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Science Journal

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The Journal of American Science

(J Am Sci)

ISSN 1545-1003

Volume 7, Issue 7, Cumulated No. 41, July 25, 2011

Cover (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, am0707

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CONTENTS  

  No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Indigenous Knowledge: priorities and necessities

 

1 Mohammad Abedi, 2 Ali Badragheh

1, 2 Department of Agricultural Economic, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

Abstract: Indigenous knowledge owners of world in current age (which known as information age) have valuable experiences from industry age and from inappropriate exploitation of their natural sources. These countries have learned that exporting produced goods is better than selling petroleum. enforcing indigenous productive system at villages and also encouraging youths and teens to learn indigenous knowledge at on hand, and preparing suitable research condition for applied-sciences scholars in order to identify better and increasing applied aptitude of indigenous knowledge at the other hand, is equal to protection and sustainable use of  natural resources.

[Mohammad Abedi and Ali Badragheh. Indigenous Knowledge: priorities and necessities. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):1-6]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 1

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.01

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge

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2

A ga algorithm for a two–echelon inventory system with space constraint & compare this with simulated annealing

 

Seyyed Jamal Hosseini 1, L. Hojagani 2

 

1Department of Management, Economics, Accounting,payame noor unvierstiy,I.R.of IRAN.poBox19395-3697tehran,IRAN.PHD candidat of.industrial Management in AMEA

2.Azad university of Qazvin, Iran

pnu_zonoz @yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One of the key areas of operations and supply chain management is inventory control. Inventory control determines which quantity of a product should be ordered when to achieve some objective, such as minimizing cost. This paper presents a two-echelon non-repairable spare parts inventory system that consists of one warehouse with space constraint and m identical retailers and implements the reorder point, order quantity (R, Q) inventory policy. We formulate the policy decision problem in order to minimize the total annual inventory investment subject to average annual ordering frequency and expected number of backorder constraints.

[Seyyed Jamal Hosseini and L.Hojagani. A ga algorithm for a two –echelon inventory system with space constraint & compare this with simulated annealing. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):7-12]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 2

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.02

 

Keywords: Two –echelon inventory system, Space constraint, Genetic, Simulated annealing

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3

An efficient method to improve Information Recovery on Web

 

Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz 1, Dr. Syed Muhammad Ahsen2, Farzeen Abbas3, Muhammad Shaheen4

Syed Athar Masood5

1,2,3, 4 Department of Computer Science & Engg, UET Lahore, Pakistan

5Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi Pakistan

1  M.Shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, 2 Ahsencs@hotmai.com, 3farzeenabbas@gmail.com, 4shaheen@uet.edu.pk, 5 atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The information content on Web is very large and number of users is interacting with it in diverse manner and is growing fast. Information retrieval on web is concerned to capture precise and accurate content as requested in real time. To enhance the performance of Information Retrieval on web quality metrics are needed to be satisfied. The proposed research deals with introduction of such quality metrics, which can improve Information Retrieval systems on web. Different quality matrices are analyzed that are used for IR system. Information Retrieval metrics are already defined but they still could not make up with the relevancy requirement of users. Proposed Subsumption metrics is based on ontology to improve user query results and enhance the quality of retrieval. IR systems based on ontology are already in practise but they are not using any kind of metrics and they are specific to their respective domain. It is required to introduce such kind of metrics which is generic to all the systems and improves relevancy by incorporating Subsumption metrics. [Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz, Dr. Syed Muhammad Ahsan, Farzeen Abbas, Muhammad Shaheen. An An Efficient Method to Improve Information Recovery on Web. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):13-23]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.03

3              

Keywords: Subsumption Metrics, Information Recovery

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4

Integrating Orthogonal  Frequency  Division  Multiplexing [Ofdm] And Multiple  Input Multiple Output [Mimo] as Joint Transmission Scheme

 

1Syed Ahsan, 2Muhammad Shahbaz, 3Syed Athar Masood

 

1,2Department of Computer Science, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore

3 Department of Engineering Management, NUST College of E&ME, Rawalpindi Pakistan

1 ahsancs@hotmail.com; 2 m.shahbaz@uet.edu.pk, 3atharmasood2000@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Wireless medium is a hostile propagation medium suffering from multipath fading and interference from other sources. Time Diversity and Frequency Diversity provide provides effective methods to mitigate fading and interference, this improving link robustness. Spatial Diversity provides link reliability without compromising on spectral efficiency. Space-time-coding provides potentially increased robustness and capacity by exploiting the fact that multiple antennas can be used in both transmitting and receiving equipments. This spatial multiplexing technique is termed as Multiple-Input-Multiple-Out [“MIMO”]. Most of the previous work in the area of “MIMO” wireless has been restricted to narrowband systems. Orthogonal-Frequency-Division-Multiplexing [“OFDM”] significantly reduces receiver complexity in wireless broadband systems. The use of “MIMO” technology in combination with “OFDM” seems to be an attractive solution for future broadband wireless systems. This paper is aimed at looking at possible integration of “MIMO” with “OFDM” and establishing improvements it has to offer for wireless networks. Various schemes that employ multiple antennas at the transmitter and receiver are being considered to improve the range and performance of communication systems. [Syed Ahsan, Muhammad Shahbaz, Syed Athar Masood. Integrating Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and Multiple Input Multiple Output as Joint Transmission Scheme. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):24-27]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 4

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.04

 

Keywords: Time Diversity, Frequency Diversity, OFDM, MIMO

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5

Sodium And Potassium Ion Losses In Rabbits Infected With Strains Of Aeromonas Hydrophila: Implication For Its Roles In Diarrhoea

 

IDONIJE, O.B1, OKHIAI O2 & ASIKA E.C3.

 

1Department of Chemical pathology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria 2Department of Nursing Ambrose Alli  University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. 3Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Madonna University Elele, River state, Nigeria.

E-mail: dridonije@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The plasma levels of sodium and potassium ions were periodically (at 12 hourly intervals) estimated in rabbits orally infected with clinical and environmental Isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila. Infections with clinical isolates resulted in a 54.5% and 32.1% losses in Na+ and K+ ions respectively after 96 hours. Infection with the environmental isolates was however less severe resulting in a 42.7% and 16.2% depletion of plasma Na+ and k+ respectively 96 hours post oral challenge. It is concluded that A. hydrophila isolates from this locality are capable of causing diarrhoea as evidenced by the results. It is suggested that patients with diarrhoea require prompt treatment in order to avoid allowing decrease in plasma electrolytes which will worsening prognosis thereby increasing morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoea diseases.

[Idonije O.B., Okhiai O., Asika E.C. Sodium and Potassium ion losses in Rabbits infected with strains of Aeromonas hydrophila: implication for its roles in diarrhoea. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):28-33 (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.05

 

Key words: Enteropathogecity, Aeromonas hydrophila, Diarrhoea, immune suppression, infection.

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6

Application and Assessment of Kriging and Cokriging Methods on Groundwater Level Estimation

Mohsen Moslemzadeh, Meysam Salarijazi, Samere Soleymani

 

Department of Civil Engineering, Andimeshk Branch, Islamic Azad University, Andimeshk, Iran

* Corresponding Author:  moslemzadeh.mohsen@gmail.com

 Department of Civil Engineering, Andimeshk Branch, Islamic Azad University, Andimeshk, Iran

meysam.salarijazi@gmail.com

Department of Civil Engineering, Andimeshk Branch, Islamic Azad University, Andimeshk, Iran

sameresoleymani@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Due to increasing demand for water using and shortage of surface water resources, managed use of groundwater has been so important in recent decades. Understanding spatial and temporal changes in groundwater has very important role in planning the use of groundwater as a one of most valuable water resources in the world. Kriging and cokriging methods are from those statistical categories methods which use magnitude, distance and vectorial information of nearby stations for estimation. In this study, kriging and cokriging methods compared with common arithmetic averaging methods for calculating the monthly average level of ground water in “Mian ab” basin and its changes has been set over the years. Error criteria RMSE and MEE are used for comparing methods. Results indicate that cokriging method’s accuracy is higher than kriging in calculating groundwater level and also the arithmetic averaging method (which has lower accuracy) has been led to higher level estimation of groundwater. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):34-39]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.06

 

Keywords: Application and Assessment; Kriging and Cokriging; Groundwater

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7

Financial Transmission Rights and Auction Revenue Rights

 

Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Amin Javadinasab, Faride Ghanavati

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

msjavadi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This paper surveys on two important issues in restructured power systems. One of them is Financial Transmission (FTR). Financial transmission right is a financial instrument which can improve the liquidity of operation in power system from point of view of all decision makers in competitive power systems. Another approach is Auction Revenue Rights (ARR) which ARR allocation consistent with congestion as determined by the FTR Auction. Analysis of these two mechanism and their impacts on long-term operation of power system are considered in this paper. Suppliers and large consumer, therefore, desire to contract in FTR to hedge their long-term risks. The FTR mechanism is based on the after settling market and determination Locational Marginal Price (LMP). In this area, delivery of energy (quantity and price) from the amount of FTRs which supplier is bidding for distinct path, and the price that the supplier is willing to pay for each FTR, are determined. This paper surveys on the long-term conditions of the FTR and mature one.

[Mohammad Sadegh Javadi, Amin Javadinasab, Faride Ghanavati. Financial Transmission Rights and Auction Revenue Rights, Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):40-43]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.07

 

Keywords: Restructured Power System, Financial Transmission Rights, Auction Revenue Rights, Loacational Marginal Price.

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8

Electrochemical degradation of some pesticides in agricultural wastewater by using modified electrode

 

Soha  A. Abdel-Gawad1, Kawther  A. Omran2, Mohamed  M. Mokhatar2 and Amin M.  Baraka1

1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Egypt

2Central Laboratory for Environmental Quality Monitoring (CLEQM), National Water Research Center (NWRC)

soha.gawad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work deals with the possibility of using Ti/Rh-modified electrode for the electrocatalytic oxidation process of some pesticides (malathion, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos). The Ti/Rh-modified electrode was prepared by brushing of rhodium nitrate solution on preanodized titanium substrate and annealing. The results of the electrolytic oxidation were expressed in term of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, which was determined instrumentally. For the Ti/Rh-modified electrode (anode), the highest electrocatalytic activity was obtained in the presence of NaCl as conductive electrolyte. The different operating conditions of electrocatalytic oxidation process were studied which include: current density, pH, electrolysis time, initial pesticide concentration and conductive electrolyte concentration. The optimum operating conditions for the above mentioned electrode was determined..

Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):44-50]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.08

 

Keywords: Ti/Rh-modified electrode combined electrochemical oxidation, pesticides, chemical oxygen demand (COD).

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9

Influences gender on adjustment and self-esteem among adolescents

 

Armin Mahmoudi

 

Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj,Iran

Armin Mahmoudi Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Education, Yasouj branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj,Iran. Email: dehlidena@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the present study an attempt is made to see whether male and female adolescents studying in standard 9 differ in their level adjustment and self esteem.  A total of 100 adolescent students studying in Yasouj city were randomly selected.  They were administered Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (1968)  (which measured adjustment of an individual in 4 areas-Home, health, social and emotional) and Self esteem inventory developed by Cooper and Smith (1987), which measured self esteem of an individual in 5 areas-general self, social self, home parents, lie scale and school academic. Independent samples ‘t’ test was applied to see the differences between male and female students.  Results revealed that male students found to have higher levels of self esteem compared to female students.  Further, Gender had no differential influence over adjustment scores in home, health, emotional, and social areas. 

[Armin Mahmoudi. Influences gender on adjustment and self-esteem among adolescents. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):51-54]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.09

 

Key words: Adjustment,  Self-Esteem,  Adolescence, Gender, Inventory

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10

The Effect Of Freezing And Heating On The Infectivity Of Sarcocystis  fusiformis To Cats and Evaluation Of ELISA For Its Diagnosis In Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

 

1El-Kelesh, E.A.M., 2Abdel- Maogood, S. Z., 2Abdel-wahab, A.M.*, 1Radwan, I.G.H. and 1Ibrahim, O.

1Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza. 2Parasitology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University.

*dr.azza1973@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: One hundred and thirty oesophageal muscles of slaughtered water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were examined macroscopically for detection of Sarcocystis fusiformis cysts. The prevalence of S. fusiformis cysts in the examined buffaloes (3-6 years old) was 65 (50%), their dimensions ranged from 10.0–45.0 mm length & 1.5-7.0 mm width. Cats fed on fresh S. fusiformis cysts or those exposed to temperature at 50°C for 15 minutes were infected and shed Sarcocystis oocysts and sporocysts. Boiling of S. fusiformis cysts for 15 minutes, refrigeration for 3 days at 4ºC and freezing for 2-3 months at -18 ºC were effective in inactivating the cysts in buffalo meat. The antibodies against S. fusiformis were detected in 77 (59.23%) sera of the examined buffaloes by ELISA using bradyzoites of the same species. [Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):55-57]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.10

Key words: Adjustment, Self-Esteem,  Adolescence, Gender, Inventory; Sarcocystis fusiformis, heating, freezing, ELISA.

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11

Effects of 90min Exposure to 8mT Electromagnetic Fields on Memory in Mice

Elham Foroozandeh

Department of Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran,

Hassan Ahadi

Department of Psychology, Science and Research, Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Parviz Askari

Assistant Professor Department of Psychology, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN,                      *Corresponding Author: Askary47@yahoo.com

Manoochehr Sattari Naeini

Naein Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naein, Iran

Abstract: The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) on memory function in mice. Memory function was evaluated with passive avoidance learning in a standard wooden box that despite his natural tendency, mice learns to stay on a small platform to avoidant electric shock. 24h after learning session, laboratory animals were placed in a sinusoidal electromagnetic field created using a round coil, for 90 minutes to exposure to an 8mT, 50Hz. Then animals were placed on small platform again and step-down latency measured as memory index. The results showed that exposure to a 50 Hz, 8mT electromagnetic field for 90 minutes has devastating effects on memory function in male mice. [Parviz Askari. Effects of 90min Exposure to 8mT Electromagnetic Fields on Memory in Mice. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):58-61]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.11

 

Keywords: electromagnetic field; memory;cognition;mice

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The effect of light, tone and movement interferences on selective association behavior in laboratory white rats during day and night

 

Alireza Heydarei1, *Parviz Askari1, Bahman gorjian2, Hamdollah2, Jayervand3

1. Assistant Professor Department of psychology, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN,

2. Assistant Professor Department of psychology, Abadan branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, IRAN, 3. MA in Psychology

*Corresponding Author: Askary47@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of light, tone and movement interference on selective association behavior in laboratory white rats during day and night circle. Subjects included four white laboratory rats (i.e., 2males and 2 females). They were randomly selected and divided into two experimental and control pairs. These pairs were exposed to day and night stimuli such as shock avoidance, and compound antecedent stimuli (i.e., light, tone and movement).  Both pairs were exposed to shock avoidance either at nights or during the day to arrive at the level of asymptote. At the next stage, two pairs were exposed to antecedent stimuli by deleting shock reinforcement either at nights or during the daytime to be conditioned during training and reinforcement. The research method was behavior experimental analysis. Test results and observations were analyzed and the findings revealed that there was significant difference between the frequencies of the associations at night or during the daytime (p<.05). However, there was not a significant difference between light, tone, and movement association frequencies at night and daytime in both pairs (p<.050). [Parviz Askari. The effect of light, tone and movement interferences on selective association behavior in laboratory white rats during day and night. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):62-67]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.  

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.12

 

Key words: light, tone, movement, interferences, stimuli, rats, avoidance training

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The study of simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students

 

*Parviz Askary, Alireza Heydarei

 

Assistant Professor Department of psychology, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN,

*Corresponding Author: Askary47@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present research investigated the simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students of Science and Research University, Ahvaz Branch. In this research, perfectionism and imposture feeling are predictable variables and general mental health is the criterion variable. The examined sample consists of 131 male and 130 female students of Ahvaz Science and Research University who were selected through multi- stage random sampling method. In order to collect data, four questionnaires of Ahvaz reality distortion Scale, Clance’s Imposture Feeling Scale, Ahvaz Perfectionism Scale and SCL 25 Scale were used. The present study is a fundamental research of correlation method and in order to analyze data, Pearson Correlation Coefficient and Multi-variable Correlation Coefficient were utilized. The results indicated that there was a significant relationship between perfectionism and imposture feeling with mental health. Moreover, the correlation between perfectionism and imposture feeling was significantly positive.

[Parviz Asgari. The study of simple and multiple relationships between the variables of perfectionism and imposture feeling with the mental health of MA students. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):68-74]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.13

  

Key words: perfectionism, imposture feeling, mental health

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Evaluation Biochemical of color changes in bean root glands 

 

*Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shokoohfar

 

Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

Corresponding Author: saki1350@iauahvaz.ac.ir, Tayebsaki1350@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Research project as a split plot experiment in randomized block design with four replications in the research farm, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz were executed. The main treatments include bean plant varieties and different levels of secondary treatments were N fertilizer. about 21-25 knots formed days after sowing on plant roots began in the nodes, which consists of very small (the highest average diameter of 0.21 Cm), mostly green and white had a few that Colors mark the node recently and is also lack of nitrogen fixation. After 35 days of planting the color pink, reddish nodules were marked and there was lag, hemoglobin, and nitrogen fixation was started in the red bean nodules average 10 days after flowering continued. The different levels of nitrogen in terms of value increase be white within the gland more time your showed such treatment 80 kg N fertilizer per hectare, white inside glands 60 days after planting in 64 percent of the nodes was observed But in the 40 kg ha treatment 40 days after planting, only 12 percent of white lumps were observed. Green, white and non-efficient Nitrogenase enzyme that normally expresses the growth was achieved during the primary colors red, pink and biological nitrogen fixation efficiency and the approximately 35 days after planting continued until after flowering, and brown or black aging glands shows that 10 days after flowering, the color nodes showed.[Tayeb Saki Nejad, Alireza Shokoohfar. Evaluation Biochemical of color changes in bean root. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):75-78]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.14

 

Keywords: Evaluation; Biochemical; color; bean root glands

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The Importance and the Necessity of "Studying" and the effective factors on its reduction from the viewpoint of the people in East Azarbayjan province, Iran

 

Kobra Namvaran1*, Dr. Sadegh Maleki Avarsin2, Rajab Rabavi3

 

1. Yavaran Roshd Company Manager, Tabriz, Iran, kobranamvaran@yahoo.com, 00989144023873

2. Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

3. Applied Education Research Center, Tabriz, Iran

 

Abstract: The number of the scientific articles and the rate of reading books and magazines are the most important indicators of scientific, cultural, social and economical growth and development in any country. This study was done in order to examine the importance & necessity of “studying” from the viewpoint of the people in East Azarbaijan. The design of the research was measurative and descriptive. The statistical community was “all the people in East Azarbaijan”(1,846,244 persons); the sample included “660 persons” and the sampling method was multi-phas clustral sampling. The tools for this study, was researcher-made questionair with 0/94 reliability. For the analysis of the datas T-test, Anova, Pierson correlation coefficient, Multi-variable regression and hierarchial evaluation, were used. The results indicated that “studyng” is important in the familial, economic, cultural, social, political and business awareness growth and the most important factors on the reduction of the “studying” respectively were: not having enough opportunity and motivation for studying, the attractive television progrom. It is suggested that the cheap and poket-sized books should be published and the mass media should devote columns or programs for introducing and criticizing of this printed books; in order to make the people familiar with the books and make them pick out suitable books for studying in their short opportunities.

 [Kobra Namvaran, Sadegh Maleki Avarsin, Rajab Rabavi, The Importance and the Necessity of "Studying" and the effective factors on its reduction from the viewpoint of the people in East Azarbayjan province. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):79-85]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.15

 

Keywords: studying, book, biblio

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Effect of irrigation on the yield of mungbean cultivars 

 

*Maryam Nabizade1, Tayeb Saki Nejad2, Mani Mojadam3 

 

1-     Department of Agriculture. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

2- Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN, (Thesis Supervisor)

 3- Assistant Professor Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, IRAN

         *Corresponding Author:

 

Abstract: In order to study the effect of irrigation on yield quality and quantity and morphological characteristics of mungbean, pilot in the summer 2010 on a farm located in the city HAMIDIH using factorial design in randomized complete block with four replications. In this experiment four levels of irrigation 7, 10, 13, and 16-day and three local varieties, and the essence of radiation were studied and evaluated. During different stages of plant growth with eight times the level of field sampling of shoot dry weight, leaf dry weight, and pod dry weight, seed dry weight and leaf area was measured at physiological maturity was produced yield. Studies showed the best yield cultivar associated with the essence of seven-day irrigation (3328 kg ha) was. And most of the biological function associated with a 7 day gem varieties and irrigation amount was 9273 kg ha maximum harvest index to local varieties and 10 days irrigation amount was 49 percent. The results showed that the most appropriate gem varieties and cultivars 7 days irrigation is the most appropriate irrigation. Because the highest grain yield, biological yield the most won. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7): 86-90].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.16

 

Key words: mungbean, irrigation, yield

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Serum Retinol Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

 

Mahmoud A. Ashour1; Ihab Barsoum*1; Amal A. Z. Dewedar1; Ahmed M. A. El-Fattah1 and Amal F. Gharib2

 

1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, EGYPT.

 

Abstract: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rate of HCC development among HCV-infected persons ranges between 1% and 3% after 30 years. Retinoids are known to possess an anti-tumor role by suppressing tumor promotion and progression. Retinoid depletion is often observed during pre-malignant status and cancer development. Loss of retinoid activity or responsiveness is closely linked to carcinogenesis in several organs. This work aimed to investigate serum retinol levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC and to assess its importance as a risk factor for the development of HCC. A total of 90 subjects were included in the study and were assigned to the following 4 groups. Group I included 15 healthy subjects as a control group. Group ІI included 15 patients presented with chronic hepatitis C infection. Group ПI included 45 patients with liver cirrhosis, it was further categorized according to Child Pugh classification into three groups; Group ПI a: It included 15 Child grade A patients. Group ПI b: It included 15 Child grade B patients. Group ПI c: It included 15 Child grade C patients. Finally Group IV included 15 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Controls had significantly higher serum retinol level than HCV and HCC patients. Higher level of serum retinol was found in Group I, while the lower levels were found in Group IV and Group III c. Serum retinol mean value was significantly higher in patients with HCC on top of apparent normal liver than those on top of cirrhotic liver. Serum retinol was inversely correlated to age. No significant correlation was found between duration of interferon therapy, gender and serum retinol level. A positive correlation was found between serum retinol level and Hb, platelets count and albumin level, while negative correlation was found between serum retinol level and other liver function test parameters & serum creatinine. High significant difference was found between different histopathological grades in liver biopsy and serum retinol level.  The highest serum retinol level was associated with normal liver and the lowest was associated with shrunken cirrhotic liver with multifocal lesion. Patients receive interferon therapy had a higher serum retinol level than patients do not receive interferon therapy. We concluded that serum retinol levels are lower in patients with chronic liver disease and is directly related to the severity of liver disease. Serum retinol levels are significantly lower in patients with HCC superimposed on liver cirrhosis compared with patients who have cirrhosis alone. Further studies are needed to elucidate role of retinol levels in the development of HCC and if retinol supplementation will be of help.

[Mahmoud A. Ashour; Ihab Barsoum; Amal A. Z. Dewedar; Ahmed M. A. El-Fattah and Amal F. Gharib. Serum Retinol Level in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7): 91-102].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.17

Keywords: Serum Retinol; Patient; Chronic Liver Disease

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Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids source and its effects on the native turkey’s liver important beneficial fatty acids

 

Ramin Salamatdoustnobar, Abolfazl Ghorbani, Kambiz Nazer Adl, Seyaed Saied Ghaem Maghami

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

r.salamatdoust@gmail.com

 

Abstract:This experiment was conducted to evaluated canola oil on the some of beneficial fatty acids of Iranian native turkey liver. Nine male turkey chicks randomly divided into three experimental treatments (Three levels of canola oil; 0, 2.5 and 5 percent) with three replicates were arranged in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet with 0, 2.5 and 5 percent of canola oil. adrenic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and α-linolenic acid significantly affect canola oil and this status show that canola oil could improved liver fatty acids profile.

[Ramin Salamatdoustnobar, Abolfazl Ghorbani, Kambiz Nazer Adl, Seyaed Saied Ghaem Maghami. Dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids source and its effects on the native turkey’s liver important beneficial fatty acids. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):103-106]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.18

 

Keywords: Canola oil, Iranian native turkey, n-3 fatty acids, liver

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Physico-chemical properties of tempeh produced from chickpea seeds

 

Ferial. M. Abu-Salem and Esmat A. Abou-Arab

 

Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*eabouarab@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Chickpea seeds are rich source of protein (24.63 %), fat (5.62 %), carbohydrates (64.60 %), ash (3.30 %) and fiber (1.85 %). The ant-nutritional factors of raw chickpeas were 7.98, 4.64, 10.96 and 269.38 mg /g dry matter, phytic acid, tannins, trypsin and total phenols, respectively. These seeds are a good source of K (771.77), Ca (156.13), Na (107.34), Mg (152.58), Cu (0.98), Fe (6.85) and Zn (3.83 mg /100 mg). Tempeh was produced from chickpea flour after soaking, blanching (whole seeds), blanching (dehulled) and inoculated with a suspension of Rizophus  oligospours. The product was evaluated for nutritional quality. Protein in tempeh (28.85 %) was higher than that recorded in raw seeds. However, fat (2.84), ash (2.10) and fiber (1.68 %) were affected due to soaking, blanching and fermentation. Carbohydrates content (64.53 %) was not affected due to the previous treatments. Anti-nutritional factors of tempeh were reduced by 71.18, 73.22, 89.78 and 67.84 % with phytic acid, tannins, trypsin and phenols, respectively compared with this content in raw chickpeas. Protein solubility, water solubility index and water absorption index. In-vitro protein digestibility, in tempeh was higher compared with raw chickpeas. Determination of color showed that ∆E (color difference) of tempeh was high (18.79). Also, essential amino acids reached to their high values in tempeh.

[Ferial. M. Abu-Salem and Esmat A. Abou-Arab. Physico-chemical properties of tempeh produced from chickpea seeds. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):107-118].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.19

 

Key words: Tempeh – blanching – anti-nutritional factors - chickpeas

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Effect of Zataria Multiflora Extract on Degradability Kinetics, of Sunflower Meal

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipour

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels (0, 0.15, 0.3 ml/30ml buffered rumen fluid) of Zataria multiflora water extract (ZMWE) on sunflower meal (SM) degradability were studied by in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three  Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. Chemical composition for dry matter, crude protein, and Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate 95.88, 30, and 12.73 percent, respectively. The results showed that gas volume at 24 h incubation (for 200 mg dry samples), were 42.40, 41.41 and 40.52 ml/200 mg DM for SM, levels 0.15 ZMWE and 0.3 ZMWE, respectively. the gas production from soluble fraction (a), the gas production from insoluble fraction (b), rate constant of gas production during incubation (c) and the potential gas production (a + b) contents of SM were 3.607 (ml/200 mg DM), 49.32 (ml/200 mg DM), 0.135 (ml/h) and 52.92 (ml/200 mg DM), while for level 0.3 ZMWE were 4.655 (ml/200mg DM), 48.66 (ml/200 mg DM), 0.134 (ml/h) and 53.321 (ml/200mg DM).

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipur. Effect of Zataria Multiflora Extract on Degradability Kinetics, of Sunflower Meal. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):119-122]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.20

 

Keywords: Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate; zataria multiflora; sunflower meal; gas production technique; crude protein;  Taleshi native male cattle

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The study canola meal degradability with Zataria Multiflora Extract Using in Vitro Gas Production Technique

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiyani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipur

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels  (0, 0.15, 0.3 ml/30ml buffered rumen fluid) of Zataria multiflora water extract (ZMWE) on canola meal (CM) degradability were studied by  in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three  Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. Chemical composition for dry matter, crude protein, were and Non-Fibrous Carbohydrate  93.7, 35, and 21.46 percent, respectively. The results showed that gas volume at 24 h incubation (for 200 mg dry samples), were 47.32, 47.30 and 47.12 ml/200 mg DM for CM, levels 0.15 ZMWE and 0.3 ZMWE, respectively. the gas production from soluble fraction (a), the gas production from insoluble fraction (b), rate constant of gas production during incubation (c) and the potential gas production (a + b) contents of CM were 2.15 (ml/200 mg DM), 54.96 (ml/200 mg DM), 0.113 (ml/h) and 57.12 (ml/200mg DM), while for level 0.3 ZMWE were 1.73 (ml/200mg DM),  54.64 (ml/200 mg DM),  0.112 (ml/h)  and 56.37 (ml/200 mg DM).

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipur. The study canola meal degradability with Zataria Multiflora Extract Using in Vitro Gas Production Technique. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):123-126]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.21

 

Keywords: crude protein; Zataria multiflora; canola meal; gas production technique; dry matter; water extract; rumen liquid

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The study Zataria Multiflora Water Extract effects On the Short Chain Fatty Acid, Net Energy, Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility Of  Sunflower Meal Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipour

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels  (0, 0.15, 0.3 ml/30ml buffered rumen fluid) of Zataria multiflora water extract (ZMWE) on sunflower meal (SM) degradability were studied by  in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. Chemical composition for ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were  5.97, 5.5, 45.8 and 30.6 percent, respectively. The results showed The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and net energy for lactation (NEl) contents of SM were 8.36 MJ/kg DM, 0.937 mmol and 4.533 MJ/kg DM, while for level 0.3 ZMWE were 64.76 g/kg DM, 8.04 MJ/kg DM, 0.895 mmol and 4.664 MJ/kg DM.

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipur. The study Zataria Multiflora Water Extract effects On the Short Chain Fatty Acid, Net Energy, Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility Of  Sunflower Meal Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):127-130]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.22

 

Keywords: metabolizable energy; zataria multiflora; sunflower  meal;  gas production technique;  neutral detergent fiber; organic matter digestibility

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Zataria Multiflora Extract could affect Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility of Canola Meal?

 

Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipour

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to survey effect of adding different levels  (0, 0.15, 0.3 ml/30ml buffered rumen fluid) of Zataria multiflora water extract (ZMWE) on canola meal (CM) degradability were studied by in vitro gas producing techniques. Gas production test with mixtures of filtered rumen liquid of three  Taleshi native male cattle rumen in times of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were performed. Chemical composition for ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were 3.4, 7.14, 33 and 22 percent, respectively. The results showed The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and net energy for lactation (NEl) contents of CM were 79.46 g/kg DM, 10.27 MJ/kg DM, 1.046 mmol and 5.28 MJ/kg DM, while for level 0.3 ZMWE were 41.85 g/kg DM, 3.63 MJ/kg DM, 1.047 mmol and 1.22 MJ/kg DM.

[Mohammad Salamat Azar, Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar, Yahya Asadi, Morteza Kiani Nahand, Saeid Najafyar, Bakhshali Khodaparast, Hamed Aminipur. Zataria Multiflora Extract could affect Metobolizable Energy and Organic Matter Digestibility of Canola Meal?. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):131-134]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.23

 

Keywords: Zataria multiflora; Canola Meal; gas production technique; neutral detergent fiber; organic matter digestibility

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Integrating Evidence Based Nursing into the Critical Care Nursing Course: Challenges from Students’ Perspectives

 

*1Eman Mohamed Zahran and   2Eman El-Sayed Taha

 

1Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Dept., 2Nursing Education Dept., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt

* eman.zahran@alex-nursing.edu.eg

 

Abstract: In critical care settings, there is a considerable need for highly experienced and knowledgeable nurses making efficient clinical decisions. Utilization of evidence based nursing (EBN) guides clinical decisions and practices. Therefore, it is important for critical care nurses to receive the necessary education to practice EBN. This begins with the ability to ask a clinical question and search for evidence answering it properly, which were the focus of teaching in this study. Therefore, this study aims to identify challenges to integrating EBN into the critical care nursing (CCN) course from students’ perspectives. Undergraduate students who were enrolled into the CCN course on January 2010, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, were included in the study. Different teaching/learning strategies fostering adult learning were utilized to teach EBN related activities. A questionnaire was developed to identify challenges to integrating EBN into the course. Study findings indicated that about two thirds of total students have a moderate level of negative attitude to integrating EBN in the critical care practice. Most of students have moderate challenges to integrating activities of EBN into the CCN course. Two thirds of the students indicated that challenges related to course coordination are moderate. In relation to practicing EBN related activities, formulating a focused clinical question was moderately or highly challenging to the students. Searching for research evidence was moderately challenging to more than half of students. Time constraint while searching the internet was the highest top reported challenge. In conclusion, integrating EBN into the CCN course was challenging to students in different levels. Most of challenges were related to a lack in background research knowledge and skills and time constraints. So, the current study recommended that students have to receive their research course as one of the fundamental courses. In addition, more time management is required, in which an arrangement between different courses schedules and adequate time to practice free learning activities should be provided.

[Eman Mohamed Zahran and Eman El-Sayed Taha. Integrating Evidence Based Nursing into the Critical Care Nursing Course: Challenges from Students’ Perspectives. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):135-144].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.24

 

Key words:evidence based nursing (EBN)–critical care nursing (CCN)–teaching/learning approaches.

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Barriers and facilitators to research utilization in critical care settings

 

1Anas Ezz, 2Eman Mohamed Zahran, and 2*Azza Hamdi El-Soussi

 

1Ministry of health, Syrian Arab Republic.

2Emergency and Critical Care Nursing Dept., Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt

*aelsoussi@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Basing critical care nursing practice on best research evidence is a key issue for the high standard quality care in critical care settings. However, it has been identified that there is a research -practice gap. Thus, the current study aims to identify barriers and facilitators to research utilization (RU) in critical care settings as perceived by the critical care nurses. This study was conducted at eight intensive care units (ICUs), Main University Hospital, University of Alexandria. Two hundred nurses who were working in these ICUs over the period from 6/ 12/ 2009 to 10/ 1/ 2010 were included in the study. Barriers and facilitators to research utilization questionnaire was used to identify barriers and facilitators to RU in critical care settings. Study findings shows that RU is challenged in critical care setting by several barriers. A number of facilitators to RU are suggested by the research findings to overcome these barriers. RU is affected by several factors, such as; nurses’ age, experience, residence, and level of English language. Therefore, improving nurses’ research related knowledge and skills, and adequate organizational support from the critical care setting to RU are the main to strategies recommended to overcome barriers to RU in ICUs.

[Anas Ezz, Eman Mohamed Zahran, and Azza Hamdi El-Soussi. Barriers and facilitators to research utilization in critical care settings. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):145-154].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.25

 

Keywords: Barriers and facilitators to research utilization, critical care practice, critical care nursing

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Diet manipulation could influence liver Polyunsaturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids of Azerbaijan native turkeys? 

 

Ramin Salamatdoustnobar, Abolfazl Ghorbani, Kambiz Nazer Adl, Seyaed Saied Ghaem Maghami

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

r.salamatdoust@gmail.com

 

Abstract: An experiment was performed to study canola oil on the Polyunsaturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids of Iranian native turkey liver. Nine male turkey chicks randomly divided into three experimental treatments (Three levels of canola oil; 0, 2.5 and 5 percent) with three replicates were arranged in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets consisted of: Basal diet with 0, 2.5 and 5 percent of canola oil. Application of canola oil could decresed mono unsaturated fatty acids and increased Polyunsaturated fatty acids content and usage vegetable oils one of the ways to increased animal tissue quality and this status has direct effects on the human health.

[Ramin Salamatdoustnobar, Abolfazl Ghorbani, Kambiz Nazer Adl, Seyaed Saied Ghaem Maghami. Diet manipulation could influence liver Polyunsaturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids of Azerbaijan native turkeys? Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):155-157]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.26

 

Keywords: Canola oil, Iranian native turkey, PUFA, MUFA, liver

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Accountability in public Administration

 

Farhad Nejadirani

 

Assistance Professor of Management, Faculty of Social Science, Department of Management, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran. E-mail: irani@bonabiau.ac.ir, farhad.nejadirani@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Nowadays, one of the basic subjects of plans of development in various countries is the development of the Administrative system structure and behavior for performance improvement and the increasing of accountability in public administration. In the recent citizen – oriented world the creation of accountable and efficient government is one of the modern approaches and strategies in public administration. Considering strategic importance of creation and developing accountable government, the present paper at the framework of fundamentals and theories of accountability in public administration, first it presents the Necessity and the importance of developing accountable government and then Explains the definition, the proposes, the approaches, the types, the equipments and the dimensions of accountability in public administration respectively, then accountability in public sector with private sector and also have been compared to accountability in traditional model with new model of public administration and finally the correlation of government accountability with the process of making administrative system democratized and client’s satisfaction has been studied.

[Farhad Nejadirani. Accountability in public Administration. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):158-163]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.27

 

Keywords: Accountability, Citizen Focus, Development of Administrative system, Performance Management, Client’s satisfaction, Public Organizations.

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Evaluation of Abrasion Behaviour of Knitted Fabrics under Different Paths of Martindale Tester

 

N. A. Kotb1, Z. M. Abdel Megeid2

 

1. Faculty of Education, Department of Technical education, Helwan, University, Egypt

2. National Research Center, Textile Research Division, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

nabihakotb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The Martindale tester is used for both the abrasion, pilling resistance of fabrics, and straight line test by adjusting three moving parts, each one has three setting levels; making twenty seven paths possibilities. According to the standards there are only three types of motion to perform different tests. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of other setting possibilities on abrasion behaviour. The Lissajous patterns which consist of the Path traced by the fabric over the abradent in Martindale tester have been drawn in continuously changing directions at different setting. The total numbers of working conditions are sixteen patterns, since some adjustments did not work or gave the same path or lines. Then the areas of all patterns have been calculated and analyzed. Three samples of knitted fabrics produced from three counts have been tested at the combinations of different path of the Martindale tester. Therefore forty eight results of abrasion resistance for all fabrics at different settings have been measured and analyzed. Using Martindale standard testing setting is not enough to determine the actual abrasion behaviour of knitted fabrics. Other probabilities of setting, producing other different patterns in area and shape, could be simulated to the actual abrasion behaviour of fabrics during the end use. It could help the textile designer and producer to understand and improve their products according to the actual performance requirements.

[N. A. Kotb, Z. M. Abdel Megeid. Evaluation of Abrasion Behaviour of Knitted Fabrics under Different Paths of Martindale Tester. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):164-169]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.28

 

Keywords: Lissajous curve figures – Abrasion resistance- Martindale-weft knitted fabric

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Risk of Bacteremia in Splenectomised Cirrhotic Patients after Elective Oesophageal Injection Sclerotherapy

 

Essam A. Wahab*1, Mahmoud A. Ashoor 1and Hanan S. Ahmad 2

 

1Internal Medicine Department, 2Clinical pathology Department, Zagazig Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Egypt, * essamabdewahab72@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Injection sclerotherapy still predominant in many Egyptian endoscopic units and is usually associated with transient bacteremia in up to 30 % of upper GI endoscopies. The risk of bacteremia is more common in cirrhotic patients scheduled for injection sclerotherapy. The splenectomised cirrhotic patients are more susceptible to this risk. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of bacteremia in splenectomised cirrhotic patients who underwent injection sclerotherapy in our unit. Patient and Methods: A prospective observation study was conducted in our endoscopy unit, Internal Medicine department, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt, over a period of six months from December 2009 to May 2010. One hundred and forty cirrhotic patient (78 male and 62 female were included in this study and were classified into two groups (according to absence or presence of the spleen); patient group; included 80 splenectomised cirrhotic patient and control group that included 60 non-splenectomised cirrhotic patient (35 male and 25 female). All patients were cirrhotic (Child A and B), and they were referred for scheduled elective endoscopic injection sclerotherapy. High sensitive CRP (HsCRP) and blood culture 10 minutes before and 20 minute post-endoscopy were taken for all patients. Presence or absence of bacteremia was detected and recorded. Results: No positive blood cultures were detected before the endoscopy for all patients. 20 patients (14.3%) of the whole participants had positive blood culture after injection sclerotherapy; 3 of them (5%) were in non-splenectomised patients (control group) and 17 (21.25%) were in splenctomised patients (patients group). Positive blood cultures were more frequent in Child B patients compared to Child A (13 vs. 7) in both splenctomised and non-splenectomised patients with statistically significant difference. HsCRP was significantly elevated in Child B patient compared to Child A patients (P=0.018), moreover, HsCRP was highly elevated in positive culture cases regardless the Child status of the patients. Six types of micro-organisms were isolated in our study: Actinomyces (3), Candida Albican (2), Salmonella typhi (3), alpha haemolytic Streptococci (4) and coagulase negative Staphylococci (4) and Streptococcus Viridian (4). Conclusion: Prevalence of bacteremia was higher in the injection sclerotherapy splenectomised cirrhotic group compared to non- splenectomised cirrhotic group, and in Child B patients more than Child A ones.

[Essam A.Wahab, Mahmoud A.Ashoor and Hanan S.Ahmad. Risk of Bacteremia in Splenectomised Cirrhotic Patients after Elective Oesophageal Injection Sclerotherapy. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):170-174].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.29

 

Keywords: Risk; Bacteremia; Cirrhosis; Endoscopy; Splenectomy

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Moisture-dependent physical properties of paddy grains

 

H. Zareiforoush*, B.Hosseinzadeh, M.E.Adabi1 A.Motavali

 

Islamic Azad University, Shahreh Qods Branch, Dِepartment of Engineering, Shahreh Qods, Iran

hemad.zareiforoush@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In order to design of harvesting, conveying and processing equipments, it is necessary to determination of physical properties of grains and agricultural commodities. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of moisture content on some physical properties of paddy grains. Six levels of moisture content ranging from 8 to 24% (d.b.) were used. The average length, width, thickness, equivalent diameter, surface area, sphericity, thousand grain mass, angle of repose and aspect ratio increased from 10.20 to 10.28 mm, 2.31 to 2.42 mm, 1.85 to 1.94 mm, 3.53 to 3.66 mm, 36.87 to 39.16 mm2, 34.53 to 35.46 %, 24.43 to 28.27 g, 38.27° to 46.13° and 0.226 to 0.236, respectively, as the moisture content increased from 8 to 24 % (d.b.). As the moisture content of paddy grains increased from 8 to 24% (d.b.), the bulk density and true density were found to increase from 381.77 to 428.5 kg/m3, and 1328.65 to 1372.41 kg/m3 respectively, while the porosity was found to decrease from 71.27 to 68.78%. The static coefficient of friction of paddy increased linearly against various surfaces, namely, glass (0.3577-0.4973), galvanized iron sheet (0.4629-0.5295), and plywood (0.4856-0.5830) as the moisture content increased from 8 to 24% (d.b.).

[H. Zareiforoush, B.Hosseinzadeh, M.E.Adabi A.Motavali. Moisture-dependent physical properties of paddy grains. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):175-182].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.30

                                                                                                                                  

Keywords: Agricultural equipment, design, Moisture content, Paddy grain, Physical properties

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Counseling for Mothers to Cope with their Autistic Children

 

Hanan, T. Elbahnasawy*1 and Naglaa, M. Girgis2

 

1Pediatric Nursing & 2Community Health Departments, Faculty of Nursing, 1Menoufya University &2Banha University

*hanan.elbahnasawy@iu.edu.jo 

 

Abstract: This study is an experimental research aiming to evaluate the effect of counseling for mothers to cope with their autistic children (AC), through: 1) Identifying mothers' needs according to physical, social, motor, and emotional coping patterns for their autistic children, and 2) Developing counseling program according to mothers' needs and evaluating the effect of counseling on physical, social, motor, and emotional coping patterns of mothers. This study was conducted at the Special Needs Care Center in the Institute of Post-graduate Childhood Studies, Autistic and Psychiatric Clinics affiliated to Ain Shams University and Egypt Autistic Society. The sample of convenience consisted of 90 mothers providing care for their children suffering from autism. Data were collected through three tools: 1) Interviewing questionnaire to assess children's and their mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics and mothers practices.  2) Family Impact of Childhood Disability (FICD) Scale, to assess subjective interpretation or primary appraisal of parent regarding to child with developmental disabilities into family systems and its impact on the family as an entity. 3) Medical records of the studied autistic children to determine the degree of disability. The main results revealed that the children were completely dependent on their mothers in basic daily activities also were prone to moderate and substantial degree of impact. There were statistically significant improvements in mothers' coping with needs of their autistic children. The study recommended that media focuses to increase people awareness with the aid of health team professionals in prompting tolerance and understanding of autism with a clear explanation, so individuals with autism will be better integrated in the society.

[Hanan, T. Elbahnasawy and Naglaa, M. Girgis. Counseling for Mothers to Cope with their Autistic Children. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):183-192].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.31

 

Key words:   Autism, Counseling, Mothers, Coping.

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Impact Of An Steroidogenesis Inhibitor Drug On Structure And Ultrastructure Of Mammalian Testis

 

Waslat W. Elshennawy* and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa

 

Department of Biology and Geology, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo, Egypt

*dr-waslat@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: ketoconazole, an imidazole derivative is currently used in the medical fields as an anti-fungal and steroidogenesis inhibitor drug. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ketoconazole on the structural and ultrastructural characteristics of mammalian testis. So, twenty adult male rats weighing 150-200 g. were divided into two groups; group I were i.p. injected with 10mg/100g.b.wt. of ketoconazole dissolved in 1ml physiological saline solution daily for 15 days. Whereas, group II was injected with 1ml saline solution in the same manner. Histologically, testes of treated rats were surrounded by thickened tunica albuginea, and consisted of deformed seminiferous tubules ensheathed by irregular basal lamina and having deformed Sertoli cells, necrotic spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and rounded spermatids, in addition to, deformed elongated spermatids exhibiting unusual amounts of residual cytoplasm extending from them into the lumen of the tubules. Deformed spermatozoa may be seen in the lumens of some of these affected tubules. Also, the interstitial tissue displayed vacuolation, necrotic Leydig cells and vasodilatation of the blood vessels engorged with stagnant blood cells are seen. Ultrastructurally, treated testes showed thickening and irregularity of the surrounding basal lamina, necrotic spermatogonia detached from the basal lamina and having pyknotic nuclei separated from the surrounding cytoplasm leaving clear zones. Primary spermatocytes and rounded spermatids exhibiting signs of necrosis, deformed elongated spermatids and malformed spermatozoa, in addition to, necrotic Leydig cells were frequently observed. In conclusion, the obtained results suggested that the testicular structural and ultrastructural alterations observed following ketoconazole administration may be responsible for the inhibition of the steroidogenesis. This decrease in steroidogenic activity has been suggested as the primary cause of spermatic production failure. Therefore, these destructive impacts of ketoconazole on the rat testes indicates that it should be used under strict medical care.

[Waslat W. Elshennawy and Hanaa R. Aboelwafa. IMPACT OF AN STEROIDOGENESIS INHIBITOR DRUG ON STRUCTURE AND ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MAMMALIAN TESTIS. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):193-203].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.32

 

Key words: histology, imidazole, ketoconazole, rat, steroidogenesis, testis, ultrastructure

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Modeling of drying Lavandula officinalis L. leaves

 

Hossein  AhmadiChenarbon1*,  Seyedeh Masoomeh Hasheminia2

 

Sama technical and vocational training college, Islamic Azad University, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Varamin-Pishva, Iran.

2Department of Agronomy, Rodehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rodehen, Iran.

*Corresponding author: email: h.ahmadi@iauvaramin.ac.ir       

 

Abstract: Storage of agricultural crops after harvesting is important to keep quality and quantity of the dried materials in a good level, particularly for medicinal plants and herbs because of reduction of essential oils and changes of qualitative properties such as color, which both of them influence on the economical value of the products. Drying process of Lavandula officinalis L. leaves was studied and modeled in this investigation. Independent variables were temperature at three levels (40, 50 and 60C), air velocity at two levels (0.5 and 1 m/s) and product depth at three levels (1, 2, and 3cm). The experiments were performed as factorial with complete random design in three replications. Seven drying models, namely Yagcioglu, modified Page, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, two-term and Verma, were examined to fit the data. The Page model was found as the best model with highest R2 and lowest χ2, RMSE and P-values.

[Hossein AhmadiChenarbon. Modeling of drying Lavandula officinalis L. leaves. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):204-208]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.33

                

Keywords: drying; modeling; Lavandula officinalis L.

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Evaluated of Egyptian buffaloes crossing with Italian buffaloes for reproductive traits

 

Fooda, T. A.; Elbeltagi, A. R.; Laila R. Hassan and SetEl-habaeib S. Awad

 

Animal Production Research Institute-Buffalo Breeding Research Department- Dooki- Giza - Egypt

Tarek_Fooda@yahoo.com; Ahmed_elbeltagi@yahoo.com; lailarashad@hotmail.com; dr_habaeb@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In 2003, MoA (Ministry of Agriculture) approved the commercial importation and utilization of Italian buffaloes (IT) semen, which is being uncontrollably spread around the country; a practice needs prior performance and genetic assessment for both milk production and reproduction traits.  In a previous publication (Fooda et. al., 2011) the milk productivity was studied, and the current one handles the reproductive traits. Two of the private dairy buffalo farms that utilize Italian semen for obtaining the crossbred along with the native buffalo were selected from two different ecological zones to be included in this study being "Ganat Elreda" farm in Ismaeleia governorate (Newly reclaimed desert area) and "United Group" farm  in Qaliobeia governorate (old delta). This study aims to evaluate the Egyptian Italian buffalo crosses (1/2EG.1/2IT) for some reproductive traits, in comparison to their Egyptian contemporaries (EG), to assess the crossing trial. The traits included age at first calving (AFC), number of service per conception (NS), gestation period (GP), calving interval (CI), days open (DO) and service period (SP).  A total 177 records, 102 record from Ganat Elreda farm (57 record EG and 46 record ½EG.½IT; and 74 records from United Group farm (26 record EG and 48 record ½EG.½IT) was utilized, covering the period from 2007 to 2009. Results obtained indicate that the Egyptian buffaloes performed better than the crossbreed for (NS), (CI), (DO) and (SP) traits. Since the results for NS, CI, DO and SP were 1.2, 395, 71 and 38 days, respectively for EG, while for crossbred, the results were 1.87, 429, 118 and 76 days, respectively in farm1. And in farm 2, the results were 1.82, 418, 104 and 77 days for EG, but, the results were 2, 433, 119 and 85 days, respectively for crossbred.

[Fooda, T. A.; Elbeltagi, A. R.; Laila R. Hassan and Set El-habaeib S. Awad. Evaluated of Egyptian buffaloes crossing with Italian buffaloes for reproductive traits. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):209-213]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.34

 

Keywords: Egyptian and Italian buffaloes, crossing, reproduction traits.

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Genetic Diversity of Some Egyptian Durum Wheat Cultivars

 

Fouda, A. H.*1; Gad, Khaled. I. M.2; Diab, A. A. 1,3; Safwat, G. 1,4 and Hussein, M. H5.

 

1 Faculty of Biotechnology, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, (MSA), Egypt

2Wheat Department, Field Crops Research Institute (ARC), Egypt

3 Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI), Egypt

4 Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

5Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt

*monahuss@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objective of this investigation was to assess the genetic diversity among three Egyptian durum wheat i.e. Beni Suif 4, Beni Suif 5 and Beni Suif 6 and one bread wheat i.e. Sids 12 cultivars using sodium dodecyle sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD) markers. Protein electrophoreses showed that Beni Suif 4 was characterized by the absence of band-3 with 41.56 kDa. RAPD analysis showed that the number of polymorphic amplicons was 56 out of a total of 93 amplicons, thus revealing a level of 60.0 % polymorphism. The highest genetic similarity revealed by RAPD analysis (95.0%) was between Beni Suif 5 and Beni suif 6. While, lowest similarity (65 %) was found between Beni Suif 4 and Beni Suif 5. The dendrogram separated Sids 12 from all the other genotypes, thus demonstrating the distinctiveness of the genetic background of this genotype from all the other genotypes. The three genotypes constituted a subcluster divided into two groups, one group composed of Beni Suif 5 and Beni Suif 6, while the second group comprised Beni Suif 4.

[Fouda, A. H.; Gad, Khaled. I. M.; Diab, A. A.; Safwat, G. and Hussein, M. H. Genetic Diversity of Some Egyptian Durum Wheat Cultivars. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):214-221].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.35

 

Key words:  Durum Wheat, RAPD, Dendrogram, Dice coefficient, Polymorphism, Turgidum.

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Novel design metrics to measure real time environment application design.

 

Mahmood Ahmed, Dr. M. Shoaib

 

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore Pakistan

mahmood@uet.edu.pk,  shoaib_uet@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In this paper we have defined a set of novel design metrics for measuring the design of specially real time environment applications. The aim of the defined new metrics set is to measure the design before handing over to the implementation team. The errors in the design can cost you money and time.  Majority of the methodologies leave the task of managing the issue of task deadlines for software programmers in the implementation phase at the coding language stage. LCSF is measured for various methodologies. A non real time system design is also measured for design metrics. Results are plotted and discussed.

[Mahmood Ahmed, M. Shoaib. Novel design metrics to measure real time environment application design. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):222-226]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.36

 

Keywords: Deadlines, Design Metrics, Teal Time Systems, Design Measurement.

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Ranking repair and maintenance projects of large bridges in Kurdestan province using fuzzy TOPSIS method

 

Heresh SoltanPanah1 Hiwa Farughi2, Seiran Heshami3

 

1Corresponding  author, Department of Management, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

2Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15175, Sanandaj, Iran, h_farughi@iust.ac.ir 

3Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University-Sanandaj branch, 66179-87811, Sanandaj, Iran, s.heshami@yahoo.com

                                                                                             

Abstract: In this paper multi criteria decision making tools have been used for bridge risk assessment and for planning the investigation, repair and maintenance of bridges. For this purpose, at first, risks that influence bridges have been recognized and they have been classified in six groups as risks arising from earthquake and their effect on the sphere, design and traffic insufficiency, flood, structural system, structural resistance against earthquake and different design, building or maintenance problems. The risks have been assessed based on their consequence on four criteria as safety, functionality, cost and environment. Finally, a method has been proposed for planning the bridges repair and maintenance projects using multi criteria decision making tools. In a case study, large bridges in kurdestan province have been ranked based on the intensity of recognized risks using fuzzy TOPSIS method.

[Heresh SoltanPanah Hiwa Farughi, Seiran Heshami. Ranking repair and maintenance projects of large bridges in Kurdestan province using fuzzy TOPSIS method. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):227-233]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.37

 

Keywords: bridge, risk sources, risk assessment, repair and maintenance, Fuzzy TOPSIS

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Evaluation of soil erosion and sediment yield using semi quantitative models: FSM and MPSIAC in Eivaneki watershed and the sub basins (Southeast of Tehran/Iran)

 

*Shirin Mohamadiha1, Hamid Reza Peyrowan2, Reza Mousavi Harami3,

Sadat Feiznia4

 

1- PhD student of sedimentology, Department of geology, research and science branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran/Iran

2-Associate Professor of soil conservation and management Institute,

3-Professor Department of geology, Mashhad Ferdowsi University,

4-Professor Department of agriculture Tehran University

*Corresponding author: smohamadiha@gmail.com; s_mohamadiha@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Soil erosion and sediment yield are the most important environmental problems that should be considered. Erosion is not only cause of soil degradation but also fills dam reservoirs; irrigation structures and decreases their capacity. Because of no sediment reservoir (check dams) at the Eivaneki watershed outlet that can show the yearly sediment yield, both of the semi-quantitative models (FMS and MPSIAC) are used to evaluate the annual rate of sediment in five Eivaneki watershed sub basins. In modified FSM model five factors: topography, vegetation, gully erosion, lithology and watershed shape with the score range of 1 to 3 were studied and scored. The nine MPSIAC model factors consist of: lithology, soil, climate, run off, topography, vegetation cover, land use, surface erosion and channel erosion. The specific sediment yields that were evaluated by using FSM model are 0.91 ton/ha/y and 3.21ton/ha/y with MPSIAC. Also rainfall simulator was used in order to classify the erodible formation in Eivaneki watershed. After evaluating the rate of sediment in Eivaneki watershed, these quantitative values compared with each other and the result of Eivaneki gauging station (0.93  t/ha/y). Results showed that FSM evaluation was nearer to SSY than MPSIAC.

[Shirin Mohamadiha, Hamid Reza Peyrowan, Reza Mousavi Harami, Sadat Feiznia. Evaluation of soil erosion and sediment yield using semi quantitative models: FSM and MPSIAC in Eivaneki watershed and the sub basins(Southeast of Tehran/Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):234-239]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.38

 

Keywords: Sedimentyield, FSM, MPSIAC, Rainfall simulator, Eivaneki watershed

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[Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):240-251]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 39

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.39

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[Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):252-261]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org. 40

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.40

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The comparative investigation of the customer's and manager's views of the Non-profit employment agencies about the relationship of the mixed factors of marketing of the services with customer attraction

 

Fereydoun Omidi

 

Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Central Shushtar Branch, Shushtar, Iran

f.omidi1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Today, paying deep attention to customers and customer-centered centers is the secret of employment market. The purpose of this investigation is to do a comparative investigation about the customers' views and managers of the non-profit employment offices about the relationship between the mixed factors of the marketing of services in order to improve the performance of non-profit employment offices to satisfy customers and attract them more. The investigation sample includes managers and customers of the non-profit employment offices of Khuzestan province (N=260).According to the resources existing in the special quarries, the effect of the mixed factors of the marketing of services with customers attraction and the characteristics of non-profit employment offices, the researcher-made quarry has been used. Two tests have been used in this research. The test of the total ranks and that of Fredman, according to the fact that there are two types of independent statistic societies (statistic society of managers and customers) exist, these tests have been used to test these tests. The results show that there is a meaningful disagreement between the viewpoints of customers and managers of non-profit employment offices about the mixed factors of marketing of the services.

[Fereydoun Omidi. The comparative investigation of the customer's and manager's views of the Non-profit employment agencies about the relationship of the mixed factors of marketing of the services with customer attraction. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):262-265]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.41

 

Keywords: Mixed marketing of the services; customer; marketing of the services; Employment Services

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The role of soft power in foreign policy of Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Ebrahim Anousheh

Department of Law and Political Science, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. anooshe1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Since the ideological elements entered into Iranian’s orientation and guideline, the Islamic revolution of Iran brought Iran's foreign policy to a paradigmatic shift. After this revolution, the secular and west-driven Iran changed into an ideologic and independent player, so that it has defined its orientations, aims, and national benefits in an Islamic ideological framework to a great extent. As far as religion is concerned, Islamic revelation of Iran has a lot in common with many countries in the Middle East, and these common aspects have made Iran more influential among Shiites and Islamic movements. This article intends to study and examine the effect of ideology on foreign policy of Iran and that how this ideology has formed the frame of Iran's foreign policy as a source of soft power.

[Ebrahim Anousheh. The role of soft power in foreign policy of Islamic Republic of Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):266-270]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.42

 

Keywords: Islamic Republic of Iran; Ideology; Shiism; Middle East; Soft power

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Comparing the behavior of reinforced HSC beams with AFRP bars and confined HSC beams with AFRP sheets under bending

 

R. Rahgozar 1, M. Ghalehnovi 2, E. Adili 3

 

1. University of Shahid Bahonar, Kerman, Iran

2. University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

3. Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan Branch, Zahedan, Iran

ehsan.adili@gmail.com

 

Abstract: By increasing the use of FRP composites in civil engineering, they seem highly essential to be studied. The purpose of the study is comparison of the behavior of AFRP reinforced HSC beams (reinforced with AFRP bars) and steel reinforced HSC beams which confined with AFRP sheets under bending. Eighteen beams have been modeled with ANSYS. Three beams are HSC which reinforced with AFRP bars. After modeling, the results have been compared with experimental results and then software has been calibrated. Then twelve steel reinforced HSC beams which confined with AFRP sheets (with different number of laminates) have been modeled. In addition three simple steel reinforced HSC beams have been modeled as the base of comparison. At the end behavior of aforementioned beams has been compared and corresponding graphs have been sketched.

[R. Rahgozar, M. Ghalehnovi, E. Adili. Comparing the behavior of reinforced HSC beams with AFRP bars and confined HSC beams with AFRP sheets under bending. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):271-275]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.43

 

Keywords: HSC beams; AFRP bars; bending; modeling; ANSYS

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Environmental Factors in Iranian Architecture

 

Abdolbaghi Moradchelleh

 

Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture, Kyiv, Ukraine. a.moradchelleh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Evolution of architecture is influenced by many external factors including environmental, ethnical, demographical, cultural, and religious factors. Among these, we consider environmental factor as the most active and powerful factor considering its objectivity and remaining constant. This article deals with the environmental conditions of Iran by zoning its territory and considering that the traditional principles in Iranian architecture and urbanism is directly connected with the country’s nature, as well as regional characteristics of individual regions. Moreover, problems of construction design zoning, and also traditional designs and materials in architecture of civil buildings depending on climatic, seismic, wind conditions and other objective factors are discussed. Predominant influence of the spiritual Islamic culture on traditions of Iranian architecture is addressed. The author concludes that the coincident use of modern Iranian architecture, just like other countries, and the traditional principles and the forms is not anachronism, and the organic continuity of architecture development is historically justified, functionally useful, and compositionally effective. Naturally, this provision does not preclude the active search for improvement of these guidelines and forms, while maintaining their unity with the natural and climatic conditions.

[Abdolbaghi Moradchelleh. Environmental Factors in Iranian Architecture. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):276-287]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.44

 

Keywords: Climate and environment of Iran; Construction design zone; Traditional architecture

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The effect of yoga training with different sessions on mental health and some blood factors in non-athlete women

 

Zahra Mojirzadeh

 

Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Shushtar Branch, Shushtar, Iran

mojirzadeh1390@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: This research was done to investigate the effect of 6 weeks yoga training with different sessions on mental health and some blood factors (Glucose, Cholesterol, LDL, HDL and Triglycerides) of female teachers in Avaz. 100 female non-athlete and healthy teachers with the mean age of (35±2.5) were divided into 4 groups randomly. The first group was session yoga training in a week group, the second were 2 sessions yoga training in a week, the third group were 3 sessions’ yoga trainings in a week and the forth group was the people without yoga training or control group. Every yoga session is taking 90 minutes (including Asana, Pranayama and Shavasana training). The survey instruments were international questionnaire of SF36 used for measuring mental health, related components and the required equipments for blood test to measure blood factors measured as pre-test and post-test. In the statistical analysis at first one-way ANCOVA and Sequential Bonferroni test were used and for all the hypotheses significance level was used 0.05. The results showed a significant difference between the studied blood factors and mental health eight components in the third group with the control group. The current data can be effective in the design of yoga trainings programs to improve mental health and life quality and improving blood factors for different people.

[Zahra Mojirzadeh. The effect of yoga training with different sessions on mental health and some blood factors in non-athlete women. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):288-294]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.45

 

Keywords: Mental health; Yoga trainings; Glucose; Cholesterol; HDL; LDL

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Effect of honey bee venom on Lewis rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis as regards changes of GABA and glutamate

 

Akbar Karimi 1, Kazem Parivar 2, Mohammad Nabiuni 1, Saied Haghighi 1, Sohrab Imani 1, Hosein Afrozi 1

 

1. Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2. Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran, Iran

a.karimi1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease of central nervous system (CNS). Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely accepted animal model for MS. Honey bee venom (Apis mellifera) contains a variety of different low and high molecular weight peptides and proteins including melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell degranulating peptide and phospholipase A2. Bee venom (BV) also could exert anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects on the inflammatory reactions. Glotamic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are among neurotransmitters of central nervous system and participated in excitatory and inhibitory processes. In EAE the amount of GABA reduces and the level of glutamate will increase. Tracing them in brain could useful in monitoring the influences of drugs. In this research, hematoxylin and eosin methods for inflammation, ELISA to study tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and HPLC, to study the amount of GABA and glutamate were used for assessment. In this study, we showed that in EAE level of GABA has reduced and the amount of glutamate has increased and bee venom decreases pathological changes and the level of serum TNF-α, and level of glutamate and increases the level of GABA in EAE rats induced by spinal cord of guinea pig.

[Akbar Karimi, Kazem Parivar, Mohammad Nabiuni, Saied Haghighi, Sohrab Imani 1, Hosein Afrozi. Effect of honey bee venom on Lewis rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis as regards changes of GABA and glutamate. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):295-300]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.46

 

Keywords: Bee venom; Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; GABA; glutamate

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Relations of serum aldosterone and microalbuminuria to left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension
 

Soma Sh Abd El Gawad, Mohamed A Helaly*, Ayman Ahmed Abd-Elaziz**, Ahmed W Soliman**, Nader Elshahat**, Wael R Rifaie**, Eid M Daoud**, and Amal Kamel Selim***

 

Departments of Clinical Pathology, Internal Medicine*, Cardiology** and Biochemistry***, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University

somaabdelgawad@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background: The identification of risk factors for the initiation of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients, is very important. The present study examined the role of aldosterone and microalbuminuria in LVH and geometry in patients with essential hypertension (EHT), and investigated the contribution of myocardial fibrosis to the process of LVH. Methods: The relationship of the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) to LVH and left ventricular (LV) geometry was investigated in 57 patients with EHT; mean age, 51 ± 10.2 years. Twenty-five had LVH. When evaluated according to the geometrical patterns of LVH, 14 patients had concentric LVH (CH), 11 had eccentric LVH (EH), and 12 had concentric remodeling. Twenty patients had normal left ventricle geometry. Two weeks after the cessation of antihypertensive medications, sodium, potassium, total protein and microalbumin in 24-hour urine samples and plasma aldosterone levels, plasma renin activity and serum procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP) were measured. Results: PAC of the patients with LVH was found to be significantly higher (23.0±5.6 versus 12.9±3.72 ng/dl, p=0.0001) than those without LVH. The difference between plasma renin activities was not statistically significant. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma aldosterone level and age were independent parameters increasing left ventricle mass index (LVMI). PAC correlated with both LVMI (r=0.913, P=0.0001) and relative wall thickness (RWT: r=0.744, P=0.0001). In patients with LVH (LVMI ≥134 g/m2), the serum concentration of PIIINP, a marker of myocardial fibrosis, correlated with RWT (r=0.422, p=0.001) and LVMI (r= 0.664, P=0.0001). The serum PIIINP concentration was significantly higher in the CH group than in the EH group (0.74±0.11 vs 0.66±0.19 ng/ml, respectively; p<0.05). Twenty-four hour urine microalbumin concentrations of the patients with LVH were found to be significantly higher (P=0.003) and positively correlated with LVMI and PAC (P=0.0001). Conclusions: Aldosterone may be involved in LVH and LV geometry, particularly in the development of CH. Myocardial fibrosis seems more strongly involved in the hypertrophic geometry of CH than with EH. A strong relation between microalbuminuria with aldosterone and LVMI was detected. The value of selective aldosterone blockers in preventing target organ damage awaits further investigations. 

[Soma Sh Abd El Gawad, Mohamed A Helaly, Ayman Ahmed Abd-Elaziz, Ahmed W Soliman, Nader Elshahat, Wael R Rifaie, Eid M Daoud, and Amal Kamel Selim: Relations of serum aldosterone and microalbuminuria to left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension. [Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):301-312]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).http://www.americanscience.org                                                                                 

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.47

 

Key Words:  Aldosterone; Essential hypertension; Left ventricular hypertrophy; Left ventricular geometry; Procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide; Microalbuminuria.

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Correlates of Physical and Psychosocial Functioning Among Burn Patients

 

Salwa A. Mohamed*1 and Hanan Soliman2

 

1Medical Surgical Department, Faculty of Nursing, Fayoum University

2Adult Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Mansoura University
*sam15@fayoum.edu.eg

 

Abstract: The burn injury can one of the most serious and devastating injuries among people of all ages. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of physical and psychosocial functioning among burn patients. The study was conducted at the burn units of El-Mansoura University Hospital. Design: descriptive correlational design was used. Tools which were used for data collection: 1) Sociodemographic data and clinical data. 2) Brief Burn Specific Health Scale is adopted from (Kildal et al., 2001), to assess physical and psychosocial function in individual suffering from burn injury. The results of this study showed a statistically significant improvement in the physical and psychological functioning scores among patients from admission to discharge from hospital. This study concluded that Patients with burn injury suffer from a multitude of physical problems that alter their physical and psychosocial functional. Consequently, regular and comprehensive nursing intervention for follow up of these patients is necessary for life saving. Burn patients experience low functional outcome on the admission of hospital, which slightly improves during, by the discharge from hospital. This study recommended replication of the study on a larger probability sample from different geographical areas, to achieve more generalizable results.

[Salwa A. Mohamed and Hanan Soliman. Correlates of Physical and Psychosocial Functioning Among Burn Patients. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7): 313-318].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.48

 

Key words: Burn injury, Physical, Psychological functioning

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Effect of Soybean on Bone Health of Male and Female Albino Rats

 

Serag El Din, O. S; *Batta, H.  Abd El Azim; Abd El Fattah, N.

 

Zoology Department, College for Women’S College, Ain Shams University.

*bh_forgany@ yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Litanies of health benefits are frequently attributed to soy but it's also considered as endocrine disruptors, indicating that it has the potential to cause adverse health effects as well. Consequently the present study investigated whether consumption of soybean has health benefits or adverse effects on bone health. Each sex was randomly divided into 4 groups, control group fed on the basal diet  (AIN93 G),and three treated groups given 30, 60 and 90 g cooked soybeans/70 kg human body weight (b.w.) for three months. Female and Male rats showed that soybean increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and decreased calcium (Ca) level in bone and serum. In the present study found that soybean have adverse effects on bone of male and female

[Serag El Din, O. S; Batta, H.  Abd El Azim; Abd El Fattah, N.Effect of Soybean on Bone Health of Male and Female Albino Rats. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7): 319-324].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.49

 

Keywords: Soybean, bone PTH, Ca, rats.

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Institutional Governance Effect on the Shadow Economy in Asia

 

Arash Jamalmanesh1, Noor Aini Khalifah2

 

 1Department of Management, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran

 arshjamalmanesh@yahoo.com

 2Associate Professor of Economics, National University of Malaysia (UKM), Faculty of Economics and Business

  

Abstract: This paper analyses how institutional governance, affect the shadow economy, using an Asian country data. The literature strongly emphasizes the quantitative importance of these factors to understand the level and changes of shadow economy. However, the limited number of studies uses cross-sectional country data with a relatively few number of observations, and hardly any paper has investigated governance and provides evidence using within country data. Using more than 35 proxies that measure institutional governance factors and political behavior we find strong support that its increase leads to a smaller shadow economy. Furthermore, an increase in poverty and political stability increases the size of the shadow economy.

[Arash Jamalmanesh, Noor Aini Khalifah. Institutional Governance Effect on the Shadow Economy in Developing Countries: A Panel Data Analysis. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):325-333] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.50

 

Keywords: Institutional Governance, Shadow Economy, Poverty, Asian Countries, Political Stability, Panel Data Analysis

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Clinical utility of plasma NT-proBNP in ruling out heart failure among Egyptian patients

 

Magda S. Mahmoud1, Mie A. Mohammed1, Abeer A. khayyal1, Olfat M. Fawzy1, Amer Elhammdy2

 

1 Biochemical Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.

2 Internal Medicine Department, Banha University.

 

Abstract: Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-pro-BNP) represent useful biomarkers in heart failure diagnosis. So the aim of the present study was designed to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum concentrations of NT-proBNP relative to cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) determined on admission in patients with acute heart failure and with chronic heart failure at different clinical stages of severity. The mean levels of CK-MB, ctn-1and plasma concentration of NT- proBNP were significantly increased (p<0.05) in chronic heart failure group as compared to the acute heart failure group. The mean levels of CK-MB, ctn-1and plasma concentration of NT- proBNP were significantly increased (p<0.05) in chronic heart failure group as compared to the acute heart failure group. Plasma NT-pro-BNP levels are related with chronic heart failure severity; they are particularly increased in more advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes (stage II, III, IV), these increments were matched with the increased serum levels of CK-MB and ctn-1 with the advance of disease severity. In conclusion in heart failure, measurement of NT-proBNP is among the diagnostic biomarkers of all relevant clinical diagnostic aids and is useful across the whole spectrum of heart failure disease severity. High NT-proBNP levels are related to chronic heart failure stages, their increase is directly related to more advanced NYHA classes and to poor prognosis. So NT-proBNP can facilitate diagnosis and can be used as a guide for heart failure therapy.

[Magda S. Mahmoud, Mie A. Mohammed, Abeer A. khayyal, Olfat M. Fawzy, Amer Elhammdy. Clinical utility of plasma NT-proBNP in ruling out heart failure among Egyptian patients.  Journal of American Science, 2011;7(7):334-342]. (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.51

 

Keywords: heart failure, diagnosis, echocardiography, NT-proBNP

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Serum Neopterin Level in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis

 

Samia Boseila1, Iman Seoud2, Gamal Samy3, Hanan El-Gamal3, Tarek S. Ibrahim*1, Amira Ahmed4, Mona R. El Kafoury5 and Ahmed Fathy1

 

1Child Health Dep., National Research Center, 2 Pediatric Dep., Cairo University, 3Childhood Studies Dep., Ain Shams University, 4Neonatology Dep., El-Galaa Teaching Hospital, 5 Clinical&Chemical Pathology Dep. National Research Center.

*tareksalah2000@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Background:  Sepsis is the commonest cause of neonatal mortality and is probably responsible for 30-50% of the total neonatal deaths each year in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains a major challenge, as early signs of sepsis are often non-specific and the laboratory criteria are also not fully reliable. This leads to unnecessary exposure to antibiotics before the presence of sepsis has been proven with potentially poor outcomes. Several attempts have been made to use physiologic parameters, hematologic indices, and cytokine profiles, at the time of onset of the suspected sepsis episode to identify accurately neonates with sepsis.  Elevated serum level of neopterin has been shown to be an early specific and sensitive marker responsible for activation of the cellular immune system and has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of serum neopterin level as an accurate diagnostic tool for neonatal sepsis and compare it with Rodwell’s hematological sepsis score and C-reactive protein for predicting infection and outcome in neonates with sepsis. Methods: The study comprised 20 neonates with a clinical proven sepsis, 20 neonates with a clinical suspicion of sepsis and 20 healthy neonates of matched gestational age who were considered as the normal control group. All groups were subjected to full history taking and clinical examination. Laboratory investigations done were complete blood count, total and differential leucocytic count, blood culture, serum levels of CRP and neopterin. Results: Serum neopterin levels were significantly higher in the infected and suspected groups compared with the control group (p =0.0001) and correlated positively with both CRP levels (r=0.8, p =0.0001) and the Hematological Sepsis Score (r=0.5, p=0.04). Significant positive correlations were detected between serum neopterin level, maternal age (r=0.5, p=0.02), gravidity(r= 0.5, p = 0.01), respiratory distress (r= -0.5, p=0.03), and lethargy (r= 0.2, p=0.05) in septic neonates. Conclusion: Serum neopterin may be used as an early diagnostic tool with high sensitivity (78.09%), specificity (85%), positive predictive value (93.8%), negative predictive value (82.6%) in neonates with suspicion of sepsis especially when combined with routine hematological sepsis score and C-reactive protein.

[Samia Boseila, Iman Seoud, Gamal Samy, Hanan El-Gamal, Tarek S. Ibrahim, Amira Ahmed, Mona R. El Kafoury and Ahmed Fathy. Serum Neopterin Level in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):343-352].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.52

 

Key word: Neonatal sepsis – neopterin level – hematological sepsis

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Contourlet Features Extraction and AdaBoost Classification for Palmprint Verification

 

Eisa Rezazadeh Ardabili †, Keivan Maghooli †, Emad Fatemizadeh †

 

Biomedical Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Authors e-mail:  rezazadeh@mta-co.ir, K_maghooli@srbiau.ac.ir, Fatemizadeh@sharif.edu

 

Abstract: Biometrics-based personal verification is a powerful security features in technology era. Palmprint is an important complement and reliable biometric that can be used for identity verification because it is stable and unique for every individual. This paper presents a new palmprint verification method by using the contourlet features and Ada Boost classification. The contourlet transform is a new two dimensional extension of the wavelet transform using multi-scale and directional filter banks. It can effectively capture smooth contours that are the dominant features in palmprint images. AdaBoost is used as a classifier in the experiments. Experimental results shows that the contourlet features when classify by using AdaBoost (α-Type) classifier are very suitable for invariant palmprint verification. The experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the method proposed.

[Eisa Rezazadeh Ardabili, Keivan Maghooli, Emad Fatemizadeh. Contourlet features extraction and Ada Boost classification for palmprint verification. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):353-362]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).               http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.53

Keywords: Palmprint, verification, Contourlet, AdaBoost, Biometrics.

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Spectrophotometric Studies on Antioxidants-Doped Liposomes

 

Samaa M. Elfaramawy*, Rizk A. Rizk

 

Physics Department, Faculty of science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

*samaa_elfaramawy@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Antioxidants are the effective modulators of physical properties of model and natural membranes as a scavenger of what called free radical. To demonstrate the relationship between the structure of antioxidants and their effect on the molecular dynamics of membranes, UV spectroscopy is applied to investigate the influence of three structurally different antioxidants: Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E and Zinc, on the behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multilamellar vesicles. The results obtained indicate that positively charged liposomes doped with each of vitamin C and vitamin E or negatively charged liposomes doped with zinc contribute to membrane fluidity changes as they have been shown to decrease membrane fluidity. The results suggest that the hydrophobic core of the membrane is poorly affected by these three structurally different antioxidants molecules and, consequently, they cannot insert deeply into the bilayer and the interaction is mainly localized at the polar head level which strongly influences membrane stability and lipid dynamics.

[Samaa M. Elfaramawy1*, Rizk A. Rizk Spectrophotometric Studies on Antioxidants-Doped Liposomes. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):363-369].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.54

 

Keywords: Antioxidant; Liposome; UV spectroscopy.

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Eastern nations in Ferdowsi thoughts

 

Omid Shiva

 

College of History, National University of Tajikistan

o.shiva1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The western culture has always kept a close eye on eastern civilization throughout the history. Toward making a survey and getting an understanding of the eastern knowledge, customs, and conventions, a new field of study was created called orientalistic. The dawn of eastern civilization was much sooner than the western one. The oldest city of the ancient world in Mesopotamia in Iraq, Jiroft in Iran, and Mohenjo-Daro in India were of incredible civilization. Formation of great empires in Iran, China and India were concomitant to stating of city dwelling in other parts of the world, so it puts us to shame to look into ourselves from western outlook.

[Omid Shiva: Eastern nations in Ferdowsi thoughts; Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):370-375]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.55

 

Keywords: Eastern nations; Ferdowsi; history; Iran

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Detection of red ripe tomatoes on stem using Image Processing Techniques

 

Hosna Mohamadi Monavar1*, Reza Alimardani2, Mahmoud Omid2

 

1.         Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 4111, Karaj 31587-77871, Iran.

E-mail: mohamadi_085@ut.ac.ir

2. Professor, Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Iran.

 

Abstract: Image Processing Techniques are being used increasingly in the field of agricultural and food products for quality assurance purpose. The system offers the generation of precise descriptive data and reduction of tedious human involvement. Image segmentation based on color difference between mature fruits and backgrounds under natural illumination condition is a difficult task.  By processing images in three color space of RGB, HSI and YCbCr from CCD camera, tomato fruit, stems, leaves and a stem-supporting pole were recognized.  Then the processed images were compared in three color spaces in order to identify ripe tomatoes with more than 50% redness. The average of error between actual number of red tomatoes and estimated number in 3 images of each 28 tomato trees was 3.85%.

[H. Mohamadi M.,R. Alimardani, M. Omid. Detection of red ripe tomatoes on stem using Image Processing Techniques. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):376-379]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.56

 

Keywords: Image processing; ripe tomato; natural illumination.

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Study of the relationship between parenting style, and children’s emotional intelligence and self-efficacy

 

Mojtaba Aghili 1, Mojtaba Kashani 2

 

1. Department of Psychology, University of Payam-Noor, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran

2. Gonbad Higher Education Center, Gonbad, Iran

aghili1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This project is performed with the aim of studying the relationships between the parenting style on the one hand, and children’s emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the other hand. Regarding the importance of parenting style and its influence on children the question that arises that; what is the effect of the type of parenting style on children’s emotional intelligence and self-efficacy? This study aims to find the answer. The statistical samples of the study were 110 students of middle school (62 boys and 48 girls) and their parents in Gonbad-Kavoos city, Golestan Province, Iran. They were chosen by cluster sampling method. To evaluate the parenting style, children’s emotional intelligence, and children’s self-efficacy, Baumrind parenting styles questionnaire, the 32-item Shrink’s questionnaire, and the 10-item Schwarzer & Jerusalem Generalized Self-Efficacy scale questionnaire were used, respectively. The results obtained indicated that there is a significant statistical relationship between parenting style and emotional intelligence. However, there was not any significant statistical relationship between parenting style and children’s self-efficacy.

[Mojtaba Aghili, Mojtaba Kashani;Study of the relationship between parenting style, and children’s emotional intelligence and self-efficacy;Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):380-384]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.57

 

Keywords: Parenting style; emotional intelligence; self-efficacy

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The new approach to study of relationship between Tughrul and Caliph Alqayem (in in the second half of the forth Hijri century)

 

Abolhasan Shahvari

 

Department of History, University of Payam-Noor, Gorgan Branch, Gorgan, Iran

shahvari1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In the second half of the forth Hijra century, the Seljuks government was recognized. It was historically the most important and valid Turkmen tribes. With the emergence of Seljuk dynasty, a new era began in the history of Islam. For the first time, the Turkish tribes dominated southwest of Asia and possessed the political power of Caliphate system. At the same time, it was the source of happiness for Abbasids that Saljuks were devout Sunnis and remained Sunni. Thus, they were the pioneers of a proactive cooperation with Caliphs and forcefully prevented the Ismaili conspirators. The military expedition of Tughrul to Iraq not only saved the Caliph from his enemies, but also caused a new division of power and brought a definitive shape of influence in the central territories of Darulislam. In the present study, we have tried to depict the relations of Tughrul, as the first king of Seljuks, and Caliph Alqayem. We also addressed the ups and downs of Caliph and Sultan relations and the formation of these relationships.

[Abolhasan Shahvari; The new approach to study of relationship between Tughrul and Caliph Alqayem (in in the second half of the forth Hijri century); Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):385-391]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.58

 

Keywords: Call; Alqayem; Basasyry; Shahneh; Naan pareh; Marriage; Minister

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Bower

 

Aghil Taghavi

 

Department of Iranian Studies, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

taghavi1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Undoubtedly, the most basic needs of human being for survival or comfortable life are food, clothing and house. After providing good food, cloth, and house, he can have a higher quality of life. Nowadays the house matter is one of the most basic discussions of nations and governments. From some people’s point of view, house is prior to other needs of human beings, because with the house one can dispense with eating good food and wearing good cloth and spending his day. In history different tribes have used various architectural methods and houses. Iranian Turkmen tribe, who constantly migrate to find better pastures, because of their tribal life style, use an especial kind of house that is unique; called Turkmen language “Bower”. These Turkmen houses have attracted many people including anthropologists. So, in the current article it is tried to completely describe the bower.

[Aghil Taghavi; Bower;Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):392-396]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.59

 

Keywords: Turkmen; Iran; Bower

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Turkmens’ History

 

Aghil Taghavi

 

Department of Iranian Studies, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

taghavi1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Getting acquaintance with background and history of different tribes is so attractive and can learn some lessons from it to achieve life aims. Turkmen tribe has one of the most attractive historical background that in this assay it is tried to investigate about this by reference to the books and works that describe Turkmen’s history, generally Turkmens’ history is divided to two parts. One is the mythical and fabulous period of Turkmens that considered the pedigree of this tribe from Adam to Oghuz Khan, who is the common ancestor of all Turkmens, and the second historical period is divided to three periods of nomadism, migration to Turkmenistan and Iran’s Turkmen Sahara and the period after formal delimitation between Iran and Russia, Turkmens’ condition in each of these periods is considered and turned into the today geographical condition. Generally Turkmens don’t have a very unsuitable condition during the history and they were migrating constantly.

[Aghil Taghavi; Turkmens’ History; Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):397-401]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.60

 

Keywords: Turk; Turkmen; Oghuz Khan; history; period; migration

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Biology of the Hairy Mangrove Crab, Sersema Huzardii (Decapoda: Graspidae) from a Tropical Estuarine Lagoon.

 

Aderonke Omolara Lawal-Are* and Hilary Nwankwo

 

Department of Marine Sciences,

University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos –Nigeria.

*Corresponding author: aolawalare@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The size composition, growth pattern, food habits, reproductive biology and feedstuff preferences of the mangrove crab, Sesarma huzardii in a tropical estuarine lagoon were investigated. The carapace length ranged from 1.5cm to 4.7cm and weight from 4.5g to 27.8g. The crab exhibited negative allometric growth. The condition factor ranged between 3.6 and 13.5 and decreased with size. The crabs fed mainly on diatoms, algae, higher plants and insect parts. The sex ratio was 1: 0.6 (male/female) which was significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio.  The fecundity ranged between 1.2 and 3.5 million eggs. The average fecundity was 2.5million eggs. Egg diameter ranged from 0.21 to 0.33mm with a mean diameter of 0.24mm. The crab had the highest gain in weight when fed with white mangrove leaves and least with animal food.

[Aderonke Omolara Lawal-Are and Hilary Nwankwo; Biology of the Hairy Mangrove Crab, Sersema Huzardii (Decapoda: Graspidae) from a Tropical Estuarine Lagoon.Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):402-408]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.61

 

Keywords: Mangrove crab, growth, feeding habits, reproductive biology

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A qualitative study of effectiveness of clinical teaching

 

Hayam I. Asfour* and   Azza H. El-Soussi

 

Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alexandria, Egypt

 

Abstract: Clinical experience has been always an integral part of nursing education. It prepares student nurses to be able of "doing" as well as "knowing" the clinical principles in practice. Clinical experience is one of the most anxiety producing components of the nursing program which has been identified by nursing students. The educational process is unique in the practice professions because being able to perform the activities of the profession in live situations as opposed to simply being able to express understanding of principles is a requisite competency of graduation. Despite a wealth of research on clinical teaching, the criteria for determining what constitutes effective clinical teaching remain poorly defined. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the nursing students' and instructors' perception of clinical teaching effectiveness in critical care nursing courses. Material and Method; A descriptive qualitative research design was used.   Setting:  The study was conducted at the Critical Care & Emergency Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. Subjects: consisted of two groups. The first group included nursing students and the second group consisted of critical care clinical instructors. Clinical Teaching opinionnaire tool was developed to elicit the nursing student's / clinical instructors' perception of clinical teaching effectiveness in critical care nursing courses. Results; Students had enough orientation. Students are under stress because of a lot of work and duties. The ratio of instructors to students (1:6) is adequate.  The instructors' agreed with the students on the duration of clinical training is not enough. Students are well oriented with the intended learning outcomes (ILOs) of their clinical training. Students and instructors enjoyed OSCE. Students and instructors don't like portfolio and log book. Students like their clinical instructors they see them role models Conclusion; the findings of this study and the literature support the need to rethink about the clinical skills training in nursing education. Recommendation; Longitudinal studies to investigate the nursing students' and instructors' perception of clinical teaching effectiveness in randomly selected multiple faculties are recommended.

[Hayam I. Asfour and   Azza H. El-Soussi. A qualitative study of effectiveness of clinical teaching; Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):409-420].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.62

 

Keywords: qualitative; study; effectiveness; clinical; teaching.

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The Effect of Consuming a Cake Containing Propolis on Gut Micro flora and Toxicity.

 

F.A. El-Shobaki*; Omnia G. Refaat**; Zeinab A. Saleh*; Abou-Bakr S. Abd-Elfatah* and Eman F. El-Hagar*

National Research Centre*, Dokki Giza and Faculty of Home Economics** Helwan University

Elshobaki2004@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This work was done to study the effect of crude propolis and its extracts (water and ethanol) on modulation of micro flora in the gut and protection against toxicity with aflatoxin. Experiment was done on Sprague Dawley white Albino rats that were divided into 9 groups. Group 1 was fed on basal diet, group 2 was fed on a cake, groups 3, 4 & 5 each was fed on either cake fortified with crude, water or ethanol extract of propolis. Group 6 was fed on the cake but contaminated with aflatoxins, then, groups 7, 8 &9 each was fed on cake contaminated with aflatoxins and either crude, water or ethanol extract of propolis. All groups continued for eight weeks. Feces were collected during the experiment and the secum was isolated at the end of the feeding period for assaying the pattern of micro flora either the beneficial bacteria or the harmful ones. The Results showed that the microbial count of the Bifidobacterum increased by addition of propolis to the cake. The value obtained in case of control rats was 50 x 104, this value was 77 x 104, in case of rats fed on the cake. Addition of propolis crude, the water or ethanol extract raised the count of bifidobacterium. The value obtained for ethanol extract was 30 x 106. Addition of aflatoxin to the cake markedly increased the count of coilform in feces. Adding propolis to aflatoxins contaminated cake caused a reduction in enumerated colony of coliform. The values obtained were 25 X 104, 48 x 104 and 33 x 104 for crude, water, and ethanol extract of propolis respectively. The activities of the liver enzymes, namely AST and ALT were markedly increased in rats fed on the aflatoxin contaminated cake. Adding propolis to the cake caused a return to normal values of the activities of these enzymes. Conclusion is that supplementation of food with propolis can promote growth of the beneficial bifidobacterium and inhibit that of the harmful coliorm type present in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, it can protect against toxicit.

[F.A. El-Shobaki; Omnia G. Refaat; Zeinab A. Saleh; Abou-Bakr S. Abd-Elfatah and Eman F. El-Hagar.The Effect of Consuming a Cake Containing Propolis on Gut Micro flora and Toxicity.Journal of American Science, 2011;7(7):421-429]. (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.63

 

Keywords: Propolis, Aflatoxins, Bifidobacteria, Coilform, Toxicity

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A nucleotide sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus Egyptian strains

 

*Laila EL-Shehawy, Abu-Elnaga H, Talat A, El-Garf E, Zakria A and Azab A

 

Department of Foot and Mouth Disease, Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt. drlaila15@yahoo.com

Abstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been annually isolated during the recent years in Egypt. There is no sufficient local data about the genetic changes occurred in the virus, which makes tracing its origin difficult. In this work, FMDV serotype O and A were isolated from bovine clinical samples, collected from Ismailia, Dakhlia, Monoufia and Sharkia during 2010. RNA extracted from either clinical or cell culture grown virus was subjected to RT-PCR. Nucleotide sequencing of FMDV 1D gene was determined using standard automated sequencing technique. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolated serotype O viruses were closely related to O1/Sharquia/EGY/72 and had same lineage with the O Turkish Manisa strains. Deduced amino acids of 2009 and 2010 Egyptian A isolates in relation to the Egyptian A 2006 strains showed several replacement (I42V, N43S, S44N, L45Q, P141S and A156P). From the obtained result, it was clear that FMDV serotypes O and A isolated in 2010 were closely related to the Egyptian FMDV vaccinal strains and they emerged from the same ancestor.

[Laila EL-Shehawy, Abu-Elnaga H, Talat A, El-Garf E, Zakria A and Azab A. A nucleotide sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus Egyptian strains. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):430-435].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.64

 

Keywords: nucleotide; sequence foot-and-mouth disease; virus; Egyptian

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Effect of fringing filed on the internal stress field of nano cantilever beams in the presence of van der waals attractions

 

Amir Vosoogh

 

Young researcher club, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran.

 

Abstract: In this paper, effect of fringing filed on the internal stress field of nano cantilever beams is studied using Adomian decomposition method. The nano cantilever beam is considered as a distributed parameter model including intermolecular forces, electrostatic forces and fringing filed effects. In the modelling of intermolecular forces the van der Waals force and in the modelling of electrostatic forces, the fringing field effect is taken into account. By using the obtained polynomial solution, bending moment and shear force are calculated, for narrow and wide nano beam types.

[Amir Vosoogh. Effect of fringing filed on the internal stress field of nano cantilever beams in the presence of van der waals attractions. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):436-439]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.65

 

Keywords: Nano, Cantilever, Adomian, Stress, Van der Waals.

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Optimising Client Side Data Entry Process

 

Nkechi ACHARA1, BSc. and  Nnorom ACHARA2*, PhD.

 

1Credit Suisse, Fixed income 2L Support, KVFS62, Uetlibergstrasse 231, 8070 Zurich
2MDPGA, Ministry of Defence, Wethersfield, Braintree, United Kingdom

*  nnoromeluwa@btinternet.com

 

Abstract:  Loss of data during data entry either by crashing or freezing is a common problem encountered in database data insert especially when there are many rows and columns of data to deal with and also when it is not appropriate to bind the data directly to the database.  Techniques used in inserting data to the database include bulk load, row by row looping and the use of dataset together with data adapter.  The dataset and looping techniques have been studied by comparing the time for data insertion.    From the results it is concluded that the dataset technique should be used when the number of rows and columns grow beyond a threshold and below this threshold the row by row data insertion method marginally performs better.

[Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):440-444]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.66

 

Key Words: Dataset, Data adapter, AJAX, OPENXML, Bulk load, Constraint, Data integrity, Primary key.

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Physico- chemical properties of natural pigments (anthocyanin) extracted from Roselle calyces (Hibiscus subdariffa)

 

Azza A. Abou-Arab, Ferial M. Abu-Salem and Esmat A. Abou-Arab

 

Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

drazza_nrc@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Physico-chemical properties of Roselle calyces (Hibiscus subdariffa) indicated that moisture content, protein, fat, fiber and ash were 12.81 %, 7.51%, 0.46 %, 11.17 % and 11.24 %, respectively. Mineral contents of K, P, Na Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were detected at different levels. The results showed that the Roselle calyces powder more the red color. Besides, contained ascorbic acid (140.13 mg/100g), total anthocyanins (622.91 mg/100g) and total phenolics (37.42 mg/g dry weight). The DPPH scavenging capacity obtained from raw dried Roselle was 36.53 µ/ml. The extraction of natural pigments (anthocyanins) from Roselle calyces by different solvents (ethanol acidified with 1.5N/L HCl (85:15, v/v), ethanol acidified with 1% citric acid, citric acid. solution of 2% concentration and distilled water) were applied and pigments were analyzed for color, pH, total acidity, total soluble solids (T.S.S), total anthocyanins, total phenolic and antioxidants activity. The obtained results indicated that the highest yield of pigment recovered is considered the main goal in the extraction process. In addition to economic considerations, safety should be considered. Accordingly, water acidified with citric acid 2 % indicating anthocyanins yield of 1063 mg/100 g might be the best choice and the more preferable solvent compared with ethanol acidified with HCl which showed the highest yield i.e. 1386 mg/100 g dry weight. The results from this study showed that the greater the Roselle extracted by 2 % citric acid solution the more the red color intensity observed (a* 5.25). Results of these studies can be used to determine application of Roselle anthocyanins in a variety of food products as food colourants such as confectionery products, gelatin desserts, snacks, cake, pudding, ice cream and beverages.

[Azza A. Abou-Arab, Ferial M. Abu-Salem and Esmat A. Abou-Arab. Physico- chemical properties of natural pigments (anthocyanin) extracted from Roselle calyces (Hibiscus subdariffa). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):445-456].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.67

 

Keywords: Roselle calyces, extraction, anthocyanins, Physical properties, chemical properties.

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Can the freshwater crayfish eradicate schistosomiasis in Egypt and Africa?

 

Magdy T. Khalil & Setaita H. Sleem

 

Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Egypt.

mtkhalil52@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a chronic, parasitic disease, infecting more than 207 million people, mostly from Africa, with an estimated 700 million people at risk in 74 endemic countries. One of strategies to eradicate this disease is biocontrol of its vector snail. Lab experiments and field survey have been carried out to investigate the impact and the relationship between the exotic crayfish; Procambarus clarkii and Schistosoma vector snails in Egypt. In the Lab, several species of freshwater snails, fish and aquatic plants were reported to serve as food for the freshwater crayfish. In the field, a survey for the crayfish and freshwater snails has been conducted at several irrigation channels in Qalyobiya, Ismailia and Behera governorates, which had been previously surveyed during 1990s. The results of the experimental Lab indicated that the vector snails; Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Limnaea natalensis were the preys of first choice for the crayfish. The fields surveys showed high reduction and sometimes complete disappearance of vector snails in irrigation channels, which have been invaded by Procambarus clarkii, while in water courses which do not harbor the crayfish, such as El Manayef drain and Fayed canal (West of Suez Canal), high densities of these vector snails were recorded.The present study is providing encouraging indication of the possible overcoming schistosomiasis and fascioliasis in Egypt and whole Africa by the freshwater crayfish Procombarus clarkii. New estimates of the Egyptian Ministry of Health indicated that the percent of infected people decreased significantly to only 4% comparing to 45% during 1960s.

[Magdy T. Khalil & Setaita H. Sleem. Can the freshwater crayfish eradicate schistosomiasis in Egypt and Africa?.  Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):457-462]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.68

 

Keywords: Procambarus clarkii, Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus, Limnaea natalensis, crayfish, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, Egypt, Africa.

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Designing Customer Loyalty Model in Insurance Industry (A study of insurance sector in Iran)

 

Mohsen Moradi 1, Mohammad Mousavi 2, Rasoul Amirzadeh3, Behnaz Alimardani4

1.      Faculty of Management, Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

2.      Faculty of Management, Payame Noor University of Mashhad, Iran

3.      Department of management, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur Branch, Neyshabur, Iran

4.      Imam Reza University, Mashhad, Iran

                                            

Abstract: This study explores customer loyalty model at the level of specific dimensions drawing from insurance of Iran. The purpose of this article is to explain the customer loyalty model at the level of constructs, drawing from the insurance industry of Iran. A SERVQUAL type service-quality instruments is developed for insurance of Iran. Path analysis is utilized to examine a model linking service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty at the level of individual insurance. It is found that the quality of services and customer's satisfaction, are highly correlated. Furthermore the relationship between quality of tangible or intangible services with the customer's satisfaction is approved. Insurance managers must improve both tangible and intangible elements of services to have loyal customers. The proposed model can be used to provide comparable findings across sectors, countries and similar service industries. This study suffers the limitation that it tests the fit of the model within the limits of a single service industry. Another limitation is availability sampling, however the appropriated fit of the estimated model allows for the study to be a reliable comparison basis for further research.

[Mohsen Moradi, Mohammad Mousavi, Rasoul Amirzadeh. Designing Customer Loyalty Model in Insurance Industry (A study of insurance sector in Iran). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):463-469].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.69

  

Keywords: Customer loyalty; Customer satisfaction; Insurance; SERVQUAL

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The chaotic є-constraint approach

 

Mohamed F. El-Santawy and A. N. Ahmed

 

Departement of Mathematical Statistics, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research (ISSR), Cairo University, Egypt. lost_zola@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: in this paper, we try to tackle the drawbacks of the well-known Multi-Objective technique є-constraint method, namely the computational difficulties and obtaining proper efficient solutions. We incorporate a well-known chaotic function, so-called the logistic map to the classical є-constraint method for improving its results. A well known bench-mark test function is adopted for validation of the new approach, showing its ability to explore various areas of the pareto-optimal front in an efficient way. The chaotic є-constraint approach obtains diversified as well as well representative solutions.

[Mohamed F. El-Santawy and A. N. Ahmed. The chaotic є-constraint approach. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):470-472].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.70

               

Keywords: Chaos, є-constraint method, Logistic Map, Multi-Objective Optimization

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Effect of Tramadol and Ropivacaine Infiltration on Plasma Catecholamine and Postoperative Pain

 

Mostafa Galal Mostafa1, Mohamad F. Mohamad1, Ranya M. Bakry2 and Waleed S.H. Farrag*3

 

Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and pain management1 Department of Clinical Pathology2 South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, 3Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Medical college, Assiut University.

 

Abstract:  A long acting local anesthetic; ropivacaine and a synthetic opioid; tramadol were used to improve pain relief and decrease postoperative systemic analgesic requirement after total thyroidectomy in patients with thyroid cancer. The study also assesses the effect of local infiltration with ropivacaine and tramadol on plasma catecholamine levels. Methods: Ninety six patients underwent thyroid surgery were randomly assigned to 3 groups. Before skin closure, tissues were infiltrated 10 ml of ropivacaine 0.75% plus 5 ml saline in Group R, with 1.5 mg/kg of tramadol in 15 ml saline in Group T, and with 15 ml containing 10 mL ropivacaine 0.75% plus tramadol 1.5mg/kg in Group RT. Plasma epinephrine and nor-epinephrine were recorded at preoperative (0), 1, 5, 15, 30min, 1, 2 and 4 h postoperative. Pain scores at min, 0.1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hr post-operatively; time to first analgesic, number and % of patients requiring rescue analgesia, number of rescue analgesia and total dose of analgesic were recorded. Results; The pain scores in group RT were significantly lower in the first 24 hours than in groups R and T. Time to first analgesic (hrs) in group RT was   significantly more than in either group R or group T. The percentage of patients in group RT requiring rescue analgesia was significantly less than the percentage of patients in other groups. Also, the numbers of rescue analgesia requests and the cumulative 24 h analgesic consumption were significantly smaller in group RT than other groups. The plasma epinephrine and nor-epinephrine increased significantly in  three groups  at 5 and 15 min when compared with the baseline then returned to near baseline value at 30 min 1,2 and 4 hrs. There was significant decrease in plasma concentration of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in group RT than R or T groups. The aim of this study is to evaluate wound infiltration with ropivacaine, tramadol or their combination on plasma catecholamine levels and post-operative pain following thyroid surgery.

[Mostafa Galal Mostafa, Mohamad F. Mohamad, Ranya M.Bakry and Waleed S.H.Farrag. Effect of Tramadol and Ropivacaine Infiltration on Plasma Catecholamine and Postoperative Pain. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7): 473-479]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.71

 

Key words: Tramadol, Ropivacaine, local infiltration, catecholamine.

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Which Has Greater Analgesic Effect: Intrathecal Nalbuphine or Intrathecal Tramadol?

 

Mostafa Galal  Mostafa1, Mohamad F. Mohamad1 and Waleed S.H. Farrag*2

 

Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care and pain management, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University1. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Medical college, Assiut University2

 

Abstract: Nalbuphine and tramadol administered epidurally has been demonstrated to decrease postoperative analgesic requirements. However, its effect on postoperative analgesia after intrathecal administration has not will be established. In this double-blind, the effect of intrathecal tramadol and nalbuphine administration on pain control after gynecological surgery was studied. Sixty patients undergoing Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor were studied and  randomized to receive bupivacaine 0.5% 3 ml intrathecally premixed with either tramadol 50mg [1ml],or nalbuphine 2mg[1ml].After operation, paracetamol IV (1gm) was administered as needed for analgesia. Postoperative analgesic requirements, visual analogue scale for pain (VAS) and sedation scores, times to first analgesic, haemodynamic parameters  and side effects were recorded by a blinded observe. There were no differences between the groups with regard to postoperative requirements in the first 24hours. Also there were no significant differences as regard sensory level, duration of motor block in hours and time to receive first analgesic between the two groups. Sedation scores in tramadol group were significantly higher than nalbuphine group. The homodynamic changes were similar in both groups and the incidence of nausea and vomiting was higher in tramadol group. On conclusion, the intrathecal administration of 50 mg tramadol and intrathecal 2 mg nalbuphine when used with 0.5% bupivacaine had a similar the postoperative analgesia in the patients without producing significant related side effects like nausea, vomiting, pruritus and respiratory depression.

[Mostafa Galal  Mostafa, Mohamad F. Mohamad and Waleed S.H. Farrag. Which Has Greater Analgesic Effect: Intrathecal Nalbuphine or Intrathecal Tramadol?. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):480-484].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.72

 

Keywords: Analgesic Effect; Intrathecal Nalbuphine; Intrathecal Tramadol

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Possible Synergistic Therapeutic Role of Taurine and Curcumin on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

 

Walaa A. M. El-Nahrawy1 and Mohamed Islam A. H.2

 

1Zoology Department, Women's Collage for Arts, Education & Science, Ain Shams University

2Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt.

*walaa_yao@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas characterized clinically by abdominal pain and elevated levels of pancreatic enzymes in the blood. A number of conditions are known to induce this disorder with varying degrees of certainty. However, the pathogenesis of this disorder is not fully understood. The current study comprised two experiments; the first was carried out to compare the levels of pancreas tumor markers and pancreas function as a result of cerulein treatment which experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. In the second experiment, pancreatitis rats groups were treated with taruine or curcumin and their mixture. A significant elevation in pancreatic tumor markers profile (CEA, CA19.9, CA72.4 and CA242) was occurred as a result of cerulein treatment which experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Also, a significant increment in the activities of α-amylase and lipase accompanied with a significant elevation in the concentration of TAP was pronounced in pancreatitis rats group. On the other hand, a significant reduce in the content of glutathione (GSH) and in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GpX) occurred. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and MOP in pancreatic tissue was elevated as a result of cerulean treatment. In the second experiment, all pervious parameters were corrected as a result of taruine or curcumine administration dependent on time of treatment. The best ameliorating effect occurred in all previous parameters in rats group which treated with both antioxidants (taruine & curcumin) dependent on time of administration. These findings are consistent with the concept that taruine, curcumin or their mixture is an antipancreatitis agent. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed according to variable researches.

[Walaa A. M. El-Nahrawy and Mohamed Islam A. H.Possible Synergistic Therapeutic Role of Taurine and Curcumin on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):485-495].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.73

 

Key word: Cerulein, Acute Pancreatitis, Curcumin, Taurine, pancreatic tumor marker.

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The Curative Role of Taurine or Zinc and their Mixture on the Harmful Effects of Genistein Administration in Male Rats

 

Magda Sayed Hassannin

 

Zoology Department, Women's Collage for Arts, Science & Education - Ain Shams University

 

Abstract: The current study was designed to reveal the curative effects of taurine or zinc and their mixture against hazardous effects of genistein. Sixty male albino rats (160 ±10g) were divided into two main groups, the first group of rats (n=15 rats) acts as normal control. The second group of animals (n =45 rats)  was daily injected with 500 mg genistein/ kg b.wt. for one month of injection. The last group (G. gr.) was divided into 3 subgroups each one 15 rats. The first subgroup of rats (genistein) was treated with 500 mg taurine while the second one was received 200 mg of ZnSO4 was added to each Kg.diet for 60 days and the third subgroup was treated with both antioxidant agents for 30 and 60 days after one month of genistein administration. The blood samples and parts of testis were collected after 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment to estimate the physiological and biochemical parameters. Treatment animals with genistein led to a significantly elevation in the total number of abnormal sperms, sperm malformed head & tail, serum LH and FSH and serum malondialdehyde levels. On the other hand, the obtained data recorded a numerical decrease in total number of sperms associated with a remarkable reduction in the serum testosterone level. Moreover, significant decreases were pronounced in serum TAC level, testes GSH content and testes GPx activity. Treatment of the rats with taurine or zinc showed a significant amelioration in all previous biochemical parameters which estimated in this study. The maximum correction was reached in rats which received the both antioxidants dependent on the time of treatment. These results my be due to the synergistic effects of both taurine and zinc.

[Magda Sayed Hassannin. The Curative Role of Taurine or Zinc and their Mixture on the Harmful Effects of Genistein Administration in Male Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):496-503].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.74

 

Key Words: Genistein – Taurine – Zinc –Male Rats - Antioxidants- Phytoestrogens

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Evaluating Management Effectiveness of in-service Training Programs in Human Resources Development Office at

Ministry Of Road and Transportation

 

Sadeghi, Z.¹(MA); Mohtashami, R.²(MD)

 

¹Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Educational Science& Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; sadeghi.zeinab@yahoo.com

² Religions & Medicine Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

 

Abstract: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate of effectiveness of management of in-service training programs in Human Resources Development Office (HRDO) at Ministry of Road and Transportation. The target population includes: 1) Total number of Chief Executive Officers (CEO`s) was 116, 2) Total number of personnel include 290 personnel members. To conduct the study two measurement scales were designed: (a) Task Performance Quality Scale, (b) Organizational Effectiveness Scale. The validity and reliability of each scale was tested and approved. A random sample of 86 CEO`s and personnel participated in the study by fill out both scales. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive statistics, t-test and multi-variate regression procedures. The following results were concluded: Both group, the CEO`s and personnel evaluated the quality of the performance of HRDO personnel at median level. The personnel evaluated the effectiveness of HRDO personnel at median level. The CEO’s evaluated the effectiveness of HRDO personnel at low level. No meaningful difference was observed between the viewpoints of CEO`s and personnel about the quality of task performance of HRDO personnel. A meaningful difference was observed between the viewpoints of CEO`s and personnel on the effectiveness of the HRDO. The CEO`s participants evaluated the effectiveness of the HRDO  lower than personnel participants. Both variables “Organizational Effectiveness” and “Task Performance Quality” of personnel can be predicted by the “training evaluation” variable.

[Sadeghi, Z.; Mohtashami, R. Evaluating Management Effectiveness of in-service Training Programs in Human Resources Development Office at  Ministry Of Road and Transportation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):504-512] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.75

 

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Program Evaluation, Human Resource Development Office, Ministry of Road and Transportation

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Study of different concentration of sodium alginate as a coating film on the shelf- life of frozen dressed kilka (Clupeonella cultriventiris)

 

Nasrin Khanehdan

 

M.sc., Department of Fisheries, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, IRAN. nasrinkhanehdan@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of sodium alginate coating on quality and shelf life of frozen dressed kilka fish. Sodium alginate edible coating was prepared in four different concentrations, including 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75 %. Then dressed kilka were coated for 1h, packed in polyethylene dishes with cellophane blanket and stored at -18 °C. Percentage of moisture and protein, Peroxide value and total microbial count were performed within 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months (sample size: 120 packs of 250 g). SPSS Statistical Software, One Way ANOVA test, Turkey test with the 5% significant level (significance level of 5%) have been used as for data analysis. Significant reduction was found in moisture value with increase of Sodiume Alginate concentration during the study (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in protein content (P<0.05).    Results showed that there was significant difference between peroxide and total microbial count samples (P<0.05). Use of sodium alginate due to decrease peroxide production and slowing microbial growth speed, can increase shelf life of kilka in storage of freezing up to 4 months.

[Nasrin Khanehdan. Study of different concentration of sodium alginate as an coating film on the shelf- life of frozen dressed kilka (Clupeonella cultriventiris). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):513-518] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.76

 

Keywords: Kilka, edible coatings, sodium alginate, shelf life

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Active contours in Brain tumor segmentation

 

Ali Elyasi*1, Mehdi Hosseini2, Marzieh Esfanyari2

 

1. Department of electronic Engineering, Young Researchers Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2. Department of electronic Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

*Corresponding author. Tel.:+98 9126550731. E-mail address: alielyasi15@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Image segmentation plays a central role in biomedical imageprocessing. Tumor segmentation from MRI data is an important but time consuming task performed manually by medical experts. Automating this process is challenging due to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue, among different patients and in many cases, similarity between tumor and normal tissue.Parametric active contour method is one of many segmentation approaches. In this paper we used four type of parametric active contour (snake) for Brain tumor segmentation.

[Ali Elyasi, Mehdi Hosseini, Marzieh Esfanyari. Active contours in Brain tumor segmentation. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):519-524]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.77

 

Keywords: Image segmentation; Brain tumor; snake; GVF.

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Fault Detection using ANFIS for the Magnetically Saturated Induction Motor

 

Mohamed Mahmoud Ismail

 

Electrical Power and Machine Department, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

m_m_ismail@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The problem of fault detection of the π-model induction motor with magnetic saturation is considered in this paper. In this paper we use a new technique which is the Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) technique for online identification of the different motor fault conditions. A simulation study is illustrated using MATLAB simulink depending on stator currents measurement only for online detection of the motor faults. The proposed technique shows promising results using the simulation model.

[Mohamed Mahmoud Ismail. Fault Detection using ANFIS for the Magnetically Saturated Induction Motor  Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):530-537]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.78

 

Keywords:  Fault detection, ANFIS, saturated model and induction motor

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Effect of Adding Green Tea Extract, Thyme Oil and/or their Combination to Luncheon Roll Meat during Refrigerate Storage

 

*Ferial M. Abu-Salem, Esmat A. Abou-Arab, Hayam M. Ibrahim and Azza A. Abou-Arab

 

Department of Food Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*ferial_mas@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Green tea extract (GTE) and thyme oil extract (TOE) were added individually and/or in combination during the preparation of luncheon roll meat. Some chemical and sensory attributes of the prepared luncheon were investigated during storage at 4 ºC for 4 months. Luncheon samples with (GTE) and (TOE) realized significant reduction towards lowering biogenic amines (BAs) formation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and total acidity % relative to control sample. Reduction effect was ranked as: combination of GTE and TOE > GTE > TOE.  Phenolic content in green tea extract was significantly higher than in thyme oil extract. Antioxidant activities of (GTE) and (TOE) were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay. Sensory evaluation was acceptable with good scores for luncheon samples. This study indicated that the addition of natural antioxidant extracts (GTE and TOE) during luncheon meat processing could enhance quality and provide safer product.

[Ferial M. Abu-Salem, Esmat A. Abou-Arab, Hayam M. Ibrahim and Azza A. Abou-Arab. Effect of Adding Green Tea Extract, Thyme Oil and/or their Combination to Luncheon Roll Meat during Refrigerate Storage. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):538-548]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.79

 

Key words: Green tea extract-thyme oil extract-antioxidant-luncheon roll meat-chemical and sensory attributes-refrigerated storage.

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Onshore and Offshore Pile Installation in Dense Soils

 

Yasser E. Mostafa

 

Dept. of Irrigation and Hydraulics, Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

yasser_mostafa@eng.asu.edu.eg                    

 

Abstract: Open-ended pipe piles are often used for the foundations of both on-land and offshore structures because of their relatively low driving resistance. Piles are usually subjected to the highest level of stresses during installation. Three case histories for overwater bridge pile damage during installation are presented in detail. Also, several case studies for onshore and offshore piles installed in dense soils are compiled and analyzed in an attempt to improve the available guidelines. Based on field data analyses for many case studies of piles installed in dense soils, a limitation for pile diameter to thickness ratio adjusted for driving energy is proposed. A maximum driving stress at the pile head and toe of about 50% of the steel yield stress should be considered for piles installed into very dense soils. Also, general guidelines and recommendations from a design and construction prospective are provided.

[Yasser E. Mostafa. Onshore and Offshore Pile Installation in Dense Soils. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):549-563]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.80

 

Keywords: pile driving; dense soils; pile damage; pile installation

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Effect of Osmo-Dehydration on the Rehydration Properties Structural Aspects and Antioxidant Activity of Banana and Tomato Rings

 

Gamal. H. Ragab, Mostafa T. Ramadan, Hesham. A. Moharram* and Hatem. S. Ali

 

Food Technology, Dept., National Research Centre Dokki, Cairo, Egypt

*moharramhesham@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The objectives of this research were mainly directed towards microstructure and the influence of different osmotic solutions on the rehydration capacity. In banana rings, it is indicated that using sucrose: glucose as an osmotic solution with different concentration gave the highest rehydration ratio. Regarding tomato, the osmosed solutions were different concentrations of NaCl and NaCl: Sucrose; they gave an inversely proportional relationship with rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity was measured by conjugated diene method, and it is strongly affected by the type of pre-treatments applied. Regarding the microstructure, this study showed important changes in the cell wall cytoplasm and the intercellular spaces

[Gamal. H. Ragab, Mostafa T. Ramadan, Hesham. A. Moharram and Hatem. S. Ali. Effect of Osmo-Dehydration on the Rehydration Properties Structural Aspects and Antioxidant Activity of Banana and Tomato Rings.  Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):564-568]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.81

 

Keyword: Banana rings – Tomato halves – Osmotic dehydration solutions – Antioxidant activity – Conjugated diene method.

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REUSE OF WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE AND SILICA FUME IN BRICK MANUFACTURING

 

Badr El-Din E. Hegazy, Hanan A. Fouad, and Ahmed M. Hassanain

 

Faculty of Engineering – Shoubra, Benha University, Egypt.

Eng_ahmed_hassanain@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The work done in this study was devoted to the development of a procedure to produce brick from water treatment plant sludge and silica fume as a modern way for sludge reuse. Disposing the sludge to the nearest watercourse is the common practice all over the world, which accumulatively rise the aluminum concentrations in water and consequently in human bodies. This practice has been linked to occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease. Landfill disposal of the sludge is impractical because of the high cost of transportation and it depletes the capacity of the landfill. The use of sludge in construction industry is considered to be the most economic and environmentally sound option. Due to the similar mineralogical composition of brick clay and water treatment plant sludge, this study focused on the reuse of sludge incorporated with silica fume in brick making through the sintering process. The study investigated the complete substitution of brick clay by water treatment plant sludge incorporated with silica fume (SF). In this study, three different series of sludge to silica fume (SF) proportions were studied, which exclusively involved the addition of sludge with ratios 25, 50, and 75% of the total weight of sludge-SF mixture. Each brick series was fired at 900, 1000, 1100, and 1200 oC. The physical and mechanical properties of the produced bricks were then determined and evaluated according to Egyptian Standard Specifications (E.S.S.) and compared to control brick made entirely from clay. From the obtained results, it was concluded that by operating at the temperature commonly practiced in the brick kiln, 50 % was the optimum sludge addition to produce brick from sludge-SF mixture. The produced bricks properties were obviously superior to the 100 % clay control-brick and to those available in the Egyptian market.  

[Badr El-Din E. Hegazy, Hanan A. Fouad, and Ahmed M. Hassanain. REUSE OF WATER TREATMENT SLUDGE AND SILICA FUME IN BRICK MANUFACTURING.  Journal of American Science, 2011;7(7):569-576]. (ISSN:1545-0740). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.82

 

Keywords: Water treatment sludge – sludge disposal – clay – brick –silica fume

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Effect of Nigella Sativa Supplementation in Diet on Metabolic Syndrome in Aged Rats

 

Nehal M. B. Gamil1* and Ghada Z. A. Soliman2

 

1Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

2National Nutrition Institute (NNI), Cairo, Egypt

*nehalgamil@ yahoo.com   

 

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a serious health problem that is increasing worldwide particularly in aged people due to increased fructose intake in processed foods as well as physical inactivity. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with ground seeds of Nigella sativa on the criteria of  metabolic syndrome in aged rats. The present study was carried out on 52 aged Wistar albino rats (18-20 months). Rats were allocated into the following 3 groups: Control rats C (n=20) fed standard rat diet; metabolic syndrome group M (n=14) fed high fructose diet comprised of 60 % of energy pure fructose and metabolic syndrome/Nigella sativa group M/NS (n=18) fed high fructose diet as M group but mixed with ground seeds of Nigella sativa to achieve daily intake of Nigella sativa 180 mg /Kg b.w. After 4 weeks, rats were subjected to estimation of the following parameters; initial and final body weights, body mass index (BMI), daily food intake and serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL-c and adiponectin. Insulin resistance was estimated by calculating HOMA-R. Histopathological examination of rat  livers, kidneys and brains was also done. Obtained results revealed that visceral fat weight increased significantly in M group compared to C group and decreased significantly in NS/M group compared to M group. Both M and M/NS groups had significant increase in serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL- c. VLDL-c and HOMA-R as well as significant decrease in serum adiponectin compared to C group. However M/NS group showed significant decrease of serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-c and HOMA-R as well as significant increase of serum adiponectin compared to M group. Histopathological examination revealed vascular congestion in the liver and kidneys, necrosis of hepatocytes and renal tubular cells as well as focal cerebral hemorrhage in M group and almost normal histological picture in M/NS group. In conclusion; Nigella sativa seeds co-feeding with high fructose diet improved some criteria of metabolic syndrome in aged rats.

[Nehal M. B. Gamil and Ghada Z.A. Soliman. Effect of Nigella Sativa Supplementation in Diet on Metabolic Syndrome in Aged Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):577-583]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.83

 

Key words: HOMA-R, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, adiponectin, visceral adiposity.

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A Critical Analysis of the Existing Ontology Evolution Approaches

 

Khadim H. Asif, Syed Muhammad Ahsan

 

Department of CS & Engg, U. E. T., Lahore, Pakistan

asifkhed@yahoo.com, ahsansc@hotmail.com 

 

Abstract: Because of the rapid improvements occurring in the dynamic environment of web applications, ontologies have to be modified to reflect the changes made to the applications. Management of the changes within ontologies is one of the most crucial tasks that needs to be resolved. Various approaches and frameworks have been devised by the researchers to handle it. Despite all the efforts made in this direction, the problem still requires to be researched. To address the problem, we have critically analyzed a number of existing ontology evolution approaches against a criterion we have defined in this paper. Having identified the limitations and weaknesses along with their strengths, we have proposed some requirements that must be incorporated in the design of ontology management approaches.

[Khadim H. Asif, Syed Muhammad Ahsan. A Critical Analysis of the Existing Ontology Evolution Approaches. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):584-588]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.84

 

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Web, Evolution, management.

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Broadcast Story Genre Survey in Television

 

Maryam Alidaei

 

Ph.D., Department of Journalist T.V., Faculty of Journalistica, Doushanbe-International University, Doushanbe, Tajikestan.  maryam.alidaei@yahoo.com  

 

Abstract: Present article is taken away of a research about practical analysis of Genres of journalism that has made don by relying on Post-consultative science, in this research because of closeness of some Genres with literary text, researcher particularly, has tried to pay surveying Genre of broadcast story writing which is named Ucherck. Investigating model of this research is chronological order of events model and in this angle it is paid to influence of literary Genres on mind of viewers and their memorization. On this basis of texts of some broadcast story in visual angle of an individual (individual-based) and on the basis of occurrence time (time-based) has been written and then into rate of perception and memorizing information issued in news, the addresses were assessed. Results of this research is showing the matter that story news writing by observance of sequence of occurrence in news stories in comparison with non-time-based does not result to perception and understanding and better memorizing of realities information existent in broadcast story.

[Maryam Alidaei. Broadcast Story genre Survey in Television. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):589-596] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.85

 

Keywords: Publicity Genres, Ucherk Genre, chronological story structure, non-chronological story structure, individual story structure, non-individual story structure.

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Television, Election, Political Impartiality

 

Reza Hadi

 

Ph.D., Department of Journalist T.V., Faculty of Journalistica, Doushanbe-International University, Doushanbe, Tajikestan. Reza.hadi88@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Interviews and television debates among political faces has important rule in manner of audiences taking of candidates and finally is influenced on voting of audiences. With regard to placement of medias as public and operation of television in the form of special and it important on elections, present article by utilization of performed research texture about role of television (visual media) in trend of elections has paid to impartial survey of media in current of presidential election from people insight and intend to find response to this question that: In covering of television, 10th Period of Election Campaign program whether any support is seen on behalf of television? In order to impartial weighing of media on behalf of people, we pay to survey media trust index in 10th Period of Presidential Election debates and for this purpose behavior of television and speaker of debates in regard to accurate, justice and balance in transfer of message to audience is being assessed and analyzed. Results of this research is explanatory of lack of television bias in 10th period of presidential election program and being index of media credit higher than average in both political group.

[Reza Hadi. Television, Election, Political Impartiality.  Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):597-608] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.86

 

Keywords: Fundamentalist, reformist, index of television validity, accurate, equity, election bias

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Effect of Ultrafiltration Permeate on the Quality of Chocolate Milk

 

Hala M. Bayoumy1, A. G. Mohamed*1, M. M. El-Sheikh1, A. F. Farrag1 and Hesham A. Eissa2

 

1Dairy Department, 2Food Technology Department, National Research Centre, 12622 Ciaro, Egypt

*ashrafare@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study provides a new version of chocolate milk from a dairy liquid originated from skim milk and ultrafiltration (UF) milk permeate. The mixtures of chocolate milk containing milk permeate at different levels, were manufactured and stored at 4ºC for 2 weeks. Physico-chemical, color characteristics, viscosity and sensory properties of various formulations were evaluated. Most of physico-chemical analysis did not change before and after storage of chocolate milk with milk permeate. Results showed that the highest score of color was recorded for the (B4-B6) sample followed by (C7-C9) then (A1-A3) samples. The highest score of appearance was recorded for the (B4-B6) followed by (C7-C9) then (A1-A3) samples. Also, the highest score of viscosity were recorded for the (B4-B6) followed by (C7-C9) then (A1-A3) samples.  From the previous results, it is obvious that results showed a decrease at the following order B6 > B5 > C9 > C8 > C7 > B4 > A3 > A2 > A1 regarding to L*, a*, b*, C*, H*, BI-values, physicochemical, viscosity and sensory evaluation. Finally, using milk permeate was able to produce a good quality chocolate milk.

[Hala M. Bayoumy, A. G. Mohamed, M. M. El-Sheikh, A. F. Farrag and Hesham A. Eissa. Effect of Ultrafiltration Permeate on the Quality of Chocolate Milk. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):609-615].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.87

 

Key words: Skim milk, Chocolate milk, milk permeate, ultrafiltration, viscosity and color.

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Utilization of Goats Milk in Manufacture of Processed Cheese

 

* Mohamed, A.G.; Fatma, A.M.Hassan; Hala M. Bayoumi and Ali. K. Enab

 

Dairy Science Dept. National Research Center, Dokki, Giza Egypt

*ashrafare@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Two Formulas Of Different Blends Are Used For Manufacture Processed Cheesed. First Formula, F1; (Cow. Processed Cheese) Consist Of 38.44% Ras Cheese, 12.80% Cheddar Cheese, 10.26% Butter, 5.12% Skim Milk Powder, 2.50% Emulsifying Salts And 30.88% Water. Second Formula; F2 (Goats Processed Cheese) Consist Of Goats Cheese Base 66.40%, 19.92% Butter, 6.64% Skim Milk Powder, 2.00% Emulsifying Salts And 5.04% Water. Both Processed Cheeses Were Storage At 7°C For 3 Months. Organoleptical, Chemical And Physical Properties Were Studied. Obtained Results Showed That Processed Cheese That Made From Goats Base (F2) Had Gained A Higher Scores For The Breakdown Properties, Spreading Quality And Free From Gumminess Than Control (F1) And Had Lower Soluble Nitrogen As Well As TVFA Than Control Either Fresh Or During Storage.

Also F2 Had A Higher Values In Penterometer Reading And Meltability While Lower In Oil Separation. The Colour Of Treatment (F2) Is Prefer Than F1.

 [Mohamed, A. G.; Fatma, A. M. Hassan; Hala M. Bayoumi and Ali. K. Enab. Utilization of Goats Milk in Manufacture of Processed Cheese. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):616-621].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.88

 

Keywords: Cheese; Milk; Powder; Salt; Water; Nitrogen; Storage.

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Utilization Of Microcrystalline Cellulose Prepared From Rice Straw In Manufacture Of Low Fat Soft White Cheese.

 

Fatma Abdelfatah Mohamed  Hassan,*Galal A.M. Nawar, Ali Kamal Enab, Faten Lotfi Seleet, Ashraf Gaber Mohamed

 

Dairy Science Department and *Green Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. * fatmahassan98@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Micro crystalline cellulose was prepared from rice straw. Different concentration of resultant Micro crystalline cellulose (% 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1) were used in manufacture of low fat soft white cheese. Organo lepticall and chemical properties of resultant cheese were studied fresh and during storage 5°c± 1° for 45 days. Results showed that low soft cheese manufactured by using 0.1 % microcrystalline cellulose had a good flavour, body and texture and appearance than control and gained higher score fresh and during storage 5°c± 1° than control. Treatment had a higher content of tyrosine and tryptophan and total volatile fatty acids and total carbonyl compounds than control. Treatment had a higher content of alanine acid whereas control had a higher content of aspartic acid. Glutamic acid recorded a high percentage either control or treatment than other acids. Microcrystalline cellulose at 0.1 % lead to increase cheese yield, improving body, texture, appearance and flavor.

[Fatma Abdelfatah Mohamed  Hassan, Galal A.M. Nawar, Ali Kamal Enab, Faten Lotfi Seleet and Ashraf Gaber Mohamed. Utilization Of Microcrystalline Cellulose Prepared From Rice Straw In Manufacture Of Low Fat Soft White Cheese. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):622-625]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.89

 

Key words: Cheese, Stabilizer, Microcrystalline cellulose.

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Modeling Underground Water Reservoir

 

B.B. El-Naggar1 and I. A.Kholief 2

 

1.Assoc.Prof. Dept. of Math. And Phys., Faculty of Eng., Cairo University

2. Prof. Dept. of Math. And Phys., Faculty of Eng., Cairo University

bbnaggar@hotmail.com

 

Abstract:   In this paper a simple model for underground water is constructed. The supply to the reservoir is from one side with variable water level from rain and flood, in the meantime water escapes outside from the other side. The soil forming the reservoir is porous and water movement inside is according to Darcy's flow. The bottom of the reservoir is impermeable to water, whereas, the top of the rectangular reservoir is exposed to a steady pressure depending on the atmospheric pressure. The differential equation of the flow in the model is solved by the method of Green's function. Inlet and exit velocity distribution is obtained and is integrated to give the capacity as a function of time.   

[B.B. El-Naggar and I. A.Kholief. Modeling Underground Water Reservoir.  Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):626-630] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.90

 

Keywords: water reservoir, pressure gradient, porosity, compressibility, green function, Darcy's law

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91

Processed Cheese Spreads Fortified With Oat

 

A. G. Mohamed, Hayam M. Abbas, Hala M. Bayoumi, Jihan M. Kassem and Ali K. Enab

 

Dept. of Dairy Science, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

halaere@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Processed cheese spreads (PCSs) were prepared by fortification with different ratios of oat (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5%). Three batches were produced. Control and tested PCSc were freshly analyzed for TS, protein, fat, total carbohydrate contents and pH values. Potassium, Sodium, Zinc, Iron and Selenium were also determined. Penetrometer reading, oiling off and melting index were estimated as well as color properties (L, A and B). Another batch from each treatment was stored at room temperature (20-22°C) for 3 months to study the changes in penetrometer reading, oil separation, melting index and color properties as a result of oat fortification. Sensory evaluation of all batches was also performed. Processed cheese produced by adding oat had slightly high content of TS, protein contents and pH value, while it had a pronounced high content of total carbohydrates, K+, zinc, Iron and Selenium. Oat fortification improved the physical properties of the cheese spreads as well as their organoleptic properties. During storage, oat enhanced the physical properties of cheese spreads, especially their color properties.

[A. G. Mohamed, Hayam M. Abbas, Hala M. Bayoumi, Jihan M. Kassem and Ali K. Enab Processed Cheese Spreads Fortified With Oat. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):631-637]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.91

 

Keywords: cheese; spread; oat; protein; fat; carbohydrate; Potassium; Sodium; Zinc; Iron; Selenium

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Investigating the Ghaznavid Relations with Abbasian's Succession (Caliphate)

 

Iraj Jalali

 

PhD student, Department of History of Iran in Islamic Period, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), Tehran, IRAN

Jalali53iraj@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ghaznavides (582-351 A.H.) were the first Turk Race Government who appeared in eastern part of Iran and for a period had ruled in greater part of Iran. They were pioneer of Turk families who about next thousand years more and less ruled on Iran. In the time of existence of this government, in the scope of their changeable territory historical, historical fait making events in process of their relation with adjacent governments and system of Abbasi Caliphate appeared. Ghaznavides in their governance period in eastern part of Islam World specially first periods of this government since 351 up to 431 A.H. they had very effort for making close relation with Abbasi's Caliphate System. These efforts also in second period of this government (since 431 up to 582 A.H.) were continued. This article intend by research relation between  institute of monarchy (Ghaznavian and Abbassi Caliphate) pay to cause and factors of making this relations and investigate about manner of process of these relations in between connection clear role of these relations in continuation of Ghaznavides life and Abbasian.

[Iraj Jalali. Investigating the Ghaznavid Relations with Abbasian's Succession (Caliphate). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):638-645] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.92

 

Keywords: Ghaznavides, Abbassides, foreign relations, the Caliphs, Sultans, Fatemiyan religious politics.

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The effects of applying different levels of nitrogen and the plant growth regulator Pix on the morphological features of the cotton cultivar Sahel

 

Abed vahedi

 

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of  Agricultural and Natural Resources, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran. Email: av1790@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: In order to study the effects of the application of various amounts of nitrogen fertilizers and Pix 35%  growth regulator on the morphological features of the Sahel cultivar of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and on the unginned cotton yield of this cultivar, an experiment was carried out in the factorial design in the randomized complete block format with three replications at the Bayekola Agronomical Research Station in 2009. The factors studied included the amounts of nitrogen fertilizers and of the cotton growth regulator Pix 35% used in the experiment. Results obtained showed that the minimum plant height was obtained in the control treatment (72.93 cm), and that plant height increased with nitrogen application and reached its maximum (77.59 cm) when 225 Kg.h of nitrogen was used. The analysis of the variance of the data indicated that the effects of applying various levels of Pix were very significantly different, so that the greatest plant height was observed in the Pix control treatment (90.94 cm), and it significantly decreased by Pix application and reached 65 cm when 300 g.h of Pix was applied (which was an almost 40% reduction). Furthermore, when nitrogen fertilizers were applied, the unginned cotton yield significantly went up, and this increase in yield continued up to the level of using 150 Kg.h nitrogen; however, when the level of nitrogen application reached 225 Kg.h, the yield started to go down. As a whole, the lowest yield was obtained when nitrogen was not applied (which was the control with a yield of 1469 Kg of unginned cotton per hectare), and the maximum yield (2825 Kg.h of unginned cotton per hectare) was achieved when 150 Kg of nitrogen per hectare was used _ i.e., the unginned cotton yield went up by 14% when 150 Kg of nitrogen per hectare was applied. In our study, it was observed that Pix did not have much influence on increasing yield: the minimum yield (2529 Kg of unginned cotton per hectare) was observed in the treatment of applying 100 g.h of Pix, and the maximum yield (2669 K.g of unginned cotton per hectare) by using 200 g.h of Pix. Comparison of the interaction effects of the level of Pix and nitrogen application indicated that, among all the treatments, the maximum yield of unginned cotton (3010 K.h) was achieved when 150 Kg.h of nitrogen and 200 g.h Pix were applied. These results also showed that in the treatments of using 150 K.g nitrogen per hectare, and applying 150 Kg. nitrogen plus 300 g Pix per hectare also, high yield potentials (close to 3 tons per hectare) were created. The minimum yield of unginned cotton (2230 Kg.h) belonged to the treatment of using 200 grams of Pix per hectare.               

[Abed vahedi. The effects of applying different levels of nitrogen and the plant growth regulator Pix on the morphological features of the cotton cultivar Sahel. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):646-650]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.93

 

Keywords: Cotton, Nitrogen, Pix, Morphological Features

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Operational planning Role in Organizations Based on Strategy (Case Study: Saipa Co.)

 

Mohammad Mahmoudi Maymand, Mohammad Zare

 

Department of Management, Payam-e-Noor University, Tehran, Iran; m.zare1389@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Mission-driven organizations plan and implement the projects in order to achieve strategic objectives. Thus the effectiveness of project implementation in different levels should be reviewed. This research intends to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing operational planning system which is one of the strategic projects in Saipa Co. by evaluating two strategic goals of achieving production plan and cost reduction. In this context regarding the aim of achieving production plan, the impacts of this system on the total volume and production models and also in cost reduction target, the costs due to stopping route, late delivery penalties and cost of product warehousing will be investigated and the accuracy of assumptions by using organization documentary / real data - descriptive inferential analysis and statistics will be tested. The findings suggest the significant effect of implementing the system on production plan increase and cost reduction achievement, so in mission- based organizations which are acting based on customer needs and flexible mass production system, the implementation of this system will have significant impact on achieving strategic objectives.

[Mohammad Mahmoudi Maymand, Mohammad Zare. Operational planning Role in Organizations Based on Strategy (Case Study: Saipa Co.). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):651-658]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.94

 

Keywords: Operational planning; strategic objectives; production management; delays

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Viability model and effect of two drying procedures on seed longevity of Secale montanum seeds

 

Marzieh Dehghan, Farzad Sharif-Zadeh

 

Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Crop and Animal Science College, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran; dehghan_mahya@yahoo.com, sharifzadef@gmil.com

 

Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Ellis and Roberts seed deterioration model to predict the longevity of Secale montanum seeds under different storage conditions. Seed lots used in this investigation were dried in two different methods including sun and shade drying, immediately after harvest. The seed moisture content of both seed lots was adjusted to 11, 13 and 15% by humidification above water in a closed container at 20OC.  After equilibrium had been achieved for 3 days at 5 OC in a sealed container, seed moisture content was determined.  In each seed lot and moisture level, sub samples of about 200 seeds were sealed hermetically in aluminum packets. Storage temperatures were 25, 35 and 45. The interval of sampling depended on the storage conditions. Seed survival curves were then fitted to the observations by probit analysis. In each seed lot dried seed survival curves conformed to cumulative negative normal distributions and the results showed that survival curves could be constrained to a common origin.  The results of this research showed that the standard deviation of the subsequent survival curves was unaffected by drying treatments. Seed viability constants to predict seed longevity in this species was estimated.

[Marzieh Dehghan, Farzad Sharif-Zadeh. Viability model and effect of two drying procedures on seed longevity of Secale montanum seeds. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):659-663]. (ISSN: 1545-1003).

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.95

 

Keywords: drying, Secale montanum, seed longevity, seed viability constants, viability model

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The role of tourist attractions on change of the traditional dwellings of mountain and mountainside villages (Dohezaar rural district, Tonekabon Township)

 

Masoumeh Hasannezhad 1, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin 2, Karine Danielyan 3

 

1. Department of Geographical Planning Tourism, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

2. Department of Human Geography, Gilan University, Rasht, Iran

3. Department of Biology, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia

hasannezhad1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this article, the researcher does her best to study the impacts and outcomes of this industry on the development of local and traditional dwellings from various dimensions and aspects, including form, architecture, function, etc. The data collected for this study are based on information, statistics, and also experts’ opinions. The results of the present study can help us to evaluate, plan, and fulfill the development of rural tourism on the area under study, so it will provide a good background to reach the goals of tourism in the process of rural tourism development.

[Masoumeh Hasannezhad, Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, Karine Danielyan. The role of tourist attractions on change of the traditional dwellings of mountain and mountainside villages (Dohezaar rural district, Tonekabon Township). Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):664-673]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.96

 

Keywords: Rural tourism; Dohezaar rural district; Traditional dwellings; Mountainous and mountainside villages; Sustainable development

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Evaluating Competition of the Phalaric minor in Wheat

 

Einallah Hesammi

 

Faculty member, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. Iran

a.hesami@iau-shouhtar.ac.ir and ainellah@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: to competitive effects of wheat and p minor in densities and different use values of Nitrogen in plan frame of random blocks repeating 4 times perfectly. The test factorials included Nitrogen value in level (100,150 and 225 kg/ha) and p minor density in 5 levels (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 bones per square meter). Results of the test showed that height of p minor per three values of Nitrogen was less in initial processes of growth and more than wheat in final processes of growth. Increasing Nitrogen value has caused to increase leaf and biomass of p minor and increasing p minor density causes area of leaf and biomass of wheat to decrease. Time of closing canopy in p minor is more rapidly than in wheat. The most value of decreasing operation of wheat seed was about 48 percent while was observed in density of 160 bones of p minor in 225 kg/ha of Nitrogen. Average relative growth velocities of wheat and p minor were 0.073 and 0.028 g/dag during growth cycle, respectively. Little use value of Nitrogen fertilizer, reason of more decrease of wheat operation was existence of p minor grass.

[Einallah Hesammi Faculty member, Department of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar Branch. Iran. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):674-678]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.97

 

Keywords: Wheat, p minor, Competition, Nitrogen, Density

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The effect of Urea fertilizer drilling on yield of sugar beet

 

Yazdanpanah A.R. 1, A.  Norouzi2,A. M. Jafari3 and M.  Hagihadi4

 

1.school member of agricultural and natural resources Research center of Hamedan. Hamedan. Iran.

2.school member of Agricultural and Natural resources Research center of Hamedan. Hamedan.Iran.

3.school member of Agricultural and Natural resources Research center of Hamedan. Hamedan.Iran.

4.M.S.degree of analytical chemistery.Bu Ali Sina University. Hamedan.Iran.

yazdanpanah2@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: To determine the optimum level of nitrogen intake, assessment methods and nitrogen fertilizer application partitioning, a randomized complete block design with three replications in Agricultural Research Center of Hamedan in 1999 for two years was carried out. Fertilizer levels were (0 kg) as control,120,180 and 240 kg/ha N  for fertilizer drilling method in both sides of seedlings, and 240 kg/ha for fertilizer drilling in rills and surface broadcasting of 240 kg/ha. All treatments had two partitioning of 3 and 4 which were used. In 2001 the method of fertilizer falling in rills and consumption rate of  204.07 kg Urea per ha created the highest income. Results of ANOVA and Duncan mean comparison method showed that during two years of project implementation, the effect of N fertilizer level on root yield, sugar and sugar can be obtained,at 5 percent level were significant and levels of N application as non-linear increased These components. Effect of method of fertilizer application on the above components is significant and by using the equipment of fertilizer drilling machine nitrogen consumption can be reduced and that and by creasing levels of fertilizer, yield of sugar beet increased compared to broadcast method to the surface. Effect of number of fertilizing stages (3 and 4 times) on root yield, income, gross and white sugar is not significant..

[Geeta Kharkwal, Poonam Mehrotra, Yaswant Singh Rawat. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):679-683]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.98

 

Keywords: optimization, nitrogen, economic evaluation, fertilizer drilling, sugar beet

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Improving the Wetability and Oxidation Resistance of Graphite by Coating

 

H. Rastegar 1, M. Khoeini 1, H.R. Hafizpour 1, A.Nemati 2 

 

1. Department of Materials Science, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O.Box: 39187-366, Saveh, Iran

2. Department of Materials Science, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

hosseinrastegar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: In this research, the graphite powders were coated with Al2O3 by hydrolysis of an Aluminum nitrate aqueous solution. The surface of the graphite particles coated with Al2O3 was investigated by XRD and the quality of Al2O3 coating on the surface of graphite was observed by SEM and investigated by EDS. For detail investigation on the surface of coated graphite TEM was used and then wetability and oxidation resistance were investigated. To compare the effect of coating and antioxidant on oxidation resistance of graphite, Al and SiC were used as antioxidant. The results showed that the surface of graphite flakes was successfully coated and modified so that wetability and oxidation resistance of graphite greatly improved and the amount of antioxidant needed for application of graphite in the refractory decreased.

[H. Rastegar, M. Khoeini, H.R. Hafizpour, A. Nemati. Improving the Wetability and Oxidation Resistance of Graphite by Coating. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):684-688]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.99

 

Keywords: coated graphite, wetability, oxidation resistance, aluminum-nitrate.

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Molecular and morphological characterization of various Artemia strains from tropical saltpans in South East Coast of India

 

Manavalan Vetriselvan and Natesan Munuswamy

 

Unit of Aquaculture and Cryobiology, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. vetrichelvanm@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study documents the morphological and molecular characteristics of Artemia strains in four main ecological regions from South East Coast of India. Samples from tropical saltpans such as Kelambakkam (KBM), Vedaranyam (VDM), Tuticorin (TCN) and Thamaraikulam (TKM) and reference samples from GSL strain (Great Salt Lake, Utah) were analysed. Biometry of cysts, furcal morphology and molecular genetic relatedness analysed the technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) finger printing analysis were done with four Artemia strains. The biometry results revealed that the KBM cyst diameter was similar to GSL cyst and compared to other strains. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of hydrated Artemia cysts showed a smooth outer membrane with granular surface topography without much variation. However, the SEM structures of fractured cysts showed variation in the inner architecture patterns and includes egg membranes. The discrimination on furcal fin shape and its numbers of setae were more evident to distinguish Artemia strains studied. The TKM strain showed wide furcal groove compared to other strains. RAPD-PCR analysis showed consistent genetic differences between the VDM and TKM strains. The DNA polymorphisms were evident in all the Artemia strains examined and the highest percentage of polymorphic bands was found in TKM and TCN Artemia strains. The obtained results obviously showed that, within the collection of South Indian Artemia cyst samples examined, the two different groups seem to exist. The morphological and molecular analysis revealed a greatest genetic difference between the Artemia strains in order to provide the genetic relatedness and the specific status of Artemia strains confined to South India.

[Manavalan Vetriselvan and Natesan Munuswamy. Molecular and morphological characterization of various Artemia strains from tropical saltpans in South East Coast of India. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):689-695] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.100

 

Keywords: Artemia strains, Cyst biometry, Cyst SEM structure, furcal morphology and RAPD-PCR analysis

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Application of Protein Engineering Strategies in Structural Biology for Enhancing Protein Crystallization

 

Xiaoli Gao1a#, Yanfeng Zhang1a#*, Yixiao Shen2, Xiangqun Shen3

 

1Department of Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

2College of Food Science, and 3College of Horticulture, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China

aPresent address: Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

#These authors contributed equally to this work; *Corresponding author: zhangy11@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Structural biology is one of the most important areas in biological sciences since detailed 3-D atomic protein structure not only gives direct information on protein function, but also provides useful knowledge on protein engineering and drug design.  X-ray crystallography is one of the most powerful tools for high-resolution protein structure determination.  It requires growth of protein crystals, which is extremely challenging for some proteins and usually pose it the most rate-limiting step for protein structure determination.  However, protein engineering methods improving the entropy of crystallization sometimes enhance protein crystallization.  In this review, we summarized the most commonly used protein engineering strategies for improve the chance of protein crystallization. 

[Xiaoli Gao, Yanfeng Zhang, Yixiao Shen, Xiangqun Shen. Application of Protein Engineering Strategies in Structural Biology for Enhancing Protein Crystallization. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):696-699] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.101

 

Keywords: Protein engineering, crystallization, X-ray crystallography, limited proteolysis, MBP, surface entropy reduction

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Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests

 

Geeta Kharkwal 1, Poonam Mehrotra 2, Yaswant Singh Rawat 1

 

1. Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India

2. Department of Botany, Bundelkhand University, Jhasi, Uttarakhand 263002, India

geetakh@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Taxonomic diversity of understorey vegetation (herb species) was studied in two evergreen forests, viz. oak and pine in the Kumaun Himalaya. In terms of taxonomic diversity, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the two dominant families in the sampling forest types. Maximum number of species was found at hill base and minimum at hill top in both the forests. The number of families, genera and species ratio observed for pine forest was of course higher with compared to the oak forest showed about the higher taxonomic diversity. Perennials form had higher contribution as compared to annuals forms indicated better ability to store up soil. Very few species (9 species) were found to be common indicates higher dissimilarity in both type of forests. Species richness (per m2) was higher in the pine forest than the oak forest. A high value of beta-diversity in the oak forest point out that the species composition varied from one stand to another. However, low concentration of dominance value in the pine forest with compare to the oak forest point towards the dominance, which is shared by many species.

[Geeta Kharkwal, Poonam Mehrotra, Yaswant Singh Rawat. Taxonomic Diversity of Understorey Vegetation in Kumaun Himalayan Forests. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):700-704]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.102

 

Keywords: Species richness; beta-diversity; taxonomic diversity; forest

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THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SURFACE PRETREATMENTS ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF REPAIRED COMPOSITE

 

Reham S. Saleh¹, Omaima H. Gallab ², Mohamed H.Zaazou¹, Hanan A. Niazi2

1-Department of Restorative Dentistry and Dental Material, National research centre

 2- Department of Operative Dentistry,Faculty of Dentistry, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

 

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surface pretreatment protocols and different aging periods on the shear bond strength of the repaired composite. One hundred and fifty specimens were prepared from Silorane Filtek P90 (3M, USA) resin composite material. The specimens were divided into five main groups (thirty each) according to the followed surface pretreatment protocols. The surface of the first group was pretreated with acid etching by 37% phosphoric acid etching, in the second group the surface was pretreated with carbide finishing bur. while in the third group the surface was pretreated with air abrasion of Al2O3 powder. A thin of Silorane Filtek P90 bond (3M, USA) was applied over the treated surface then the repaired composite resin material was packed. The remaining two groups were considered as two different control groups, either cohesive or incremental control. Both of the control groups were prepared without addition of the bonding agent. Each of the previously mentioned groups was divided into three subgroups, ten each, according to the aging period (24 hours, one month and three months). All the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength using a universal testing machine at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and the means were compared by Tukey’s post-hoc test  and the significance level was set at P≤0.05 (=0.05). The results showed air abrasion provided higher composite–composite repair bond strength followed by adhesive resin applications while acid etching of the substrate Silorane composite resin material failed to improve the repaired shear bond strength; meanwhile it had a cleansing effect. Aging the repaired composite for three months significantly reduced the shear bond strength.

[Reham.S. Saleh, Omaima. H. Gallab, Mohamed. H. Zaazou, Hanan. A. Niazi. THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SURFACE PRETREATMENTS ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF REPAIRED COMPOSITE. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):705-711] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.103

 

Key words: Silorane Filtek P90 composite, air abrasion, acid etching, carbide bur, bonding agent

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Effect of Inoculant Composition on Grain Refining Process in Aluminum Casting Alloys

 

Najmeddin Arab

 

Department of Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran

najarab@yahoo.com

 

 Abstract. Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminum alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminum alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literatures and has been the subject of intensive research. There is common question for all producer of aluminum castings that how they can be sure about the quality of nucleation. Thermal analysis is an important tool to answer this question. In this research, different types of inoculants were used to investigation of nucleation in A356 aluminum alloy. The cooling curve of each sample was recorded and by using a special computer program, the first derivative was calculated. By calculating zero curve and analyzing the cooling curve, it is possible to predict the quality of nucleation and calculation fraction of solids, latent heat and other information. The result of this research have shown that if maximum undercooling of nucleation  was approximately 3.8 C, the quality of nucleation process will be more reliable.

[Najmeddin Arab. Effect of Inoculant Composition on Grain Refining Process in Aluminum Casting Alloys. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):712-716] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.104

 

Key words: Thermal Analysis, Grain Refining, Nucleation, A-356 Aluminum.

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Effect of Magnesium and Nickel on the Wear and Mechanical Properties of Casting Bronzes 

 

M. Moradlou1 N. Arab2, R. Emadi3, M. Meratian3  

 

1Faculty of Mechanics,Work instruction center- khoramdareh, Zanjan, Iran

2Department of Engineering, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran

3Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran

m.moradlou@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Investigation on tribological properties of cast metals is a most attractive research subject in recent years. Aluminum-Bronze cast alloys demonstrate proper mechanical and wear properties for this application. In this research, the effects of magnesium and nickel on tribological properties of cast Aluminum-Bronzes have been investigated. After the casting, the samples were heat treated, quenching and aging. The wear test conducted by pin-on-disk apparatus and wear mechanisms and microstructure of the specimens were studied by a scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that addition of magnesium and nickel reduces the size of α and  phases. Increasing the amount of magnesium and nickel to 10%, improves the mechanical and tribological properties of the alloys.  When the alloying elements are low, the wear mechanism are lamination and abrasive. Increase alloying elements decrease these wear mechanisms.

[M. Moradlou N. Arab, R. Emadi, M. Meratian. Effect of Magnesium and Nickel on the Wear and Mechanical Properties of Casting Bronzes. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):717-722] (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.105

 

Keywords: Aluminum-Bronze alloy, Tribology, Wear test, Wear mechanisms, Mechanical properties

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Potential Impact of Zinc Hazardous Effect of Pesticides In Male Rats

 

                                                                             Magda Sayed Hassanin                                                                   

 

Zoology Department, Women's College for Art, Science & Education, Ain Shams University

Mira_101088@live.com

 

Abstract: In the present study, fifty male rats (weighted 150 – 170  g) were divided into five groups(n=10), the first group served as control, the second group was received acute dose of Azinphos methyl (4 mg/kg. b.wt./orally) and the fourth group was treated with Caprolin at dose of 100 mg / kg b. wt./orally. The third and fifth groups were treated orally with Zn So4 (400 µ mol / kg b. wt.) daily for 6 weeks before pesticides treatment. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 72 hrs, 7, 15 and 21 days after treatment with pesticides. The results of the current study showed deleterious damage due to Azinphos methyl and Caprolin administration,represented in a significant decrease in serum zinc concentration, total proteins and albumin and significant increases in copper, iron, γ-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanin aminotransferase (ALT) levels, while the data revealed imbalance in thyroid function as a result of both pesticides administrations, which was showed in the enhancement of free T4 level and significant decrease in free T3 activity at 1 week (day 7) post-administration. Treatment of zinc sulphate (Zn So4) pre-administration with Azinphos methyl or Caprolin attenuates to a great extent the damaging effects of two previous doses of pesticides on the assayed parameters except the thyroid hormones. Accordingly, Zinc treatment at the used dose may have indirect physiological effect on thyroid function.  

[Magda Sayed Hassanin. Potential Impact of Zinc Hazardous Effect of Pesticides In Male Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):723-732]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.106

 

Key words: Zinc supplementation, Pesticides toxicity, Azinphos methyl toxicity, Caprolin toxicity

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Defensive Effect of Garlic as revealed by Molecular, Biochemical and Ultra Structure Print after Toluene Stress on Mice 

 

Sahar A.  Mosallam1* and Hussein Sabit2

 

 Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.1

Faculty of Biotechnology, Misr University for Science & Technology, 6th Oct. City. Egypt.2

*adr.sahar@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The present study represents a trial for using the natural garlic extract (Tomox) as a  treatment for the asthma caused by the organic chemical (Toluene).   Twenty four mice were divided into four groups; group I kept as control, untreated animals, group II included animals treated daily with 2.5 mg/kg b.w. garlic for one week via oral gavage, group III included animals treated daily with toluene as a spray all over the body for 10 min 3 times/day for one week and group IV included animals treated with toluene followed by garlic.  IgE levels were measured as an indicator for the immune response.  Toluene increased the level of IgE (4.2 μg/ml), while treatment with garlic decreased its level to 3.7 μg/ml compared with 3.2 μg/ml in control animals.  Transmission electron microscopic examinations were performed to reveal the effect of toluene on lung tissues.  A marked changes has been observed after the treatment with toluene.These changes were represented by vacuolations, ill-defined mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum and pyknotic nuclei of type I and II. Macrophage with pyknotic nuclei and condensed heterochromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope and rupture nuclear envelope in some spaces.  Molecular genetic analysis has been performed for the F1 to assess the genetic changes occurred in the offspring due to the treatments. There was no an observable variation on the RAPD-PCR level using 5 random primers O6 (5'- CCC AGT CAC T-3'), O10 (5'- TCA GCG CCA C-3'), C5 (5'- CCG CAT CTA C-3'),  C10 (5'- TGT CTG GGT G -3')  and C 14 (5'- AAG CCT CGT C-3').  The results showed that, toluene induced damage in lung tissue and immunosuppressive effects in adult animals.  In spite of that, toluene did not induce genetic variation in DNA of babies of treated females as revealed by RAPD-PCR.

[Sahar A.  Mosallam and Hussein Sabit. Defensive Effect of Garlic as revealed by Molecular, Ultra Structure and Immunological Changes after Toluene Stress on Mice.Journal of American Science 2011:7(7):733-740]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.107

 

Key words: Asthma, Garlic, Genetic fingerprint, IgE, Toluene.

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The Protective effect of Ginger and N- Acetyl Cysteine on Ciprofloxacin-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

 

Nashwa, A. Abu-Aita1*,   Kawkab, A. Ahmed2 and Samar M Mouneir3

 

1Department of Clinical Pathology, 2Department of Pathology and 3Department of Pharmacology,

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

*Mostafasta_gogo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the possible reproductive toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin antibiotic and the protective effect of ginger and/or N-acetyl cysteine. For this purpose, forty- nine rats were divided into 7 groups (7 rats/group). Group (1) was orally given distilled water (solvent of the used drugs) and kept as a control. Group (2) was daily administered ginger at a dose of 100 mg∕kg.b.wt. by a stomach tube for 65 days (5 days/week). Group (3) was daily administered N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) at a dose of 50 mg∕kg.b.wt., by a stomach tube for 65 days (5 days/week). Group (4) was orally administered ciprofloxacin (CPX) at a dose of 12.5 mg∕kg. b.wt. for 65 days (5 days/week). Group (5) was concurrently administered ciprofloxacin (12.5 mg∕kg. b.wt) with ginger (100 mg∕kg. b.wt.) by a stomach tube for 65 days (5 days/week). Group (6) was concurrently administered ciprofloxacin (12.5 mg∕kg.b.wt) with N-acetyl cysteine (50 mg∕kg.b.wt) by a stomach tube for 65 days. Group (7) was concurrently administered ciprofloxacin (12.5 mg∕kg.b.wt.) with ginger (100mg∕kg.b.wt.) and N- acetyl cysteine (50 mg∕kg.b.wt) by a stomach tube for 65 days. Semen samples were collected and used for sperm functions analysis. Blood samples were collected to separate serum for biochemical and hormonal studies. Testes homogenate was used for oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and DNA fragmentation test). Testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles were collected for histopathological study. The obtained data revealed that CPX promotes reproductive toxicity in rats through generating oxidative damage. It induces an adverse effect on reproductive organs weight, sperm parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and viability), reproductive hormones (testosterone, LH, and FSH) and histopathological alterations. Ginger and/or NAC have an important role in ameliorating reproductive toxicity induced by CPX through restoring the oxidant-antioxidant balance. 

[Nashwa, A. Abu-Aita, Kawkab, A. Ahmed and Samar M Mouneir. The protective effect of Ginger  and N- Acetyl Cysteine on Ciprofloxacin-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):741-752]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.108

 

Keywords:  Ciprofloxacin; Reproductive Dysfunction; Oxidative stress; Ginger; N-acetyl cysteine; Antioxidant       effect; Rat

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Compaction Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with nano/micro Scale SiC Particulates

 

H.R. Hafizpour, M. Khoeini 

 

Department of Materials Science, Saveh Branch, Islamic AZAD University, P.O. Box 39187-366, Saveh – Iran. hamid_hafiz@alum.sharif.edu

 

Abstract: The compressibility behavior of particulate reinforced aluminum matrix composite powders was examined under uniaxial cold compaction. The effect of SiC volume fraction (up to 20%) with varying particle size (ranging from 50 nm to 40 μm) on the plastic deformation capacity of aluminum matrix was analyzed by using linear compaction equations. It was found that with increasing the volume fraction or decreasing the particle size of reinforcement, the densification coefficient decreases that means the less ability of material to deformation. Particularly, nano scaled inclusions impose higher influence on yield pressure of composite compacts. It was also shown that the effect of reinforcement size ratio on densification coefficient is more profound up to 10 vol.%. This article addresses the mechanisms involve in the densification of aluminum matrix nano-micro composites by using linear and non linear compaction equations.

[H.R. Hafizpour, M. Khoeini. Compaction Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composites Reinforced with nano/micro Scale SiC Particulates. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):753-759]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.109

 

Keywords: Composite powder; Densification coefficient; Al-SiC; Linear Compaction equation

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Gastroprotective effect of simvastatin against experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels

 

Dalia M. Abd El Motteleb¹, Mai M. Hasan ²

 

¹Department of pharmacology, ² Department of physiology,  Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University

dalia_97_74@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Simvastatin appeared to have additional benefits beyond their lipid lowering effects, which has led to interest in the use of this class of drugs outside the field of cardiovascular disease. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the possible gastroprotective effect of simvastatin against  both indomethacin and cold restraint stress (CRS) induced  gastric ulcers in rats and to study its effect on  gastric mucosal malonaldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide  (NO)and prostaglandin E2(PGE2) levels  in both ulcer models. Exploration of the possible contribution of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in this action. Design: 72 healthy, adult male albino rats were used. The rats were randomly assigned to vehicle (distilled water or carboxymethylcellulose (0.5%), simvastatin, simvastatin +glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K+ channels blocker), pretreated groups for 7 days then ulcers were induced using oral indomethacin or cold restraint stress. Assessment of gastric lesions was done, gastric juice parameters (total acid output, pepsin activity  and mucin content) were determined for each group using pyloric ligation method. Rats from simvastatin pretreated groups in both ulcer models were used for determination of gastric mucosal  level of MDA (as indicator of lipid peroxidation), nitrite (as indicator of NO) and PGE2 levels. Results: Simvastatin displayed significant (P< 0.05) protection against gastric lesions induced by either indomethacin or exposure to cold restraint stress by correction of both ulcer score and the measured gastric juice parameters. This effect was partially blocked by coadministration of glibenclamide. Simvastatin significantly (P< 0.05) reduced gastric mucosal MDA; significantly (P< 0.05) increased in PGE2 levels and corrected nitrite to near normal levels in both ulcer models. Conclusion: This study confirmed the gastroprotective effect of simvastatin in indomethacin induced ulcer in rats and proved it in CRS induced ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of simvastatin is mediated through opening of ATP sensitive K+ channels, free radical scavenging, increase in gastric mucosal PGE2 and normalization of gastric mucosal NO in both ulcer models.

[Dalia M. Abd El Motteleb, Mai M. Hasan. Gastroprotective effect of simvastatin against experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):760-768]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.110

 

Keywords: indomethacin; cold restraint stress; NO; simvastatin; ATP-sensitive K+ channels and ulcer

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Fmcdm Evaluation Of Teachers Performance

 

Mohamad.R.Sarmady1, Mehran.Frajolahi1 and Ardavan.Mirzaie1

 

1Departemant of Education, Payame Noor University,19395-4697,I.R.of IRAN

(aa_mirzaie@yahoo.com)

 

Abstract: One of the most important functions of management is to evaluate the performance of the organizations’ employees (Stoner and Freeman, 1992). For increase efficiency and effectiveness education performance we must assessment it. Article purpose is determine and identified instructor's performance dimensions and  indicator's performance. In this study,we have aggregated and identified five instructor's performance dimensions and 19 indicators of that performance. we use fuzzy logic for the measurement of performance and apply Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) in criteria weight and TOPSIS in ranking. A FMCDM(Fuzzy multi criteria decision making)  is an approach for evaluating decision obtaining alternatives involving subjective judgments made by a group of decision makers. A pair wise comparison process is used to help individual decision makers make comparative judgments, and a linguistic rating method is used for making absolute judgments. An empirical study of instructors Performance evaluation in one of the branches of PNU (Payame Noor University) that is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

[Mohamad. R. Sarmady, Mehran. Fr ajolahi and Ardavan. Mirzaie. Fmcdm Evaluation Of Teachers Performance

Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):769-782]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.111

 

Keywords;Performance- evaluation-Fuzzy multi criteria decision making (FMCDM) -AHP- TOPSIS

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Sequencing of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene of Mitochondrial DNA from Chelonia mydas in Qatar.

 

Khaled Elmeer, Paul McCormick and Ameenah Almalki.

 

Biotechnology Centre, Ministry of Environment, Doha Qatar.

elmeer@gmail.com

 

Abstract: DNA of Qatari C. mydas samples were successfully sequenced using the Folmer forward and reverse primers. The identification with BOLD of approximately 688 base pairs sequence revealed maximum homology (99.84%) with C. mydas, which is a species of turtle has been declared “extinct in wild” by IUCN  The next closest species 93.79%, was N. depressa which has a restricted geographical distribution and was reported to be endemic to the Australian continental shelf. The finding of characteristic species-specific COI sequences offers the prospect of identifying marine turtle species by using DNA barcode methodology as an auxiliary tool for taxonomy. This can also be used during field work, when identifying lost nests, animals stranded on beaches or those killed as part of the by catch in fishery nets. A further use is in forensic litigation when turtle eggs or meat are the only available material and for the development of Qatar gene bank information.

[Khaled Elmeer, Paul McCormick and Ameenah Almalki. Sequencing of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I Gene of Mitochondrial DNA from Chelonia mydas in Qatar.Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):783-788]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.112

 

Key word: DNA Barcoding, Green sea turtle, Cytochrome Oxidase, and COI sequencing.

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Determination of degradability of whole seeds Safflower and its proteins fractions

 

Hamed Amini Pour, Naser Maheri Sis, Ramin Salamatdust Nobar, Saeid Najafyar Razlighi, Mohammad Salamatazar, Mohammad Hasan Babazadeh, Mohammad Taher Maddah

 

Department of Animal Science, Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran

m.salamatazar@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study was carried out to determine whole seed Safflower (WSS) crud protein (CP) degradation characteristics by using nylon bags. The rumen degradability of WSS CP at ruminal outflow rate of 0.02/h, 0.05/h and 0.08/h were 84.8, 77.5 and 71.7, respectively. Crud protein degradability of WSS at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h incubation were 16.87, 42.62, 58.1, 83.79, 85.8, 88.21 and 92.58 percent.

[Hamed Amini Pour, Naser Maheri Sis, Ramin Salamatdust Nobar, Saeid Najafyar Razlighi, Mohammad Salamatazar, Mohammad Hasan Babazadeh, Mohammad Taher Maddah. Determination of degradability of whole seeds Safflower and its proteins fractions. Journal of American Science 2011; 7(7):789-791]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.113

 

Keywords: Whole seed Safflower, Protein degradation, in situ, crud protein

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Assessment model of E-learning for higher education

 

Z. Golzari, A.R. Kiamanesh, N.G. Ghourchian, P. Jaafari

 

Department of Botany, DSB Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand 263002, India

golzari1389@yahoo.co.uk

 

Abstract: In this article, to evaluate the effective factors on the quality of E-learning, some researches are carried out on assessment of E-learning during 2001-2009 and the effective factors on the quality of E-learning are identified and extracted. Human factor, infrastructural, cultural, legal, economical and political, management and leadership, support and international factors as the effective factors on the quality of education, evaluate the quality of E-learning by 85 codes. Also, in this quality research, the important degree, influence of each factor and the effect of factors on E-learning quality are defined. The results of this research define the quality of the university E-learning quality and determine the merits and demerits of each part separately.

[Z. Golzari, A.R. Kiamanesh, N.G. Ghourchian, P. Jaafari. Assessment model of E-learning for higher education. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):792-799]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.114

 

Keywords: Higher education; the quality of E-learning; assessment model; the effective factors on quality

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Inconsistencies in Ontologies

 

Amjad Farooq1, M. Junaid Arshad2, Aslam Muhamamd3, Saba Sana4

 

1,2,3, 4Department of Computer Science & Engineering, UET Lahore-Pakistan

1,2,3{maslam, junaidarshad, amjadfarooq}@uet.edu.pk, 4sanajabbar05@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Ontologies are the building blocks of semantic web. In recent year’s further advancements in the area of semantic web has led to refinement and specialization of the existing frameworks for ontological development. These advancements include merging, alignment, unification, mapping etc. of ontologies usually belonging to similar domains. These operations are useful in their own respect but also bring along many inconsistencies in the ontological information. The removal of these inconsistencies is in itself an open horizon for researchers of semantic web and ontologies. In this paper, we review the different issues causing inconsistencies and some frameworks used for handling inconsistencies.

[Amjad Farooq, M. Junaid Arshad, Aslam Muhamamd, Saba Sana. Inconsistencies in Ontologies Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):800-803]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.115

 

Keywords: Ontologies, inconsistency, Mapping and Merging.

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Performance Metrics for Multiagent Systems

 

Aslam Muhammad1, M. Junaid Arshad2, Amjad Farooq3, Rubab Fatima4, Khair-ul-Nisa5

 

1,2,3,4,5 Department of CS & E, U. E. T. Lahore, Pakistan

1,2,3{maslam, junaidarshad, amjadfarooq}@uet.edu.pk, 4rubabraza@gmail.com, 5khairu_nisa87@hotmail.com  

 

Abstract: Multi agent systems (MAS) bring about a change in the globe by making agents work together in a group achieving common goals and casting away monolithic paradigm. Proper understanding of the metrics that impact performance of MAS can help in employing the distinctive abilities of agents to its maximum. In this paper, we discuss various performance metrics that target an agents’ role and environment and can help in accomplishing goals in optimum time.  We also present an example that takes these performance metrics to account. We then move to case studies and draw attention to the best and worst cases for agents’ performance against the metrics we gathered.

[Aslam Muhammad, M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, Rubab Fatima, Khair-ul-Nisa. Performance Metrics for Multiagent Systems. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):804-810].(ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.116

 

Keywords: Multiagents, Metrics, Performance, Response time.

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A GUI-Based Easy Web Hosting System

 

M. Junaid Arshad1, Amjad Farooq2, M. Aslam3, Nasir Ahmad4

 

1,2,3 Department of CS & E, UET, Lahore-Pakistan

1,2,3{junaidarshad, amjadfarooq, maslam}@uet.edu.pk

 

Abstract: This project is to design and development of a web host that can facilitate remote users to build, host, monitor and manage their website. Different tools like interactive file and folder managers, website statistic analyzer, web site builder and user administration. The administrator of the site can also create user to share work load by assigning directories among different users.  Administrator can manage their database online by running online queries and can also view user log files to get information about total logs, to see how many users are currently online and how many users are not yet logged-in.

[M. Junaid Arshad, Amjad Farooq, M. Aslam, Nasir Ahmad. A GUI-Based Easy Web Hosting System. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):811-817]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.117

 

Keywords: Web Host, Easy Host, File Manager, Web site Builder, Web site Statistics.

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Two Robust Meta-Heuristic Approaches for a New Modeling of Single Machine Scheduling Problem with Multiple Criteria

 

Kiarash Poursalik 1, Sina Miri-Nargesi 2

 

1. Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad branch, Najafabad, Iran

2. Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin branch, Qazvin, Iran

mirinargesy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a new model for a single machine-scheduling problem. According to just in time (JIT) approach, production managers should consider more than one criterion in scheduling problems. However, three criteria, including minimizing the number of tardy jobs, total weighted earliness and total weighted tardiness, are considered in this proposed model. To solve the model, firstly, branch and bound (BBA) method is applied, because it can solve the small size problems. Furthermore, the results obtained from this algorithm, are good measurement to test effectiveness of proposed meta-heuristic algorithms. In the literature, this problem is classified in the NP-hard class. Hence, two well-known meta-heuristic methods, including genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), are applied to tackle large scale problems. Finally, heuristic solutions were compared with the global optimum which is obtained by (BBA) method. Computational results showed that both the heuristic algorithms yield good quality solutions using reasonable computation time.

[Kiarash Poursalik, Sina Miri-Nargesi. Two Robust Meta-Heuristic Approaches for New Modeling of Single Machine Scheduling With Multiple Criteria. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):818-825]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.118

 

Keywords: Single machine; branch and bound algorithm; genetic algorithm; simulated annealing

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Comprehensive Evaluation of Probabilistic Seismic Risk Methodology for Port Structures

 

Rouhollah Amirabadi 1, Prof. Khosrow Bargi2, Dr. Moharam Dolatshahi Piroz3 and Payam Amirian4

 

1Ph.D. student in Marine Structures, Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran

2, 3Member of Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran

4M.Sc. student in Earthquake Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Tehran

*Corresponding author: rohollah@ut.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Ports have long been the gateway for commodities and people to transport into cities and countries. In fact, ports are very important link in the total maritime transportation chain. Past experience has shown that ports are often susceptible to severe damage during earthquakes. So evaluation of direct and indirect consequence of earthquake in ports and harbors is an essential problem. Probabilistic method for this problem is introduced briefly to be used in comprehensive seismic risk management. At first, reliability of ports is evaluated in this methodology through estimation of component direct and induced damage probability. Afterwards direct economic loss of earthquake estimate with damage probability from direct and followed by sequence and consequence analysis for assessment of induced damages. Finally indirect economic impacts of direct loss are estimated using economic links between the harbor and society. Outputs of the methodology can be used in different stages of seismic risk management from risk financing to proposing mitigation measures. Effects of rehabilitation of equipments and structures, prevention and suppression systems as well as management type of mitigation actions can be estimated by this methodology in preparedness, emergency response and recovery phases.

[Rouhollah Amirabadi, Prof. Khosrow Bargi, Dr. Moharam Dolatshahi Piroz and Payam Amirian. Comprehensive Evaluation of Probabilistic Seismic Risk Methodology for Port Structures. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):826-834]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.119

 

Key words: seismic risk, direct economic loss, indirect economic loss, port structures, probability.

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Genetic relation of the Zagros thrust and Sanandaj-Sirjan zone

 

Mostafa Yousefirad

 

Department of Geology, Payame Noor University, Arak Center, Arak, Iran

E-mail: M-Yousefirad@pnu.ac.ir

 

Abstract: The Zagros thrust (crush zone) and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone separate the Zagros Fold belt from Central Iran. The Zagros passive continental margin setting of the Jurassic–Middle Cretaceous was followed in the Upper Cretaceous by arc collision linked to the closing of the Neo-Tethys and the collision of the Arabian and Iranian plates. The northwest–southeast trending Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone consists of several elongate sub-zones and much of the orogenic activity in the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone is now related to closing of Tethys. Therefore the Zagros thrust and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone provide a unique opportunity within the Alpine system to evaluate the interplay between a young Tertiary collision, volcanism, metamorphism and earlier subduction/obduction processes. This article detects genetic relation of The Zagros Thrusting System and properties of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Investigations show two area have related evolutionary history from cretaceous to recent.

[Mostafa Yousefirad. Genetic relation of the Zagros thrust and Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):835-841]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.jofamericanscience.org. 120

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.120

 

Key word: Zagros thrust, Sanandaj-sirjan zone, Collision, Crush zone.

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World Trade Organization (WTO) and its challenges with OPEC

 

Rasoul Abafat 1, Ali Abbasi Abkhareh2, Nader FuladPanjeh3

 

1Affiliation Member and chancellor of legal division Payame Noor University of Tehran

2 Graduate student, Aras International Campus, University of Tabriz

3 Legal Advisor;  1isi@nwdic.com

 

Abstract: Crude oil is the stimulating engine of world industry and has directly or indirectly dedicated a big deal of international trades to itself. The Group of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC) is in charge of the control of the main portion of the production and export of this product. On the other hand through its regulations and multi-aspect rules, the WTO supervises the trade of this product as well as the services between the OPEC members. However, the role of this organization in world trade of crude oil and its relations with OPEC is unclear. Today, both OPEC and WTO are eminent international financial organizations. WTO and OPEC each play a completely distinct role in the global financial stage. The former plays this role through its harsh and rigid regulations and the latter by its constant change in the oil price. Things which develop the complex issues of international laws and their related policies are the major position of OPEC in making negotiations regarding the production and procurement of crude oil and finally appraising it on one hand and the position of WTO in making rules of international trades regarding all trading goods on the other. This will raise questions such as: What is the effect of WTO on oil?, Can OPEC and WTO coexist?, is it possible that a country be satisfied of its simultaneous membership of both organizations?

[Rasoul Abafat, Ali Abbasi Abkhareh and Nader FuladPanjeh. World Trade Organization (WTO) and its challenges with OPEC. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):842-847]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.121

 

Keywords: World trade organization; Antiy Dumping; Agreement; Privilege; Global Market; Consigne

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Recognizing Operative Factors on Agroforestry Effective Extension in Guilan Province, Iran

 

Rezvan Enshieyeh1, Seyed Mahdi Mirdamadi2, Maryam Omidi Najafabadi3

 

1,2. Department of Natural Resources Extension and Education, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3. Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

R.Enshieyeh_B@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Making economic, environmental and social benefits along with preservation, revival, development and appropriate exploiting from renewing natural resources is the main subject for a sustainable development in 3rd millennium that Agroforestry is trying to reach. While inhabitants of forests and its outskirts inhabitant's way of life is in contrast with natural resources improvement. The general aim of research is recognizing affective factors in presenting Agroforestry effective extension. This research in aspect of an applying proposes and correlation way is based on collecting non-experimental data's. Validity of questionnaire as a research tool confirmed by experts panel and its reliability of α= 0.885 is emphasized. Statistic society of existing research includes 230 people of extension experts in Guilan. For analyzing the data, deductive statistic is used. Results from stepwise regression shows 7 factors include extension agent's personal characteristics, way of presenting the service, economical characteristics, requirement, personal characteristics of clientele, cultural and social features of the area and policy making particulars, explained 86% variance of Agroforestry  effective extension.

[Rezvan Enshieyeh, Seyed Mahdi Mirdamadi, Maryam Omidi Najafabadi. Recognizing Operative Factors on Agroforestry Effective Extension in Guilan province, Iran. Journal of American Science 2011;7(7):848-853]. (ISSN: 1545-1003). http://www.americanscience.org.

doi:10.7537/marsjas070711.122

 

Keywords: Operative factors; Agroforestry extension; Inhabitants of forests; Extension agents

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Destruction Efficacy on the Change of Dynamic Behavior in Structural Elements Using Finite Elements Method

 

Mahdi Koohdaragh1, Farid Hosseini Mansoub2

 

1Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch, Iran

2Islamic Azad University, Maragheh Branch, Iran

Koohdarag@malekaniau.ac.ir

 

Abstract: Structures are exposed to main threats such as structure efficiency decrease and its destruction. These problems are intensified along natural or man-made threats like earthquake and sever explosion. Since the earthquake is implemented dynamically and in small distance in terms of time on the structure dynamic analyses is of high importance. In this paper, the structure is put under modal analyses via ANSYS5.4 finite elements software and natural and mode-shaped frequencies of healthy and damage samples are resulted. The results show that frequency is decreased in damage samples. As following by utilizing impact load of structure is put under dynamic nonlinear analyses and through investigating displacement-time, velocity-time, acceleration-time and moment-time graphs destruction effect on acceleration and moment-time graphs can be identified as the form of amplitude changes.

[Mahdi Koohdaragh, Farid Hosseini Mansoub. Destruction Efficacy on the Change of Dynamic Behavior in Structural Elements Using Finite Elements Method. Journal of American Science