email: behroozil@yahoo.com

2Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran. Email: Zahra_khodarahm@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The data for diesel fuel energy consumption on tillage, planting, cultivation, irrigation, harvesting and grain hauling as well as electricity for pumping water from wells obtained by questioners for four western provinces of Iran. The data was analyzed by SPSS software and then compared with the calculation results for the similar activities. Calculations were run for the worst case situation that is the hardest soil type for tillage, lowest forward speed and field efficiency for all. The results showed that the least energy consumption for every one of the practices was higher than the calculated figures; in some cases more than triple. The energy used for irrigation was the dominating. More energy was put into the water wells than for the hardest soil tillage. Statistics showed that the farmers in these provinces used 24.10-38.98 GJha-1 to produce one hectare of irrigated wheat compared to 23.67 GJha-1 calculated for the worst case. International data for semi tropical area in India for the drought years was cited as 15.289 GJha-1. experimental data for energy consumption for every practice was separately analyzed and compared with the calculated figures. Tillage with an average coefficient of 57.38 lha-1 and planting with an average 34.16 lha-1 showed no significant differences between the provinces at 5% probability level. Energy coefficient for the other activities that is cultivation, irrigation, harvesting and grain hauling did show significant differences between some of the provinces. The average energy consumption for these activities was 1.045, 21.268, 1.406 and 2.99 GJha-1 respectively. The worst case calculated values were 0.232, 18.813, 0.680 and 1.748 GJha-1 respectively. The energy coefficient per ton of produced wheat was also obtained.

[Mansoor Behroozi Lar and Zahra Khodarahm Pour. Energy Coefficient for Irrigated Wheat Production Western Provinces in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):78-83]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Energy consumption, Irrigated wheat, Energy coefficient, Western provinces, Iran

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A method for detection and extraction of circular shapes from noisy images using median filter and CHT

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Hamed Nosrati 2, Ali Nosrati 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: One of the challenging topics in image processing is extracting the shapes from noisy backgrounds. There are some methods for doing it from different kinds of noisy backgrounds. In this paper, we are going to introduce another method by using 4 steps to extract circular shapes from impulse noisy backgrounds. First step is applying median filter to disappear "salt and pepper" noise. This step causes edge smoothing. So, as the second step, a laplacian sharpening spatial filter should be applied. It highlights fine details and enhances the blurred edges. Using these two steps sequentially causes noise reduction in an impressive way. Third step is using Canny edge detection for segmenting the image. Its algorithm is talked during the paper. Finally, forth step is applying Circular Hough Transform (CHT) for detecting the circles in image. At the end of paper different use cases of this method is investigated.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Hamed Nosrati, Ali Nosrati. A method for detection and extraction of circular shapes from noisy images using median filter and CHT. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):84-88]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Extracting circular shape; median filter; laplacian filter; Canny edge detection; Circular Hough Transform (CHT).

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A short paper on steps of designing an appropriate website

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Hamed Nosrati 2, Ali Nosrati 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In the modern world that the lives are going to have an online aspect in addition to traditional life, having suitable websites for different purposes plays a big role in social communications. High quality communication is the product of good interaction, and a good online interaction is the product of a good website.

In this paper, we want to introduce some basic steps that can help to provide a guideline for designing a suitable website. We have tried to cover both technical and psychological aspects of a website. These steps are divided into 3 parts: pre-design, design, and post-design steps. Each one of them is consist of some steps that are described in details through the paper.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Hamed Nosrati, Ali Nosrati. A short paper on steps of designing an appropriate website. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):89-91]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Website design; information systems; modeling website; publishing website.

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An algorithm for minimizing of Boolean functions based on graph data structure

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Hamed Nosrati 2, Ali Nosrati 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, we intend to introduce a new heuristic algorithm to apply maximum minimization to Boolean functions with normal SOP form. To implement the proposed algorithm, we use the graph data structure and define the adjacencies. Also, we demonstrate some conditions to achieve the maximum minimization. Through this paper, the problem of shared vertices in more than one adjacency is talked, and the solution is presented. Karnaugh map is used to clarify the matter.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Hamed Nosrati, Ali Nosrati. An algorithm for minimizing of Boolean functions based on graph data structure. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):92-96]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Minimization of Boolean functions; Graph data structure; SOP functions; discrete mathematics.

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Embedding stego-text in cover images using linked list concepts and LSB technique

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Hamed Nosrati 2, Ali Nosrati 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, we intend to introduce a steganography algorithm for embedding a message into a RGB 24-bit color image. It will be done by using the concepts of linked list data structure. It will help us to achieve some important advantages. First, we can create a “stego-key” by the address of message blocks. Second, it makes the detection of message harder. Also, there will be other benefits that are mentioned during the paper.

Another point about the presented algorithm is the flexibility. For example, it could be written in recursive way. To prove it, we wrote a recursive function called “Read()” for extracting the message from the cover image. At the end of paper, characteristics of this algorithm will be talked.

For embedding data, LSB (Least Significant Bit) technique is been used.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Hamed Nosrati, Ali Nosrati. Embedding stego-text in cover images using linked list concepts and LSB technique. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):97-100]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Steganography; secure communication; data covering; carrier image; linked list; LSB

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Investigating the basic principles for proper GUI design

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Rahin Karimi 2, Hamed Nosrati 3

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: User interface is a general connection tool for getting the request of user and give back the responses. A special type of user interface is GUI (Graphical User Interface), which is very important in computer world, and you can't find any application without it. Designing a suitable GUI is definitely an important part of designing any application. Due to this, there are some principles that help to create an appropriate GUI. In this paper, we are going to talk about the necessity of a suitable GUI for an information system. So, the goals of GUI will be investigated. Then we will get into common characteristics of a proper GUI.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Rahin Karimi, Hamed Nosrati. Investigating the basic principles for proper GUI design. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):101-105]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: User interface; Graphical User Interface; GUI; GUI Purpose; information system; information display.

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Taking a Brief look at steganography: Methods and Approaches

 

Masoud Nosrati 1, Ronak Karimi 1, Hamed Nosrati 2, Ali Nosrati 2

 

1. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Young Researchers Club, Kermanshah, Iran.

2. Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah Branch, Kermanshah, Iran.

minibigs_m@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this paper, we are going to introduce different types of steganography considering the cover data. As the first step, we will talk about text steganography and investigate its details. Then, image steganography and its techniques will be investigated. Some techniques including Least Significant Bits, Masking and filtering and Transformations will be subjected during image steganography. Finally, audio steganography which contains LSB Coding, Phase Coding, Spread Spectrum and Echo Hiding techniques will be described.

[Masoud Nosrati, Ronak Karimi, Hamed Nosrati, Ali Nosrati. Taking a Brief look at steganography: Methods and Approaches. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):106-109]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Steganography; text steganography; image steganography; audio steganography.

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory phonophoresis versus topical application in improvement of hand grip strength in psoriatic arthritic patients

 

Amal M. Abd El Baky and Intsar S. Waked*

 

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

*intsarahmed@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen phonophresis versus topical application of ibuprofen in improvement of hand grip strength in psoriatic arthritic patients. Methods: Forty patients who had asymmetrical psoriatic arthritis in hand participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 30 to 50 years. Patients were classified randomly into two groups of equal numbers; group (1) (control group) received routine physical therapy (hot therapy, stretching and strengthening exercises), in addition to sham ibuprofen phonophoresis, while group (2) (studied group): received routine physical therapy, in addition to ibuprofen  phonophoresis. Each patient was evaluated for grip strength, tender and swollen joint count before and after one month of treatment. The results revealed that there was a significant difference between both groups regarding to grip strength, tender and swollen joint count, with the percentage of improvement in group 1 were 56%, 54%, and 55% ,while in group 2 were 82%, 80% and 76%   respectively. It is concluded that the results of the current study confirms the effectiveness of phonophoresis as a therapeutic modality enhancing the delivery of ibuprofen so increasing  the percentage of improvement of grip strength in the studied group.

[Amal M. Abd El Baky and Intsar S. Waked. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory phonophoresis versus topical application in improvement of hand grip strength in psoriatic arthritic patients. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):110-114]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words: Ultrasound, phonophoresis, ibuprofen, grip strength, psoriatic arthritic

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Biodegradation of PAH Compounds in the Rhizosphere of Tamarix nilotica: A Salt tolerant wild plant

 

Eman A. Diab and Reham K.A. Badry

 

Department of Plant Ecology and Range Management, Environmental Pollution Research Unit, DRC, Cairo, Egypt

 

Abstract: During a scientific visit to a coastal area at Suez, Egypt, it was observed that Tamarix nilotica plant naturally dominated on oil polluted site in this area, indicating that this plant is a tolerant of the combined adverse effects of salinity and petroleum pollutants. This observation stimulated a study to investigate the rhizosphere effect of this plant on the degradation and removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds from this coastal saline soil. Accordingly, samples were collected from the rhizosphere and from the non-rhizosphere soil and studied. The results show that the rhizosphere soil of Tamarix nilotica was rich in total heterotrophic bacteria and oil-degraders. In the rhizosphere soil oil-degraders were of higher percentage (30.7%) compared to the non-rhizosphere soil (4.6%). Residual total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the non-rizosphere soil was 2.25% (w/w), while in the rhizosphere soil the percentage was 0.9% (w/w). This indicate a reduction of 60% of the TPHs. The saturates fraction in the rhizosphere as compared to the non-rizosphere soil was reduced by 87.5%, while the aromatics were reduced by 60.7%. It is of interest to find that the non-degradable asphaltenes and resins were reduced in the rhizosphere by 1.1% and 2.5% respectively. As a total the amount of PAHs (mgkg-1 soil) were 1073.5 and 541.94 in the non-rhizosphere and rhizosphere soil respectively, i.e. with a loss of 49.5% in the rhizosphere. Chrysene and dibenzo(ah)anthracene as compared to the other PAHs were more frequent in the non-rhizosphere soil. These two compounds were reduced by 55.7% and 24.3% respectively in the rhizosphere. As a total the four-ringed PAHs as compared to other PAH groups were highly reduced (60.3%) in the rhizosphere, this was followed by the three-ringed PAH group (52.5%). The five-ringed and the six-ringed groups were weakly reduced (37.8% and 33.8% respectively). The 8 carcinogenic PAH group were collectively reduced in the rhizosphere by 49.1%. A particular notable distinction of the rhizosphere of Tamarix nilotica is the greater efficiency to degrade the carcinogenic PAH compounds especially flouranthene (75.4%), benzo(a)anthracene (63.4%) and pyrene (60.2%). Results of Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis for the detection of the accumulated PAHs in the shoot tissue of Tamarix nilotica plant growing in the polluted area as compared to that growing in non-polluted area show that the identified peaks in the tissue of both plants were 15 and 14 peaks respectively. The sum of the 15 PAHs was 528 mgkg-1 dried tissue, whereas the sum of the 14 PAHs was 769 mgkg-1 dried soil. This result indicate an accumulation value of 1.46.

 [Eman A. Diab and Reham K.A. Badry. Biodegradation of PAH Compounds in the Rhizosphere of Tamarix nilotica: A Salt tolerant wild plant. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):115-124]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Biodegradation , salt-tolerant plant , Tamarix nilotica , PAHs degradation

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The Effect of Soft laser Application on Orthodontic Movement  (In vitro study)

 

Tarek Momhamed Ibrahim*, mostafa gheith* ,Mona M. Abo-Elfotouh**

 

* Ass. Prof. of Dental Laser Applications, Department of Medical applications of Laser, National Institute for Laser Enhancement Sciences, Cairo University.

** Ass. Prof.  of Oral Radiology, Oral Medicine, Diagnosis& Oral Radiology Department, Faculty of Oral& Dental Medicine, Ain-Shams University

Corresponding Author:tarek_ali_dentist@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy on alveolar bone remodeling and rate of tooth movement secondary to application of orthodontic forces. 42 male Guinea pigs were used in this study. The animals were divided into two groups (each group contains 21 animals), group (1) received soft laser therapy at the treatment site and group (2) as a control group. The orthodontic device was cemented to the lower central incisors to be activated once only. Daily measurements were taken directly from the oral cavity to record the rate of tooth movement of the experimental groups. Seven animals of each group were sacrificed at 3 days, 2 weeks and one month.  Radiographic assessment was carried out at these intervals using Radio-Visio-Graphy (RVG),  with its personal computer (PC)  based version,  to monitor the changes in the bone density mesial to each lower central incisor. The lower jaws were histologically treated to obtain mesiodistal sections of the lower incisors with their supporting structures and stained by H & E. Conclusion: Soft laser can enhance the rate of orthodontic tooth movement due to stimulation of bone remodeling.

[Tarek Momhamed Ibrahim, mostafa gheith ,Mona M. Abo-Elfotouh. The Effect of Soft laser Application on Orthodontic Movement  (In vitro study). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):125-135]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Orthodontic treatment, laser therapy

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Nucleotide variations of 16S rRNA gene of VacA positive Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from human Gastric Biopsies in Saudi Arabia

 

Milyani MR

 

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding author: rajaamilyani@hotmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: Three isolates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were originally isolated from gastric biopsies taken from patients complaining of gastric disorders in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia. The isolates that previously revealed to be vaculating cytotoxin A positive were identified by 16S rRNA gene as H. pylori using a primer pair designed from the similar sequences within consensus regions of GenBank H. pylori to amplify the 163 bp fragment. Sequence alignments of 16S rRNA gene were performed and total numbers of 46, 55 and 40 nucleotide positional differences with base-pair substitutions were identified for these isolates compared to GenBank strains of H. pylori. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the three H. pylori strains formed a phylogenetically distinct group, separate from all other species of H. pylori. The three isolates were hence coined as H. pylori Milyani-1, -2 and -3 at GenBank database under the accession numbers HQ877021, HQ877022 and HQ877023, respectively. The obtained results evidently indicated a large diversity with unique characteristics of the three Saudi Arabian H. pylori strains from all the other established strains.

[Milyani MR. Nucleotide variations of 16S rRNA gene of VacA positive Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from human Gastric Biopsies in Saudi Arabia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):136-145]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

key words: Accessions HQ877021, HQ877022 and HQ877023, Helicobacter pylori, isolates, 16S rRNA gene, variations.

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Disk-Rim flywheel of minimum weight

 

Bedier B. EL-Naggar and   Ismail A.  Kholeif

 

Department of Engineering Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Engineering,  Cairo Universty 

GizaEgypt

bbnaggar@hotmail.com

 

 

Abstract: In this article the disk-rim flywheel is suggested for light weight. The mass of the flywheel is minimized subject to constraints of required moment of inertia and admissible stresses. The theory of the rotating disks of uniform thickness and density is applied to each the disk and the rim independently with suitable matching condition at the junction. Suitable boundary conditions on the centrifugal stresses are applied and the dimensional ratios are obtained for minimum weight. It is proved that the required design is very close to the disk with uniform thickness

[Bedier B. EL-Naggar and Ismail A.  Kholeif. Disk-Rim flywheel of minimum weight. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):146-149]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Disk-Rim; flywheel; minimum angular speeds; moment of inertia; radial and tangential stresses.

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Genetic variability and path coefficient analysis in sweet basil for oil yield and its components under organic agriculture conditions

 

Ibrahim, M.M. 1*, K.A. Aboud 1 and R.M. Hussein 2

 

1 & 2. Genetics and Cytology Department National Research Centre, El-Behouth St., Dokki; P. Box; 12622; Cairo; Egypt.

2. Present address: Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, KSA.

*mohamed_mostafa480@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Data for variability, heritability, genetic advance and path coefficient analysis for oil yield and related characters were conducted on 15 genotypes of sweet basil at two seasons in complete randomized block design. The results revealed that analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among genotypes in studied characters. Ranges of herb dry yield (HDY) (68.40 – 86.30 gm.), oil content (2.30-2.90 ml.) and oil yield (1.22-2.24 ml.) were obtained. Overall, the highest values of genotypic coefficients of variation (G .C. V %), genetic advance (GA%), and broad sense heritability (h2b)  were obtained for stem dry weight (SDW), linear growth (LG), herb dry weight (HDW) and leaf dry weight (LDW). Path coefficient analysis for oil yield exhibited variation from season to other and slight variation was found among cuts. The highest direct effects on oil yield were observed for herb dry yield followed by stem dry weight and essential oil content; hence, the study reflected the importance of herb dry yield and essential oil content as selection criteria for improvement of oil yield in sweet basil.

[Ibrahim, M.M., K.A. Aboud and R.M. Hussein. Genetic variability and path coefficient analysis in sweet basil for oil yield and its components under organic agriculture conditions. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):150-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Genetic variability; Path coefficient; Sweet basil; Organic agriculture

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Antihepatotoxic Effects Of Ficus Vogelii Ethanol Leaf Extract On The Liver Function Indices Of Ccl4 –Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats.

 

EGBUNA, P. A. C.; JOSHUA, Parker Elijah and CHIGBO, Maureen Ujunwa

 

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hepatotoxic effect of intraperitoneal administration of ethanol extract of Ficus vogeli (600mg/kg) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Phytochemically, the leaf extract contains tannin, alkaloid, flavonoid, carbohydrates, protein, saponin, steroids, terpenoids, fats and oil. The administration of the Ficus vogelii extract was at one phase of the experiment according to the body weight of the test animals. The ethanol extracts of Ficus vogelii  significantly reduced (p<0.05) the level of activity of the hepatic enzyme markers in the serum (Alanine amino transferase (ALT), Aspartate amino transferase (AST), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and total bilirubin) which occurred due to induced oxidative stress. Relative to the control group, treatment with CCl4 significantly raised the levels of ALT, ASP, AST and total bilirubin in the serum. The animals that received Ficus vogelii showed not only reduced hepatocellular degeneration but also of hepatocellular regeneration when compared to the liver of those exposed to CCl4 alone. Thus the histopathological studies also supported the anti-hepatpotoxic action of the ethanol extract of Ficus vogelii. The results of this study clearly indicate that Ficus vogelii ethanol extract has a potent anti-hepatotoxicity action against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats.

[EGBUNA, P. A. C.; JOSHUA, Parker Elijah and CHIGBO, Maureen Ujunwa. Antihepatotoxic Effects Of Ficus Vogelii Ethanol Leaf Extract On The Liver Function Indices Of Ccl4 –Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Ficus vogeli; Hepatotoxicity; Carbon tetrachloride; Liver Function Tests

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Power Purchasing Agreements in Modern Power System

 

Mohammad Sadegh Javadi 1, Amin Javadinasab 1

 

1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

msjavadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Power Purchasing Agreements (PPAs) are the recent contracts between Generation Companies (GENCOs) and Independent System Operator (ISO). After restructuring in power system, lack of motivations for Independent Power Producers (IPPs) to partnership in power generation and long term maintaining energy have affect the long horizon expansion planning. In this area, long term contracts can help the market entities to hedging their risks in satisfying the future demands and ensuring the return of their investment cost. From an IPP point of view, clarifying the rate of return of investment has an important role in his financial decision making. In competitive power market, each GENCO would offer in the market and some of them could exercise market power in power market. One of the proposed ways to controlling the market power is PPA. In this paper the PPA and some proposed PPAs are introduced and clarifying the weak and strong point of the PPAs are presented.

[Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Amin Javadinasab. Power Purchasing Agreements in Modern Power System, Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):164-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Power Purchase Agreements, Independent System Operator, Independent Power Producer, Renewable Energy

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Evaluation of Some Growth Parameters and Chemical Composition of In Vitro Grown Seedlings

of Rumex vesicarius L. ( Polygonaceae).

 

El-Bakry, A.A.*,  Mostafa, H.A.M. ** and Eman, A. Alam**

 

**, Botany Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,Giza, Egypt.

*, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.

ael bakry@yahoo.com , afify hisham@hotmail.com  and   LaLaLaLaLa2011@yahoo.com

 

   Abstract: The aim of this research is to evaluate differences in growth and chemical composition of in vitro grown seedlings (10, 20 and 30 days old) of Rumex vesicarius L. ( Polygonaceae) on either solidified MS medium or agar. Percentage of germination increased with time from 2 days till 16 days in case of seedlings grown on MS medium, and 10 days in case of seedlings grown on agar. Variations in seedlings length at 10, 20 and 30 days were non significant. Seedlings grown on agar were longer than seedlings grown on MS medium. Shoot: root ratio (%) decreased with time from 10 to 30 days, shoot: root ratio of seedlings grown on agar was less than these of seedlings grown on MS medium. Variation in shoot: root ratio of seedlings grown on either solidified MS medium or agar was highly significant. Fresh and dry weights of these seedlings increased with time in 10, 20 and 30 days old seedlings. Variations were highly significant in both fresh and dry weights. Fresh and dry weights of seedlings grown on MS medium were higher than seedlings grown on agar. Phytochemical screening of 10, 20 and 30 days old seedlings showed variations in the presence and / or amount of some biologically active constituents under investigation such as: flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and tannins, chlorides and Sulphates, these variations indicated that, the formation of these active constituents is positively or negatively related to time. Regarding total phenolics, of seedlings grown on MS medium, 20 days old seedlings had the maximum concentration (3.833±0.334 mg GAEs/g F.W.), followed by 10 days old seedlings (1.910±0.334 mg GAEs/g F.W.), while 30 days old seedlings were found to contain the least amount of phenolics (1.167±0.334 mg GAEs/g F.W.). Variations in the amount of total phenolics within different seedlings were non significant. Seedlings grown on agar contained low amount of phenolics till 30 days old, compared with seedlings grown on MS medium. Total flavonoids were determined also, highly significant variations were found between 10, 20 and 30 days old seedlings grown on either MS medium or agar. The maximum amount of total flavonoids was found to be in 10 days old seedlings grown on agar (106.350±3.849 µg/g F.W.); flavonoidal contents were negatively related to time. In wild young plantlets of Rumex vesicarius L. at vegetative stage, total phenolics were found to be lower than in vitro grown seedlings. Plantlets roots were found to be the richest organ (1.695± 0.178 mg GAEs/g F.W.), however roots contains about less than half amounts found in in vitro grown seedlings on MS medium at 20 days old (3.833±0.334 mg GAEs/g F.W.). Wild young plantlets were rich in flavonoids. There were highly significant variations between plantlets parts. Leaves were found to contain the highest amount of flavonoids (2835.000 ± 305.757 µg/g F.W.).

[El-Bakry, A.A.*, Mostafa, H.A.M. ** and Eman, A. Alam**. Evaluation of Some Growth Parameters and Chemical Composition of In Vitro Grown Seedlings  of Rumex vesicarius L. (Polygonaceae). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):170-179]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Rumex vesicarius L. - total phenolics - total flavonoids - phytochemical screening - in vitro grown seedlings

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The importance of indigenous knowledge in agricultural development

 

Esmaiel Ghorbani 1 and Fatemeh  Bakhtiar2

 

1, 2 Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

*Corresponding author: abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo

 

Abstract: Different definitions were presented about indigenous knowledge by experts that each of them present their idea about this knowledge from their viewpoint. Each of them emphasis on a special aspect of indigenous knowledge according to their viewpoint. Oxford vocabulary define the word indigenous knowledge such this" it is created naturally in a region which is related to the people of that region. Indigenous knowledge is a knowledge that has been grown in a long time and has transferred from one generation to other generation in hereditary form . Williams and Molina have defined indigenous knowledge such this: indigenous knowledge is the learning methods, understanding and attitude to the world which is the result of experience and solving problems according to test and error by the people who are active and have used their available resources on its suitable time. Chambers with emphasizing on people's role in development process, believed that the phrase rural people's knowledge is more sensible than the other phrase such ethnic ecology, ethnographic knowledge, ethnic classification. He also believed that indigenous knowledge is a knowledge that is created naturally and is emanated from geographical circle.

[Esmaiel Ghorbani and Fatemeh  Bakhtiar. The importance of indigenous knowledge in agricultural development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):180-184]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, rural women

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Decentralization in agricultural extension: implications and priorities

 

Abbas Emami 1 and Esmaeil Ghorbani2

 

1, 2 Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

*Corresponding author: hossein11070@yahoo

 

Abstract: Over the past two decades many countries have undertaken to decentralize government functions and transfer authority and responsibilities from central to intermediate and local governments, and often to communities and the private sector. Decentralization is potentially important to agricultural knowledge and information systems, but decentralization is not an end in itself, and successful decentralization strategies must address three challenges—establishing a national framework for decentralization, developing subsector approaches, and enhancing capacities of various participants for coproduction of decentralized goods and services. Agricultural extension services are under increasing pressure to become more effective, more responsive to clients, and less costly to government. Decentralization is an increasingly common aspect of extension reforms. Field extension advisory services are well suited to decentralized approaches, but a comprehensive extension system requires a range of extension support services and programs, some of which (strategy formulation, training, monitoring and evaluation, specialized technical support) are often best carried out at the central level. The prime challenges in the traditional public extension systems enlisted as outdated, top-down, paternalistic, inflexible, subject to bureaucratic inefficiencies that results less ability to cope with the dynamic demands of modern day agriculture (World Bank, 2002; Obaa et al., 2005). In some countries the change is occurring with its natural pace but in many developing countries these have been accelerated by structural adjustment reforms.

[Abbas Emami and Esmaeil Ghorbani. Decentralization in agricultural extension: implications and priorities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):185-189]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Using of E-learning in agricultural education

 

Esmaeil Ghorbani

 

Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

E-mail: leila11070@yahoo

 

Abstract: Distance education places students and their instructors in separate locations using some form of technology to communicate and interact. The student may be located in the classroom, home, office or learning center. The instructor may be located in a media classroom, studio, office or home. The student may receive information via satellite, microwave, or fiber optic cable, television (broadcast, cable or Instructional Television Fixed Services (ITFS), video cassette or disk, telephone - audio conferencing bridge or direct phone line, audio cassette, printed materials - text, study guide, or handout, computer - modem or floppy disk, and compressed video. Recent rapid development of technology has resulted in systems that are powerful, flexible, and increasingly affordable. The base of available information technology resources is increasing with dramatic speed. Much has been learned about connecting various forms of technology into systems, so that the ability to link systems is growing. Most distance learning systems are hybrids, combining several technologies, such as satellite, ITFS, microwave, cable, fiber optic, and computer connections. Interactivity is accomplished via telephone (one-way video and two-way audio), two-way video or graphics interactivity, two-way computer hookups, two-way audio. Interactivity may be delayed but interaction provided by teacher telephone office hours when students can call or through time with on-site facilitators. Classes with large numbers of students have a limited amount of interactivity. Much of the activity on computer networks is on a delayed basis as well. Possibilities for audio and visual interaction are increasingly wide.

[Esmaeil Ghorbani. Using of E-learning in agricultural education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):190-193]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: E-learning, distance education

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Social Capital and Human Development: A Meta-Analysis in Iran

 

Hamidreza Babaei1, Amir Hossein Zomorrodian1, Sarjit S. Gill1, Nobaya Ahmad1, Leila Falahati2

 

1. Department of Social & Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia

2. Department of Resource Management and Consumer Studies, Faculty of Human Ecology, University Putra Malaysia. babaei1973@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This meta-analysis aims to assess the influence of social capital on the Human Development Index, Human Poverty Index, and Gender-related Development Index in Iran. The results reveal a positive and significant relationship between social capital and the human development index (HDI). The effect of social capital on the Human Poverty Index (HPI) was negative and significant. However, no significant relationship was found between social capital and the Gender-related Development Index (GDI).

[Hamidreza Babaei, Sarjit S. Gill, Amir Hossein Zomorrodian, Nobaya Ahmad, Leila Falahati. Social Capital and Human Development: A Meta-Analysis in Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):194-197]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Social Capital, Human Development Index, Human Poverty Index, Gender-related Development Index, Iran

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The Influence of Life Skills with respect to Self-Help Approach on Relapse Prevention in Iranian Adolescents Opiate Addicts

 

Samira Golestan1*, Hajar Namayandeh1, Ali Anjomshoa1

 

1Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Iran,

Email Address: Samira_Golestan@yahoo.com  H/P: 00989133436185

 

Abstract: This study explores the importance of three elements of life skills, i.e. problem solving, critical thinking and ability to abstinence, on drug use and its effects on the prevention of relapse among male adolescent opiate users in Kerman, Iran. Life skills are one of the important factors that affect the recovery of addicts and presuppose relapse among adolescents. The lack of life skills is an operative factor to relapse among adolescents. The development of life skill was recognized as a factor that could help the adolescents in their efforts to avoid relapse. Iran is in the process of developing options concerning drug abuse treatment for opiate and other drug dependent patients while nearly 60% of its population is under the age of 25. Scholars emphasize the critical role of life skills to prevent relapse in adolescents and highlight the lack of life skill as a factor leading to relapse among adolescents  ADDIN EN.CITE  ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Barr & Parrett, 2001; Gorski, 2001; Gouws, Kruger, & Burger, 2000; Mc Whirter, 2004; Van Niekerk & Prins, 2001). Focusing on this issue, this research explores a new examination area and finally reinforces the result of the previous relevant studies in its own contribution. In this research 226 adolescents between the ages of 13 to 20 in ten rehabilitation centers were selected to answer the self-administered questionnaire. Benefiting from Pearson Correlation analyses, the findings represent a significant moderate negative relationship between life skills and relapse (r= -0.453, p<0.01), i.e. the lack of life skills significantly raises the risk of relapse among adolescents. The study proposes some suggestions in order to prevent relapse after treatment in adolescents.

[Samira Golestan, Hajar Namayandeh, Ali Anjomshoa, The Influence of Life Skills with respect to Self-Help Approach on Relapse Prevention in Iranian Adolescents Opiate Addicts. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):198-202]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Life skills, Opiate Addiction, Adolescents, Recovery Process, Relapse Prevention

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Immediate Vascular Photochemical Reactions to Infrared Laser Irradiation in Normal Volunteers

 

Mohammed H Saiem Al-Dahr1 and Enas Elsayed2

 

1Department of Medical Laboratory Technology.2Department of Physical Therapy

Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University

*drinaselsayed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: There are evidences that low level laser therapy (LLLT) stimulates wound healing. Objective: The study aimed at investigating the exact vascular mechanisms through which infrared (IR) laser acts to promote wound healing. Participants: Thirty normal female volunteers were selected from the female section, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University. They were randomly divided into three equal study groups (G1, G2, and G3). Methods: Five ml. of whole blood were collected in a plane tube from all volunteers for the analysis of lipid profile including cholesterol (Chol); triglyceride (TGL); low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Other five ml of blood were collected for the performance of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), hemoglobin (Hgb) and red blood cells (RBCs) count before and immediately after receiving continuous IR laser (810 nm, 100 mW). The irradiation doses were 12 J/cm2 for 120 sec, 6 J/cm2 for 60 sec and 1.4 J/cm2 for 14 sec in groups one, two, and three respectively. Results: There was a significant increase in Chol, TGL, HbA1c%, Hgb concentration and RBCs count after irradiation. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in LDL or HDL concentration in the three groups. Conclusion: Infrared laser was effective in increasing the levels of different blood components that are important for wound healing processes with the best results obtained from laser dosage of 12 J/cm2.

[Mohammed H Saiem Al-Dahr and Enas Elsayed. Immediate Vascular Photochemical Reactions to Infrared Laser Irradiation in Normal Volunteers. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):203-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Vascular alterations, Wound healing, Infrared laser

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Contraceptive use dynamics and effect of counseling on use- continuation of contraception in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt

 

Etemad A.A. El- shereef1, Gamal H. S..2 , Abo Bakr A. M.2, and Ahmed M.A.2

 

Public health & community Medicine Department1 and Obstetrics & Gynecology Department2. Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University. etemadelshreef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Egypt’s family planning programs have followed a similarly unsteady course. Debated by Egyptian social scientists since the 1930s, Egypt’s high population growth became widely viewed as an acute problem in the 1960s, when the government acknowledged the serious economic and social problems associated with it. Objectives: analyzing the factors associated with contraceptive methods discontinuation among women aged 15- 49 years in study area and contraceptive use dynamics. We also examined the effect of counseling on percent of continuation. Study design: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the eligible women. Study setting: The study areas included Assiut Governorate family planning units in different places providing contraceptive methods. Study population: One thousand and ten women in reproductive age from 15-49 who used contraceptive methods once or more, has one child or more were included. Study tools: An interview questionnaire were constructed including data about used contraceptive methods, discontinuation and its causes, failure and its fate. We asked about ten steps of counseling. Data entry –after revising and editing -was done via Excel software while data analysis was carried out via SPSS program version 11. Results: the most commonly used modern method was IUD (43.0%). The results revealed that (69.7% ) of methods had been stopped within 2 years of starting for various reasons. The percent of discontinuation decreased significantly with increasing age. Discontinuation was the lowest when there were four or more living children and increased significantly by decreasing number of living children. It decreased significantly with increasing the number of sons. As regards infant deaths, discontinuation was insignificant among those who did not experience infant deaths, and presence of one and two deaths respectively. University graduated women showed least discontinuation level. As regards causes of discontinuations, side effects and health concerns  was the most common reason of discontinuation. Most of method failure as expressed by pregnancy ended in live births. The results indicated that a higher score on counseling was significantly associated with continuation. Conclusion: Counseling should emphasize the possibility of side effects, stressing the fact that most will be transient, and the need to identify a backup method. Follow-up visits should be scheduled for 1 to 2 months after a prescription is written.

[Etemad A.A. El- shereef, Gamal H. S., Abo Bakr A. M., and Ahmed M.A. Contraceptive use dynamics and effect of counseling on use- continuation of contraception in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):209-219]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Contraception, use dynamics, counseling and Upper Egypt.

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Rediscovering Red Blood Cells: Revealing Their Antigens Store

 

Mahmoud Rafea1, Serhiy Souchelnytskyi1, Saleh El-Ayouby2

 

1Karolinska Biomics Centre, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

2Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt

mahmoudrafea@gmail.com          serhiy.souchelnytskyi@ki.se         saleh.elayouby@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper describes a newly observed phenomenon related to red blood cells (RBCs). We found that plasma from a healthy individual immune-reacted with hemolysates from the same person and from other individuals. This strongly suggested presence of antigens in RBCs and corresponding antibodies in plasma. Those RBCs’ antigens are different from RBCs proteome. Those antigens can be separated using plasma / serum of blood from which RBCs were taken. It is found that those antigens consist of HLA antigens, tissue specific antigens, and foreign antigens. The foreign antigens can be fetus antigens in pregnant females, microorganisms’ antigens, food, insects or other antigens from environment. The collection of those transported antigens represents a dynamic store. Consequently, RBCs may play role in tolerance through transporting those antigens to central organs of the immune system. The experiments, which have been done, reveal some of the antigens of the store, and show how this phenomenon can be exploited, for instance, in diagnosis of human tuberculosis (TB). In effect, this work opens a new avenue of research and hopes.

[Mahmoud Rafea, Serhiy Souchelnytsky and  Saleh El-Ayouby. Rediscovering Red Blood Cells: Revealing Their Antigens Store. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):220-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Red Blood Cells, Erythrocytes, Immune Tolerance, Self-Antibodies, Erythrocytes Antigen Store, Erythrocytes Functional Proteome, Protection of Fetus as Allograft

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The effect of vitamin E on post-thawed buffalo bull sperm parameters

 

Rahim Beheshti1, Aiden Asadi2 , Naser Maheri-Sis

 

1.Department of Veterinary medicine, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, East Azarbaijan,  Iran.

               2.Department of Animal science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, East Azarbaijan, Iran.

Rahimbeheshti@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The sperm cells protection against oxidative reactions during cryopreservation process done by antioxidant and amino acids agents. The purpose of this study  was evaluation  of  the effects of vitamin E on Azerbaijan Buffalo bull´s sperm cells after thawing. Therefore for definition the percentage of motility, acrosomal membrane integrity, and live ratio of sperm cells, ejaculations from five mature buffalo bulls after preparation in tris-yolk base medium was added with five levels of vitamin E (0.1, 0.5, 1 or 1.5 mM) separately and frozen process was performed. One month latter, five piote selected randomly and after thawing in 37 °C water bath in twenty seconds, sperm cells motility evaluated with 37 °C warm plate microscope. On the other hand, the one step eosin-nigrosin staining for evaluation of live ratio percentage and formal citrate for acrosomal membrane integrity was performed, then slides evaluated with 1000x light microscope and 200 sperm per slide was counted. The result showed significant difference between blank and vitamin E groups and sperm motility was higher in vitamin E )P<0.05(. On the other hand  sperm motility in vitamin E 1.5 mM was higher than other vitamin E groups )P<0.05(. Between vitamin E groups, the percentage of live-ratio was higher in vitamin E 1.5 mM and lower in vitamin E 0.1 mM )P<0.05(  and the lowest was in control group (P<0.05).

[Rahim Beheshti, Aiden Asadi, Naser Maheri-Sis. The effect of vitamin E on post-thawed buffalo bull sperm parameters. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):227-231]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Buffalo bull, vitamin E, semen.

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Perceived autonomy support among Maternity and Psychiatric nursing students

 

1Fatma Hussein Ramadan and 2Rasha Mohamed Essa

 

1Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. Egypt

2Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, Damanhour University. Egypt

fatma_ramadan45@yahoo.com           rashaessa111@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Supporting students’ autonomy has many outstanding benefits. It promotes self motivation and satisfaction for students in various learning settings. The aim of this study was to identify the nursing students’ perception of their clinical instructors autonomy support. A convenient sample  was taken  from  Faculty of  Nursing, Alexandria University at Maternity and Psychiatric Nursing Departments. Sample of this study consisted of 250 undergraduate students attended and studied Maternity and Psychiatric Nursing courses.  Data were collected in the second semester of academic year   2009/2010. Two tools were used to collect the necessary data. One questionnaire sheet to obtain demographic data including gender, age , and academic achievement . Second questionnaire sheet was Learning Climate Questionnaire , to assess  the perceived autonomy support among students at different learning settings . Results of this study showed that the majority of Maternity and Psychiatric nursing students perceived either low or moderate levels of autonomy support and no statistically significant difference was found. Significant diferences were only found between students’ perception of clinical instructors autonomy support and gender differences among  both groups . Teaching programs will be recommended to train clinical instructors in both  specialties to display more autonomy-supportive behaviors.

 [Fatma Hussein Ramadan and Rasha Mohamed Essa. B Perceived autonomy support among Maternity and Psychiatric nursing students. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):232-240]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: autonomy support, self-determination theory, gender differences, maternity and psychiatric nursing students.

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Concurrent External Radiotherapy And  Doxorubicin  Based Chemotherapy In Breast Cancer Patients Any Cardiac Side Effects?

 

1A.A. Adenipekun, 2O. Oladapo, 1T.N. Elumelu

 

1Department  of Radiotherapy, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

2Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

adenipek2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Doxorubicin, has for long been a major component in the combination chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. At a cumulative dose of 400 and 600mg/m2 cardiomyopathies and electrocardiographic changes have been reported which may be worsen in patients who receive external beam radiation treatment to the left chest wall.  This study aimed at examining presence of cardiac sequalae that may result from concurrent use of Doxorubicin based chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy to the chest wall in our breast cancer population. Sixty-five (65) patients with cancer of the breast on combination therapy who received 50mg/m2of   Doxorubicin in four divided three weekly doses and had 50Gy of external beam radiation in 25 daily fractions over 5 weeks were evaluated. The patients also had 5-florouracil 1000mg/m2 and Cyclophosphamide 1000mg/m2 as part of the combination chemotherapy. All patients had ECG and Echocardiography before commencement of treatment and at three and nine months post treatment. Only 55 were found evaluable at the end of the study with mean age of 48 years. Eleven patients     had history of hypertension while none had any previous history of heart diseases. The pre and post-treatment ECG and Echocardiography were similar (p>005). The participants were also symptom free during the follow up period. Though this study suggests a safe combination of Doxorubicin-base chemotherapy and chest wall radiation within the period of evaluation, this may however, not exclude the possibility of long term complications.

[A.A. Adenipekun, O. Oladapo, T.N. Elumelu. Concurrent External Radiotherapy And Doxorubicin Based Chemotherapy In Breast Cancer Patients Any Cardiac Side Effects? Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):241-244]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Concurrent Radiotherapy; Doxorubicin Chemotherapy; Cardiac side effect

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Effects of administration of industrial tannins on nutrient excretion parameters during naturally acquired mixed nematode infections in Moghani sheep

 

Majid ChaichiSemsari1*, Naser MaheriSis1, Mohammad Sadaghian2, Behrad Eshratkhah2, Shahin Hassanpour1

 

1. Dept. of Animal Sciences, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

2. Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

 Majid.chaichi@gamil.com

 

Abstract: Tannins are one of the secondary metabolites of plants that tend to combine with protein and reduce parasitic properties in livestock and veterinary industry. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different levels of Quebracho Condensed Tannins (QCT) on Crude protein (CP) and other excretion parameters during naturally acquired mixed nematode infections in Moghani sheep. Twenty ewes (6-12 months years-old) with average body weight (26.5 ± 3.5 kg) were selected randomly and divided into four experimental groups: Control, A, B and C (were given 0, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g/kg body weight QCT, respectively) in summer 2010. In order to reduce the undesirable effects of tannins, it was used as a single oral dose drenches. Faecal samples were taken at 24 and 48 hour after treatment. Our result showed that protein excretion has a significant difference in all treatment groups compare to control group after 24 hours from drenching (P<0.05). Also, 48 hours after drenching, CP excretion was significantly decreased in treatment groups (P<0.05) and the QCT has no significant effect on faecal excretion of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and ash (P>0.05). Our results indicate that high levels of tannins intake were decreased protein excretion and increased retention of nitrogen in animal body.

[Majid ChaichiSemsari, Naser MaheriSis, Mohammad Sadaghian, Behrad Eshratkhah, Shahin Hassanpour. Effects of administration of industrial tannins on nutrient excretion parameters during naturally acquired mixed nematode infections in Moghani sheep. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):245-248]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Quebracho tannin, protein excretion, nematode, sheep

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Outcome of Mild and Moderate Preterm Newborns Admitted to NICU of Assiut University Children Hospital, Relation to Birth Weight

 

Hanaa A. Mohammad1, Nafisa H R Abd ElAziz1, and Randa shams Eldeen2

 

1Pediatric and 2Public Health Departments, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assuit, Egypt

 

Abstract: Prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction continues to be the major determinant of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess morbidity and mortality of mild and moderate preterm newborns admitted to NICU of Assiut University Children Hospital, and to find out the effect of birth weight on these outcomes. Three hundreds and six preterm cases were included of which 194 were mild preterm (34-36 gestational weeks) and 112 were moderate preterm (32-33 gestational weeks). Cases with birth weight <10th percentile on growth charts were classified as small for gestational age (SGA). Cases were followed during the admission period for neonatal mortality and /or morbidity including respiratory distress (RD), need for mechanical ventilation, sepsis/meningitis, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The length of hospital stay was also recorded. Results showed that moderate preterm group had significantly higher susceptibility to RD and IVH, and higher need to mechanical ventilation than the mild preterm group. Furthermore, they showed higher rate of death and longer hospital stay than the mild preterm. There was a significant negative correlation between gestational age and length of hospital stay. According to birth weight it was noticed that SGA moderate preterm showed higher mortality rate and higher rate of IVH and sepsis/meningitis than the corresponding AGA group, while SGA mild preterm newborns had significantly lower rate of RD and higher rate of IVH and sepsis/meningitis than the corresponding AGA group. Both SGA subgroups had significantly longer hospital stay than the corresponding AGA groups. In conclusion, preterm infants especially SGA are at greater risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Management strategies and guidelines should be settled to prevent spontaneous preterm deliveries and to early diagnose and manage intrauterine growth restriction.

[Hanaa Abd Ellateef Mohammad, Nafisa H R Abd ElAziz, and Randa shams Eldeen. Outcome of Mild and Moderate Preterm Newborns Admitted to NICU of Assiut University Children Hospital, Relation to Birth Weight. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):249-253]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Preterm Newborns; respiratory distress; necrotizing enterocolitis; intraventricular hemorrhage

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LMI Based Switching Congestion Controller for Multiple Bottleneck Packet Switching Networks

 

Roohollah Barzamini 1, Masoud. Shafiee 2

 

1. PhD Candidate of Control Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

2. Professor of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

m.shafiee@aut.ac.ir  

 

Abstract: In this paper a new Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) based switching controller for multiple Bottleneck packet switching Network has been considered. The main goal is to illustrate the effects of the Switching Control methodology on the congestion control problem of the packet switching Networks with dynamically varying parameters such as Link capacity and time delays. The congestion dynamic for congested network is presented and LMI based switching controller is being discussed. Then, the proposed control method has been applied on a case study in ATM Congested Network and simulations are conducted, and simulation results will be compared with old method..

[Rouhollah Barzamini, Masoud. Shafiee. LMI Based Switching Congestion Controller for Multiple Bottleneck Packet Switching Networks. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):254-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Congestion Control; Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI); Multiple Bottleneck; Packet switching Network; Switching Control Methodology

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Designing Affordable Solar Dryer for the Small Scale Holder

 

Nnorom ACHARA PhD

 

MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree, United Kingdom

nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com

 

Abstract:  The local farmer preserves the farm produce either by drying over the cooking tripod flue or by the use of natural sunlight.  The quantity of produce that can be accommodated over the cooking flue is limited and the traditional solar drying is inefficient because the produce is exposed to vagaries of nature, birds and occasionally to rodents.  The produce is preserved for use during the lean period, sold when the price is right and stored to provide seeds for the next planting season.  The cost of building the typical glass covered solar dryer is generally beyond the means of the average rural farmer. There is therefore a need to find cheaper construction materials to replace the major cost components such as glass.  Two solar dryers with glass and plastic covers have been designed and constructed for the purpose of assessing the suitability of plastic sheet as a replacement for glass.  The drying performance of the two dryers has been compared.  The results from the plastic covered solar dryer compare favourably with those of the glass dryer.  It is therefore concluded that glass can be replaced with plastic sheet without significant performance loss.

[Nnorom ACHARA. Designing Affordable Solar Dryer for the Small Scale Holder. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):262-266]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key Words:  transparency; incident; angle of inclination; absorption coefficient; reflection coefficient; tracking; dimensionless parameters

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Assessing techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

 

1Zahra Kaveie and 2Fakhteh Ghahramani

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: PRA requires researchers / field workers to act as facilitators to help local people conduct their own analysis, plan and take action accordingly. It is based on the principle that local people are creative and capable and can do their own investigations, analysis, and planning. The basic concept of PRA is to learn from rural people. Chambers (1992) has defined PRA as an approach and methods for learning about rural life and conditions from, with and by rural people. He further stated that PRA extends into analysis, planning and action. PRA closely involve villagers and local officials in the process. Similarly, Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) reflects the new thinking about development, needs, and people oriented responsibilities. It is a process that is highly systematic and structured, relying on interdisciplinary teamwork and special strategies for data collection and analysis such as triangulation, probing, and iteration. Some critics consider RRA to be a quick and dirty technique. There are a wide range of participatory tools and techniques available. People can use these tools and techniques according to their situation or needs. Generally, the application of different tools may vary from one situation to another. However, the process for conducting RRA/PRA remains the same.

[Zahra Kaveie and Fakhteh Ghahramani. Assessing techniques in Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):267-271]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)

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Distance in Economics Education: A Study of Factors

 

 Hadi Ghaffari 1, Ali Younessi 2

 

1. Dept. of Social & Economic Sciences, Payame Noor University, Arak, Iran

Email: hghaffari2000@yahoo.com

2. Dept. of Social & Economic Sciences, Payame Noor University, Shazand, Iran.

Email: ali_younessi7@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In conventional face to face education, as far as teaching approaches are concerned everything is left up to the teacher concerned. Though the infra­structure is available the problem lies in its proper communication. In order to gauge the distance per­ceived across various aspects in the educational sys­tem, the researcher conducted the present study. After consulting the literature, nine­teen factors were identified and an opinionnaire was accordingly prepared for teachers of Economics from the conventional face to face educa­tion. The nineteen factors and the teachers' opinion show how conventional educa­tional system has not taken into consideration the communication aspects which would hamper overall performance of teachers as well as stu­dents. It has taken for granted that no communi­cation distance can be present because of physical proximity between teacher and students and in­stitution. Therefore there is a need to reconstruct the conventional curriculum taking into consid­eration the factors and compensate for them. To compensate for this distance, one can look towards the distance education mechanisms. The face-to-face education has thus a number of les­sons to learn from distance education. In distance education, distance is presumed and attempts are made to create devices to compensate for it. As this study has showed, there is no reason to be­lieve that the face-to-face education does not have any communication distance. It is a rather serious matter that most of the teachers in the face-to-face system perceive a communication distance.

[Hadi Ghaffari, Ali Younessi. Distance in Economics Education: A Study of Factors.  Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):272-276]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Economics, Distance Education, Conventional Education, Communication Distance

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[Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):277-285]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. withdraw. 9

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Rumen degradation of dry matter and organic matter digestibility of Cherry tree leaves in ruminant nutrition using in vitro gas production and in situ techniques

 

Morteza Kiyani Nahand, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Naser Maheri-Sis and Abolfazl Ghorbani

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University , Shabestar Iran

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and estimation of nutritional value of cherry tree leaves in the ruminant nutrition. In this study in vitro gas production and in situ techniques were used to evaluate nutritional value of cherry tree leaves. Cumulative gas production was recorded at  2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation also, in situ disappear of dry mater for experimental samples was measured at 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. Chemical composition including dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude Ash (Ash), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and tannin compounds, 91.11, 2.76, 9.3, 8, 27.6, 20 and 2.185 percent, respectively measured. Gas production test and in situ rumen degradability with of three Taleshi native male cattle rumen fistulae were performed. Digestibility of organic matter (OMD) 65.74 percent and metabolizable energy (ME) 10.27 (MjKg-1 (were estimated. The Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) supplementation had also a significant (p<0.05) increase in the estimated parameters of gas production, OMD and ME of samples. Potential degradation (a+b) for dry matter and Effective rumen degradable (ED) at a rate of 0.05/h were estimated, 84.12 % and 52.20% respectively.

[Morteza Kiyani Nahand, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Naser Maheri-Sis and Abolfazl Ghorbani. Rumen degradation of dry matter and organic matter digestibility of Cherry tree leaves in ruminant nutrition using in vitro gas production and in situ techniques. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):286-289]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: In situ, Cherry leaf, Gas production, Metabolizable energy and Dry matter degradability

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Canola oil and its effect on the EPA and DPA content of abdominal fat of Iranian native turkey

 

Ramin Salamatdoust nobar1, Abolfazl Ghorbani1, Kambiz Nazeradll, Saeid Ghaem Maghami1

 

1. Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

Corresponding author email: r.salamatdoust@gmail.com

 

Abstract:The aim of this research were to evaluated effect of canola oil on the EPA and DHA fatty acid contents in the abdominal fat of Iranian native turkeys. A total of 90 turkey chicks were randomly divided into 3 experimental treatments with 3 replicates were arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimental period lasted 20 weeks. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet with 0% canola oil; basal diet with 2.5% canola oil and basal diet with 5% canola oil. Results show that different level of canola oil could not affect significantly EPA and DHA content but DPA percent significantly increased in experimental treatments compare with control group.

[Ramin Salamatdoust nobar1, Abolfazl Ghorbani1, Kambiz Nazeradll, Saeid Ghaem Maghami1. Canola oil and its effect on the EPA and DPA content of abdominal fat of Iranian native turkey. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):290-292]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Turkey, abdominal fat, DHA, EPA, DPA

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Investigation of dip coated ZnO thin film: X-ray reflectivity and Fourier analysis

 

Ghahraman Solookinejad

 

Department of Physics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

ghsolooki@gmail.com

 

Abstract: : In this study we fabricated Zinc Oxide thin film by sol-gel dip coating method on glass substrate. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and its optimization have been used for characterization and extracting physical parameters of the film. Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been applied for this optimization process. Independent information was exploited from Fourier transform of Fresnel reflectivity normalized X-ray reflectivity. The Auto Correlation Function (Fourier transformation of X-ray reflectivity) yields thickness of each coated layer on substrate. This information is a starting point for constructing optimization process. Specular X-ray reflectivity optimization yields structural parameters such as thickness, roughness of surface and interface and electron density profile of the film. Acceptable agreement exists between results obtained from Fourier transformation and X-ray reflectivity fitting.

[Ghahraman Solookinejad. Investigation of dip coated ZnO thin film: X-ray reflectivity and Fourier analysis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):293-298]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: X-ray Reflectivity, dip coating, roughness, Fourier Transformation

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New look to indigenous knowledge in developing countries

 

Abbas Emami

 

Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

E-mail: hossein11070@yahoo

 

Abstract: in the process of agriculture renovation in the third world that is indeed unavoidable, the indigenous agriculture knowledge and local methods in management of agriculture resources is to be destroyed and simultaneity environmental regions are on the verge of destruction. Modern agriculture prefers huge profit from resources and didn't pay attention to environmental, cultural, social and economic varieties of traditional agriculture. So incongruities of agriculture development plans are not compatible with rural needs and talents and also rural conditions. By recognizing indigenous agriculture features such as traditional classification for identifying plant and animal species and using of indigenous practices like simultaneous cultivation of compatible crops, we can get useful information about suitable ways for agriculture. Surely these guidelines will be more compatible with rural needs and agriculture and environmental features of each region and won't be reckless to social, economic and environmental complex issues.

[Abbas Emami. New look to indigenous knowledge in developing countries. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):299-303(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, developing countries

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The role of distance learning tools in Increase the efficiency of adult education

 

Akram Ghaffari

 

Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

Email: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult learners are often those that distinguish each other and have many different targets at the same time and will follow a common challenge to fulfill the goals of building self motivation vectors as educational materials to learn and use the forge Adult illiteracy is like a disease that infects virtually every dimension of Kentucky life. Adult illiteracy saps the energy and capability of Kentucky’s people and its economy. Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. Despite landmark reforms in public schools, too many Kentuckians continue to drop out of school, thereby perpetuating the chronic problem of adult illiteracy. Too many young Kentucky parents are unable to read and lack the basic literacy necessary to provide the necessary stimulating, supportive family environments for young children. It is known that children’s literacy levels are strongly linked to the educational level of their parents and that children of parents who are unemployed and have not completed high school are five times more likely to drop out. To be successful, the Commonwealth’s strategies must energize and gain the commitment of all the state’s political, education, business, and civic leaders. No strategy will succeed unless it engages leaders in each  community and county to identify needs and develop programs and services appropriate to the community’s  unique circumstances.  

[Akram Ghaffari. The role of distance learning tools in Increase the efficiency of adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):304-308]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning

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Assessing relationship between rural women empowerment and employment

 

Akram Ghaffari

 

Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

E-mail: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Rural women constitute about half of the world’s population and in the world production supply they have energetic communion and constitute a great part of agriculture workforce. They constitute% 50 of the workforce and they participate in the production of half of the foods in the agriculture section. As an example the rural women constitute about 70 to% 80 of agriculture workforce in sub-Saharan Africa, %65 in Asia, %45 in Latin American & Caribbean, %80 in Nigeria & Tunisia and %80 in India, but their role in production system is the men’s supplements roles and this causes a big responsibility inside their mother & wife duties and it takes a great time and energy of them. Studies in this field show that women spend about two thirds of their time for production, management & organize of their house as the men spend only one third of their time for such things. In the development countries, rural societies which are poverty for geographic reasons such as being far from urban societies or because of mountainous of zone and also as the roads are impassable and some other reason, they became deprived of many human development programs. Unfortunately these societies are suffering of mortality because of poverty but what is clear here is that we can't attribute such privation to geography and nature of the zone. Every country is tying to solve such critical conditions by applying depoverty policies.

[Akram Ghaffari. Assessing relationship between rural women empowerment and employment. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):309-313]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Employment, rural women, empowerment

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Importance of educators' knowledge about teaching methods in adult education

 

Fatemeh Bakhtiar

 

Darab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Darab, Iran

E-mail: abbasrezazadeh80@yahoo

 

Abstract: Complex role of adult learning and training process is significant, his role gradually changed from the donor information and active for many years will assume that the principles and techniques that are used in teaching children to contribute equally in the adult learning process On the other hand is effective in children for adult education teachers were employed. Later that person was well trained (ie the experts), who could well slow or a group leader to manage the program, was selected as an adult educator. Thus learners directly in adult education programs that are based on experience were used, and adult As a mature child which has its own characteristics and is unique is that the principles and techniques of the different techniques used for the education of children is needed. As a result the role of adult educator gradually from non-skilled person without the expertise of individual specialists and trained to be changed and Instructors for training and educational opportunities were provided at all levels are therefore unable to work for educators from institutions with short-term training courses for users of the guidance program (project leaders) through summer workshops for professional leaders through programs Training of Master and PhD levels in schools of higher education courses were provided. other procedures, where the role of teacher has changed the theoretical concepts first, an understanding of adult learning was unfounded on the principle that the concept of adult education is based on transferring knowledge to them and saying what they should know or duty to interpret absorption educator their training. In recent years the practice has changed and the role of educator as a "change agent" and reform as a donor and an "auxiliary roles" or "facilitators" were raised as his understanding of adult personal and community among people.

[Fatemeh Bakhtiar. Importance of educators' knowledge about teaching methods in adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):314-317]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

 Keywords: teaching methods, educator, adult education

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Numerical Analysis of the Geomembrane Behavior in the Sar Cheshmeh Copper Mine Tailings Dam

 

Hamidreza Ahmadaghaei

Department of Civil Engineering, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author:  h_ahmadaghaei@yahoo.com

 

Abstract:The use of Geomembranes as Tatrava surface can be considered as valuable and affordable solution compared to other techniques for sealing of earth dams. In one Of  the earth dams in Iran ( Sar Chesmeh Copper mine dam), the Geomembrane is used to increase the height of the dam. In this study, using by software modeling to try to achieve the optimum thickness for Geomembranes used in The shell was added to the old dam, based on analysis of Seepage and slope stability downstream slope of dam, So using by obtained thickness of the Geomembrane, the smallest leak can cause, and Downstream slope of dam can maintain its consistency and economic aspects are also considered for implementation. To achieve this purpose,  Geomembranes with different thickness in the respective place, Considered as a model and determine the optimal thickness of the Geomembrane By comparing the results from the analysis of leakage. Then downstream slope dam stability will examine. then with using of SIGMA/W program from GeoStudio software is applied to evaluate Geomembrane  behavior in addition crust to old dam and research be done about sufficiency and insufficiency against enter forces that this evaluation is done base on stress- strain analysis.

[Hamidreza Ahmadaghaei. Numerical Analysis of the Geomembrane Behavior in the Sar Cheshmeh Copper Mine Tailings Dam. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):318-323]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Geomembrane, Earth dams, Numerical Analysis, Sealing.

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Characteristics Adult and children education  

 

1Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 2 Mojtaba Sadighi

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: adults, social experiences, many have already learned different values ​​and beliefs in their pronouns have stabilized, so changes in the new act very cautiously. The idea of ​​such a manner that skill and applying them older and longer life is, Similar resistance to accept new ideas will be more and more severe. Thus, the adult criteria for the built and paid for their ideas and beliefs that are forming. Because of these criteria and the beliefs that they are afraid of failure, Therefore, to prevent it, sometimes against the resistance of new phenomena are only the material taught and its face that make reinforced concrete and tangible interference situation.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Mojtaba Sadighi. Characteristics Adult and children education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):323-326]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: adult education, children education

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The role of Distance education in improving adult education

 

Maryam Zandieh 1 and Mona Habibi2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance learning is one of the fastest-growing components of higher education. Almost 3.5 million students were enrolled in at least one distance learning course in the fall of 2006 and online enrollments are increasing every year. The convenience of taking classes at any time from any location appeals to today’s adult learner, especially those who work, have families or live in rural areas. Today a growing number of paralegal and legal secretarial programs have a distance learning component (no law schools currently grant credit for distance learning studies). However, not all distance learning programs are of equal quality. Moreover, the increasing popularity of distance learning programs have led to “diploma mills” or “accreditation mills” that offer bogus degrees and certificates. Choosing a distance learning program requires careful research and evaluation. Below are several important factors to consider in choosing a distance learning program. In evaluating distance learning paralegal programs, determine if the school is accredited by one of the regional accrediting bodies and by the American Bar Association (ABA). ABA-approval signifies that the school has met certain standards in terms of academics, facilities and instruction. Graduating from an ABA-approved school may give you an advantage in the legal job market.

[Maryam Zandieh and Mona Habibi. The role of Distance education in improving adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):327-331]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

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Rural women empowerment and rural development

 

Nooshin Javadi 1 and Mona Habibi2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in the rural community of Iran, there are gaps between the ruling class (capital owners) and villagers, between literate and illiterate, and between men and women. Especially in villages women have fewer possibilities in terms of investment and less power and credit. Role of rural women, over of men, is more influenced with different economic, social, cultural and ecologic factors. Rural women are considered as a noticeable potential in the community either directly (crops production, livestock, handicrafts, cottage industries) or indirectly by helping the agricultural sector (as labor). About 5.6 million women are involved in agricultural production, and activities related to planting... harvesting, preparation of animal food, and taking care of livestock and poultry and some certain activities related to trading and marketing are all different fields of rural women’s role and participation. Based on current statistics, women in rural area participate about 50% in conversion industries, 22% in producing crops and livestock, 75% in handicrafts and in areas related to planting…harvesting , respectively, 25, 24 and 4.26. And also in activities related to livestock, they handle 23% of livestock grazing, 42% of animal care and 100 percent of total poultry in the village. Therefore their role in achieving food security is undeniable. But, like most developing countries, this crucial role in society and in process of rural development, is not obvious. In Iranian rural community, about 80% of women work, but they are mostly considered as housewives, unpaid employment, domestic workers, family workers, or independent employers. The statistics often do not take into account seasonal, part-time, unpaid employment, and housekeeping activities. In economics and social sciences, those of women’s activities that have emerged out of house and affected national economy, are the ones to be noticed. In most research and statistics men are known as the heads of household and they are also the owners of lands and fields. That only 1% of the rural lands are belonging to women does confirm such matter.

[Nooshin Javadi and Mona Habibi. Rural women empowerment and rural development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):332-336]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

 Keywords: empowerment, rural women, rural development

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Rural women participation and Employment in iran

 

Mona Habibi 1 and Maryam Zandieh 2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Among developing countries, millions of women always are in farms and lands, work in engaged industries, keep the cattle, store firewood and water and earn livelihood and participation in economic activities is one of their important characteristics. But Despite their widespread presence in economic activities and benefits associated with it, they always face with discrimination. The discrimination has never tired them, but as a major force in economic activities is discussed around the world. In Semi-desert areas in Africa, women traditionally are active in keeping poultry and Vegetarian animals and wild plants and trees fruit collected. In Turkey, women are employed to produce vegetables and dairy products. Among Indians, agricultural activities of women include the region around the home and caring small animal, garden products and collective activities such as spinning, weaving, wool weaving, and the cheese production. In China, when the job opportunity outside the farm is not available, the men are trying to produce crops and women are keeping livestock, doing crafts and spending to food products. In that case, women are responsible for all the agricultural tasks and do some activities such as the poultry production.

[Mona Habibi and Maryam Zandieh. Rural women participation and Employment in iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):337-341]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Employment, rural women

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Adult learning principles

 

Nooshin Javadi 1 and Maryam Zandieh2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: adult education in the local agricultural education program is an essential component of the "total" program. Offering adult education programs helps to keep farmers and agribusiness employees better informed of current trends and provides them with opportunities to learn new skills and improve existing ones. Teaching adults can be very challenging, but also very rewarding. Most teachers would agree that the benefits derived from a successful adult education program in agriculture far outweigh the costs. In addition to the direct benefits to adult participants, the teacher, the school, the community, and the secondary program also benefit from a quality adult education program in agriculture. Adults in agriculture use a number of sources to gain new information that can be used to help them solve problems. Persons employed in agriculture utilize newspapers, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, government publications, internet, and meetings to gather information which can be directly utilized in their business activities. In many communities, the agriculture teacher is the primary source of agricultural information.

[Nooshin Javadi and Maryam Zandieh. Adult learning principles. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):342-346]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: adult learning, adult education

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Distance learning in adult education

 

1 Maryam Nikmanesh and 2 Mina Abarashi

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult who is able to recognize their needs. He is who knows what will. Refers to individual adults in their lives cross and understand their responsibilities and has accepted the role is social. Adult learners are often those that distinguish each other and have many different targets at the same time and will follow a common challenge to fulfill the goals of building self motivation vectors as educational materials to learn and use the forge. Adult illiteracy is like a disease that infects virtually every dimension of Kentucky life. Adult illiteracy saps the energy and capability of Kentucky’s people and its economy. Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. Despite landmark reforms in public schools, too many Kentuckians continue to drop out of school, thereby perpetuating the chronic problem of adult illiteracy. Too many young Kentucky parents are unable to read and lack the basic literacy necessary to provide the necessary stimulating, supportive family environments for young children. It is known that children’s literacy levels are strongly linked to the educational level of their parents and that children of parents who are unemployed and have not completed high school are five times more likely to drop out.

[Maryam Nikmanesh and Mina Abarashi. Distance learning in adult education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):347-352]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: distance learning, adult education

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Assessing process of Adult Learning in agricultural education

 

Mona Habibi 1 and Nooshin Javadi 2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult illiteracy is like a disease that infects virtually every dimension of Kentucky life. Adult illiteracy saps the energy and capability of Kentucky’s people and its economy. Adult illiteracy feeds the state’s unemployment, its welfare rolls, and the correctional institutions. Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. Learning activities such as activities outside the classroom, dialogue, role playing and ... Another type of content is presented. Duties are placed on the learner, a resource for developing knowledge, skills and insights he considered. Curriculum content only from the training provided to learners or not, but put together their learning through activities that can inform or does, skills and attitude to achieve. In this case, apart from learning that the assays taught learners directly to sustainable and effective learning occurs in his. Another way of providing content that is educational activities outside the learning environment possible for learning more and better enables adult learners. For example, hits, field trip experiences for learners or transfer is provided, develop knowledge, insight and skills.

[Mona Habibi and Nooshin Javadi. Assessing process of Adult Learning in agricultural education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):353-356]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: adult learning, education

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Utilization of micro-credit for rural women and improving livelihood

 

1 Fakhteh Ghahramani and 2 Zahra Kaveie

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author:  fakhteh1358@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the countries that credits are provided in a proper financial manner, not only it has increased production and income but also it has encouraged poor to save a part of their income. These savings can be an important support for the institutes providing micro-credits and can be a financial base for more loans and all these result in institutes’ financial dependence.With the new way of micro-credit payments, in addition to covering poor’s financial needs, a combination of other services and facilities are available for them; such as saving accounts, educational services, and cooperation possibilities .If rural women can work through receiving credits , loan and others finance facilities at favorite jobs and live through earned income (as it called “self-reliance and independence”) , so undoubtedly we would see changes in social, economic and cultural relations of village. However these actions caused that women stand in good economic condition and also gain self reliance and rely themselves with no help from husbands, but dominant cultural space on villages may create some disorders. At most of villages in Iran, patriarchal with all features dominate and women’s financial self reliance may not being pleasant for some human and rural groups.

[Fakhteh Ghahramani and  Zahra Kaveie. Utilization of micro-credit for rural women and improving livelihood. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):357-361]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: micro-credit, rural women

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Using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in rural research

 

1 Fakhteh Ghahramani and 2 Zahra Kaveie

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author:  fakhteh1358@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Robert Chambers (2004) describes PRA as “a growing family of approaches, methods, attitudes and behaviours to enable and empower people to share, analyze and enhance their knowledge of life and conditions, and to plan, act, monitor, evaluate and reflect". While RRA focuses on data collection or extraction, PRA focuses on empowerment. It needs to be noted that although RRA and PRA carry the term ‘rural’, they can both be and have been applied in urban settings. To make it more inclusive and to emphasize the empowerment aspect, the term Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) is used interchangeably with PRA. PRA has many sources. The most direct is rapid rural appraisal (RRA) from which it has evolved. RRA itself began as a response in the late 1970s and early 1980s to the biased perceptions derived from rural development tourism (the brief rural visit by the urban-based professional) and the many defects and high costs of large-scale questionnaire surveys. PRA has much in common with RRA but differs basically in the ownership of information, and the nature of the process: in RRA information is more elicited and extracted by outsiders as part of a process of data gathering; in PRA it is more generated, analyzed, owned and shared by local people as part of a process of their empowerment. The term Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is being used to describe a growing family of approaches and methods to enable local people to share, enhance and analyze their knowledge of life and conditions, to plan and to act.

[Fakhteh Ghahramani and  Zahra Kaveie. Using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in rural research. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):362-366]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), rural research.

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The role of indigenous knowledge in Reaching to sustainable development

 

1Zahra Kaveie and 2Fakhteh Ghahramani

1, 2Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge that is restricted to one specific culture and/or certain society. Indigenous knowledge is different with scientific knowledge that was established by universities and scientific communities. This knowledge is basis for decision making at field of agriculture, health, education, food and natural sources . Indigenous knowledge is set of all knowledge and skills that people enjoy in one geographical area ( in one environmental conditions) that most of their skills and knowledge be transmitted to next generation , and new generation would be adapted with them and add to it. Since, each knowledge is consequent of individual interaction with environment, so indigenous knowledge is consequent of indigenous people interaction with their environment. Chambers with emphasis on people’s role at development process believes that “rural people’s knowledge” term is more eloquent than other terms for indigenous knowledge. Our purpose of rural people are producer farmers , input buyers , agriculture production sellers and etc. “people” in above phrase emphasis that this knowledge is more verbal and less has been written . This word also referred to whole knowledge system which contains concepts, beliefs, and attitudes and also contains gain, store and transmitting knowledge process.

[Zahra Kaveie and Fakhteh Ghahramani. The role of indigenous knowledge in Reaching to sustainable development. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):367-371]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: sustainable development, indigenous knowledge

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Financial self-reliance of rural women through micro-credit

 

1 Maryam Nikmanesh and 2 Mina Abarashi

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: If rural women could provide a job for them by getting credits, loan and other financial convenience, through their income they can get self-reliance or financial independency and we will see social, cultural & economic change in village. The question here is that if these changes have positive or negative aspects in the village? It's natural that every change in social phenomenon has both positive and negative aspect, but which is Important here is that which aspect is more than the other and it depends to different condition in various societies. In our rural society there is an especial social & cultural kind that it's outcome maybe different and in some case inconsistent. With these actions rural women could be in idealistic economic condition and they could live without dependency to their husband's income. In most of the villages in Iran there is patriarchy in the families which is not acceptable for the most of the rural people and groups. When rural women became financially independent, it's acceptable to see its cultural & social outcomes.    Giving the right that women make decision, independency to their family, increasing the cultural knowledge among them& making relation with new institutions, having independency in making decision about marriage, occupation, migration & something like this are the right that women have got it.

[Maryam Nikmanesh and Mina Abarashi. Financial self-reliance of rural women through micro-credit. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):372-375]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: financial self-reliance, rural women

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Status of indigenous knowledge in rural (in developing countries)

 

Maryam Zandieh 1 and Nooshin Javadi2

 

1, 2 Bojnourd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bojnourd, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Indigenous agriculture is base on farmer’s cooperation with nature. Sustainable agriculture that inspired by indigenous systems would rectify most of deficiencies of modern agriculture. Indigenous agriculture systems is production of centuries of cultural and subsistence revolution. These systems are collections of farmer’s experiences that haven't enjoy sources except inputs, capital and indigenous knowledge. And consequently they accessed to such sustainable agriculture that just is dependent on using restricted local resources and existing humane and animal power. At indigenous agriculture, culture diversity and frequency would minimize possibility of loss crops in spite of simple technology. These systems despite of limitation of sources enjoy merits of sponsors traditions and intelligent methods of using animals, fields, and compatible crop species. Thus ecological agriculture scholars consider these systems as unique samples to determine sustainability standards in agricultures activities. This knowledge would rise at different fields such as language, botanical and zoology and also skills and manual and agriculture professions that all are product of human efforts in his environment. This information contain best, useful and consistent collocation of exploiting methods and living in special environment which be transmitted through verbal and empirical way from one generation to another.

[Maryam Zandieh and Nooshin Javadi. Status of indigenous knowledge in rural (in developing countries). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):376-380]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Indigenous knowledge, rural women

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Importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in education

 

 Dr. Mahmoud Safari

 

Department of Educational Management, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

 

Abstract: ICT provides access to only a small part of the action is created equal. Equal attention should also be applied to ensure the technology really "is used by learners and ways of how well their needs will cure. An educational program that reinforced this approach shows the overall program is bilingual. The program seeks to establish technology learning centers for bilingual teachers, students, teachers, parents and community members. Technical teams from each center three students, two teachers and the director of the Center with at least one female student and a teacher are female. Another example of a general approach to the application of ICT in education, radio education project Gobi Women of Mongolia, which seeks to provide professional and educational structure of women's favorite courses around the nomads and their opportunities for income generation. It contains topics such as livestock rearing, family support (family planning, health, nutrition and health) to create income in the application of local raw materials and basic skills for the job is a new market. Policy makers and service providers have increasingly come to view information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the Internet, as an important tool in providing disadvantaged groups and areas with access to information, services and markets that would otherwise be inaccessible. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium.

[Dr. Mahmoud Safari. Importance of using information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):381-385]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: education, information and communication technologies (ICT)

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Effect of K, P, Zn, S Fertilizer on cold tolerance on rapeseed genotypes (relay Cropping) in climatic region of Varamin

 

Pourang kasraie1*, Mohammad Nasri2, Mansoureh Khalatbari3

 

1Islamic Azad University, Varamin branch, Iran.
2Associate  professor of crop physiology ,Islamic Azad University, Varamin branch, Iran.

3Agricultural Researcher, Islamic Azad University, shahre ghods branch, Iran.

*Corresponding author email: kasraie@iauvaramin.ac.ir

 

Abstract: In order to study of different levels of fertilizer treatment ( K , Zn, S ) on increase tolerance to cold on quality characteristics on genotypes of rapeseed in delayed planting , an investigation was carried out with factorial in random complete block with three replications and 36 treatment ,in Varamin - Pishva university field research ( Ghaleh – sin ) in 2008-2009. Factors were genotypes in three levels( Hyola -42 , SLM046 , Zarfam ) and fertilizer treatment in 4 levels ( 1-Control , 2– C+ K, 3- C, K+Zn, 4- C, K, Zn +S ).  Planted seed at 10th November were delayed planting .The highest grain yield achieved from (C,K,Zn,S,SLM046)with 6564.6 Kg/ha ,That had 72 %  grain yield further of (Control, Zarfam ) genotype with 1807.65 Kg/ha. Also the highest number of pods per plant, number of grain per pods and biological yield with 156.97, 20.7 and 17384.9 Kg/ha respectively was obtained from Hyola-42 Hybrid and use of C, K, Zn, S. In this research the lowest these amounts were achieved for Zarfam genotype with Control fertilizer. In conclusion Slm046 genotype with C, K, Zn, S fertilizers was suitable for delayed planting (Cold Stress ) for Varamin condition.

[Pourang kasraie, Mohammad Nasri, Mansoureh Khalatbari. Effect of K, P, Zn, S Fertilizer on cold tolerance on rapeseed genotypes (relay Cropping) in climatic region of Varamin. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):386-390]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Rapeseed; Genotype; yield and yield components cold tolerance

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Prevalence of Adenocortical Insufficiency in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Cirrhosis with Septic Shock and in Patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome

 

Mohamed Badr Mohamed1, Gamal Hamed2, Ayman Heikal2 and Hisham Darwish*1

 

1Intensive Care Department,Theador Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI)

2Critical Care Medicine Department, Cairo University

drwesh123@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Critical illness is accompanied by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is highlighted by increased serum corticotropin and cortisol levels. In patients with severe sepsis, the integrity of the HPA axis can be impaired by a variety of mechanisms. These patients typically have an exaggerated proinflammatory response and are considered to be relatively corticosteroid insufficient. This complex syndrome is referred to as critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) which manifests with insufficient corticosteroid mediated down regulation of inflammatory transcription factors. Similar to type II diabetes (relative insulin deficiency), CIRCI arises due to corticosteroid tissue resistance together with inadequate circulating levels of free cortisol. Numerous papers have reported a high incidence of adrenal failure in critically ill patients, including those with end stage liver disease and liver transplant recipients. The term hepatoadrenal syndrome e.i, Adrenocortical insufficiency in patients with liver cirrhosis has been used to describe such an association between liver disease and adrenal failure and the definition of this term extends beyond the occurrence of sepsis, which is a frequent complication of liver failure. Aim of work to assess: The prevalence of hepatoadrenal syndrome (HAS) among the Egyptian cirrhotic patients, the prevalence of HAS among those complicated with septic shock or hepatorenal syndrome and to find significant predictors for HAS. Patients and methods: Our study was a cross sectional study, conducted on 45 patients admitted to the liver intensive care unit and hepatology ward of Theador Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) in the period between November 2009 and February 2010, who were fulfilling the criteria of Child Pugh classification.  Patients were divided into three groups. Group A included 15 patients with liver cirrhosis, with neither septic shock nor hepatorenal syndrome, Group B included 15 patients with liver cirrhosis and septic shock, but not associated with hepatorenal syndrome, Group C included 15 patients with hepatorenal syndrome.  The adrenal function of all patients was assessed by the conventional dose, short synacthen test (250 ug.iv) which was performed within the first 24 h of admission.  Blood samples to measure plasma cartisol levels were obtained before and 30 minutes after synacthen administration. Results: Our study revealed that adrenocortical insufficiency (ACI) was found in 33 patients out of the 45 patients subjected to this study (73.3%).Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was done and showed that the MELD score may be a good predictor for ACI in liver cirrhosis patients. ROC curve showed also that the serum bilirubin may be a good predictor for ACI in liver cirrhosis patients. Conclusion: Adrenocortical insufficiency is common in patients with cirrhosis and in patients complicated with hepatorenal syndrome. According to our study MELD score and serum bilirubin level may be good predictors for Hepatoadrenal Syndrome. Recommendation: We recommend To make further studies with greater number of patients to detect hepatoadrenal syndrome and to study its effect on the prognosis, the complication of liver cirrhosis and mortality.

[Mohamed Badr Mohamed, Gamal Hamed, Ayman Heikal and Hisham Darwish. Prevalence of Adenocortical Insufficiency in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis, Liver Cirrhosis with Septic Shock and in Patients with Hepatorenal Syndrome. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):391-400]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Liver cirrhosis, child classification, hepatoadrenal syndrome, hepatorenal syndrome, adrenal dysfunction, adrenocortical insufficiency, relative adrenal insufficiency, MELD score

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Design and Development of a Portable Banana Ripeness Inspection System

 

Mahmoud Soltani*, Reza Alimardani and Mahmoud Omid

 

Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. *mahmoodsoltani39@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Automatic control of environmental conditions is an importantproblem of banana ripening treatment. In this study, a capacitive sensing system was designed and developed. In this method banana fruit is placed in the capacitive sensor as a dielectric material and then the capacitance of sensor is measured. Experiments were carried out with 10 kHz to 10 MHz sinusoidal frequencies. A consistent decrease of εb had occurred at 100 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies when banana had been ripened. A high correlation was observed between εb and ripening period (R2 = 0.96) at 100 kHz frequency. This system has the following characteristics: rapid response, simple operation, non-destructive measurement, and low cost.

 

[Mahmoud Soltani, Reza Alimardani and Mahmoud Omid. Design and Development of a Portable Banana Ripeness Inspection System. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):401-405]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

        

Keywords: Banana fruit, Dielectric constant. Electronic circuit

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Effect of Chitosan on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders Induced In Rats Exposed to Radiation

 

N. E. Mohamed

 

Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt, P.O.13759

nelshahat@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Radiation is one of the most widespread sources of environmental stress in living environment which cause oxidative stress and metabolic changes. Chitosan is widely distributed in nature as a component of bacterial cell walls and exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects. The present   study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effect of chitosan against gamma rays induced oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in rats.  The study was conducted on forty eight (48) female rats which were classified into four equal groups.  Group1: Control group, rats administrated orally 1.0 ml vehicle solution for forty days Group. 2: Chitosan group, rats administrated orally ( intragastric intubation) 1.0 ml of chitosan solution (100mg/kg b.wt. / day for 40 days).Group3: Irradiated rats, rats were subjected to whole body γ–irradiation to dose 4 Gy delivered as single exposure dose. Group 4: Combined treatment: rats administrated orally 1.0 ml of chitosan solution (100mg/kg b.wt. / day) for 40 days. At day 35 of chitosan treatment the rats were irradiated at dose level of 4Gy. Rats inspected after 1th and 5th days post irradiation and liver, spleen, lung and blood samples were collected. The animals exposed to gamma radiation had significant increase in TBARS, LDH, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, copper, iron, urea, creatinine, AFP and non significant increase in Mg. Also, significant decrease in GSH, CAT, HDL-C and estradiol was recorded. Administration of chitosan to rats prior and post gamma radiation improved the tested parameters so it is a therapeutic alternative for oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and hormonal changes. In this way, chitosan may be contributed to the prevention of atherogenic processes and contribute as safe functional fiber food.

[N. E. Mohamed. Effect of Chitosan on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders Induced In Rats Exposed to Radiation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):406-417]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Chitosan, γ- irradiation, Antioxidant, Lipid profile, Kidney function, Hormones, Rats.

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On Early Discovery of Mathematically Creative Children using Artificial Neural Networks Modeling (with a case study)

 

H.M. Mustafa

 

Faculty of Engineering, Albaha University, KSA

mustafa_hasan47@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Learning creativity is an interesting educational phenomenon usually observed at children classrooms. Early discovery of individual children having mathematical creativity is a challenging interdisciplinary research issue. This piece of research focuses on quantitative analysis and evaluation of mathematical learning creativity on the basis of acquired “Subjective Domains of Experiences” (SDE) inside children's brain. Acquisition of (SDE) assumed to modify a children's stored experience via application of various multimedia Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) packages (modules). Accordingly, fairly assessment of mathematical learning time response has been adopted herein for analysis and evaluation of learning creativity acquired by (SDE). By some details, early discovery of creativity could be performed well in accordance with obtained learning assessment results. That is after solving correctly a suggested mathematical topic (at children classrooms).Furthermore, interactive interference between Reflective and Spontaneous Vorstellungen* during mathematical education has been simulated using supervised and autonomous Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning paradigms. * The German word Vorstellungen is used in replacement of the vague English expression “internal representation”

[H.M. Mustafa On Early Discovery of Mathematically Creative Children using Artificial Neural Networks Modeling (with a case study). Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):418-429]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Learning Creativity Phenomenon ,Artificial Neural Network, Vorstellungen, subjective domain of experiences, Computer Assisted Learning.

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The study of food preference of Sitophilus oryzae L. on common cultivars of rice in Guilan province

 

Seyedeh Masoomeh Hasheminia

 

Department of agronomy, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran

Corresponding author΄s email: mhasheminia@riau.ac.ir

 

 Abstract: Rice product after wheat has special importance as the second agriculture strategic product. Rice weevil as one of the most important stored pest has the main role in losses of stored product. So in this research, the pest effects was studied on 4 common varieties of rice in Guilan province "Taroum, Hashemi, Ali kazemi and Dylamani" in two conditions of facultative and obligatory nutrition. Results showed that Taroum variety was the most sensitive variety in conditional of facultative and obligatory nutrition and after it Hashemi variety was in the second category and had significant difference with Taroum variety. Ali kazemi and Dylamani varieties didn’t have significant difference with together and had the lowest sensitive.

[Seyedeh Masoomeh Hasheminia. The study of food preference of Sitophilus oryzae L.on common cultivars of rice in Guilan province. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):430-434]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Rice weevil, Food preference, Rice varieties

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Investigating the Strategies to Achieve Success in Human Resource Planning

 

Masoud GhorbanHosseini

 

PhD student, Department of Management, Saveh branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran

masoudghorbanhoseini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human resource planning has traditionally been used by organizations to ensure that the right person is in the right job at the right time. Under past conditions of relative environmental certainty and stability, human resource planning focused on the short term and was dictated largely by line management concerns. Increasing environmental instability, demographic shifts, changes in technology, and heightened international competition are changing the need for and the nature of human resource planning in leading organizations. Planning is increasingly the product of the interaction between line management and planners. In addition, organizations are realizing that in order to adequately address human resource concerns, they must develop long-term as well as short term solutions. As human resource planners involve themselves in more programs to serve the needs of the business, and even influence the direction of the business, they face new and increased responsibilities and challenges.

[Masoud GhorbanHosseini. Investigating the Strategies to Achieve Success in Human Resource Planning. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):435-439]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Human Resource, Planning, Organizations, Line Management Concerns.

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A Survey on the Human Resource Management Perspectives as an Emerging Managerial Function

 

Masoud GhorbanHosseini

 

PhD student, Department of Management, Saveh branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran

masoudghorbanhoseini@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Human resource management can be defined as the process of acquiring, training, developing, motivating, and appraising a sufficient quantity of qualified employees to perform the activities necessary to accomplish organizational objectives; and developing specific activities and an overall organizational climate to generate maximum worker satisfaction and employee efficiency. While the owner-manager of a small organization is likely to assume complete responsibility for human resource management, larger organizations use company specialists called human resource managers to perform these activities in a systematic manner. The position is becoming increasingly important because of increased competition, government intrusion, emphasis on cost control, complex wage and benefit programs, and a changing work force. This article reviews the perspectives and the important considerations over the HR management and what HR managers should care about to achieve better Performance Measures.

[Masoud GhorbanHosseini. A Survey on the Human Resource Management Perspectives as an Emerging Managerial Function. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):440-444]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Human Resource Management, Performance Measures, Maximum Satisfaction, Managerial Function.

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The Criticism on Rorty Paradigm Insight Rorty and Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Similarities

 

Mohsen Mahmoudi1 Mousa Akrami2

1PhD student, Department of Philosophy, Research and Science branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy of Science, Islamic Azad University, Sciences and Research branch, Tehran, Iran. Mohsenmahmoodi97@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aim of this article is criticism of Richard Rorty insight about epistemic gap between philosophic Paradigms, through comparison of Avicenna about moral propositions and pragmatic reasons with some views of Rorty.  Avicenna views about pragmatic reason position have similarities to Rorty views, while each of them belongs to two different philosophic paradigms. Writers believe that between different philosophic paradigms, there is not so epistemic gap that cause we cannot comparison them with each other. Base of Rorty argumentations against epistemology and traditional philosophy is his believe to "epistemic gap of philosophic pragmatics". Rorty insight has consequences that he didn't accept them, such as cutting conversation and relation between cultures. Since conception of conversation in his ideas have key role, acceptance of such consequences, would unstable the most fundamental axis of his philosophy.

[Mohsen Mahmoudi, Mousa Akrami. The Criticism on Rorty Paradigm Insight  Rorty and Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Similarities  . Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):445-447]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Epistemic gap, paradigm, conversation, pragmatic reason, consensus, moral propositions

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Evaluation of Damages on Arc Frames of Reinforced Concrete by using Pushover

 

Mehrdad Dorvaj1, Mahdi Eezadpanah2

 

1M.Sc. in Earthquake engineering, Building and Houses Research Center, Tehran, Iran

2M.Sc. in Civil engineering, Kordestan University, Kordestan, Iran

Mahdi.Civil1@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Abstract: Qualification the scope of damage on structures is of the most important categories recently has been considered very much by researchers. For this purpose, different researchers by consideration of different aspects of structures have paid to presenting indexes. Depending most of these indices to nonlinear dynamic analysis performance which is very complex and time consuming has caused that using of these indices more be restricted to research project. The aim of this research is representing a simple and effective index on the basis of increasing load analysis and proportionate with operation point of structures which can represent a fair estimation of the scope of damages on structures.

 

 

[Mehrdad Dorvaj, Mahdi Eezadpanah. Evaluation of Damages on Arc Frames of Reinforced Concrete by using Pushover.Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6): 448-453] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Damage, Reinforced Concrete, Arc Frames, Pushover.

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Could Preeclampsia Affect The Maternal Serum Chorionic Gonadotrophin and Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Levels?

 

Mohamed A. El hadi Farag (MD), Mohamed Abd El-Salam (MD), Ashraf I. El Mashad (MD), Ibrahim El-Maghawry (MD) ٭

 

Obstetrics & Gynecology and ٭ Medical BiochemistryDepartments, Benha &٭ Zagazig Faculties of Medicine

Benha &٭ Zagazig Universities. *elmaghawry21@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The current work aimed to study the effect of preeclampsia on maternal serum level of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal plasma level of adenosine deaminase. Ninety pregnant women with gestational age 24 - 26 weeks were selected for this study, they were classified  into three groups: group 1 consists of 30 women with normal pregnancy, group 2 consists of  30 patients with mild preeclampsia  and group 3 consists of 30 patients with severe preeclampsia. Maternal serum level of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, and maternal plasma adenosine deaminase level were measured. Maternal serum level of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly higher in severe preeclampsia compared with the mild preeclampsia group and normal pregnancies. Maternal plasma adenosine deaminase level was significantly higher in the severe group compared with the mild preeclampsic and normal groups. Maternal serum level of beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal plasma level of adenosine deaminase might be useful as markers of the severity of preeclampsia.

[Mohamed A. El hadi Farag, Mohamed Abd El-Salam, Ashraf I. El Mashad, Ibrahim El-Maghawry. Could Preeclampsia Affect The Maternal Serum Chorionic Gonadotrophin and Plasma Adenosine Deaminase Levels? Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):454-458]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Preeclampsia, human chorionic gonadotropin, adenosine deaminase

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On the Invertibility Preserving Linear Maps

 

Mohammad Reza Farmani *,1, Abdorreza Panahi1 

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

mr.farmanis@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we show that the essentiality of the socle of an ideal of the algebra implies that any invertibility preserving linear map  is a Jordan homomorphism. Specially if  is a preliminary algebra then any such is an algebric homomorphism.

[Mohammad Reza Farmani, Abdorreza Panahi. On the Invertibility Preserving Linear Maps. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):459-462]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Invertibility preserving, Banach algebra, Socle, Jordan homomorphism.

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Decentralization of agricultural extension

 

1Mina Abarashi and 2 Maryam Nikmanesh

1, 2 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author:  saba11085@yahoo.com

Abstract: Agricultural extension is one of the main institutional components of agriculture as it promotes the transfer and exchange of information that can be converted into functional knowledge. It is better to say that extension is the instrument, which is helpful in developing enterprises that promote productivity and generate income in the present climate of change, which ultimately reduce poverty in developing as well as developed countries. Un-fortunately in developing as well as low income countries agricultural extension has failed in diffusing new technology to its ultimate users and further deterioration witnessed with the passage of time . The failure of agricultural extension services for last decades is under constant pressure to be responsive to ever-growing challenges of food production. Agricultural extension is a non-formal type of education that provides advisory services by the use of educational approach in acquiring knowledge and skills to deal with the growing needs of global world. Diverse agricultural extension funding and delivery arrangements have been undertaken since the mid-1980s by governments worldwide in the name of "privatization."  When agricultural extension is discussed, privatization is used in the broadest sense – of introducing or increasing private sector participation, which does not necessarily imply a transfer of designated state-owned assets to the private sector. In fact, various cost-recovery, commercialization, and other so-called privatization alternatives have been adopted to improve agricultural extension. The form and content of decentralization has dominated development discourse and public sector reform agenda in Kenya in the last two decades.

[Mina Abarashi and  Maryam Nikmanesh. Decentralization of agricultural extension. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):463-469]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Decentralization, Agricultural extension

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Sperm nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid denaturation in diazinon/diazoxon sprayer men

 

Sherif MH El-Kannishy(PhD)(1), Rizk M El-Baz(PhD)(2), Soma Sh Abd El Gawad(MD)(3), Hamdy F Marzook(MD)(3), Samia A Hassan(MD)(4),and Abdelhamid A Metwali (MD)(5)

 

(1)     Analytical Toxicology - Emergency Hospital, (2) Genetic Unit – Pediatric Hospital, (3) Clinical Pathology Dept., (4) Forensic Medicine & Clinical Toxicology Dept., and (5) Internal Medicine Dept. Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. somaabdelgawad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Objectives: Excessive exposure of agrochemical male workers to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may induce morphofunctional changes in their sperms. The aim of this study was to explore sperm nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) reaction to in vitro incubation with or in vivo chronic exposure to diazinon or diazoxon. Methods: Fixed volumes of every semen sample of ten healthy volunteers were incubated at 37oC for one hour with rising serial volumes of 60% of either diazinon (DZ) or diazoxon (DZO). Induced sperm morphological alterations were determined by microscopic examination of direct fresh, Papaniclaue stained and eosin-Y exclusion smears while sperm nuclear cytotoxicity was assessed by DNA fluorometric examination. On the other hand, sperms of 20 chronic agriculture DZ/DZO spraying workers were directly examined for their quality and DNA denaturation state. Results: Normal human spermatozoa showed unfavorable increasing alterations in their quality and DNA integrity after their incubation with serially rising volumes of either diazinon or its oxon. Induction of sperm nuclear DNA denaturation by DZO was more severe both qualitatively and quantitatively than after DZ treated testing. Similar alterations but to lesser extent were found in sperms’ DNA of chronic DZ/DZO spraying workers without exogenous OP treatment. Conclusion: In vivo DZ/DZO chronic exposure induced unfavorable effects in seminal quality and sperm DNA integrity but were lesser in strength than in vitro testing.

[Sherif MH El-Kannishy, Rizk M El-Baz, Soma Sh Abd El Gawad, Hamdy F Marzook, Samia A Hassan and Abdelhamid A Metwali: Sperm nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid denaturation in diazinon/diazoxon sprayer men. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):470-475]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: diazinon, diazoxon, DNA fragmentation index, sperm chromatin structure analysis.

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Temperature distribution in porous fins in natural convection condition

 

Seyfolah Saedodin QUOTE   1, Mehdi Olank 2

 

1. Assistant  professor, Department of  Mechanical Engineering,  Science and Research Branch,  Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran, s_sadodin@iust.ac.ir

2. MS.C student, Department of  Mechanical Engineering,  Science and Research Branch,  Islamic Azad University, Semnan, Iran, mehdi.olank@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the temperature distribution in porous fins in natural convection condition and compares it with temperature distribution in conventional fins. To formulate the heat transfer equation, the energy balance and Darcy’s model used. This study is based on finite-length fin with insulated tip. The porous fin allows the flow infiltrate through it. The theory section addressed the derived governing equation. The effect on porosity parameters “S” and convection parameter in porous fin “n”, and convection parameter in conventional fin are discussed. The result suggests that by increasing “S” the heat transfer increase but in some cases it has exemption.

[Seyfolah saedodin, Mehdi olank. Temperature distribution in porous fins in natural convection condition. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):476-481]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: porous fin, Darcy’s model, temperature distribution, heat transfer, natural convection

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Surgical management of patellar ligament rupture in dogs using a prosthetic woven fabric: Experimental study.

 

Inas N. El-Husseiny1, Ali Marwa A.2, Ayman A. Mostafa1 and Mahmoud H. Elshakankery2

 

1Department of Veterinary Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University

2Department of Waving and Spinning Engineering, Textile Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt, postal code 12622

 

Abstract: A new synthetic fabric composed of a mixture of two biomaterials, polyamide 6.6 and polyester, was manufactured with specific tensile characters to serve in the reconstruction of the patellar ligament rupture in dogs. Twelve skeletally mature mongrel dogs with no evidence of clinical signs of lameness were used in the present study. Patellar ligament rupture was induced by severing the mid portion of the right ligament of each limb. Surgical intervention was performed by primary suturing of the severed patellar ligament ends and applying a synthetic fabric to act as a supportive internal splint. Satisfactory results were obtained concerning the tendon healing and the return to limb normal function without complications. It was found that the polyamide polyester fabric proved to be a suitable reconstructive biocompatible material that allowed primary ligament repair with adequate support by and giver an excellent outcome in cases of patellar ligament ruptures in dogs.

[Inas N. El-Husseiny, Ali Marwa A., Ayman A. Mostafa1 and Mahmoud H. Elshakankery. Surgical management of patellar ligament rupture in dogs using a prosthetic woven fabric: Experimental study. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):482-490]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Antioxidative enzymes, Drought stress, Photosynthesis, Proline, Pea

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Effect of Methanol intoxication on the Function of Retina of Rabbit

 

Alaa El-Din A. Gawad and Amal E. Ibrahim

 

Biophysics and Laser Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology

 

Abstract: Methanol is an ideal candidate to replace fossil fuels. However, alterations in the retinal function are primarily associated with methanol intoxication. In the present work, chronic methanol intoxication was carried out in New Zealand rabbits previously depleted of foliates with methotrexate. We analyze the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on oxidative stress parameters of the rabbit retinas and its correlation to retinal function. We show that methanol has a toxic effect on rabbit retina associated with oxidative stress. Decreases in retina glutathione concentration and increases in catalase activity in whole retina homogenate significantly correlate with ERG a- and b-wave decrease. We show also a marked change in the molecular structure and orientation of rhodopsin in cell membranes of the retina. Chronic methanol consumption induces oxidative stress in rabbit retina associated with an impairment of ERG and molecular changes of membrane proteins.

[Alaa El-Din A. Gawad and Amal E. Ibrahim. Effect of Methanol intoxication on the Function of Retina of Rabbit. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):491-496]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Methanol intoxication, Retina, Rabbit, fossil fuels.

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Intellectual capital and its effect on economic performance: A Case Study in Iranian Automotive Industry

 

Dr, Mojtab Rafiei1., Dr Tahereh Feyzi,2., Hossein Azimi,.3

 

1 - Assistant Professor of Payam Noor University, Central Province, Iran
2 - Assistant Professor of Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran
3 - MA student of Payam Noor  University, Tehran, and teacher of Institute for Higher Education of Payam Golpayegan, Iran

 

Abstract: Studies have shown that in the contrary of loss productivity of traditional sources (money, land and ...), knowledge is really a source of increasing economic performance. Basically, managers of companies are forced to correct and improve production methods, marketing, innovations and ultimately increase productivity and economic efficiency by considering prevailing economic conditions constantly. One of the main ways to improve economic conditions and increase competition for successful factories which can reach to the potency of competition, is the use of creative thinking that without the recognition and protection of intellectual capital will not be possible. In this study, elements and components of intellectual capital are independent variables as human, Structural, and relational capitals. Economic performance indicators (dependent variables): profit and cash earnings are considered. Methods of research in doing is descriptive - correlation of covariance analysis of structural equation model. The results were analyzed with the Lisrel & SPSS software, and finally the relationship between intellectual capital were confirmed and it has been found that relational and structural capital directly and human capital, indirectly, impress economic performance by structural effects.

[Mojtab Rafiei, Tahereh Feyzi, Hossein Azimi. Intellectual capital and its effect on economic performance: A Case Study in Iranian Automotive Industry. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):497-507]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: human capital, relational capital, structural capital, economics, Lisrel

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Effect of Length of Delay after Slaughter (LODAS) on Quality of Raw Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

 

1Ayeloja, A. A.; 1George, F. O. A.; 1Obasa, S. O.; 2Sanni, L. O and 3*Ajayi, A .A.

 

1 Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of Agriculture Abeokuta

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture Abeokuta

3 Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State

*E .mail: quietasever@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The effect of delay after slaughter on microbial quality, proximate composition and sensory scores of raw catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) was evaluated. A total of 52 live catfish weighing 700.0 + 7.0g were used. Ten freshly slaughtered fish samples each were selected for organoleptic assessment at 0, 4, 8 and 12 hours post-slaughter, while three fish samples each were selected for chemical and microbial analyses. Microbial load on fish samples increased significantly (P< 0.05) with increase in length of delay after slaughter, LODAS. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus spp and Staphylococcus aureus. Percent protein and ash contents of fish samples increased with increasing LODAS, while moisture content decreased and lipid was not affected. It was observed that raw C. gariepinus retained most of its physical attributes up to 4 hours post-slaughter. These quality attributes except colour and odour of gills, deteriorated significantly (P < 0.05) at every successive four-hour post-slaughter interval. Significant negative correlation existed between LODAS and sensory quality of raw fish (eyes, r = -0.966, P < 0.05; gills, r = -0.980, P < 0.05; skin, r = -0.998, P < 0.01; and odour, r = -0.994, P < 0.01). This study established that quality of raw C. gariepinus deteriorated with increasing LODAS and that raw C. gariepinus was not totally unacceptable when delayed for 12 hours after slaughter at ambient temperatures.

[Ayeloja, A. A.; George, F. O. A.; Obasa, S. O.; Sanni, L. O and Ajayi, A .A. Effect of Length of Delay after Slaughter (LODAS) on Quality of Raw Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):508-512]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Clarias gariepinus; microbiology; proximate composition; organoleptic assessment.

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Coping Behavior of Junior Physicians in Managing Conflict between Work and Family Roles

 

Aminah Ahmad

 

Department Of Professional Development and Continuing Education,

Faculty Of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

aminah@ace.upm.edu.my

 

Abstract: This study examined the extent of work-family conflict experienced by married female junior physicians and the coping behavior of the physicians in managing the conflict. The sample of this study consisted of married female physicians (with at least one child) aged 40 and below working in fourteen public hospitals in Malaysia. Data were gathered from a sample of 231 female junior physicians using self-administered questionnaires through the drop and collect method. The two major strategies used by the physicians were personal role redefinition which involved changing their own attitudes and perceptions of role expectations, and reactive role behavior which involved careful planning, scheduling and organizing their role activities, and working harder to meet all their role demands. The least frequently used strategy was structural role redefinition which entails an active attempt to deal directly with role senders and lessen the conflict by mutual agreement on a new set of expectations. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research were discussed.

[Aminah Ahmad,  Department of  Professional Development and Continuing Education, Faculty of  Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia,43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):513-517]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: coping behavior; work-family conflict; junior physicians

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Is salinity tolerance of rice lines related to endogenous ABA level or to the cellular ability for ABA synthesis under stress?

 

Saeed Saeedipour1

 

1. Department of Agronomy, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

saeeds79@gmail.com

 

Abstract:As the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in responses to salinity stress. We tested its putative relationship with the degree of tolerance to this abiotic stress. For this purpose we examined the responses of sensitive (IR29) and tolerant (IR651) varieties of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to a range of salinity (0 (control) and 100 mM NaCl). Shoot and root dry weight was reduced and leaf Na concentration increased in response to salinity for both cultivars with a higher extent in sensitive. Tolerance of IR29 to saline stress was generally improved by ABA treatment and leaves Na content reduced to their respective control treatment. This ABA effect was evident in IR29 with low tolerance, as their ability to recover from stress increased up to seven fold. Independent of the saline treatment, the absolute endogenous leaf ABA content in sensitive variety was significantly more than tolerant one. However, upon stress, the increase in endogenous ABA synthesis was higher in tolerant than in sensitive varieties. These data together with those obtained by using Fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis, suggested first, there was differential sensitivity to ABA in the tolerant and sensitive leaves cultivars and enhanced concentrations at tolerant levels acted primarily to maintain root and shoot growth salt stress and second, the differences in the level of tolerance to saline stress is related to their different capacity of ABA synthesis under stress conditions.

[Saeed Saeedipour. Is salinity tolerance of rice lines related to endogenous ABA level or to the cellular ability for ABA synthesis under stress? Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):518-524]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords Abscisic acid;  Fluridone;  Oryza sativa L.; Salinity;  Stress tolerance

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Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):525-531]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

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Building Social Capital for Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Marvdasht, Iran

 

Fatemeh Allahdadi

 

Science and Research Branch,

Islamic Azad University, Fars, Iran

fatemeharef@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Does social capital generate positive influences on poverty reduction? This question has important theoretical and policy implications for the contemporary world, especially for the developing countries. This study assesses social capital in poverty reduction in rural areas of Marvdasht, Iran. Data were collected using survey questionnaire. Results indicate that although there is strong communication and social cohesion for poverty reduction, but communities still face challenges and constraints which hinder their contributions in poverty reduction.

[Fatemeh Allahdadi, Building Social Capital for Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas of Marvdasht, Iran, Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):532-535]. (ISSN: 15451003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: social capital, poverty reduction, rural development

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Investigation on relation between organizational structure and entrepreneurship in physical education of Eastern Azerbaijan,s Islamic Azad University

 

Amineh Sahranavard Gargari1, Ali Ojagi1, Fahimeh Sahranavard2, Abedin Asadollahi3, Morteza Jorkesh1, Iraj Sadri1, Zeynab Roostaei1

 

1- Department of Physical education, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

2- Department of History, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

3- Department of literary, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

·         corresponding author: Amineh Sahranavard Gargari, email: amineh.sahranavard@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study  aims to investigate the relation between organizational structure and entrepreneurship which is of  discretional – correlational type , done by the field method among all the physical education (PE)  teachers and employees of Eastern Azerbaijan, s Islamic Azad Universities (n=63) . Two questionnaires about organizational structure and entrepreneurship, whose reliability was achieved by the experts, and Pearson and T correlational coefficients, were used to test and analyze the data. The results showed no relation between organizational entrepreneurship and complexity but showed a negative and significant relation among entrepreneurship and formality and concentration. Eventually, no difference was observed between organizational entrepreneurship of the (male or female) teachers and employees.

[Amineh Sahranavard Gargari, Ali Ojagi, Fahimeh Sahranavard, Abedin Asadollahi, Morteza Jorkesh, Iraj Sadri, Zeynab Roostaei. Investigation on relation between organizational structure and entrepreneurship in physical education of Eastern Azerbaijan,s Islamic Azad University. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):536-541]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Organizational structure, organizational entrepreneurship, physical education

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Ceramic Tile Border Defect Detection Algorithms in Automated Visual Inspection System

 

Ehsan Golkar 1, Ahmed Patel 2,3, Leila Yazdi 4, Anton Satria Prabuwono 5

 

1. Department of Computer, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2,4,5. Centre of Artificial Intelligence Technology (CAIT) Software Technology and Management Research Center (SOFTEM), Faculty of information science and technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia,

43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

3. Visiting Professor, Faculty of Computing Information Systems and Mathematics Kingston University London, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, United Kingdom

1egolkar@gmail.com,2whinchat2010@gmail.com, 4leila.yazdi@gmail.com, 5antonsatria@ftsm.ukm.my

 

Abstract: Automated Visual Inspection Systems (AVIS) are becoming increasingly popular due to low cost maintenance and high accuracy. Ceramic tile factories, for example, are very much interested in these sorts of systems. This paper introduces a different strategy in ceramic tile inspection system to reveal four major problems, namely, edge curvature, thickness, size measuring and edge crack defects. It is believed that this method will cover edge curvature defects and thickness measuring of ceramic tiles in AVIS with recommending an individual algorithm for each defect based on line feature extraction techniques. . In addition, it is assumed that our model makes size measuring and edge defects detection easier and more accurate rather than previous approaches. This proposed model will allow ceramic tile companies to perform quality control inspection without costly measuring tools or error-prone inspection by humans. Moreover, factories have to install and apply Flatness Control Machine (FCM) to measure the flatness curvature of ceramic tiles. This machine keeps the ceramic tiles in fixed position to investigate the upper surface only. But our strategy is independent of a specific position through inspection in various angles from top and side views. We hope that our model, which is prominent in low cost implementation, will enable companies to apply this method in different situations in their manufacturing production line systems. Hence, it will assist them to produce not only more accurate reports on defects but also permit improved manufacturing of quality products.

[Ehsan Golkar, Ahmed Patel, Leila Yazdi, Anton Satria Prabuwono. Ceramic Tile Border Defect Detection Algorithms in Automated Visual Inspection System. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):542-550]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Edge curvature; thickness measuring; edge defect; visual inspection; machine vision; ceramic tile

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An Exploratory Study of Critical Success Factors of Brand Extension Strategies using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

 

Emad Atef-Yekta 1, Ali Karbasi 2, Amirhossein Zarbini-Sydani 1, Sina Miri-Nargesi 3

 

1. Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad branch, Najafabad, Iran

2. Department of Management, Payam Noor University, Najafabad, Iran

3. Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin branch, Qazvin, Iran

 atefyekta.emad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, the issue of brand extension strategy has emerged as one of the most crucial topics for marketing management. Previous studies report extraordinarily high failure in brand extension strategies. Hence, this study present a practical framework for evaluation critical factors of brand extension strategy of product based on appropriate criteria and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process technique. For obtaining critical factors, the key published papers are employed to derive those initially important factors firstly, 15 factors are identified. These factors have been discussed and publicized in academic and management fields and can be summarized as three aspects and fifteen initially factors. Consequently, the proposed Fuzzy AHP approach is used to measure relative weights for evaluating these factors. The proposed methodology implemented as an actual case in the biggest automobile manufacture in Iran. Finally, the results of this study shows that “Quality”, “Services after sale”, “Determining the suitable strategies in Brand field”, “Top management commitment and support” and “Advertisement” is the top five critical factors. 

[Emad Atef-Yekta, Ali Karbasi, Amirhossein Zarbini-Sydani, Sina Miri-Nargesi. An Exploratory Study of Critical Success Factors of Brand Extension Strategies using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):551-558]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Brand extension strategy, Critical success factor, AHP, Fuzzy sets

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Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy for Quality Assurance of Tomato Products

 

Mohie  M. Kamil*1, Gamal F.  Mohamed1 and Mohamed S. Shaheen2

 

1Food Science and Technology Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

+Flavour and Aromatic Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*ResearchTeamMMK@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: FT-IR spectroscopic technique was used to evaluate the chemical composition, lycopene, β-carotene and some adulterants (starch, allura red pigment and paprika) of tomato products as a fast technique in comparison with standard methods. The results indicated that, sensory evaluation and color parameters of Hunter measurements (L*, a* & b*) represent color value but the quality of tomato natural pigment (lycopene) not identified. FT-IR spectra of adulterated tomato paste with starch showed spectral peaks at (1137 cm-1 and 1040 cm-1) while, in adulterated paste with paprika revealed some peaks at 641 for stretching (CH2, CH) and at 1520 cm-1 for vibrational stretching of (C=C). Ketchup was characterized with stretching (C-O-C) at 1279 cm-1. Adulterated tomato paste with paprika characterized with total l phenolic compounds (42.7±2.3) and high antioxidant activity (78.3.8%±2.9). The effect of processing on the volatile components present in tomato paste, ketchup and adulterated tomato paste with starch or paprika has been studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC/MS). The most predominant volatiles were saturated and unsaturated 6-carbon aldehydes and alcohols. Hexanal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenol, 5-methyl-5-hexen-2-ol and 1-hexanol were present in significant concentrations in all samples. Methyl-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl)-valerate and methyl-(2-OH)-iso-methyl valerate were generated in tomato paste with high concentration (1.0 and 4.25%), respectively.

[Mohie  M. Kamil, Gamal F.  Mohamed and Mohamed S. Shaheen. Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy for Quality Assurance of Tomato Products. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):559-572]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Fourier Transformer; Infrared Spectroscopy; Quality Assurance; Tomato

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Detecting Adulteration of Durum Wheat Pasta by FT-IR Spectroscopy

 

Mohie M. Kamil1,*, Ahmed M. S. Hussien1, Gamal H. Ragab1, and S.K.H.Khalil2

 

1Food Technology Dept. and 2Spectroscopy Dept., National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*ResearchteamMMK@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Hard wheat flour and durum of different extraction level (whole meal, 82% and 72%) and their pasta products were evaluated by the ordinary methods in parallel with FT-IR spectroscopy. Chemically, there was considerable difference between hard wheat flour and durum in protein and crude fiber contents. Durum whole meal, hard wheat flour (72%) and durum adulterated with hard wheat flour 72% (1:1) were used to prepare high quality pasta and adulterated pasta, respectively. Color analysis showed that, addition of hard wheat to durum increased the lightness values but decreased the redness and yellowness values. Also, pasta processed from these raw materials had the same character except lightness. Cooked pasta had no significant differences in lightness and redness values while there were significant differences in yellowness values of the cooked pasta. Sensory evaluation of pasta made from durum and hard wheat and their mixture showed that, there were significant differences between them in all sensory properties. Cooking quality of pasta revealed that, the weight of hard wheat pasta increased more than durum pasta, while, the volume of durum pasta was higher than hard wheat pasta. Cooking loss was very lower in durum pasta than hard wheat pasta. Since, wheat and their products contain different polar functional groups such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, FT-IR spectroscopy was used as a beneficial tool for detecting adulteration of pasta. The FT-IR results showed that hard wheat (72%) was recognized from durum (72%) by presence of three specific bands at 1420 and 1374 cm-1 which are nearly disappeared in durum, while durum was characterized by two absorption bands at 2860 and 1744 cm-1. FT-IR spectral analysis of durum pasta and adulterated ones showed the same results of durum and wheat flour raw materials.

[Mohie M. Kamil, Ahmed M. S. Hussien, Gamal H. Ragab, and S.K.H.Khalil. Detecting Adulteration of Durum Wheat Pasta by FT-IR Spectroscopy. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):573-578]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Adulteration – durum – hard wheat – pasta – FT-IR – sensory evaluation

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Optimizing Browning Capacity of Eggplant Rings during Storage before Frying

 

*Hatem S. Ali, Mostafa T. Ramadan, Gamal H. Ragab, Mohie M. Kamil and Hesham A. Eissa

 

Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Cairo, Egypt

*Hamin_essa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Deterioration of fresh eggplant rings was demonstrated as a rapid increase of enzymatic browning and with an obvious browning. The effect of thermal and chemical pretreatments on enzymatic browning and frying quality of eggplant rings were investigated. Thermal pretreatment using water or steam blanching; and chemical pretreatment by dipping in different concentrations of SO2, chitosan, carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) or sodium chloride. Changes in enzymatic browning in fresh eggplant rings during storage at 25°C for 24 hrs were investigated by determining rings colour as a capacity of browning and colour parameters. Best colour values of eggplant rings were found in SO2 and steam blanching pretreatments; hence the quality of fresh eggplant rings was able to maintain for up to 24 hours at 25°C. The inhibitory effect of various thermal and chemical pretreatments on eggplant rings was found to decrease in the following order SO2 > steam blanching > water blanching > coated chitosan > coated CMC > sodium chloride. Frying eggplant rings at 180°C/4 min for SO2, chitosan or steam blanching was able to optimize the quality of eggplant rings regarding to L*, a*, C*, BI, ΔE-values and non-enzymatic browning (A420 nm).  The fried pre-treated eggplant rings with SO2 or water blanching gave higher mean panel scores (7.8–8.6) in all sensory characteristics compared to other pre-treated samples.

[Hatem S. Ali, Mostafa T. Ramadan, Gamal H. Ragab, Mohie M. Kamil and Hesham A. Eissa. Optimizing Browning Capacity of Eggplant Rings during Storage before Frying  . Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):579-592]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

Keywords: Eggplant; rings; fruit; steam; storage; chitosan; CMC; sodium metabisulphite, colour, % inhibition, browning, frying

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Chlamydia Pneumonia Infection and Possible Relationship to Childhood Bronchial Asthma

 

Nisreen El-Abiad*, Wagdi M.Hanna, Amira Ahmed+, Hisham Waheed and Olfat Shaker**

 

Departments of Child Health, National Research Centre, * Pediatrics, **Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, + Neonatology, Al Galaa Teaching Hospital

hishamwb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: Asthma is a leading cause of chronic illness in childhood. Respiratory tract infections with viruses and mycoplasma pneumonia are considered the most common triggers of asthma in all age groups. Recently Chlamydia pneumonia infection has been suggested to play a role in pathogenesis of asthma. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible role of Chlamydia pneumonia in the development or aggravation of childhood bronchial asthma. Patients and Methods: This study included 50 asthmatic patients divided into 2 groups; group (1) composed of 20 new wheezier who denied previous wheezing and were evaluated during initial wheezing episode, group (2) composed of 30 chronic asthmatic children who had recurrent episodes of/or persistent wheezing. Also 20 healthy children were included as a control group. Qualitative estimation of Chlamydia pneumonia infection in nasopharyngeal swabs using polymerase chain reaction (P.C.R) technique was done to all cases and controls. Results: In the new wheezier group 8 cases (40%) were Chlamydia pneumonia PCR (+ve), in the chromic asthmatic group 9 cases (30%) were PCR (+ve), while in the control group only 2 cases (10%) were PCR+ve. The infection rate of Chlamydia pneumonia among patients were 17 (89.5%) and among controls 2 (10.5%) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.041) between patients and controls. There was an increase in asthma severity and severity of exacerbation in PCR+ve than in PCR-ve patients for C. pneumonia but it didn’t reach statistical significance. Also there was a significant increase in PCR+ve males (58.8%) than PCR+ve females (41.2%), while there were no significant statistical difference between PCR+ve and PCR-ve patients as regards age, residence, seasonal variation, atopic manifestation and family history of atopy. Conclusion: The incidence of C. pneumonia infection among new wheezier and chronic asthmatics is high pointing to its possible role as a triggering factor for asthma in new wheezier and continuation of symptoms in spite of proper treatment plan in chronic asthmatic children.

[Nisreen El-Abiad, Wagdi M.Hanna, Amira Ahmed, Hisham Waheed and Olfat Shaker. Chlamydia Pneumonia Infection and Possible Relationship to Childhood Bronchial Asthma. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):593-599].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Chlamydia pneumonia, Childhood asthma, polymerase chain reaction

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Corrosion inhibition of lysine as basic amino acid on 316L stainless steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution

 

Azza El-Sayed El-Shenawy

 

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Girls), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

Dr.azza2010@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The corrosion inhibition of 316 L stainless steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 by lysine was investigated using open-circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The open circuit potentials were measured in the absence and presence of different concentrations of lysine. It was found that the open circuit potential becomes more positive with increasinf the concentration of lysine. Potentiodymanic polarization measurements showed that the presence of lysine in acidic solution effects mainly the cathodic process and decreases the corrosion current to a great extent and shifts the corrosion potential towards more negative values. Results revealed clearly that lysine is a good cathodic type inhibitor for 316L stainless steel in 0.5 M H2SO4. The maximum inhibition efficiency of lysine was achieved  at (7 x 10–2 M). Analyses of the surface by SEM confirm these results.

[Azza El-Sayed El-Shenawy,. Corrosion inhibition of lysine as basic amino acid on 316L stainless steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutio. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):600-605]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Corrosion; inhibition; lysine; amino acid; steel; M H2SO4

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Predictors of mortality among neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in pediatric Assiut University Hospital, Egypt

 

Eman M. Mohamed*1, Asmaa M. A. Soliman1, Osama M. El-Asheer2

 

1Public Health & Community Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

2Pediatrics Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University

*emanmma@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Neonatal period is the most hazardous period of life because of various problems/ diseases which a neonate faces. There is great over lap between the risks associated with morbidity and mortality in the perinatal and neonatal periods. The present study aimed to identify the profile and risk factors for neonatal mortality among neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in pediatric Assiut University Hospital (AUH). A prospective study was conducted in NICU of pediatric AUH. Study population included all neonates admitted to NICU over a period of one year. The data collected included detailed antenatal and natal histories, details of clinical examination, primary diagnosis, progress during the hospital stay and outcome. The outcome measure was in-hospital death. Survival was defined as the discharge of a live infant from the NICU. Differences between deceased and survived neonates  were estimated by the chi-square test and t-test. The association between risk factors and neonatal mortality were estimated by relative risk. The significance level used was p-value of less than 0.05.  A total of 990 neonates were included in the study, of which 582 neonates (58.8%) died during their hospital stay. The mortality rate decreased with the increase in birth weight, as well as gestational age. Respiratory distress was the commonest primary diagnosis (94.5%) among all admitted neonates, followed by very low birth weight (VLBW) (36.7%), congenital malformations (8.2%), and infections (4.4%). Significant variables (P<0.05) associated with neonatal mortality were: maternal diabetes, obstructed labour, vaginal delivery, multiple births, neonatal respiratory distress, prematurity, low birth weight (LBW) and congenital malformations. It is concluded that majority of the causes of neonatal mortality are preventable. Surveillance programs for neonatal death should include preventive actions and interventions for the perinatal period. Focused initiatives for quality improvement may also be necessary.

[Eman M. Mohamed, Asmaa M. A. Soliman, Osama M. El-Asheer. Predictors of mortality among neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit in pediatric Assiut University Hospital, Egypt. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):606-611].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: mortality, neonates, admission, neonatal intensive care unit

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Spousal violence against Egyptian women and its impact on reproductive indicators

 

Eman M. M. Monazea and Ekram M. Abdel Khalek

 

Public Health and Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt

habeba2002eg@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Domestic violence against women is increasingly recognized as a global problem. It poses a direct threat to women's health and has serious reproductive health consequences. The study aims to identify the relationship between women exposure to spousal violence and some reproductive health indicators. Data from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) were secondary analyzed for 5,613 ever-married women aged 15-49 years. The results revealed that more than three in ten women had an experience with any form of spousal violence. Fertility was higher among women have experienced violence than among women who have not (mean number of children ever born was 3.4±2.1 versus 2.9 ± 2.4). Total family planning need was higher among women who have experienced violence than among women who have not. Self reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections was higher among women who have ever or recently experienced violence than women who have not (21.4%, 26.1% versus. 18.5%). It is concluded that marital violence is related to various negative reproductive health outcomes. Violence against women is a vicious circle that needs to be broken. Actions must be taken to make women and men understand that violence against women is not legitimate or acceptable and that everybody pays a high price for it.

[Eman M. M. Monazea and Ekram M. Abdel Khalek. Spousal violence against Egyptian women and its impact on reproductive indicators. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):612-622]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Key words: Domestic violence – intimate partner- reproductive indicators- health impact

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Physicochemical and Sensorial Quality of Semolina-Defatted Guava Seeds Flour Composite Pasta

 

Ahmed M.S. Hussein*, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal F. Mohamed

 

Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

 *a_said22220@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Guava seeds flour (20 mesh) characterized with its higher contents of crude fiber, fat and lowest moisture if compared with semolina flour. Farinograph parameter indicated that, water absorption, arrival time and dough weakening increased and stability decreased by increasing supplementation level of guava seeds flour compared to semolina flour. Supplemented pasta with guava seeds flour (10 & 20%) characterized with its higher volume than control pasta; and cooking loss not affected with replacement of 10% if compared with control pasta. Sensory evaluation showed that, stickiness, appearance, flavor and tenderness not affected with replacing level up to 30%, 20%, 10% and 10%, respectively, while color of different replacement level affected. Chemically, supplemented pasta with guava seeds flour caused an acceptable gradual increase in moisture, protein, fat, ash and crude fiber; and decrease in carbohydrates. Guava seeds flour characterized with its higher essential mineral if compared with semolina.

 [Ahmed M.S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal F. Mohamed. Physicochemical and Sensorial Quality of Semolina-Defatted Guava Seeds Flour Composite Pasta.  Journal of American Science 2011; 7(6):623-629].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Guava seeds - pasta – supplemented flour – high fiber pasta - Farinograph

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Preparation of Layer Nano-Silicate/Alumina Castable Composites

 

M. Khoeini, H. Rastegar, H.R. Hafizpour

 

Department of Materials Science, Saveh Branch, Islamic AZAD University, P.O. Box 39187-366,

Saveh – Iran. Hamid_hafiz@alum.sharif.edu

 

文本框: 0.8 inch right margin 
Abstract: The effect of adding nano scale particles on rheological and mechanical properties of ultra low cement alumina castables was investigated. After clay purification by mechanical methods and obtaining nano-silicate layers materials, the characterization was conducted by using XRD. Then, the produced nano-silicate particles were added to the ultra low cement Alumina castable containing microsilica and reactive Alumina. Mechanical and rheological properties of castable were studied before and after firing at 1500 ºC. The results showed that d-spacing between nano-silicate layers was about 1.2 nm. Flow ability of the castables showed an increase of 5%, indicating decreasing the presence of some filler materials such as microsilica and reactive Alumina. Finally XRD results of fired samples indicated the existence of mulite as a desired phase in the samples.

[M. Khoeini, H. Rastegar, H.R. Hafizpour. Preparation of Layer Nano-Silicate/Alumina Castable Composites. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):630-634]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Layer nano-silicate; Alumina castable; Rheology; mulite phase

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Effects of some parameters affecting the crystallization rate of calcium sulfate dihydrate in sodium chloride solution

 

1 N. S. Yehia, 2 M. M. Ali, 2K. M. Kandil and 2M. M. El-Maadawy*

 

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minufiya University

2Nuclear Materials Authority, B.O 530 El-Maadi, Helwan, Egypt

elma3dawi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4.2H2O) in sodium chloride solutions at different supersaturation (δ = 1.2–2), pH =3, ionic strength (I = 0.5 M) and at 80°C was studied. The influence of aluminum and magnesium nitrates having very low concentrations (10-7 mol dm-1) on the rate of crystallization at different supersaturation was investigated. The rate of crystallization was found to be dependent of the stirring rate suggesting diffusion mechanism. The addition of Mg+2 or Al+3 retarded the rate of crystallization to an extent proportional to their amounts present. Furthermore, the retardation effect was enhanced as the supersaturation decreases. The results also revealed that the increase in both pH (3 −10) and crystallization temperature (20 −80 oC) brought about an increase in calcium sulfate crystallization rate.

[ N. S. Yehia, M. M. Ali, K. M. Kandil and M. M. El-Maadawy. Effects of some parameters affecting the crystallization rate of calcium sulfate dihydrate in sodium chloride solution. Journal of American Science. 2011;7(6):635-644]. (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.americanscience.org

 

Keywords: Crystallization; Growth from solutions; Additives; Calcium sulfate; Inhibitors, metal ions

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Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Cynodon dactylon on Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Isolates in Comparing with Ciprofloxacin

 

Nima H. Jazani 1, Peyman Mikaili 2*, Jalal Shayegh 3, Negar Haghighi 4, Negar Aghamohammadi 4, Minoo Zartoshti 5

 

1. Center for food sciences and nutrition, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

2. Dept. of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran;

3. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary,  Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

4. Students Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

5. Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Cynodon dactylon regarded to possess various medicinal properties as an anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agent, but there are a few studies on its antibacterial effects. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Cynodon dactylon on 100 Multi Drug Resistant isolates of S. aureus, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella and E. coli. Cynodon dactylon samples were collected from the fields of North West of Iran. Plant roots were cut, and powder was prepared. Powdered roots were extracted by maceration at room temperature for 72 hours. Bacterial isolates were collected from clinical specimens from different wards of educational hospitals in Urmia, Iran during a 12 months period. The susceptibility of isolates to Cynodon dactylon root extracts was determined using a broth microdilution method. Considering to the wide application of ciprofloxacin in treatment of bacterial nosocomial infections, the antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin on isolates also determined. All the multi- drug resistant bacterial isolates were sensitive to different concentrations of Cynodon dactylon root hydroalcoholic extract, the most sensitive bacterial isolates to Cynodon dactylon root extracts were P.aeruginosa isolates, however 69% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Results demonstrate that this herbal drug could represent a new source of antimicrobial agents, for the control of hospital acquired infections. However, more adequate studies must be carried out to verify the possibility of using it for fighting these bacteria in human body infections.

 [Nima H. Jazani, Peyman Mikaili, Jalal Shayegh, Negar Haghighi, Negar Aghamohammadi, Minoo Zartoshti. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Cynodon dactylon on Multi-Drug Resistant Bacterial Isolates in Comparing with Ciprofloxacin. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):645-650]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: herbal medicine, ciprofloxacin, resistant bacteria, antimicrobials, hospital acquired infections

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Golden Words in the History of Veterinary Medicine among Azerbaijani people

 

Jalal Shayegh , Peyman Mikaili *2, Aghil Nedaei 1, Alireza Lotfi 1

 

1. Department of Veterinary Medicine, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

2. Department of Pharmacology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

peyman_mikaili@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Veterinary holds a great and long experience among the Turkish people like the other nations especially in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. In a glimpse over the terms like rabies, enterotoxaemia, foot and mouth disease, contagious agalactia and lots of other disease put an apparent persistence on its long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran) in its veterinarian aspect. We try our best to have a good clarification over these terms.

 [Jalal Shayegh, Peyman Mikaili, A. Nedaei, A. Lotfi. Golden Words in the History of Veterinary Medicine among Azerbaijani people. Journal of American Science 2011;7(6):651-653]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

 

Keywords: Ethnomedicine, veterinary, traditional remedies, ancient terminology, Azerbaijan, Iran

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The Effects Of Long Term Physical Activity On The Changes In The Rates Of In Apo Proteins A And B In Nonathlete